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String functions / Operations in C

1) strlen() in C :
This function is used to determine the length of a given string.

Syntax :

variable=strlen(string);

The string length will be returned to the variable.

Sample Program

str_length.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30];
int l;
printf("Enter a string : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
l=strlen(a);
printf("\n Length of the Given String is : %d",l);

getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strlen() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. A char type array a[30] is declared.
6. User input for array a is received using scanf.
7. C in-built function strlen() is used to determine the length of the given string in
array a and the result is stored in variable l.
8. When variable l is printed the string length is displayed.

Output :

2) strcpy() in C :
This function copies the string from one variable to another variable.

Syntax :

strcpy(source_variable, destination_variable);

Sample Program

str_cpy.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],b[30];
printf("Enter a string : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
strcpy(b,a);
printf("Value of a : %s",a);
printf("\nValue of b : %s",b);
getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strcpy() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. Two array of type char a[30] and b[30] are declared.
6. User input is received and stored in the arrays a using scanf.
7. C in-built function strcpy() is used to copy the datas from array a to array b.
8. Now when the arrays a & b are displayed both displays identical values.

Output :

3) strncpy() in C :
This function also copies the string from one variable to another variable, but only
upto the specified length.

Syntax :

strncpy(destination, source, length);

Sample program :

strn_cpy.c
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],b[30];
printf("Enter a string : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
strncpy(b,a,3);
printf("Value of a : %s",a);
printf("\nValue of b : %s",b);
getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strncpy() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. Two array of type char, a[30] and b[30] are declared.
6. User input is received and stored in the arrays a using scanf.
7. C in-built function strncpy() is used copy the datas from array a to
array bupto a specified length. In this case it is 3.
8. Now when the array a & b are displayed array b will have data identical to
array a upto the length of 3.

Output :

4) strcmp() in C :
This function is used to compare two strings. They are case sensitive.

Syntax :

strcmp(string1,string2);

If both the strings are equal return value will be 0, else non_zero value will be
returned.

Sample program :

str_cmp.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],b[30];
int n;
printf("Enter string one : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
printf("Enter string two : ");
scanf("%s",&b);
n=strcmp(a,b);
if(n==0)
{
printf("Both the Strings are Equal");
}
else
{
printf("Strings are not Equal");
}
getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strcmp() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. Two array of type char a[30] and b[30] are declared.
6. User input is received and stored in the arrays a and b using scanf.
7. C in-built function strcmp() is used to compare the values in a & b and the
comparison result is returned to variable n.
8. A if condition is used to check whether the returned value in variable n is 0.
9. If it is 0 printf is used to display that both the strings are equal. If it is a non-
zero value again printf is used to display that the given strings are not
identical.

Output :

5) stricmp() in C :
This function is also used to compare two strings but they are not case sensitive.

Syntax :

stricmp(string1,string2);

Sample program :

stri_cmp.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],b[30];
int n;
printf("Enter string one : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
printf("Enter string two : ");
scanf("%s",&b);
n=stricmp(a,b);
if(n==0)
{
printf("Both the Strings are Equal");
}
else
{
printf("Strings are not Equal");
}
getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function stricmp() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. Two array of type char a[30] and b[30] are declared.
6. User input is received and stored in the arrays a and b using scanf.
7. C in-built function stricmp is used to compare the value in a & b without any
match case and the comparison result is returned to variable n.

Output :
6) strncmp() in C :
This function compares two strings only upto a specified length. They are case-
sensitive.

Syntax :

strncmp(string1,string2,length);

Sample program :

strn_cmp.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],b[30];
int n;
printf("Enter string one : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
printf("Enter string two : ");
scanf("%s",&b);
n=strncmp(a,b,3);
if(n==0)
{
printf("Both the Strings are Equal upto the first 3 characters");
}
else
{
printf("Strings are not Equal");
}
getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strncmp() comes
under it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. Two array of type char a[30] and b[30] are declared.
6. User input is received and stored in the arrays a and b using scanf.
7. C in-built function strncamp() is used to compare the values of a & b upto a
specified length (i.e. 3) and the comparison result is returned to variable n.
8. A if condition is used to check whether the returned value in variable n is 0.
9. If it is 0, printf is used to display that both the strings are equal. If it is a non-
zero value again printf is used to display that the given strings are not
identical.

Output :

7) strnicmp() in C :
This function also compares two strings upto a specified length, but not case-sensitive.

Syntax :

strnicmp(string1,stringn,length);

Sample program :

strni_cmp.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],b[30];
int n;
printf("Enter string one : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
printf("Enter string two : ");
scanf("%s",&b);
n=strnicmp(a,b,3);
if(n==0)
{
printf("Both the Strings are Equal upto the first 3 characters");
}
else
{
printf("Strings are not Equal");
}
getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strnicmp() comes
under it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. Two array of type char a[30] and b[30] are declared.
6. User input is received and stored in the arrays a and b using scanf.
7. C in-built function strnicmp() is used compare the values of a & b upto a
specified length without any match case and the comparison result is returned
to variable n.
8. A if condition is used to check whether the returned value in variable n is 0.
9. If it is 0, printf is used to display that both the strings are equal. If it is a non-
zero value again printf is used to display that the given strings are not
identical.

Output :
8) strlwr() in C :
This function converts uppercase characters to lowercase.

Syntax :

strlwr(string);

Sample program :

str_lwr.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30];
printf("Enter a string in uppercase : ");
scanf("%s",&a);

printf("RESULT : %s",strlwr(a));

getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strlwr() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. A char type array a[30] is declared.
6. User input for array a is received using scanf.
7. C in-built function strlwr() is used to display the given string in lower case.

Output :

9) strupr() in C :
This function converts lowercase characters to uppercase.

Syntax :

strupr(string);

Sample program :

str_upr.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30];
printf("Enter a string in lowercase : ");
scanf("%s",&a);

printf("RESULT : %s",strupr(a));

getch();
}
Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strupr() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. A char type array a[30] is declared.
6. User input for array a is received using scanf.
7. C in-built function strupr() is used to display the given string in upper case.

Output :

10) strdup() in C :
This function is used to duplicate a string to a pointer variable by allocating the
memory location of the string.

Syntax :

pointer=strdup(string);

Sample program :

str_dup.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],*b;
printf("Enter a string : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
b=strdup(a);
printf("Entered String in a : %s",a);
printf("\nDuplicated string : %s",b);

getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strdup() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. A char type array a and char type pointer variable *b are declared.
6. User Input for array a is received using scanf.
7. C in-built function strdup() is used to duplicate the datas in a to b.
8. Now when array and pointer variable *b are displayed, they both haveidentical
datas.

Output :

11) strcat() in C :
This function is used to join (concatenate) two strings.

Syntax :

strcat(string1,string2);
Sample program :

str_cat.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30],b[30],c[30];
printf("Enter string one : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
printf("Enter string two : ");
scanf("%s",&b);
strcat(a,b);

printf("Concatinated String : %s",a);

getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strcat() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. Two array of type char a[30] and b[30] are declared.
6. User Input is received and stored in the arrays a and b using scanf.
7. C in-built function strcat() is used to join the two strings(data) from array
variable a & b.
8. When the array a is printed the concatenated string is displayed.

Output :
13) strrev() in C :
This function is sued to reverse the characters in a given string.

Syntax :

strrev(string);

Sample program :

str_rev.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30];
printf("Enter string : ");
scanf("%s",&a);
strrev(a);

printf("Reversed String : %s",a);

getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strrev() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. A char type array a[30] is declared.
6. scanf is used to receive user input to array a.
7. Then C in-built function strrev() is used to receive the string in array a and the
same is displayed using printf.

Output :

14) strset() in C :
This function replaces all the characters of a string with a given symbol or character.

Syntax :

strset(string,symbol);

Sample program :

str_set.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30];
char b;

printf("Enter a string: ");


gets(a);
printf("Enter a symbol to replace the string : ");
scanf("%c",&b);

strset(a,b);
printf("After strset : %s",a);

getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strset() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. A char type array a[30] is declared.
6. A variable b of type char is declared.
7. gets() is used to receive user input for array a.
8. scanf is used to receive a character symbol to variable b.
9. C in-built function strset() is used to replace all the characters in array a with
symbol received in variable b.

Output :

15) strnset() in C :
This function also replaces the characters of a string with a given symbol but only to a
specified length.

strnset(string,symbol,n);
Sample program :

strn_set.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char a[30];
char b;

printf("Enter a string: ");


gets(a);
printf("Enter a symbol to replace the string : ");
scanf("%c",&b);

strnset(a,b,2);

printf("After strset : %s",a);

getch();
}

Program Algorithm / Explanation :

1. #include<stdio.h> header file is included because, the C in-built


statementprintf we used in this program comes under stdio.h header files.
2. #include<conio.h> is used because the C in-built function getch() comes under
conio.h header files.
3. string.h header file included because c in-built function strnset() comes under
it.
4. main() function is the place where C program execution begins.
5. A char type array a[30] is declared.
6. A variable b of type char is declared.
7. gets() is used to receive user input for array a.
8. scanf is used to receive a character symbol to variable b.
9. C in-built function strnset() is used to replace the character in array a with
symbol received in variable b upto a specified length. In this case it is 2.

Output :