You are on page 1of 29

RCC Institute of Information Technology

Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

MANUAL_PHYSICS LAB
PH 391 / PH 491

Page 1 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Determination of the band gap of a semiconductor by four probe method

and identify the semiconductor material
Apparatus:

Sl. No. Name of apparatus Specification Range and resolution

1. Semiconductor wafer
2. Four probe arrangement
3. Thermometer Centigrade 0 110o C
4. oven

Working formula:

Where the resistivity = 0 / G7

Here 0 = (V/I) 2S

G7 G7 (W/S) is the correction term (i.e. correction factor is

function of W & S) = 5.89

T = Temperature of the sample in K

Principle of experiment:

The resistivity depends on the temperature of the sample, the band gap on the other hand
depends on the resistivity. Hence by changing the temperature of the sample, the resistivity
can be altered, a relation between temperature-resistivity data and band gap of the
semiconductor. The temperature of course should be given in absolute scale.

Page 2 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Procedure:
1. Insert the thermometer through the hole of the oven
2. Turn on the apparatus. Set the current on 4 mA.
3. Note down the temperature and the voltage obtained.
4. Turn on the oven. Record the temperature and the voltage starting from 30oC at an
interval of 5oC up to at least 100oC.
5. Turn off the oven. Record the voltages at the same temperature while temperature is
decreasing.
Calculate the average voltage at each temperature.
6. Draw a graph from the given table
7. Calculate G(W/S) from the graph. Calculate . Convert the temperature into Kelvin.
8. Plot a graph of log vs 1/T. Determine the slop from the linear part
9. Eg/2K = slope of the graph

Thickness of the crystal (w) = 0.07 cm

Distance between the prob (s) = 0.2 cm
The value of K = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K
Standard value of Eg in Joule = 1.12 X 10-20 J = 0.3 eV
1eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J

Observation:

A) To determine the resistivity () at different temperature (T) during cooling at constant

current I = 4 mA.

Table - I

Sl. No. Temp. Voltage Voltage Temp in T-1 x Log10

when when cm 103
( 0C) temperature temperature (K)
decreasing decreasing (K-1)

(mV) (mV)

Up to room
temperature

Result:
Eg = 2 x 8.6 x 10-5 x (log10 ) / T-1

Page 3 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Eg = 2 x 8.6 x 10-5 x (slope of the graph log10 vs. T-1)

Discussion:
1) The probes should be just touching the wafer
2) The temperature should be taken at intervals of ~ 100C
3) The current should be kept constant at ~ 4 mA
4) The maximum temperature should be about 120 K
5) When the current starts to vary, the data should no further be taken.

Viva voce questions:

1. What is energy band gap?

The gap between the bottom of conduction band and the top of valence band is called Energy
gap. To move the electrons from the valence band to conduction band the supplied external
voltage must be equal to energy band gap.

2. What is valence band?

Ans: The range of energy which is possessed by valence electrons is known as valence band.
Here the electrons which are situated at outer most orbits are called valence electrons. The
valence band consists of valence electrons which are having highest energy.

3. What do you mean by conduction band?

The range of energies possessed by conducting electrons is known as conduction band. The
conduction electrons are responsible for the conduction of current in a conducting material.
So, these electrons are called as conduction electrons.

4. How energy bands are generated in a semiconductor?

A semiconductor remains in crystalline form. In such a crystal, the constituent atoms are
orderly arranged., so the unfilled energy levels of the crystal atoms merge together to form an
energy band called the conduction band and the filled and partially filled energy levels merge
together to form valence band. In a semiconductor there remains gap between conduction and
valence band called band gap.

5. Classify the solid materials on the basis of energy gap.

Ans: Based on the energy gap the solid materials are classified into 3 types they are:
conductors, insulators and semi conductors.

6. Define conductors, insulators and Semi conductors.

Page 4 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Conductors: Those substances whose atoms have their outermost orbits incomplete are
known as conductors (e.g. Cu, Ag, Au etc.). In conductors, valence and conduction bands are
found overlapped into each other i.e. the energy gap is zero.

Insulators: Those substances which have large energy gap between their valence and
conduction band, are called insulators (e.g. diamond, wood etc.).

Semi conductors: Those substances which have conductivity and resistivity properties in
between conductors and insulators are called semi conductors (e.g. Si, Ge). Energy gap of
these semiconductors lies between 0.5 to 1.1eV (Foe Ge it is 0.5 0.7eV).

7. How many types of semi conductors are there?

Two types of semi conductors are there (i) Intrinsic or pure semi conductors and (ii) Extrinsic
or impure semi conductors.

Intrinsic semi conductor: A pure semiconductor is known as intrinsic semi conductor. In

these semi conductors, if the temperature increases then the conductivity is also increases. At
higher temperatures due to collisions some electrons absorb energy and raises to conduction
band then in their places in valence band holes are created. In intrinsic semiconductor number
of holes is equal to number of electrons.

Extrinsic semi conductor: A pure semiconductor after doping is called extrinsic or impure
semi conductor. Trivalent and penta-valent impurities are added to form P-type and N-type
semiconductors respectively.

9. What do you mean by Fermi energy level?

The level upto which all the energy states are filled by electrons is known as Fermi level. The
average energy of charge carriers is calculated by Fermi energy level. In pure semi
conductors Fermi energy level is at the centre of the valence and conduction bands. In
extrinsic/impure P-type (N-type) semiconductor Fermi energy level is near to the valence
(conduction) band.

10. Define Doping and Dopant?

The process of adding impurities to a pure semi conductor is called doping The material
added as impurity is called as Dopant.

11. What are P-type and N-type semi conductors?

Page 5 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

If we add trivalent impurities such as Aluminum to a pure semi conductor then the material is
called P-type semi conductor. If a pentavalent impurity such as Arsenic is added to a pure
semi conductor then the material is called N-type semi conductor

12. Why P-type (N-type) semi conductor is called Acceptor (Donor)?

In P-type material 3 electrons of trivalent atom makes covalent bonds with Semiconductors
such as Si or Ge and there is a need of one more electron to make the system stable because
Si or Ge has 4 electrons in their outermost orbits. For this reason P-type material is also
known as Acceptor. On the other hand, in case of N-type of material 4 electrons of
pentavalent atom makes covalent bonds with Semiconductors such as Si or Ge which have 4
electrons in their outermost orbits and hence there is one free or excess electron remains
present in the structure. For this reason N-type material is also known as Donor.

13. What is P-N junction diode?

If P-type and N-type semi conductors are combined to each other then the resultant structure
is called P-N junction diode. This means if trivalent impurity is doped to one end of the pure
semi conductor and pentavalent impurity to other end, a P-N junction diode can be formed.

In this method a wire or a small A

V
structure is contacted at 4 locations.
Probe
15. What for 4 probe method is used ?
Semi-
It is used to determine the specific conductor
resistivity (m) of metal line during S S S
electrical characterization of metallic
deposition of thin metal line.

16. What is the principle used in 4 probe method ?

Current is forced through outer pins 1 & 4 & a drop voltage across pins 2 & 3 is measured
using a very high through pin 2 & 3 is nearly 0. In these case the individual n additional
contact resistance does not play a role as it cancels out of the equations.

17. What is an ohmic resistor ?

If the behavior of the structure of I/V curve is a straight line. Then the structure behaves as
ohmic resistor.

18. What is the advantage of 4 probe method over other methods of measuring resistivity?

Page 6 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

In most of other methods, the current carrying contacts injects minority carriers which
ultimately modify the resistance of the material.

19. What is meant by electrical resistivity ()?

It is the property of the material by the virtue of which it opposes the flow of current. It is
also defined as the reciprocal of electrical conductivity (m)-1 . Its unit is m i.e., = l/ =
RA/L.

20. What are the values of band gap in the case of germanium and silicon?

For Ge the band gap value is 0.785 eV, for Si the band gap value is 1.21 eV at 0K.

Page 7 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Apparatus:

Sl. No. Name of apparatus Specification Range and resolution

1. Hall effect setup
2. Standard semi-conductor probe
3. Electromagnet
4. Constant current power supply DC, Digital
5. Gauss meter with hall probe Digital, InAs

N S VH

I t

Working formula:
1 V t
Hall co-efficient RH H
nq I H
Where, n = no. density of charge
q = charge of carrier
VH = hall voltage
t = thickness of the material
I = current through semiconductor sample
H = magnetic field

Principle of experiment:

Effect of Lorentz force on moving charge particles through transverse electric and magnetic
field.

Observation:

B) Calibration of magnetic field (H) with respect to current (Iem) through electromagnet

Page 8 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Table - I

No. of observation Iem (amp) H (gauss)

0.5

1.5

Upto 4 amp.

C) Measurement of hall voltage (VH) with respect to varying current (I) through sample for
constant magnetic field (H 1000 G)

Table II

I (mA) VH (mV)

D) Table III (Repeat Table II for H 3000 G)

E) Measurement of hall voltage (VH) with respect to varying magnetic field (H) for constant
current through sample(I 1 mA)

Table - IV

F) Table V (Repeat Table IV for I 3mA)

V t
Result: Hence Hall co-efficient RH H volt. cm. amp-1. gauss-1
IH
Discussion:
1) Sample should be placed at the middle of pole pieces and perpendicular to the
magnetic field.
2) Magnetic polar metal beams should be of equal length from both the coils.
3) Space between the pole pieces should be around 3 cm.
4) There should not be any other disturbing magnetic field near the apparatus.

Page 9 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

5) Care should taken to limit the current through the probe to a value less than that
mentioned by the manufacturer.

1. Define Hall Effect?

When a current carrying specimen is placed in a transverse magnetic field then a voltage is
developed which is perpendicular to both, direction of current and magnetic field. This
phenomenon is known Hall Effect.

Whenever a charge moves in a mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic field it

experiences Lorentz force due to which it deflects from its path and Hall voltage is
developed.

3. What is Lorentz force?

If charge q moves in a magnetic and electric field B &E respectively with velocity v
then force on it is given by F= qE+ Bqv.sin

4. What is Hall Coefficient?

It is the electric field developed per unit current density per unit magnetic field

7. Why Hall voltage differ for different type of charge carrier?

Because direction of Lorentz force is different for different type of charge carrier.

Ohm-meter/Tesla.

9. What is the unit of charge carrier concentration

Per Cubic-centimeter.

Page 10 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Temporary.

11. Mention some uses of the Hall effect

(i) Determination of the semiconductor type. Since RH is positive for a p-type semiconductor

1 1
RH or
ne pe

(iii) Measurement of unknown magnetic field.

The hall voltage VH is proportional to the magnetic field H for a given current I through the
specimen. Thus knowing the sample dimensions and RH, the magnetic field can be
determined by measuring I and VH.

Page 11 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

spectral range

Apparatus:

Name of apparatus Specification Range and Resolution

Plancks constant kit having

a) Photodiode
b) Filament bulb Single point 12 V, DC
c) Potentiometer
d) Ammeter 0 - , .. A
e) Voltmeter 0 -. , .. V
f) Microammeter Digital 0 - , .. A

Procedure & Results:

1. Turn on the system. Turn on the voltage control knob an very carefully observe when
exactly the knob start glowing. Note the voltage and current and hence resistance of
the knob. This is Rg.

TableI: Determination of Rg

No. of Obs. Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (Rg ) Avg. Resistance (Rg )
(Ohm) (Ohm)
1.
2.
3.

2. Increase the voltage in small steps (0.5 V) and record the current and hence calculate
the resistance. These are the values of R. Note also the photocurrent, .

Table II: To find the resistance and hence temperature

Voltage(V Current (A) Resistance R/Rg T from 1/T (10-4) (K-1) Photocurrent In
) R(ohm) equation 1

Page 12 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

3. From the below table of R/Rg and T draw a graph (T vs R/Rg). Use this graph to
determine the temperature; T of the filament from the experimentally observed value
of R/Rg obtained in step 1 and 2. Calculate 1/T.

-------- (1)

4. Draw a graph of ln vs. 1/T.

5. Determine h from the slope of this curve and from the equation

Where,
= 6000 X 10-10 m, k = 1.38 X 10-23 J/K, c = 3 X 108 m/s
Standard value of Plank constant is 6.6 X 10-34 Js

Discussions:
1. The setup should be initialized as follows: the light source should be turned away
from the photocell and the ammeter dial adjusted so that it reads 0 for zero input
voltage in presence of laboratory light.
2. The source light is then turned towards the photocell and the value of I for V = 0
recorded.
3. For small increments of V, I is recorded. After I saturates (or even before that, as all
we are interested in is the stopping potential), we stop taking readings for increasing
V. V is returned to the value V=0, the polarity of the connections to the photocell
reversed by switching the wires, and V is again changed in small steps until I=0. The
value of V obtained now is the stopping potential VS.

1. Define Photoelectric effect?

When light falls on metal surface, an electron is emitted from a metal if the energy of the
photon is greater than the work function of the metal.

Page 13 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

2. What is Reverse Photoelectric effect?

If an electron of sufficient voltage is passed across a material then a photon is emitted whose
energy is equivalent to the work function of that material. The voltage at which this effect
observed is the turn on voltage. In case of LED reverse photoelectric effect works.

3. Can we observe reverse photoelectric with Metal surface?

This effect is not normally observed in metals and other typical substances because the
photons emitted are usually outside the range of visible light, usually somewhere in the
infrared Range.

It is a fundamental physical constant. It gives the order of energy exchange in case of

quantum mechanical action. It is the ratio of energy of a photon of its frequency. h= 6.6x10-34
Js.

6. What is LED?

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an
electric current passes through it.

7. What is photo voltic cell?

It is a p-n junction which can convert light energy into electrical energy.

8. In which factor the stopping potential of a particular colour of light depends?

The stopping potential of a particular colour of light depends on its frequency and the
stopping potential is directly proportional to its frequency.

9. In which factor the maximum value of the the photo current depends?

The maximum value of the photo current depends on the intensity of the incident light.The
photo current is directly proportional to the intensity of the incident light.

10. Why the green light has large stopping potential than red light?

The energy of green wavelength is more than that of red. So the frequency of green is more
than red. Since stopping potential is directly proportional to the frequency of the particular
colour incident light. Thus due to high value of frequency green has large stopping potential
than red.

Page 14 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

DETERMINATION OF STEFANS CONSTANT USING A VACUUM TUBE DIODE

(TYPE EZ-81 EMISSION)

APPARATUS:

Item Name of Apparatus Specification Range &

No. Resolution
1. Stefans constant kit having
a) Vacuum diode made of main Diode model:
components as EZ-81
nickel and coated with BaO &SrO
mixture outside.

ii. electrically insulated tungsten

heater filament with a thin coating
of plaster of paris, closely fitted
with the nickel cathode and placed
inside it.
DC
b) Power supply Digital
c) Voltmeter Digital
d) Ammeter

WORKING FORMULA:

If we neglect the power loss due to conduction and convection then we can write Stefans law
as

Or,

And R-T relation for tungsten is

Where

Vf = filament voltage
If = filament current
= emissivity of the cathode
surface = 0.24
S = 2 r l = surface area of the cathode
r = radius of the cathode = 0.12 x 10- 2 m = 0.0012 m

Page 15 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

l = length of the cathode = 3.12 x 10- 2 m = 0.0312 m

T = Temperature of tungsten filament in Kelvin
RT = Temperature coefficient of resistance

Principle of experiments:
Applying Stefans law to the heated cylindrical cathode due to tungsten filament, we
can determine Stefans constant from the knowledge of the surface area and the emissivity of
the cathode which is less than unity in this case as the radiation from cathode by thermionic
emission process is not from an ideal black body.

Observation:

A) Determination of filament temperature from the standard graph data of T vs.

RT/R300:
Table - I
Sl. No. RT/R300 T in (K)
1 1 300
2 4 920
3 6 1300
4 8 1645
5 10 1990
Given: R300 = 0.6

OR

B) Characteristics of filament:
Table - II
Sl. Vf If RT = Vf/ If P = Vf If RT/0.6 T Log P Log T
No. (volt) (amp) () (watt) (K)
1 0.2
2 0.4
3 0.6
4 0.8
5 1
6 2
7 3
8 4
9 5

Result:
Hence measured value of Stefans constant = w m- 2 K- 4

Discussions:

Page 16 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

state or the time difference between each reading should be approximately 3 to 4 minutes.

2. In plotting the graph between log P and log T the experimental point at the lower end of
temperature state lies outside the straight line graph, since corrections due to heat power loss
are neglected. At high temperature these losses are not negligible and so in fig.-2 the straight
line is drawn through such points.

3. It should be necessary to determine the slope of the straight line as accurately as possible to
verify the Stefans law within experimental errors.

1. What are meant by black body?

Black body is the one which absorbs all radiation which incident on it. On heating black body
stats emitting radiations called black body radiation which are independent of nature of body
and depends on the temperature of black body.

2. Why black body is called as black body?

Due to the fact that whatever may be the color of incident radiation the body appears black.

3. How does this law differ from Newtons law of cooling?

Newtons law of cooling is applicable only when the difference of temperature between the
body and the surroundings is very small. This law , in fact, can be deduced from Stefans law
assuming the temperature difference as small.

4. Can the value of Stefans constant be determined from this method ?

Yes, taking the value of as 4, the value of C can be obtained from E = (T4 T 4 0) or from
the value of the intercept of the graph also, the value of C can be obtained from P = log C +
nlog T, if the radiating body is not assumed as a black body. Assuming this to be a black
body, this value of C so obtained will correspond to the Stefans Law.

5. Is this method superior to the conventional thermal method ?

This method id though not very precise and accurate. However it has some points of
advantages. The bulb is never truly a black body and at steady state, the power radiated is
never equal to V . I exactly. The working theory in this method is to some extent
approximate, nevertheless, the method is very simple and the accessories are easy to procure.

Page 17 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

It gives an approximate idea about Stefans Law, Stefans constant and the verification of the
law.

6. State Stefans law.

It states that total radiant energy emitted per second from the unit surface area of a perfectly
black body is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature.

7. What is Stefans constant ?

If E denotes the total energy emitted per second from unit surface area of a black body then
by Stefans law, we have E = T 4 .

It states that at any temperature, the ratio of emissive power of the absorptive power of a
given wavelength is same for all bodies.

9. What is emissive power and absorptive power?

Emissive power: At a particular temperature and for a given wavelength, it is defined as the
radiant energy emitted per unit time per unit surface area of the vody within a unit
wavelength range.

Absorptive power : At a particular temperature and for a given wavelength, it is defined as

the ratio of the radiant energy absorbed per second per unit surface area of the body to the
total energy falling per unit time on the same area.

The wavelength corresponding to the maximum energy is inversely proportional to the

absolute temperature.

11. Explain the distribution of black body radiation spectrum?

The amount of energy radiated by a black body id not uniformly distributed over all the
wavelength emitted by the body but it is maximum for a particular wavelength. The value of
wavelength is different for different temperature and varies with temperature.

12. Define solar constant?

Solar constant defined as the amount of energy received / sec/unit area of a perfect black
surface at a mean distance of the earth from the sun in the absence of earths atmosphere, the
surface being perpendicular to the direction of sun rays. (1.34 KW/m).

Page 18 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Expt. No. - Date:

To determine the Rydbergs constant by studying Hydrogen spectrum (with the help of
diffraction grating)

Apparatus:
Item No. Name of apparatus Specification Range & Resolution
1 Spectrometer
2 Grating Glass/plastic
. Lines/cm
3 Hydrogen discharge tube
4 Induction coil

Working formula:
1 1 1
RH 2 2 ..(1)
n1 n2
Where, = wave length of the spectral line.
RH = Rydbergs constant (to be determined)
n1 , n 2 = quantum numbers

{Notes: (Dont write it in lab. Note Book)

Series n1 n2 Property
Lyman 1 2 3 4 5 Infrared
(invisible)
Balmer 2 3 4 5 6 Visible
H H H H
(Red (Greenish blue (Blue (Violet
=6583 ) =4861 ) =4342 ) =4102 )
Paschen 3 4 5 6 7 Ultraviolet
(invisible)
Brackett 4 5 6 7 8 ,,
Pfund 5 6 7 8 9 And so on

Balmer series : When an electron jumps from outer orbit to the second orbit , we obtain the
Balmer series i.e., this a series for which n1 = 2 and n2 = 3,4,5,etc. this series lies in the
visible region of the spectrum. }

To find wavelength :
sin

nN
where, = angle of diffraction

Page 19 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

n = order of primary maximum.

N = number of lines per cm ruled on the grating

Observation:

Determination of the vernier constant of the spectrometer:

1
1 smallest division in main scale = degree
3
Now 60 vernier division = 59 main scale division
59
1 ,, ,, = ,, ,, ,,
60
Vernier Constant (v.c) = 1 main scale division 1 vernier scale division
59
= 1 main scale division
60
1 1
= degree
60 3
1
= 60 minute = 20 seconds
60 3

Table: 1

Sl. Reading of Telescope for the spectrum on Angle of diffraction

No. (in deg)
Kinds of Vernier Scale

Left side(a) Direct (b) Right side (c)

Mean =(v1+v2)/2
Mean v =(L+R)/2
Order of spectrum

Right (R = c~b)
Left (L = b~a)
MSR (in deg)

Total (in deg)

Total (in deg)

VR

VR

VR

1 V1
V2
2 V1
V2

Table 2:
(Repeat the above table for another visible colour light)

Page 20 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

1 1
Result: Hance the Rydbarg constant R H = cm 1.
1 1
2 2
n
1 n2

Discussion:

4. Both verniers should be read.

5. While taking observations, telescope and prism table should be kept fixed.

RH=22me4/ch3

Where, m = mass of an electron = 9.106 x 10-28 gm

e = electronic charge = 4.8025x 10-10 e.s.u
h = Plancks constant = 6.625 x 10-27 ergs-sec
c = speed of light in vacuum = 2.998 x 1010cm/sec.

Viva voce questions:

1. What is diffraction?

The process by which a beam of light or other system of waves is spread out as a result of
passing through a narrow aperture or across an edge, typically accompanied by interference
between the wave forms produced.

2. What is diffraction grating?

It is an optically flat glass plate on which large number of equidistant parallel lines are ruled
by a fine diamond pen.

4. What is the type of diffraction in the diffraction grating experiment?

Page 21 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

Fraunhofer diffraction is involved because the source and the screen are effectively at infinite
distance.

5. What is grating element?

It is the distance between the centers of any two successive ruled lines or transparent stripes.

6. What is the difference between prism and grating spectrum?

In grating spectrum violet color is least deviated and red color is most deviated but in prism
the reverse is true.

7. When will the even order spectra disappear?

They will disappear if the size of opaque lines and transparent stripes is made equal.

8. Why does red color deviate the most in case of grating?

This is so because in case of grating sin =n /(e+d) i.e angle of diffraction is proportional to
the wavelength and the wavelength of red is maximum.

9. What gives a more intense spectrum prism or grating?

A prism gives more intense spectrum because in prism entire light is concentrated into one
spectrum while in the case of grating light is distributed in the grating spectra of different
orders.

10. Why is light incident on the side of grating which has no rulings?

11. Define dispersion of light.

The process of splitting of white light into its constituent colors is called dispersion of light.

13. Why do we need two vernier scales?

To remove the error in reading due to not coinciding the axis of prism table and telescope.

Emission spectra, Absorption spectra

Page 22 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

It is a physical constant relating to atomic spectra in the science of spectroscopy. This

constant R is named after Swedish physicisi Johannes Rydberg. The value of Rydberg
constant is given by 1.097 X 107 m-1

16. What does Rydberg constant represents?

This constant represents the limiting value of the highest wave number of any photon that can
be emitted from the hydrogen atom or alternatively the wave number of the photon capable of
ionizing the hydrogen atom from its ground state.

multiplied by 2.

It is an instrument used for analyzing the spectrum of a source of light.

Page 23 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

VERIFICATION OF BOHRS ATOMIC ORBITAL THEORY

WORKING FORMULA
In 1914, James Franck and Gustav Hertz performed an experiment which demonstrated the
existence of excited states in mercury atoms, helping to confirm the quantum theory which
predicted that electrons occupied only discrete, quantized energy states. Electrons were
accelerated by a voltage toward a positively charged grid in a glass envelope filled with
mercury vapor. Past the grid was a collection plate held at a small negative voltage with
respect to the grid. The values of accelerating voltage where the current dropped gave a
measure of the energy necessary to force an electron to an excited state.

Procedure & Results:

1. Turn on the system after confirming that all control knows is in their minimum
position.
2. Turn on the manual/ auto switch to manual
3. Turn the voltage display sector to and adjust the VG1k control knob to 1.5V.
4. Selecting the appropriate display set VG2k to 7.5V.
5. Change the value of VG2k in small steps and record the current reading.

VG2k in volts Plate current (I) X10-7 in amp

Page 24 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

6. Draw graph showing the variation of current as a function of accelerating voltage.

7. Turn the manual/ auto switch to auto.
8. Connect the instruments Y, G, X sockets to the corresponding ports of the
oscilloscope. Set the oscilloscope to x-y mode and the trigger to external x.
9. Adjust the shift and the gain switches to obtain a clear waveform. Apply the
maximum scan range through the instrument.

To measure the excitation potential from the CRO - NA

No. Distance between the Gain factor Excitation potential Average
of peaks (volts/div) g ng (eV) excitation
obs (no. of divisions) n potential (eV)

10. Measure the average horizontal distance between the peaks. This would give the value
of Argon atoms first excitation potential in eV.

To measure the excitation potential from the graph

No. of Distance between peaks Average distance Average excitation
Obs to peaks (V) between peaks to peaks potential (eV)
(V)
1 21=
2 32=
3 43=
4 54=
5 65=
6 76

2. What is the use of setting VG2A at 7.5 volts?

This grid acts as a sort of retarding potential for the electrons if the electrons have more than
7.5 volts then they will pass and reach anode and we will get current otherwise they will
return and then re-accelerate towards anode.

3. What is used to fill the glass tube? Name its suitable replacement.

Page 25 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

It is filled with mercury vapors because they dont react with free electrons any inert gas can
be its suitable example.e.g-neon,argon etc.

4. What kind of collision occurs in between electrons and mercury vapors?

Both elastic and inelastic collision occurs.During elastic collision electrons gain energy
while during inelastic collision they give all their energy to mercury vapors.

5. How do we prove the existence of discreet energy levels?

As long as the collision between electrons and mercury vapors is elastic the electron will
gain energy but after a certain time it reaches a thresh hold and it gains enough energy to
ionize Hg vapors by inelastic collision.Thus,it loses its energy and jumps in the immediate
next energy level i.e s,p,d,f. When plotting graph it is seen that after an inelastic collision the
graph falls rather abruptly but it should also be noted that every time the graph falls its value
will always be greater than the previous fall this along with the rather haphazard way the
graph gets plotted contributes to the idea that electrons exist at different energy levels.

6. What do you man by Discreet energy levels?

A quantum mechanical system or particle that is boundthat is, confined spatiallycan only
take on certain discrete values of energy. This contrasts with classical particles, which can
have any energy. These discrete values are called energy levels. It means that atoms can have
only certain definite amount of energy state as light is emitted and absorbed by atoms.

7. What is Bohrs theory?

A.Bohrs theory states that electrons orbiting nucleus can exist only in certain energy levels.
A jump from one energy level to another is usually accompanied by absorption or emission

Page 26 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

TO DETERMINE THE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT OF A CAPACITOR

WORKING FORMULA
The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor having air between the plate is given by C o =
0A/d (in F) where 0 = permittivity of air = 109/36, A = Area of each plates of parallel
capacitor = r2, d = distance between parallel plates.

When the dielectric material is introduced between two gold-plated brass discs of a parallel
plate capacitor, it is found that the capacitance increase by a factor 1 which is the relative
permittivity/ dielectric constant of the material. It is the ratio of actual permittivity of the
medium to that of air.

Now Co = r2 / (36d 109) = r2 / 36d nF

Where r represents the radius of gold-plated brass disc and d represents the thickness of the
sample.
Then 1 = CT/Co where Co represents the capacitance of dielectric cell with the plates
separated by air whose thickness is the same as the thickness of the sample material and C T
represents the capacitance with sample.

ATTN () = Attenuation constant

INT = Integrator with R = 680 K and
T = 1/F
F1 = 1.47 KHz, F2 = 0.76 KHz, F3 = 0.53 KHz
= 1/11, Ri = 680 K, Vs(PP) = 20 V

Procedure & Results:

1. Find the vernier constant of Slide Callipers

2. Find the thickness of each material (Teflon, Bakelite, Plywood, Rubber and Glass)
Material M.S.R. (cm) V.S.R.(cm) Average Average Thickness(m)
Thickness(cm)

3. Measure the circumference of the material and from this find out the radius of the material
in meter unit (Circumference = 2r)

4. Find Co each of the material.

Page 27 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

5. Insert each of the material inside the parallel plate capacitor. Take Vs(pp) = 20 V. For each
frequency find out the Vo(p).

1. F1
F2
F3
2. F1
F2
F3
3. F1
F2
F3
4. F1
F2
F3

V ( PP ). .T CT
CT S ,
1
8RiV0 ( PP ) C0

Viva voce questions:

1. What is a capacitor?

It is the amount of charge required to raise the potential by 1 volt.

5. What is dielectric?

Dielectric is an insulator which is used to increase the capacitance of the capacitor.

6. Classify dielectrics?

Page 28 of 29
RCC Institute of Information Technology
Paper Code: PH 391/491 Sem: odd/even

8. State coulombs law of charges.

It states that force of attraction or repulsion between two charges is directly proportional to
the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between
them.

9. What is an electric field?

It is the region of space in which a charged body experience force. It is measured in volt per
meter.

10. Describe the phasor diagram

for pure resistor, I & V will be in phase, phasor I leads V by 90 degree bur in case of a
inductor V lead I by 90 degree.

11. When does the body get charged?

When a body rubbed with another body it gets charged due to loss or gain of electron.

12. What are electric lines of forces?

It is the path travelled by a unit positive charge from positive charge to negative charge.

Page 29 of 29