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J. Brozzetti
G. A. Alpsten
L. Tall

Reprinted from the WELDING JOURNAL, Vol. 50, August 1971

published by the American Welding Society, New York, New York
Welding Parameters, Thick Plates, and Column Strength
The influence of different welding parameters on the
strength of awelded column is studied

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a study of the effect of the different welding param- of flame-cut plates; annealed shapes indi-
the influence of different welding param- eters on the strength of the column. cate the most favorable column strength.
eters on the magnitude and distribu- The variation of the mechanical prop-
tion of residual stresses in oxygen--or erties through the thickness and at dif-
flame-cut plates 24 X 2 in. made of A36 ferent locations across the 24 X 2 in.
steel. The residual stress diagrams ob- plates was determined by means of ten- Thermal stresses due to different
tained after complete sectioning and after sion tests on the small size specimens. sources of heat have been investigated
slicing are related to the original condi- The results are discussed with respect to both analytically and experimentally
tions of manufacture and fabrication. the specimen location, and compared with
the patterns of residual stress obtained during the past few decades. The der-
The welded flame-cut plates studied
have been used as base metal plates of a previously. ivation of the temperature distribu-
built-up section 24H428, and the strength The results of the study may be sum- tion in plates during welding and cut-
of this heavy section is analyzed theoret- marized in brief: ting held the attention of several in-
ically. The differences observed in the 1. The variation of residual stresses vestigators.!, 2 After having nrst as-
theoretical column strength of this sim- across the thickness of a thick plate is sumed erroneously an elastic behavior
ulated section 24H428, built up with substantial only in the region of the of the formation of residual stresses
flanges of 24 X 2 in. flame-cut center- heat-affected zone of the weld. during the process. of welding or dur-
welded plates and a web of a 20 X 11/2 2. In general, the variation of residual ing cooling after rolling, it was later
in. flame-cut edge-welded plate, is cor- stresses through the thickness of a plate
recognized 3 that the residual stresses
related to the different heat inputs caused does not have an important effect on the
by the different fabrication processes. strength of the column, as measured by resulting after welding were due to
Conclusions are drawn with respect to the tangent modulus load. plastic deformations.
3. Preheating temperatures higher than Physical and analytical explanation
the specification recommendations have a of the formation of residual stresses
J. BROZZETTI, formerly with Lehigh Uni" negligible influence on residual stress
versity, is Research Engineer, Centre Tech- due to different thermal effects have
nique Industriel de la Construction Metal- formation or on column strength. been developed more recently.4, 5, 6
lique, Paris, France; G. A. ALPSTEN form- 4. The number of passes and the Much attention was paid to the exist-
erly with Lehigh University is Associate speed of welding have little influence on
Director, Swedish Institute of Steel Con- the column strength of welded shapes. ence of, and to the possible effect of,
struction, Stockholm, Sweden; L. TALL is residual stresses on the strength of
Director, Division for Fatigue and Frac- 5. The mechanical properties of the
ture, and Professor of Civil Engineering, material in the region of heat inputs, structural members. Important analyt-
Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. such as due to welding or flame cutting, ical and experimental contributions to
Paper presented at the AWS 52nd Annual differ considerably from those in the un- the solution of this problem and in
Meeting held in San Francisco, Calif., dur- affected base metal, but do not have an particular of the effect on column
ing April 26-29, 1971. important influence on column strength. strength 5 , 7, 8 was made through var-
The work described in this paper was 6. The manufacturing and fabrication
carried out as part of an investigation ious research projects over the past
conditions play an important role for
sponsored jointly by the National Science column strength: welded shapes of uni- two decades, under the technical
Foundation and the Column Research Coun- guidance of the Column Research
cil, and was conducted under the technical versal-mill plates compare unfavorably
guidance of the Column Research Council. in strength with respect to welded shapes Council.
Parent Plate No. 25474W


Parent Plate No. 25473W Parent Plate No. 25478W

I iii I~ I

11...___7,-'_--=6~l't_F_C_-l.1 -II-Il't"

FC = Flame Cutting
CS = Cold Sawing
All Plate. Come From The Same Heat.

Fig. l-Residual stress specimen preparation

The scope of the study described in Nowadays heavy welded columnst the manufacture and fabrication of
this paper was to investigate the effect of different shapes are being used to these test specimens, starting from the
of different welding parameters on the an increasing extent in steel struc- rolling of the component plates and up
magnitude and distribution of residual tures, but for technical and economi- to the final fabrication processes, was
stresses. The experiments were carried cal reasons, atf extensive series of recorded. 12
out on six flame-cut* plates 24 x 2 in. column tests cannot be performed on The phase described in this report is
and one flame-cut plate 20 x 11/2 in. such heavy sections as was done in the concerned mainly with 24 X 2 in. and
made of A36 steel. The welding past with lighter sections. Little in- 20 X 11/2 in. A36 flame-cut plates.
parameters chosen were based on the formation has been available on resid- The six specimens of 24 X 2 in. flame-
AWS recommendations. 9 The ual stress and the strength of heavy cut plates-Fig. I-were prepared to
parameters were adopted such that columns, in spite of the intensive utili- the required size by simultaneously
they would be of practical interest zation of these heavy shapes in con- flame-cutting both longitudinal edges
while staying within the limits of vari- struction. Thus, the column strength of a 26 X 2 in. universal-mill plate.
ation inherent to any fabrication proc- data obtained in the study should be of The 20 X 11/2 in. flame-cut plate was
ess, and the requirements specified by considerable interest. obtained by flame-cutting the edges of
the AWS. In addition, one plate was Little information has been avail- a 22 X 11/2 in. universal-mill plate.
kept "as-manufactured" for the pur- able on the mechanical properties of The /machine used was a standard
pose of comparison. Another plate the heat-affected base metal and the burning machine equipped with two
was annealed to investigate if the weld metal. The third part of the torches to burn both edges at the
heat-treating process would lead to a paper describes the investigation on same time. Air burning tips were used
significant reduction of the magnitude the through-thickness variation of with propane fuel at 316 psi and
of the residual stresses. A stress- mechanical properties and the varia- oxygen at 55 psi. The flame-cutting
relieving process by thermal treatment tion across the width of several flame- speed was set on the cutting machine
may be of interest in special cases. cut center-welded plates. at 10 ijJm. Temperature measure-
The second aspect was to investi- ments were taken by drawing lines on
gate theoretically the influence of the Description of Residual Stress the plate surface with temperature-
welding conditions on the strength of Specimens indicating crayons. 1S Results obtained
a simulated welded section 24H428 The tests were conducted as a part for the temperature distribution across
built up from the investigated plates. of an extensive investigation con- the width can be found in the litera-
It had already been shown 10, 11 that cerned with the study of the magni- ture. 12
the residual stress distribution ob- tude and distribution of residual Five 24 X 2 in. test specimens were
tained for a welded section is more or stresses in thick welded plates, and set apart from the same parent plate
less the same as it would be for the with the purpose of relating this phase as shown in Fig. 1, and the sixth
individual component plates with the of the investigation towards the specimen was taken from another
same welds. The strength of structural strength of the compression members. flame-cut plate. Identical mimufactur-
compression members can be predict- The manufacture and fabrication of ing conditons were used for all plates
ed knowing the magnitude and dis- thick flame-cut and universal-mill in order to reduce the number of
tribution of residual stress in indi- plates made of A36 steel was ob- parameters. For this reason all plates
vidual welded plates. served. Information coIlected during were sampled from the same heat and
subjected to the same rolling condi-
tions an~ the same rolling procedures
*Defined as oxygen-cut from oxygen cut- tA "heavy" column may be defined as in order to minimize the effect of
ting In Term8 and Definitions (AWS A3.0- one where the component plates are 2 in.
69) or more in thickness. different lots upon the mechanical
properties. This objective was essen-
Table I-Mill Report of Mechanical and Chemical Tests
tially fulfilled, and only small differ-
ences can be found for the mechanial Yield" Tensile Elonga-
and chemical properties of the two Plate strength, strength, tion,b ~---- Composition, %
plate sizes. This is illustrated in the no. ksi ksl % (2) C Mn P S SI
mill test report shown in Table 1. A 24 X 2 39 71 29 .18 1.00 .012 .020 .25
previous study has shown that the 20 X 1~ 44 71 36 .20 1.00 .008 .019
variation of the magnitude and dis-
tribution of residual stresses within As given by a dynamic test (specification strain rate).
b The gage length Was 8 in.
members manufactured from one lot
is relatively small, but somewhat
larger variation may exist between Table 3-Weldlng Parameters and Residual Stress Speclmens-
residual stress distributions from dif- FlameCut Plates, A36 Steel
ferent lots. 7 Preheat Postheat
The residual stress specimens were tempera- tempera- ~--- First pass ------.,~-- Second pass -----,
located at the center of each plate Specimen ture, ture, Velocity, Current, Voltage, Velocity, Current, Voltage,
specimen to eliminate end effects, as number 0 F 0 F ipm amp v ipm amp v
shown in Fig. 1. Except at both ends, Plates 24 X 2 In.:
the variation of residual stress along a AM-I"
member free of any straightening eW1 200 16 410 32 32 410 32
effects is small,7 For technical reasons CW-2 200 8 410 32
the plate specimens were cut from the CW-3 400 16 410 32 30 410 32
base metal by transverse flame- uniform
cutting. In the flame-cutting, the dis- CW-4 400 16 410 32 30 410 32
local at
tance from the gage length was made weld
sufficiently great, to avoid any effects CW-5 200 Annealing 16 410 32 30 410 32
on the measurements due to heat in- process,
put. see Sect.
Some of the plate specimens were 3.1
center-welded, and when the electrode
reached the center part of the plate Plates asmanufactured.
specimen the thermal state may be
expected to be quasistationary; conse- Effect of Welding Parameters on 4. Effect of a postheating.
quently, no significant variation of the Magnitude and Distribution
longitudinal residual stresses due to of Residual Stress The actual welding parameters were
the welding was expected in this part. prepared in cooperation with the
Welding Parameters fabricator. In order to study the sepa-
This assumption has been satisfactori-
ly fulfilled in tests by different investi- Five plate specimens of size 24 X 2 rate effect of each welding parameter
gators.l, 4, 7 in., welded with different welding on the magnitude and distribution of
The plate specimens designated parameters as described in Table 3, the residual stress, it was endeavored
CW-l, CW-2, CW-3, CW-4, CW-5 were used in this investigation. One to keep the material properties similar
(CW for center-welded, and AM for plate 24 X 2 in. was left unwelded to for all plate specimens. The same
as-manufactured) were prepared to give the initial residual stresses. A manufacturing and fabrication condi-
contain the welds by making two V- flame-cut plate 20 x 11/2 in. also was tions were used; in particular, the
. shaped grooves as shown in detail included in the study. The results of welds in each plate specimen were
A of Fig. 1. The welds were de- residual stress measurements are deposited according to the same weld
posited by a semi-automatic welding needed for the theoretical investiga- ing sequence.
machine. The type of electrode con- tion of the column behavior of a All specimens were selected to con-
formed to the AWS class E70l8. Ta- simulated built-up section. form to the requirements of the AWS
ble 2 shows the mechanical properties The different welding parameters specifications. 9 Specimen CW-l corre-
of the as-welded electrode as required involved are the following: sponds to the fabricator's normal
by the AWS specifications A5.1-69. 1. Number of passes and speed of choice of fabrication conditions. CW-
The shielding was accomplished by welding. 2 was used to show the difference
enveloping the arc created between which may appear due to a different
2. Temperature of preheating.
the plate and 5/ 82 in. diameter elec- number of passes, whereas CW-3 was
3. Effect of a local and uniform
trode with a granular 780 flux type. preheating.
The details concerning the welding
parameters are discussed below.

Table 2-Typlcal Mechanical

Tensile Yield Elongation
Elec- strength, strength, in 2 in.,
trode ksi ksi %
E7018 72-79 60-66 24-31

"Conforms to Test Requirements of

AWS-A5.1 & ASTM-A233. Low figures give
the minimum AWS requirements of the
as-welded material. Fig. 2-Temperature measurement Fig. 3--Set-up for preheating
proposed to study the effect of a plate specimen CW-2 the speed of changed by the flame-cutting pro-
higher preheating temperature on the welding was set up somewhat higher cedure. The edges are now in ten-
magnitude of residual stress. The in- than proposed in order to satisfy the sion due to the heat input, (as a
fluence of a local preheating at a technical restrictions of the automatic general rule the part of the plate
temperature of 400 F, in the vicinity welding machine. cooling most slowly will be left in
of the grooves, is given by the speci- residual tension), whereas the center
men CW-4. The specimen CW-5 was Nature of Residual Stresses part of the plate is now in compres-
stress relieved by heat treating at The welded specimens were not sion.
1200 F, maintained for 2 hr, fol- free of residual stresses prior to weld- Only these two types of residual
lowed by slow cooling in the furnace ing. The study is intended to show also stresses existed in the plate prior to
down to a temperature of 600 F. the variation of the strength under welding. Special care was brought to
Finally the specimen reached room different welding conditions. Thus the fabrication operations in order to
temperature by air cooling. consideration must be given to residu- avoid any other stresses due to cold
The criteria which guided the al stresses existing in the base metal bending or any processes of cold
choice were to stay as close as possible plates before welding. Residual straightening. The distribution and
to practical welding conditions; in stresses are introduced into the mate- magnitude of residual stresses as re-
particular, the temperature of pre- rial during the different stages of man- ported in Fig. 5 can be assumed to be
heating was selected in terms of ufacture and fabrication conditions. similar for all flame-cut specimens
economics. The specimen CW-5 was Prior to welding, the pattern of resid- concerned in this study. The assump-
included in this investigation to study ual stresses is the result of a complex tion made earlier, that the distribution
whether the stress-relieving by heat state of superposition of different dis- of rolling stresses and flame-cutting
treatment reduces the magnitude of tributions and magnitudes of residual stresses is uniform for all residual
the residual stress, and to investigate if stress,!l stress specimens prior to welding,
an appreciable change occurs in the First, the plates were rolled to the seems to be reasonable because of the
yield strength of the weld and the required size of 26 X 2 in., and the care in observing the same manufac-
base metal. resulting residual stresses were due to ture and fabrication procedures for all
The temperature of preheating and the cooling after the hot rolling. No specimens. 15
welding at the surface of the plate were measurements were made on this
taken with a thermo-couple as shown plate 26 X 2 in., but to give an idea of Results of Residual Stress Measurement
in Fig. 2. Slight modifications appear the magnitude and distribution of re- The longitudinal residual stresses
between the predetermined welding sidual stresses after this first operation, were determined by the sectioning
conditions as expressed in Table 1 and results of measurement made on a 24 method described elsewhere. 16 Only
the actual technical working condi- X 2 in. plate of A36 steel, which longitudinal stresses have been meas-
tions. It has been noticed that the V- belongs to the same material order, is ured, because of their prevailing
shaped grooves were at a higher tem- shown in Fig. 4.14 The edges show effect on the load carrying capacity of
perature than any other part of the compressive residual stresses of about steel columns. First, the residual stress
plate during the preheating. -20 ksi, which are balanced in the specimen was cut into elements of
Figure 3 illustrates the typical set- center part of the plate by tensile different thickness depending upon the
up for preheating. Using this equip- residual stresses, whose maximum is stress gradient expected. From this
ment, it was not possible to realize a about +10 ksi. procedure, referred to as the complete
narrow heated region. The edges of Next, the flame-cutting operation sectioning, the magnitude and dis-
the plate specimen were at a tempera- reduced the sizes of the universal-mill tribution of residual stresses on the
ture of about 150 F and the gradient plate to a 24 X 2 in. 'flame-cut plate, large surface of the plates was deter-
of temperature between the edges and the resulting pattern of residual mined. Figures 5-11 present the re-
the center part of the plate was fairly stresses is indicated in Fig. 5. It can be sults of the measurements for each
small due to the thermal conductivity seen that the previous distribution of plate specimen, as well as the section-
properties of the steel. In case of the residual stresses has been completely ing detail.
The isostress diagrams as presented
in Figs. 12-16 have been obtained
Table 4-Resldual Stresses Magnitude at Different Location Across the Plate from the superposition of the residual
Width, ksi
stresses after sectioning, and the resid-
, - - - - Plate specimen designation (FC) _________ (UM)-------. ual stress variation across each ele-
Location AM-1 CW-1 CW-2 CW-3 CW-4 CW-5 UM-1 UM-2 ment as determined by slicing the
1 32.1 28.0 22.4 5.4 4.1 1.6 -18.7 -24.0 element into small strips.ll In the
2 35.1 41.3 28.1 14.5 14.5 -.1 -17.8 -15.1 part of the plate affected by a local
3 37.2 28.1 7.4 4.1 13.4 -.8 -18.0 -21.1 heat input such as produced by a
4 39.1 39.5 18.2 11.0 22.9 -2.3 -18.7 -17.0 flame cutting or a welding operation,
5 -.1 62.1 62.8 61.6 61.6 2.5 7.4 61.9 the variation of longitudinal residual
6 -.9 64.4 60.1 65.7 63.0 3.0 7.4 65.3 stresses across the thickness 'Of the
7" 38.2 42.8 36.2 39.1 42.3
plate was found to be very important.
Values obtained by averaging the experimental results relative to the elements adjacent In the plates investigated, the stresses
the elements containing the weld: released by the slicing procedure have
been observed to vary between +6
ksi at the edges and -5 ksi at the
center part of the thickness of the
plate for an element located at the
flame-cut edges and between +9 ksi
at the non-welded edge and -7 ksi at
the mid-thickness of the plate for a
strip containing the weld. In the part

-40 -40

-20 -20

r \
KSI 0 ;;=-- KSI 0 i 1 $1 to:

20 20

40 40
rar Sid. rar Sid.
Near Side Near Side
60 60

111111111 I ! I I ! I iii I I I I ~ I I11I1I1I i 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111

Fig. 4-Longitudinal residual stresses in a universal-mill Fig. 5-Residual stresses in a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.
plate 24 x 2 in.




rar Sid. For Side
Near Side Near Side

111111111 ~ 111111111'111'1111111111111111111 111I1I1I1111111I111'!!l1lllillll i 11""111

Fig. 6-Residual stresses in a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.- Fig. 7-Residual stresses in a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.-
center welded-reference CW-l (200 F preheat, 1 pass) center welded-reference CW-2 (200 F preheat, 1 pass)





rar Sid,
Near Sid, rar Side
60 Near Side

111111111111111111010111111111111111111 1.llllIlIlllllllInOII:IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
Fig. 8-Residual stresses in a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.- Fig. 9-Residual stresses in a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.-
center welded-reference CW-3 (400 F uniform preheat, 2 center welded-reference CW-4 (400 F. local preheat, 2
passes) . passes)


rOw '04 *,; ; == II I I

Me KSI 0


Far Side
Near Sid. 60

D[] IIII nn]]]IJIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIO UILU !i~ ~ II 111111 I'll 1'1111 !II II !'111111111
Fig. lO-Residual stresses in a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.- Fig. ll-Residual stresses in a universal-mill prate 24 x2
center welded and stress relieved:-reference CW-5 in.-center welded (200 F preheat, 2 weldin-g passes)

of the plate not drastically influenced 24 X 2 in. univeral-mill plate, referred welding upon the magnitude and the
by the external heat input, the varia- to as UM-2, which was center-welded distribution of residual stresses of two
tion is between -2 ksi and 2 ksi at with approximately the same welding plates of the same dimension but with
the mid section. parameters as the specimen CW_1.12 a different manufacturing procedure-
Results are shown in Fig. 11 for the These results have been incorporated that is, universal-mill or flame-cut
residual stress measurements on the into this study to see the effect of the plates. As pointed out previously, the
Fig. 12-lsostress diagram of a flame-cut plate 24 x 2in.-reference AM-1


Fig. 13-lsostress diagram of a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.-center welded-reference CW-!, (200 F preheat, 2 welding passes)

., -,
"-U~~~ __ ~~ ____ ~==~ ________ ~~ __ ~~~ __ ~~~ ____ ~~ __________ __
~ ~~ __ __
~ ~~~~~

Fig. 14-lsostress diagram of a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.-center welded-reference CW-2, (200 F preheat, 1 welding pass)

Fig. 15-lsostress diagram of a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.-center welded-reference CW-3, (400 F uniform preheat, 2 passes)

Fig. 16-lsostress diagram of a flame-cut plate 24 x 2 in.-center welded-reference CW-4, (4000 F local preheat, 2 passes)

patterns of residual stresses in a uni- tribution of residual stresses" in the. '. material. This is' clearly .,shown by
versal-mill plate (Fig .. 4) and in a flame-cut plate (Fig. 5) is explained : comparing the yield strength require-
flame-cut plate (Fig. 5) differ consid- by the fact that the flame-cut edges ment of the as-welded electrode mate-
erably. have been burnt simultaneously. Fur- rial E7018 indicated in Table 2, with
Table 4 summarizes the magnitude thermore, the results obtained on the the maximum tensile stresses given in
of residual stresses for. the different two surfaces of the flame-cut plate are lines 5 and 6 of Table 4.
plate specimens investigated. The data almost identical. Thus, as a first ap- Due to the high gradient of cooling
summarized in this table give in- proximation, the analytical problem of temperature in the vicinity of a local
formation about the level of residu- temperature distribution in a flame- heat input, such, as flame-cutting or
al stresses at the edges and at the weld cut plate can be considered as a two- welding, the mechanical properties of
location of. the plates,. where the diminsional problem, in which the the base metal there may change. The
Jargest magnitudes of residual stresses heat input per unit thickness is con- .tensile residual stresses in the base
are to be expected. stant. metal, resulting from such a heat
Discussion of the Results The slightly non-symmetrical pat- source, indicate a higher yield strength
Different patterns of residual stress tern of residual stresses after welding than that of the nonheat-affected base
hav.e already existed in the plate speci- (Figs. 6 through 9) is due to the metal. This fact appears more clearly
mens prior to welding, and these are sequence of weld passes adopted. In in Figs. 12-16 than in Table 4 which
known or may be estimated. First, addition' to the weld region, where a did not include the residual stress vari-
there are the residual stresses which major modification in magnitude and ation through the thickness of the
remain after cooling from the rolling, distribution of residual stresses occurs, plate; this was obtained by the slicing
on which are superimposed the residu- changes take place also at the edges of procedure as explained above.
al stresses due to the flame-cutting. the plate under the combined influ- The residual stresses at the welded
Since all plates were Toned and flame- ence of the preheating and of the heat surface undergo a major modification
cut to the specified sizes, the pattern conduction in the plate during weld- compared with the initial pa(tern exist-
and magnitude of residual stresses ing. Because of the welds being de- ing prior to welding. The variation of
given in Fig. 5 can be assumed for posited on one side of the plate, sig- residual stresses through the thickness
all plate. specimens before welding. nificant differences are noticed in the- after welding is found to be nearly 10
During the welding operation, there magnitude and distribution of residual . ksi, which is substantially greater than
are two heat inputs. These lead to a stresses on both surfaces of the plate. that found in thinner plates. 17
modificaton in the magnitude and dis- When comparing Fig. 11 with Figs. The isostress diagrams show the
tribution of residual stresses---,.that is, 6-9, it can be pointed out that what- influence of the welding effect. It can
the heat input due to the preheating ever the preheating and welding con- be noticed in the case of the specimen
or postheating, and finally, the heat dition, and whatever the pattern of CW-2 (Fig. 14) that there is a greater
Input created by the welding residual stresses prior to welding, the penetration of the weld, perhaps due
procedure itself. tensile stress in the weld material to the lower speed of welding.
The sym~etry obtained in the dis- reaches the yield strength of the weld When compared to specimen CWo!
(Fig. 13), specimen CW-3 (Fig. 13), UM. Universal Mill
preheated at 400 F, does not show a
Fe = Flame Cut
significant modification of the magni-
tude and distribution of residual
stresses. The raIsing of the preheating UM or FC Plate 24 x 2
temperature from 200 to 400' F does Center Weld
not provide a real benefit as far as the 24H428
magnitude and distribution of residual
stresses is concerned.
The residual stresses in the annealed
specimen CW-5 (Fig. 10) are practi- UM or FC Plate
cally negligible; they are of the same 20 x 1'It
order of magnitude as the possible Edge Weld
errors of measurement.
The differences obtained in the re-
sidual stress diagrams for specimens
CW-l, CW-2, CW-4 are small (see
Figs. 6-9). The influence of the weld- UM or FC Plate 24 x 2
ing condition is further discussed be- CeAterWeld
low by considering their effect on the
strength of a column. (a) Parent uM or FC Plates (b) Welded Build-Up Section
Effect. of Welding Parameters on Fig. 17-Schematic representation of a simulated section built-up from
the Strength of a Simulated the plate specimens
Built-Up Section 24H428
Since the recognition of the impor- of the section (universal-mill, or flame- ters was a major purpose of this inves-
tance of the effect of residual stresses cut plates). tigation. Therefore, this investigation
on compression members, a great deal 2. Geometry of the component studied the tangent modulus load-
of research has been spent on the plates. carrying capacity of the simulated
strength of such members, both exper- 3. Geometry of the section, (H, flame-cut welded column 24H428,
imentally and analytically. Based upon box, etc.) built-up with the different center-
the concepts of the tangent modulus 4. Welding conditions. welded plates investigated.
load and the maximum strength, a 5. Type of steel. Bxtensive testing on heavy welded
significant contribution for predicting In the past, a rather good agree- columns can be. performed only at
the. load-carrying capacity of rolled ment has been found experimentally great expense, and findings established
sections was done in the past. 7 , 18, 19 between predictions by the tangent in the past have to be taken into
More recently, the same approaches modulus concept and tests results. 21 consideration. Thorough experimental
have been used successfully for pre- As discussed below, the simplifications investigations of the resi<iual stress
dicting the strength of welded built-up often introduced in the theoretical an- distribution in small and medium-size
columns. 2o 21 However, the problem alysis . do not warrant the use of the rolled and welded built:-up sections
is more complex, and more involved more refined prediction of the max- have been conducted by different in-
than the determination of the strength imum strength. Furthermore, a com- vestigators.,II. 11, 19, 21 In these
of rolled sections, because of the great parison of column strength for built- studies it was found that a welded
number of parameters involved: up sections composed of plates center- built-up shape may be considered as
1. Manufacture of the components welded with different welding parame- equivalent to the separate component

-40 -20

-20 KSI 0

KSI 0 20

I 40

11111111111 (I I I 1 I 0 1 I 1 I 111111111111
(a) Experimental Residual Stress For The
20 x Ilk Flame -Cut Plate (b) Computed Residual Stress Distribution For The
20 x 1\12 Flame-Cut Plate With Edge Welds
Fig. IS-Computed residual stresses due to welding in a 20 x l1f2 in. flame-cut plate

~ c-------------------

Fig. 19-Theoretical isostress diagram in an edge welded 20 x I1f2 in. flame-cut plate
- "

suIts available for a similar edge-

welded flame-cut plate 9 X 11/2 in.14

.... ... 1 The temperature distribution was eval-

.... ...
uated from the stlidy made by Rosen-

thal,1 The coefficient of heat losses
.... ...
.... ... r
was chosen as 85 % which gives a
good agreement with the result exper-
":f~ .. ::::.
imentally found for the plate 9 X 11/2
in. 22 In other words, 85% of the heat
YI ~:: @
24" N -
10 generated is effective in causing ther-
r- -1-.1
'- .. .. ~
mal stresses in the plate 20 x 11/2 in.
in order to obtain stresses comparable
@ to those found experimentally. The
=0 ...
It) other variables, amperage, voltage,
speed of welding were taken from
X'---- '-----x I
.. 1-
prior experience,12 and the thermal
Flome Cut Plates
...... 1-- 11/ 2 " r
properties of the plate used were those
suggested in the literature. 1T Figure
.. 19 shows the residual stress distribu-
A36 ,-'- =- tion assumed in the web plate, and
developed from the results of Fig. 18b
:: ~
by including the residual stresses due
to slicing, as obtained from the data
collected in similar plates.
__ .1< A numerical method utilizing a dig-
---- ital computer was used to compute
3@1/4~ ~ the tangent modulus load, taking into
y account the measured residual stress
Fig. 20-Arrangement of finite area elements distribution and material properties
discussed above. Two sets of nondi-
mensionalized tangent modulus
plates with simulated welds, provided from two flanges of 24 X 2 in. and a column curves (PIPIJ vs. A.) were
that the sizes of the base metal plates, web of 20 X 11/2 in., composed from computed for both axes of the simu-
as well as the heat inputs, are nearly the separate plate specimens which lated section. The first set of curves
the same. Thus, from the knowledge were investigated, and for which re- correspond to the average residual
of the residual stress distribution in sidual stress patterns were discussed stress through the thickness as ob-
the welded component plates, the earlier. .
tained after complete sectioning, Figs.
complete pattern of residual stresses No measurement on the simulated 6-11. The second set of curves was
in a built-up section may be deduced- edge-welded plate corresponding to computed for the actual through-
Fig. 17. With this as basis, the residu- the web of the 24H428 shape has thickness variation of residual stresses
al stress distribution in the structural been performed. Figures 18 and 19 as indicated in Figs. 13-16.
shape was used below in the predic- present the results of the procedure The numerical computation was ac-
tion of its behavior under compressive which was followed to determine the complished by dividing the section
load. distribution and magnitude of residual into a number of finite area meshes,
Such an approach was used here to stresses. From the pattern of the initi- Fig. 20. The computation was based
study the effect of the welding al stresses existing in a flame-cut plate upon the following assumptions:
parameters on the strength of a weld- 20 X 11/2 in. (Fig. 18a), the residual
ed built-up section 24H428-Fig. 17. stress modification created by the 1. Plane sections remain plane be-
This shape was simulated from the welds deposited at the four edges of fore and after application.
different plate specimens as mentioned the plate has been computed, and 2. The stress-strain relationship in
above. This welded section built up compared with the experimental re- any fiber is an ideal elastic-perfectly-

1.01--.;=,-'----=====---, 1.0

0,8 0.8

Symbols symbols

------ CW-I , Preheat. 200' F ----- CW-I
-- CW .. 2, Preheat, 200 F - - CW-2
--- CW-3, Preheat, 400 F, Uniform - - - CW-3
--- CW .. 4, Preheat, 400 F, Local - - - CW-4
_.- UM-I, Unlv"s.1 Mill PIoI.S 0.2
_ . - UM-I
_ .. - CW-5, Pr.heal, 200F, AMealid _ - CW-5

o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
X=J.. !!f.b.r 1 fii'i L
". 'iT x.7f'i'E .,
Fig. 21-Tangent modulus curves, strong axis bending, for the Fig. 22-Tangent modulus curves, weak axis bending, average
average residual stresses through the thickness residual stresses through the thickness


p p
Py Symbols if Symbols
0.4 .------ CW-I 0.4 ------ CW-I

J: i

o 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

7r 1-r
A=.L. f5..1,.
f5.:. 1,.r
Fig. 23-Tangent modulus curves, strong axis bending, actual Fig. 24-Tangent modulus curves, weak axis bending, actual
variation of residual stress distribution through the thickness variation of residual stress distribution through the thickness

plastic diagram. reveals that there is no discernible the plate dimensions studied here.
3. The residual stress distribution is variation due to effect of the welding Consequently for columns composed
symmetrical with respect to both axes. conditions in the tangent modulus of wide plates, the tangent modulus
The experimental residual stress dis- curves with respect to the strong axis curves computed from the average of
tributions were replaced by symmetri- buckling. The greatest difference in the surface readings of the residual
cal diagrams obtained by averaging magnitude of residual stresses in com- stress distributions and from the COll-
the distribution of the left and right ponent plates occurs mainly at the plete stress distribution through the
parts of the plate. edges of the plate. Thus their influ- thickness do not show a distinct differ-
4. The geometrical properties of the ences upon the tangent modulus load ence, as would be the case for thick,
section are constant along the beam. with respect to the strong axis bending relatively narrow plates. In the case
5. The column is perfectly straight. are less pronounced than for the weak where the isostress diagram is needed,
axis bending. it might be sufficient to slice only
Analysis of Results The variation of residual stresses some elements taken in the vicinity of
A comparison between Figs. 21 and across the thickness of the plate the flame-cut edges and the weld
22, or 23 and 24 indicates that the (those released by the slicing proce- region, with some additional strips
influence of residual stress is more dure) is of a large magnitude only taken from the non-he at-affected zone
pronounced for column buckling in the region locally affected by a in order to determine the entire stress
about the weak axis, than about the steep cooling temperature gradient as distribution.
strong axis. This result is to be expect- discussed previously. Except for these Figures 21 and 22 indicate the
ed from theoretical predictions. 8 areas, the variation through the thick- great influence of the manufacturing
A closer look at Figs. 21 and 23 ness of the plate is not important for procedure on the column strength-

Level It
A ~13 ~12 ~I!"'"
f%%a B
Location 3 2 I I
(a) Location of Test Specimens Across The Width and Thickness of a 20 x 2 (Fe)

L I_ _ _ --/'>-.-=1/2 ,+:'<-~I"___-II f}]=r~4"<>


1--1._ _ _ _ I. G-'.:!~,_ _o:a_I

O - - - - - - Ia1 -1 I- ~"
(b) Standard Test Specimen With a 2" Gage Length '(ASTM A570)


+ ~3"
I. (c) Standard Test Specimen With a

a" Gage Length (ASTM A 570) Ref. B

Fig. 25-Layout and dimensions of the tension test specimens
~ t -!.-j It
A " L.-


6 -12
+-__.....1 _ It B~6===6~~'+I;:2====JI---x

50 50
40 40
CTys 30 30
20 (KS!)
0 6 12
DISTANCE )( (tN.) 0 6 12


IN 2" o AM-I
30 A CW-I ELONGATION 40 Symbols
c CW-2 IN 2" o AM-I
20 30
CW3 (%) A CW-I

10 CW4 20 c CW-2
CW-5 CW-3
.. CW-4
0 6 12 10 CW-5
o 6 12
Fig. 26-Static yield strength and percent elongation varia- DISTANCE x (IN.)
tion-level A
Fig. 27-Static yield strength and percent elongation varia-
tion-level 8
that is, for welded H-shapes composed caused by the first pass. Also, the ess leave high tensile residual stresses
of universal-mill plates (plate speci- influence of reducing the speed of in the heat-affected region. These ten-
men UM-2) and flame-cut plates. The welding, which was also a welding sile stresses have a much higher mag-
existence of compressive residual conditon imposed on the specimen nitude than the yield strength of the
stresses at the edges of a universal- CW-2, is negligible; the change ex- parent material.
mill plate is detrimental as far as pected theoretically in terms of this
column strength is considered, when A systematic investigation of the
welding condition has proven to be
compared to the welded built-up very small. longitudinal mechanical properties,
shape with flame-cut plates of the Comparison of column curves in through the thickness and across the
same sizes. The fabrication of built-up the case of the weak axis buckling of width of the plate, was conducted to
columns from flame-cut plates results the simulated built-up section with clarify why such peaks of tensile stress
in stronger columns; it is also econom- can be greater than the yield strength
plates CW-l and CW-3 (reflecting the
ically feasible, as well as technically of the parent material.
difference in preheating temperature-
possible, by the use of motorized gan- that is, 200 and 400 F) does not Values of the static yield strength,
try-type burning machines which usu- exhibit any significant difference- ultimate strength, percent elongation,
ally handle plates from 4 in. up to 15 Figs. 22 and 24. Thus, the effect of and reduction of area, were obtained
in. thick and up to 160 in. wide. 23 increasing the preheating temperature from tension tests on small size speci-
These figures also show clearly the from 200 to 400 F has practically no
0 mens taken at different locations of
favorable effect of the stress-relieving influence on the buckling strength of the cross section as shown in Fig. 25.
process on the strength of the column; . the section studied. It was discussed Standard test specimens with an 8 in.
however, such a process is expensive previously that the residual stresses gage length were also made to check
and, in general, impossible for large measured were similar for plates CW- the results of the small size tension
structural components. In any event, 1 and CW-3; as is pointed out in the specimens. The testing procedure and
the absence of residual stress is the following paragraphs the mechanical technical terms adopted conform to
most favorable condition for column properties of the material do not re- those previously described. 24 All 2 in.
strength. veal a significant improvement. gage length specimens were loaded sim-
Examination of Figs. 22 and 24 Contrary to the two previous com- ilarly at two strain rates. Up to the
indicates that only a small difference parisons, the deviation in column onset of strain-hardening the rate of
exists between the column curves of strength between the specimens desig- straining was set at 0.18 ipm and in
the shapes built up with the plate nated as CW-l and CW-4 is more the strain-hardening range the speed
specimens CW-l and CW-2. The pronounced. Specimen CW-1 pre- of loading was raised to 0.45 ipm.
column curve for specimen CW-1 is heated uniformly indicates a more fa- The 2 in. gage length tensile speci-
slightly higher than the column curve vorable column strength than speci- mens were taken from the two heat-
for the shape built-up from the plate men CW-2 which was locally pre- affected zones and in the intermediate
specimen CW-2 but this is probably heated. position. One specimen, location in.
not of general significance. Thus, it Fig. 25, contains a part of the weld.
appears that the number of passes is Variation of Mechanical Properties The same distribution of the tensile
not a critical factor in producing re- test specimens, through the thickness
sidual stresses. As found analytically5 Tensile Tests and along the width of the cross sec-
the major portion of the stresses are The flame-cutting or welding proc- tion as indicated in Fig. 25, was kept

for all 24 X 2 in. flame-cut plates t
designated as AM-I, CW-l, CW-2,
CW-3, CW-4, CW-5. The reference
number of a tensile specimen is com-
'-I I
posed of two digits which indicates the
"level" and the "position" of the speci- 50
men in the plate as described in Fig.
25. The numbering was adopted to 40
help the discussion of the results, and
the difference between "position" and '30

"level" is clearly defined in Fig. 25. O"ys
Figures 26-28 show in a graph (KS!)
form and for each level, the variation
of the static yield strength and the 10
percent elongation of the 2 in. gage
length tensile specimen for each plate.
Tabulated details of static yield 0 6 12
strength, modulus of elasticity, ulti- DISTANCE X (IN,)
mate strength, percent reduction of
area, and percent elongation in gage
length, are presented in the litera-
ture. 25
Discussion of Results ELONGATION 40 t=s== : : : : : : t i Symbols
IN 2" "AM-I
There is a discrepancy observed '30 ACW-I
between the values of the yield (%) cCW-2
strength of the material as given by 20 CW-3
the mill test report, Table 1, and the CW-4
results of tension tests carried out on 10 -CW-5
the same material;25 much of this is
due to the effect of the strain rate. 26
Figure 26 indicates that, for the o 6 .12
plate specimens CW-l, CW-2, CW-3, DISTANCE x (IN.)
CW-4, the weld and a part of the Fig. 28-Static yield strength and percent elongation variation-level C
adjacent heat-affected base metal had
a significantly higher yield strength, a cation 33 show a significantly higher Conclusion
somewhat higher ultimate strength, static yield strength than the base
and a lower elongation and reduction metal-Fig. 28. Probably, this is due The investigation described in this
of area than the unaffected base metal mainly to the fact that the specimens paper was concerned with the effect
(tension specimen 11). The tensile were cut from a region directly influ- on residual stresses and column
residual stresses obtained at the weld enced by the flame.n This fact has strength of the welding condition:
for all center welded plates, except for been varified by observing the line preheating, postheating, temperature,
the stress-relieved specimen, is around markings produced by the liquid parti- number of passes, and speed of weld-
63 ksi; the yield strength of the mate- cles in fusion on the cut surface. ing. The experimental work was car-
rial containing a part of the weld was The literature 27 notes very high ried out on 24 X 2 in. flame-cut and
lower than the value previously given. values of the Rockwell hardness in the universal-mill plates of A36 steel. This
There is, for the stress-relieved spe- area located in the immediate vicinity study was a part of a major research
cimen CW-5, an important decrease of the cutting flame. The difference of program intended to determine the
of the static yield strength for speci- the Rockwell hardness through the residual stresses in thick welded plates
men location 11, containing the base thickness is explained by the difference and shapes and to relate this to the
metal and a part of the weld-Fig. of microstructure of the cut surface. load-carrying capacity of compression
26. Due to the stress-relieving process This confirms the high magnitude of members.
the base metal has a somewhat lower tensile stresses found in the heat- The influence of the welding condi-
yield strength, and higher ductility affected area. These deviations are tions was studied in two separate steps.
than the non-heat-treated specimen. more important than those experi- First, the evolution and differences
For the tension specimens, exclud- mentally observed, because the aver- of the magnitude and distribution of
ing CW-5, whose locations are 12, 22, age behavior measured over the cross the longitudinal residual stresses were
and 32, no significant effect of the section of the tension specimen does investigated. Second, the 'effect of
heat transmitted from the steep rate not give a full indication of the these different patterns of residual
of cooling during the flame-cutting or mechanical properties in the immediate stress of the load-carrying qapacity of
welding process is noticed. In other vicinity of the flame-cut surface. simulated column shapes built-up
words the high temperature gradient Examination of Figs. 26-28, for the from flame-cut plates waS analyzed
has only a local influence on the yield test results performed on specimen theoretically. Special attention was
strength, and hence on the magnitude AM-I, does not indicate any signifi- paid to the variation of mechanical
of re~idual stress. cant variation of the mechanical prop- properties of these specimens subject-
The differences in mechanical prop- erties along the width of the plate. ed to different heat input during their
erties of the base metal for the tension The only difference observed-that is, fabrication.
specimens taken in the vicinity of the a higher static yield strength-was for From investigations carried out in
flame-cut edges such as 13, 23 and 33 tension specimens coming from the this phase of the research program,
are -less accentuated. Specimens in 10- neighborhood of the flame-cut edges. the results found may be summarized
- ---- - -- --- - - -- - - --------

as follows: material are reduced compared to 10-s (1964).

5. Estuar, F. "Welding Residual Stresses
1. The variation of residual stresses those of the base metal. and Strength of Heavy Column Shapes,"
across the thickness of the plate was 11. Meaningful differences are ob- Ph.D. Dissertation, Lehigh University;
Fritz Laboratory Report No. 249.30, Sep-
found to be significant in the heat- served for the mechanical properties tember 1965.
affected zone, but in the regions more between the tension specimens cut in 6. Alpsten, G., "Thermal Residual Stress-
than 2 in. distant from the flame-cut the vicinity of the flame-cut surface, es In Hot Rolled Steel Members," Fritz
Laboratory Reporf No. 337.3, December
edges and the weld area, this variation and the tension specimens taken from 1968.
is greatly reduced. the unaffected base metal. 7. Huber, A. W. and Beedle, L. 8., "Re-
sidual Stress and Compressive Strength of
2. Whatever the preheating and Steel," WELDING JOURNAL, 33(12), Welding
welding conditions of the plate, the Acknowledgements Research Supp!., 589-s (1954).
maximum tensile residual stress 8. Beedle, L. S. and Tall, L., "Basic
This paper presents a part of an Column Strength, Journal ot Structural
created in the weld area reaches the experimental investigation carried out DIvision, ASCE, Vol. 86, No. ST7, July 1960.
yield strength of the weld material. 9. American Welding Society Oode lor
on the research project "Residual Weldillg ill Buildillg OOllstruction, AWS
3. In the regions of the base metal Stresses in Thick Welded Plates," con- D1.0-66, New York, 1966.
subjected to a very steep gradient of ducted at Fritz Engineering Laborato- 10. Tall, L., "Heat Input, Thermal and
Residual Stresses in Welded Structural
cooling temperature, as in the case of ry, Department of Civil Engineering, Plates," Lehigh University, Fritz Labora-
cutting or welding processes, it was Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Penn- tory Report No. 249.12, August 1962.
found that the residual tensile stresses 11. Alpsten, G., and Tall, L., "Residual
sylvania. Lynn S. Beedle is the Direc- Stresses in Heavy Welded Shapes," WELD-
in these regions are equal to the yield tor of Fritz Engineering Laboratory, ING JOURNAL, Vol. 49(3), Welding Research
strength of the weld metal, or, for Suppl.. 93-s (1970).
and D. A. VanHorn is the Chairman 12. Brozzetti, J., Alpsten, G., and Tall,
metal affected by flame-cutting, the of the Department of Civil Engineer- L., "Manufacture and Fabrication of Heavy
local yield strength, which is higher ing. Welded Plate and Shape Speciments," Le-
high University, Fritz Laboratory Report
than the yield strength of the unaffect- The investigation is being carried No. 337.4, May 1969.
ed base metal. out under the sponsorship of the Na- 13. Alpsten, G., "Residual Stresses in a
4. A higher preheating temperature Heavy Welded Shape 23H681," Lehigh Uni-
tional Science Foundation and the versity, Fritz Laboratory Report No. 337.
of 400 0 F, as compared to the normal Column Research Council. The tech- (In preparation).
of 200 0 F, has no significant effect on nical guidance of Task Group 1 of the 14. Alpsten, G., and Tail, L, "Residual
Stress Measurements in Thick Steel Plates,"
the formation of residual stresses; Column Research Council under the Lehigh University, Fritz Laboratory Re-
consequently, no real improvement of chairmanship of John A. Gilligan is port No. 337.13 (In preparation).
the tangent modulus load was ob- 15. Nagaraja Rao, N. R., Estuar, F., and
sincerely appreciated. Tall, L., "Residual Stresses in Welded
served due to higher preheating. All test specimens were manufac- Shapes," WELDING JOURNAL, 43(7), Welding
5. Annealing reduces the magnitude tured and fabricated by the Bethlehem Research Supp!., 295-s (1964).
16. Tebedge, N., "Measurement ot Resid-
of residual stresses to a negligible Steel Corporation. Sincere apprecia- ual Stresses-A Study ot Methods," M. S.
value. The mechanical properties of tion is expressed to this company and Thesis, Lehigh University, May 1969.
the base metal and the weld are also 17. Nagaraja Rao, N. R., and Tall, L.,
to its personnel for advice and assist- "Residual Stresses in Welded Plates,"
affected by the heat treatment. A ance in all phases of the design and WELDING JOURNAL, 40(10), Welding Research
lower static yield and ultimate Supp!., 468-s (1961).
fabrication of the specimens. 18. Fujita, Yuzuru, "Built-Up Column
strength and an improvement in the The authors are indebted to their Strength," Ph.D. Dissertation, Lehigh Uni-
ductility properties were noticed. research colleagues, Reidar Bjl'lrhovde, versIty, Fritz Laboratory Report No. 249.2,
1956. (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor,
6. For relatively wide and thin Yoshio Kishima, Paul Marek and Ne- Mich.)
plates, the variation of longitudinal gussie Tebedge for their assistance 19. Tall, L., "The Strength ot Welded
stresses through the thickness has al- Built-Up Columns," Ph.D. Dissertation, Le-
during the inplant data recording, and high University, Fritz Laboratory Report
most no influence on the tangent mod- for their advice at all times. Thanks No. 249.10, May 1961. (University Micro-
ulus load. are due to Celal N. l<,ostem and his films, Ann Arbor, Mich.)
20. Cranston, W. A., "The Strength ot
7. The tangent modulus load com- staff of the Computer Systems Group Heavy Welded Shapes," M.S. Thesis, Le-
puted with respect to the weak axis for the use of the finite element pro- high University, 1967.
21. McFalls, R. K., and Tall, L., "A
buckling is slightly more sensitive to gramCSTES. Study of Welded Columns Manufactured
variations of welding conditions than Special thanks are due to Ken R. from Flame-Cut Plates," WELDING JOURNAL,
48(4), Welding Research Supp!., 141-5
when compared to strong axis buck- Harpel, Laboratory Superintendent, (1969).
ling. and his staff for the preparation of the 22. Bjorhovde, R., Alpsten, G., and Tall,
test specimens, and to John Gera for L., "Residual Stresses in Universal Mlll
8. The manufacture and fabrication Plates," Fritz Lab. Report No. 337.17, in
conditions play an important role in his excellent work in preparing the preparation.
column strength. Welded shapes made drawings, and to Miss Joanne Mies 23. United States Steel Corporation, The
Makillg, Shapillg and Treatillg of Steel,
of universal-mill plates have an unfa- for typing the manuscript. Editor Harold E. McGannon, 8th Edition,
vorable column curve compared with Pittsburgh, August 1964.
24. Desai, S., "Tension Testing Proce-
the column curves computed for a References dure," Lehigh University, Fritz Laboratory
welded built-up section made of Report No. 237.44, February 1969.
1. Rosenthal, D., "Mathematical Theory 25. Brozzetti, J., "Welding ,Parameters
flame-cut plates. of Heat Distribution During Welding and and Their Effect on Column Shrength,"
9. The number of passes and the Cutting," WELDING JOURNAL, 20(5), Welding M.S. Thesis, Lehigh University, 1969.
Research Suppl., 220-s (1941). 26. Nagaraja Rao, N. R., Lohrmann, M.,
speed of welding have almost no influ- 2. Mahla, E. M., Rowland, M. C., Shook, and Tall, L., "Effect ot Strain Rate on llie
ence on the column strength of weld- C. A., and Doan, G. H., "Heat Flow in Yield Stress ot Structural Steels," J ournaJ
ed built-up H-sections. Arc Welding," Ibid., 20(10) Welding Re- ot Materials, Vol. 1, No.1, ASTM, March
search Suppl., 459-s (1941). 1966.
10. The weld and part of the ad- 3. Boulton, N. S. and Lance Martin, H. 27. Ruge, J., "Transformations et Re-
E., "Residual Stresses in Arc-Welded actions Dans la Zone de Transformation
jacent heat-affected base metal, has a Plates," Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., London, Pendant Ie Soudage et L'Oxycoupage,"
significantly higher yield strength, and Vol. 133, p. 295, 1936. (Transformations and Reactions in the
4. Tall, L., "Residual Stresses in Welded Transformation Zone During Welding and
slightly higher ultimate strength, Plates-A Theoretical Study," WELDING Flame-Cutting), Soudage et Techniques
whereas the ductility properties of the JOURNAL, 43(1), Welding Research Suppl., Connexes, Vol. 21, No. lh, 1967.