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Chapter 2

AC to DC CONVERSION
(RECTIFIER)
Single-phase, half wave rectifier
Controlled
Free wheeling diode
Single-phase, full wave rectifier
Controlled
Continuous and discontinuous current mode
Three-phase rectifier
uncontrolled
controlled

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Rectifiers
DEFINITION: Converting AC (from
mains or other AC source) to DC power by
using power diodes or by controlling the
firing angles of thyristors/controllable
switches.

Basic block diagram

AC input DC output

Input can be single or multi-phase (e.g. 3-

phase).
Output can be made fixed or variable

Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive,

Battery charger,DC power supply, HVDC

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+
+
vs
vo
_
_

vs

t
2
vo
io

Output voltage (DC or average),

V
Vo = Vavg = 1 Vm sin(t )dt = m = 0.318Vm
2 0
Output voltage (rms),
2
1 Vm
Vo , RMS = (Vm sin(t )dt ) = = 0.5Vm
2 0 2

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Half-wave with R-L load
i

+
vR +
+ _
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

KVL : vs = v R + v L
di (t )
Vm sin(t ) = i (t ) R + L
dt
First order differential eqn. Solution :
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t )
i f : forced response; in natural response,
From diagram, forced response is :
Vm
i f (t ) = sin(t )
Z
where :
Z = R 2 + (L) 2
L
= tan 1
R

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Natural response is when source = 0,
di (t )
i (t ) R + L =0
dt
which results in :
in (t ) = Ae t ; = L R
Hence
Vm
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t ) = sin(t ) + Ae t
Z
A can be solved by realising inductor current
is zero before the diode starts conducting, i.e :
Vm
i ( 0) = sin(0 ) + Ae 0
Z
V V
A = m sin( ) = m sin( )
Z Z

Therefore the current is given as,

i (t ) =
Vm
Z
[
sin(t ) + sin( )e t ]
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R-L waveform

vs,
io

vo

vR

vL

0 2 t
3 4

Note :
v L is negative because the current is decreasing, i.e :
di
vL = L
dt
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Extinction angle
Note that the diode remains in forward biased
longer than radians (although the source is
negative during that duration)The point when
current reaches zero is whendiode turns OFF.
This point is known as theextinction angle, .

i( ) =
Vm
Z
[
sin( ) + sin( )e = 0 ]
which reduces to :
sin( ) + sin( )e = 0
can only be solved numerically.
Therefore, the diode conducts between 0 and

To summarise the rectfier with R - L load,

Vm
Z
[
sin(t ) + sin( )e t ]
i (t ) = for 0 t
0
otherwise
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RMS current, Power
The average (DC) current is :

1 2 1
Io = i (t ) dt = i (t )dt
2 0 2 0
The RMS current is :

1 2 2 1 2
I RMS = i (t ) dt = i (t )dt
2 0 2 0

POWER CALCULATION
Power absorbed by the load is :
Po = ( I RMS )2 R
Power Factor is computed from definition :
P
pf =
S
where P is the real power supplied by the source,
which equal to the power absorbed by the load.
S is the apparent power supplied by the
source, i.e
S = (Vs, RMS ).( I RMS )
P
pf =
(Vs,RMS ).(I RMS )
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Half wave rectifier, R-C Load

+ iD +
vs vo
_ _

Vm vs

/2 2 3 /2 3 4

Vmax vo
Vmin Vo
iD

Vm sin(t ) when diode is ON

vo =
V e (t ) / RC
when diode is OFF
v = Vm sin

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Operation

energised at t=0

Diode becomes forward biased as the

source become positive

When diode is ON the output is the same

as source voltage. C charges until Vm
After t=/2, C discharges into load (R).

voltage

from source.

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Estimation of
The slope of the functions are :
d (Vm sin t )
= Vm cos t
d (t )
and
(m
d V sin e (t ) / RC )
d (t )
1
= Vm sin e (t ) / RC
RC
At t = , the slopes are equal,
1
Vm cos = Vm sin e ( ) / RC
RC
Vm cos 1
=
Vm sin RC
1 1
=
tan RC
= tan 1 ( RC ) = tan 1 (RC ) +
For practical circuits, RC is large, then :

= -tan( ) + = + =
2 2
is very close to the peak of the sine wave. Therefore
and Vm sin = Vm
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Estimation of
At t = 2 + ,
Vm sin(2 + ) = (Vm sin )e ( 2 + ) RC
or
sin( (sin )e ( 2 + ) RC = 0
This equation must be solved numerically for

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Ripple Voltage
Max output voltage is Vmax .
Min output voltage occurs at t = 2 +
Vo = Vmax Vmin
= Vm Vm sin(2 + ) = Vm Vm sin
If V = Vm and = 2, and C is large such that
DC output voltage is constant, then 2.
The output voltage evaluated at t = 2 + is :
2 + 2 2 2

vo (2 + ) = Vm e RC = Vm e RC

The ripple voltage is approximated as :

2 2

Vo Vm Vm e RC = Vm 1 e RC

2
2
Using Series expansoin : e RC =1
RC
2 V
Vo = Vm = m
RC fRC

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Capacitor Current
The current in the capacitor can be expressed as :
dvo (t )
ic (t ) = C
d (t )
In terms of t , :
dvo (t )
ic (t ) = C
d (t )
But
Vm sin(t ) when diode is ON
vo (t ) =
Vm sin e (t ) / RC when diode is OFF

Then, substituting vo (t ),
CVm cos(t )
when diode is ON,
i.e (2 + ) t (2 + )

ic (t ) =
Vm sin (t ) / RC
e
R
when diode is OFF,
i.e ( ) t ( 2 + )
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Peak Diode Current
Note that :
is = iD = iR + iC
The peak diode current occurs at (2 + ). Hence.
I c, peak = CVm cos(2 + ) = CVm cos

Resistor current at (2 + ) can be obtained :

.
V sin (2 + ) Vm sin
iR (2 + ) = m =
R R
The diode peak current is :
V sin
iD, peak = CVm cos + m
R

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Example
A half-wave rectifier has a 120V rms source at 60Hz. The
load is =500 Ohm, C=100uF. Assume and are calculated
as 48 and 93 degrees respectively. Determine (a) Expression
for output voltage (b) peak-to peak ripple (c) capacitor
current (d) peak diode current.
vs
Vm

/2 2 3 /2 3 4

Vmax vo
Vmin Vo
iD

Vm = 120 2 = 169.7V ;
= 93o = 1.62rad ;
= 48o = 0.843rad
Vm sin = 169.7 sin(1.62rad ) = 169.5V ;

(a) Output voltage :

Vm sin(t ) = 169.7 sin(t ) (ON)
vo (t ) =
V sin e (t ) / RC
m (OFF)

169.7 sin(t ) (ON)

=
169.5e (t 1.62 ) /(18.85) (OFF)
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Example (cont)

(b)Ripple :
Using : Vo = Vmax Vmin
Vo = Vm Vm sin( 2 + ) = Vm Vm sin = 43V
Using Approximation :
2 V 169.7
Vo = Vm = m = = 56.7V
RC fRC 60 500 100u

(c) Capacitor current :

CVm cos(t ) (ON)
ic (t ) = Vm sin( ) (t ) /(RC )
e (OFF)
R

6.4 cos(t ) A (ON)

=
0.339 e (t 1.62 ) /(18.85) A (OFF)

(d) Peak diode current :

V sin
iD, peak = CVm cos + m
R
= (2 60)(100u )169.7 cos(0.843rad ) +
500
= (4.26 + 0.34) = 4.50 A

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Controlled half-wave
ig
vs
ia

+ t
+
vs vo
_ _ vo

t
v

ig

Average voltage : t

1 Vm
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = [1 + cos ]
2 2
RMS voltage
2
1
Vo, RMS = [Vm sin (t )] dt
2

Vm2 Vm sin (2 )
= [1 cos(2 t ] dt = 1 +
4 2 2

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Controlled h/w, R-L load
i

+
vR
+ +
_
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

vs

2 t

vo

io

t
Vm
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t ) = sin (t ) + Ae
Z
Initial condition : i ( ) = 0,

Vm
i( ) = 0 = sin ( ) + Ae
Z

Vm
A= sin ( ) e
Z
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Substituting for A and simplifying,
( t )
Vm
sin (t ) sin ( )e for t
i (t ) = Z

0 otherwise
Extinction angle must be solved numerically
( )
V
i ( ) = 0 = m sin ( ) sin ( )e
Z

Angle = ( ) is called the conduction angel.

Average voltage :

1 V
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = m [cos cos ]
2 2
Average current :

1
Io = i (t )d
2
RMS current :
1 2
I RMS = i (t )d
2
The power absorbed by the load :
Po = I RMS 2 R
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Examples
1. A half wave rectifier has a source of 120V RMS at 60Hz.
R=20 ohm, L=0.04H, and the delay angle is 45 degrees.
Determine: (a) the expression for i(t), (b) average
current, (c) the power absorbed by the load.

2. Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V

across a 100 ohm load from a 120V RMS, 60Hz supply.
Determine the power factor absorbed by the resistance.

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Freewheeling diode (FWD)
Note that for single-phase, half wave rectifier
with R-L load, the load (output) current is
NOT continuos.

A FWD (sometimes known as commutation

diode) can be placed as shown below to make
it continuos
io

+
vR
+ +
_
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

io io

vo = 0
+ vo = vs +
+
vs vo
vo io
_
_
_

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Operation of FWD
Note that both D1 and D2 cannot be turned
on at the same time.
For a positive cycle voltage source,
D1 is on, D2 is off
The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b)
The voltage across the R-L load is the same as
the source voltage.

For a negative cycle voltage source,

D1 is off, D2 is on
The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c)
The voltage across the R-L load is zero.
However, the inductor contains energy from
positive cycle. The load current still circulates
through the R-L path.
But in contrast with the normal half wave
rectifier, the circuit in Figure (c) does not
consist of supply voltage in its loop.
Hence the negative part of vo as shown in the
normal half-wave disappear.

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FWD- Continuous load current

The inclusion of FWD results in continuos

load current, as shown below.

negative part.

output vo

io
iD1 t
Diode
current
iD2

0 2 3 4

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Full wave rectifier

iD1
D1 D3 Center-tapped

io
is
(CT) rectifier
+
vs
+ requires
vo
_ _
center-tap
transformer.
D4
Full Bridge
Full Bridge D2
(FB) does not.
is iD1
D1
CT: 2 diodes
+ + vD1
vs1 FB: 4 diodes.
+ vo
_ + Hence, CT
vs
_ experienced
+ io
vs2 only one diode
_ + vD2 volt-drop per
iD2 D2
half-cycle
Center-tapped

For both circuits, Conduction

losses for CT
Vm sin t 0 t is half.
vo =
Vm sin t t 2
Average (DC) voltage : Diodes ratings
1 2Vm for CT is twice
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = = 0.637Vm than FB
0

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Bridge waveforms

iD1

io
D1 D3
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _
D4
Full Bridge D2

Vm vs

2 3 4
Vm
vo

vD1 vD2

-Vm
vD3 vD4
-Vm
io

iD1 iD2

iD3 iD4

is

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Center-tapped waveforms
is iD1 D1
+ + vD1
vs1
+ vo +
_
vs
_ + io
vs2
+ vD2
_
iD2 D2
Center-tapped
Vm vs

2 3 4
Vm
vo

vD1

-2Vm

vD2

-2Vm io

iD1
iD2

is

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Full wave bridge, R-L load
io

iD1
is +
+ vR +
vs _
_ + vo
vL _
_

vs

t
2
iD1 , iD2

iD3 ,iD4

io

vo

is

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Approximation with large L
Using Fourier Series,

vo (t ) = Vo + Vn cos(nt + )
n = 2, 4...
where the DC term
2Vm
Vo =

and the harmonics terms
2Vm 1 1
Vn =
n 1 n +1
The DC curent
Vo
Io =
R
The harmonic currents :
V Vn
In = n =
Z n R + jnL
As n increases, Vn harmonic decreases.
Thus I n decreases rapidly very increasing n.
If L is large enough, it is possible to drop all
the harmonic terms, i.e. :
V 2V
i (t ) I o = o = m , for L >> R,
R R
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Approximate current
V 2V
Io = o = m ,
R R
(
I RMS = I o 2 + I n, RMS 2 = I o )
Power delivered to the load :
Po = I RMS 2 R

vs

2 t

iD1 , iD2

iD3 ,iD4

io

vo

is

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Examples
Given a bridge rectifier has an AC source Vm=100V at
50Hz, and R-L load with R=100ohm, L=10mH
a) determine the average current in the load
b) determine the first two higher order harmonics of the
c) determine the power absorbed by the load

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Controlled full wave, R load

T1

iD1
T3

io
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _

T4 T2

Average (DC) voltage :

1 V
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = m [1 + cos ]

RMS Voltage
2
1
Vo, RMS = [Vm sin (t )] dt

1 sin (2 )
= Vm +
2 2 4
The power absorbed by the R load is :
VRMS 2
Po =
R
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Controlled, R-L load io

iD1
is +
vR
+ +
vs
_
_ vo
+
_
vL
_

io
+ 2

vo

Discontinuous mode
+
io
2

vo

Continuous mode

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Discontinuous mode
Analysis similar to controlled half wave with
R - L load :

i (t ) =
Vm
Z
[
sin(t ) sin( )e (t ) ]
for t
Z = R 2 + (L) 2
L L
and = tan 1 ; =
R R
For discontinous mode, need to ensure :
< ( + )
Note that is the extinction angle and
must be solved numerically with condition :
io ( ) = 0

The boundary between continous and

discontinous current mode is when in
the output current expression is ( + ).
For continous operation current at
t = ( + ) must be greater than zero.
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Continuous mode
i ( + ) 0
sin( + ) sin( + )e ( + ) 0
Using Trigonometry identity :
sin( + ) = sin( ),

[
sin( ) 1 e ( )
] 0,
Solving for

1 L
= tan
R
Thus for continuous current mode,
1 L
tan
R
Average (DC) output voltage is given as :

1 + 2V
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = m cos

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Single-phase diode groups
D1
io

D3 vp
+
vs +
_ vo
D4 _

D2 vn
vo =vp vn

In the top group (D1, D3), the cathodes (-) of the two
diodes are at a common potential. Therefore, the
diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will
conduct (carry) id.

For example, when vs is ( +), D1 conducts id and D3

reverses (by taking loop around vs, D1 and D3).
When vs is (-), D3 conducts, D1 reverses.

In the bottom group, the anodes of the two diodes

are at common potential. Therefore the diode with
its cathode at the lowest potential conducts id.

For example, when vs (+), D2 carry id. D4 reverses.

When vs is (-), D4 carry id. D2 reverses.

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Three-phase rectifiers
D1
+ van - io
D3

+ vbn - D5
n vpn
+
+ vcn - vo
D2 _

D6 vnn vo =vp vn

D4

van vbn vcn

Vm

vp
Vm

vn

vo =vp - vn

0 2 3 4
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Three-phase waveforms
Top group: diode with its anode at the
highest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at

the lowest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

For example, if D1 (of the top group)

conducts, vp is connected to van.. If D6 (of the
bottom group) conducts, vn connects to vbn .
All other diodes are off.

vo=vp-vn

For peak of the output voltage is equal to

the peak of the line to line voltage vab .

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Three-phase, average voltage
vo
vo

/3
Vm, L-L

0
/3 2/3

Considers only one of the six segments. Obtain

its average over 60 degrees or 3 radians.

Average voltage :
2 3
1
Vo = Vm, L L sin(t )dt
3 3
3Vm, L L
= [cos(t )]233

3Vm, L L
= = 0.955Vm, L L

Note that the output DC voltage component of
a three - phase rectifier is much higher than of a
single - phase.
Power Electronics and 39
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Controlled, three-phase
T1

+ van - io
T3

+ vbn -
T5 vpn
n
+
+ vcn - vo
T2 _

T6 vnn

T4

Vm

vo

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Output voltage of controlled
three phase rectifier
From the previous Figure, let be the
delay angle of the SCR.

Average voltage can be computed as :

2 3+
1
Vo = Vm, L L sin(t )dt
3 3+

3Vm, L L
= cos

EXAMPLE: A three-phase controlled rectifier has

an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50Hz. The load
R=10 ohm. Determine the delay angle required to
produce current of 50A.

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