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Chapter 2

AC to DC CONVERSION
(RECTIFIER)
Single-phase, half wave rectifier
Uncontrolled: R load, R-L load, R-C load
Controlled
Free wheeling diode
Single-phase, full wave rectifier
Uncontrolled: R load, R-L load,
Controlled
Continuous and discontinuous current mode
Three-phase rectifier
uncontrolled
controlled

Power Electronics and 1


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Rectifiers
DEFINITION: Converting AC (from
mains or other AC source) to DC power by
using power diodes or by controlling the
firing angles of thyristors/controllable
switches.

Basic block diagram

AC input DC output

Input can be single or multi-phase (e.g. 3-


phase).
Output can be made fixed or variable

Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive,


Battery charger,DC power supply, HVDC

Power Electronics and 2


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Single-phase, half-wave, R-load

+
+
vs
vo
_
_

vs

t
2
vo
io

Output voltage (DC or average),



V
Vo = Vavg = 1 Vm sin(t )dt = m = 0.318Vm
2 0
Output voltage (rms),
2
1 Vm
Vo , RMS = (Vm sin(t )dt ) = = 0.5Vm
2 0 2

Power Electronics and 3


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Half-wave with R-L load
i

+
vR +
+ _
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

KVL : vs = v R + v L
di (t )
Vm sin(t ) = i (t ) R + L
dt
First order differential eqn. Solution :
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t )
i f : forced response; in natural response,
From diagram, forced response is :
Vm
i f (t ) = sin(t )
Z
where :
Z = R 2 + (L) 2
L
= tan 1
R

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R-L load
Natural response is when source = 0,
di (t )
i (t ) R + L =0
dt
which results in :
in (t ) = Ae t ; = L R
Hence
Vm
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t ) = sin(t ) + Ae t
Z
A can be solved by realising inductor current
is zero before the diode starts conducting, i.e :
Vm
i ( 0) = sin(0 ) + Ae 0
Z
V V
A = m sin( ) = m sin( )
Z Z

Therefore the current is given as,

i (t ) =
Vm
Z
[
sin(t ) + sin( )e t ]
Power Electronics and 5
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R-L waveform

vs,
io


vo

vR

vL

0 2 t
3 4

Note :
v L is negative because the current is decreasing, i.e :
di
vL = L
dt
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Extinction angle
Note that the diode remains in forward biased
longer than radians (although the source is
negative during that duration)The point when
current reaches zero is whendiode turns OFF.
This point is known as theextinction angle, .

i( ) =
Vm
Z
[
sin( ) + sin( )e = 0 ]
which reduces to :
sin( ) + sin( )e = 0
can only be solved numerically.
Therefore, the diode conducts between 0 and

To summarise the rectfier with R - L load,


Vm
Z
[
sin(t ) + sin( )e t ]
i (t ) = for 0 t
0
otherwise
Power Electronics and 7
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RMS current, Power
The average (DC) current is :

1 2 1
Io = i (t ) dt = i (t )dt
2 0 2 0
The RMS current is :

1 2 2 1 2
I RMS = i (t ) dt = i (t )dt
2 0 2 0

POWER CALCULATION
Power absorbed by the load is :
Po = ( I RMS )2 R
Power Factor is computed from definition :
P
pf =
S
where P is the real power supplied by the source,
which equal to the power absorbed by the load.
S is the apparent power supplied by the
source, i.e
S = (Vs, RMS ).( I RMS )
P
pf =
(Vs,RMS ).(I RMS )
Power Electronics and 8
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Half wave rectifier, R-C Load

+ iD +
vs vo
_ _

Vm vs

/2 2 3 /2 3 4

Vmax vo
Vmin Vo
iD

Vm sin(t ) when diode is ON


vo =
V e (t ) / RC
when diode is OFF
v = Vm sin

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Operation

Let C initially uncharged. Circuit is


energised at t=0

Diode becomes forward biased as the


source become positive

When diode is ON the output is the same


as source voltage. C charges until Vm
After t=/2, C discharges into load (R).

The source becomes less than the output


voltage

Diode reverse biased; isolating the load


from source.

The output voltage decays exponentially.

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Estimation of
The slope of the functions are :
d (Vm sin t )
= Vm cos t
d (t )
and
(m
d V sin e (t ) / RC )
d (t )
1
= Vm sin e (t ) / RC
RC
At t = , the slopes are equal,
1
Vm cos = Vm sin e ( ) / RC
RC
Vm cos 1
=
Vm sin RC
1 1
=
tan RC
= tan 1 ( RC ) = tan 1 (RC ) +
For practical circuits, RC is large, then :

= -tan( ) + = + =
2 2
is very close to the peak of the sine wave. Therefore
and Vm sin = Vm
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Estimation of
At t = 2 + ,
Vm sin(2 + ) = (Vm sin )e ( 2 + ) RC
or
sin( (sin )e ( 2 + ) RC = 0
This equation must be solved numerically for

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Ripple Voltage
Max output voltage is Vmax .
Min output voltage occurs at t = 2 +
Vo = Vmax Vmin
= Vm Vm sin(2 + ) = Vm Vm sin
If V = Vm and = 2, and C is large such that
DC output voltage is constant, then 2.
The output voltage evaluated at t = 2 + is :
2 + 2 2 2

vo (2 + ) = Vm e RC = Vm e RC

The ripple voltage is approximated as :


2 2

Vo Vm Vm e RC = Vm 1 e RC

2
2
Using Series expansoin : e RC =1
RC
2 V
Vo = Vm = m
RC fRC

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Capacitor Current
The current in the capacitor can be expressed as :
dvo (t )
ic (t ) = C
d (t )
In terms of t , :
dvo (t )
ic (t ) = C
d (t )
But
Vm sin(t ) when diode is ON
vo (t ) =
Vm sin e (t ) / RC when diode is OFF

Then, substituting vo (t ),
CVm cos(t )
when diode is ON,
i.e (2 + ) t (2 + )

ic (t ) =
Vm sin (t ) / RC
e
R
when diode is OFF,
i.e ( ) t ( 2 + )
Power Electronics and 14
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Peak Diode Current
Note that :
is = iD = iR + iC
The peak diode current occurs at (2 + ). Hence.
I c, peak = CVm cos(2 + ) = CVm cos

Resistor current at (2 + ) can be obtained :


.
V sin (2 + ) Vm sin
iR (2 + ) = m =
R R
The diode peak current is :
V sin
iD, peak = CVm cos + m
R

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Example
A half-wave rectifier has a 120V rms source at 60Hz. The
load is =500 Ohm, C=100uF. Assume and are calculated
as 48 and 93 degrees respectively. Determine (a) Expression
for output voltage (b) peak-to peak ripple (c) capacitor
current (d) peak diode current.
vs
Vm

/2 2 3 /2 3 4

Vmax vo
Vmin Vo
iD


Vm = 120 2 = 169.7V ;
= 93o = 1.62rad ;
= 48o = 0.843rad
Vm sin = 169.7 sin(1.62rad ) = 169.5V ;

(a) Output voltage :


Vm sin(t ) = 169.7 sin(t ) (ON)
vo (t ) =
V sin e (t ) / RC
m (OFF)

169.7 sin(t ) (ON)


=
169.5e (t 1.62 ) /(18.85) (OFF)
Power Electronics and 16
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Example (cont)

(b)Ripple :
Using : Vo = Vmax Vmin
Vo = Vm Vm sin( 2 + ) = Vm Vm sin = 43V
Using Approximation :
2 V 169.7
Vo = Vm = m = = 56.7V
RC fRC 60 500 100u

(c) Capacitor current :


CVm cos(t ) (ON)
ic (t ) = Vm sin( ) (t ) /(RC )
e (OFF)
R

6.4 cos(t ) A (ON)


=
0.339 e (t 1.62 ) /(18.85) A (OFF)

(d) Peak diode current :


V sin
iD, peak = CVm cos + m
R
169.7 sin(1.62rad )
= (2 60)(100u )169.7 cos(0.843rad ) +
500
= (4.26 + 0.34) = 4.50 A

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Controlled half-wave
ig
vs
ia

+ t
+
vs vo
_ _ vo

t
v

ig


Average voltage : t

1 Vm
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = [1 + cos ]
2 2
RMS voltage
2
1
Vo, RMS = [Vm sin (t )] dt
2

Vm2 Vm sin (2 )
= [1 cos(2 t ] dt = 1 +
4 2 2

Power Electronics and 18


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Controlled h/w, R-L load
i

+
vR
+ +
_
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

vs

2 t

vo

io

t
Vm
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t ) = sin (t ) + Ae
Z
Initial condition : i ( ) = 0,

Vm
i( ) = 0 = sin ( ) + Ae
Z

Vm
A= sin ( ) e
Z
Power Electronics and 19
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Controlled R-L load
Substituting for A and simplifying,
( t )
Vm
sin (t ) sin ( )e for t
i (t ) = Z

0 otherwise
Extinction angle must be solved numerically
( )
V
i ( ) = 0 = m sin ( ) sin ( )e
Z

Angle = ( ) is called the conduction angel.

Average voltage :

1 V
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = m [cos cos ]
2 2
Average current :

1
Io = i (t )d
2
RMS current :
1 2
I RMS = i (t )d
2
The power absorbed by the load :
Po = I RMS 2 R
Power Electronics and 20
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Examples
1. A half wave rectifier has a source of 120V RMS at 60Hz.
R=20 ohm, L=0.04H, and the delay angle is 45 degrees.
Determine: (a) the expression for i(t), (b) average
current, (c) the power absorbed by the load.

2. Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V


across a 100 ohm load from a 120V RMS, 60Hz supply.
Determine the power factor absorbed by the resistance.

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Freewheeling diode (FWD)
Note that for single-phase, half wave rectifier
with R-L load, the load (output) current is
NOT continuos.

A FWD (sometimes known as commutation


diode) can be placed as shown below to make
it continuos
io

+
vR
+ +
_
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

io io

vo = 0
+ vo = vs +
+
vs vo
vo io
_
_
_

D1 is on, D2 is off D2 is on, D1 is off

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Operation of FWD
Note that both D1 and D2 cannot be turned
on at the same time.
For a positive cycle voltage source,
D1 is on, D2 is off
The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b)
The voltage across the R-L load is the same as
the source voltage.

For a negative cycle voltage source,


D1 is off, D2 is on
The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c)
The voltage across the R-L load is zero.
However, the inductor contains energy from
positive cycle. The load current still circulates
through the R-L path.
But in contrast with the normal half wave
rectifier, the circuit in Figure (c) does not
consist of supply voltage in its loop.
Hence the negative part of vo as shown in the
normal half-wave disappear.

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FWD- Continuous load current

The inclusion of FWD results in continuos


load current, as shown below.

Note also the output voltage has no


negative part.

output vo

io
iD1 t
Diode
current
iD2

0 2 3 4

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Full wave rectifier

iD1
D1 D3 Center-tapped

io
is
(CT) rectifier
+
vs
+ requires
vo
_ _
center-tap
transformer.
D4
Full Bridge
Full Bridge D2
(FB) does not.
is iD1
D1
CT: 2 diodes
+ + vD1
vs1 FB: 4 diodes.
+ vo
_ + Hence, CT
vs
_ experienced
+ io
vs2 only one diode
_ + vD2 volt-drop per
iD2 D2
half-cycle
Center-tapped

For both circuits, Conduction


losses for CT
Vm sin t 0 t is half.
vo =
Vm sin t t 2
Average (DC) voltage : Diodes ratings
1 2Vm for CT is twice
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = = 0.637Vm than FB
0

Power Electronics and 25
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Bridge waveforms

iD1

io
D1 D3
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _
D4
Full Bridge D2

Vm vs

2 3 4
Vm
vo

vD1 vD2

-Vm
vD3 vD4
-Vm
io

iD1 iD2

iD3 iD4

is

Power Electronics and 26


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Center-tapped waveforms
is iD1 D1
+ + vD1
vs1
+ vo +
_
vs
_ + io
vs2
+ vD2
_
iD2 D2
Center-tapped
Vm vs

2 3 4
Vm
vo

vD1

-2Vm

vD2

-2Vm io

iD1
iD2

is

Power Electronics and 27


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Full wave bridge, R-L load
io

iD1
is +
+ vR +
vs _
_ + vo
vL _
_

vs

t
2
iD1 , iD2

iD3 ,iD4

io

vo

is

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Approximation with large L
Using Fourier Series,

vo (t ) = Vo + Vn cos(nt + )
n = 2, 4...
where the DC term
2Vm
Vo =

and the harmonics terms
2Vm 1 1
Vn =
n 1 n +1
The DC curent
Vo
Io =
R
The harmonic currents :
V Vn
In = n =
Z n R + jnL
As n increases, Vn harmonic decreases.
Thus I n decreases rapidly very increasing n.
If L is large enough, it is possible to drop all
the harmonic terms, i.e. :
V 2V
i (t ) I o = o = m , for L >> R,
R R
Power Electronics and 29
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R-L load approximation
Approximate current
V 2V
Io = o = m ,
R R
(
I RMS = I o 2 + I n, RMS 2 = I o )
Power delivered to the load :
Po = I RMS 2 R

vs

2 t

iD1 , iD2

iD3 ,iD4

io

vo

is

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Examples
Given a bridge rectifier has an AC source Vm=100V at
50Hz, and R-L load with R=100ohm, L=10mH
a) determine the average current in the load
b) determine the first two higher order harmonics of the
load current
c) determine the power absorbed by the load

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Controlled full wave, R load

T1

iD1
T3

io
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _

T4 T2

Average (DC) voltage :


1 V
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = m [1 + cos ]

RMS Voltage
2
1
Vo, RMS = [Vm sin (t )] dt

1 sin (2 )
= Vm +
2 2 4
The power absorbed by the R load is :
VRMS 2
Po =
R
Power Electronics and 32
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Controlled, R-L load io

iD1
is +
vR
+ +
vs
_
_ vo
+
_
vL
_

io
+ 2

vo

Discontinuous mode
+
io
2

vo

Continuous mode

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Discontinuous mode
Analysis similar to controlled half wave with
R - L load :

i (t ) =
Vm
Z
[
sin(t ) sin( )e (t ) ]
for t
Z = R 2 + (L) 2
L L
and = tan 1 ; =
R R
For discontinous mode, need to ensure :
< ( + )
Note that is the extinction angle and
must be solved numerically with condition :
io ( ) = 0

The boundary between continous and


discontinous current mode is when in
the output current expression is ( + ).
For continous operation current at
t = ( + ) must be greater than zero.
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Continuous mode
i ( + ) 0
sin( + ) sin( + )e ( + ) 0
Using Trigonometry identity :
sin( + ) = sin( ),

[
sin( ) 1 e ( )
] 0,
Solving for

1 L
= tan
R
Thus for continuous current mode,
1 L
tan
R
Average (DC) output voltage is given as :

1 + 2V
Vo = Vm sin (t )dt = m cos

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Single-phase diode groups
D1
io

D3 vp
+
vs +
_ vo
D4 _

D2 vn
vo =vp vn

In the top group (D1, D3), the cathodes (-) of the two
diodes are at a common potential. Therefore, the
diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will
conduct (carry) id.

For example, when vs is ( +), D1 conducts id and D3


reverses (by taking loop around vs, D1 and D3).
When vs is (-), D3 conducts, D1 reverses.

In the bottom group, the anodes of the two diodes


are at common potential. Therefore the diode with
its cathode at the lowest potential conducts id.

For example, when vs (+), D2 carry id. D4 reverses.


When vs is (-), D4 carry id. D2 reverses.

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Three-phase rectifiers
D1
+ van - io
D3

+ vbn - D5
n vpn
+
+ vcn - vo
D2 _

D6 vnn vo =vp vn

D4

van vbn vcn


Vm

vp
Vm

vn

vo =vp - vn

0 2 3 4
Power Electronics and 37
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Three-phase waveforms
Top group: diode with its anode at the
highest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at


the lowest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

For example, if D1 (of the top group)


conducts, vp is connected to van.. If D6 (of the
bottom group) conducts, vn connects to vbn .
All other diodes are off.

The resulting output waveform is given as:


vo=vp-vn

For peak of the output voltage is equal to


the peak of the line to line voltage vab .

Power Electronics and 38


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Three-phase, average voltage
vo
vo

/3
Vm, L-L

0
/3 2/3

Considers only one of the six segments. Obtain


its average over 60 degrees or 3 radians.

Average voltage :
2 3
1
Vo = Vm, L L sin(t )dt
3 3
3Vm, L L
= [cos(t )]233

3Vm, L L
= = 0.955Vm, L L

Note that the output DC voltage component of
a three - phase rectifier is much higher than of a
single - phase.
Power Electronics and 39
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Controlled, three-phase
T1

+ van - io
T3

+ vbn -
T5 vpn
n
+
+ vcn - vo
T2 _

T6 vnn

T4

van vbn vcn


Vm

vo

Power Electronics and 40


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Output voltage of controlled
three phase rectifier
From the previous Figure, let be the
delay angle of the SCR.

Average voltage can be computed as :


2 3+
1
Vo = Vm, L L sin(t )dt
3 3+

3Vm, L L
= cos

EXAMPLE: A three-phase controlled rectifier has


an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50Hz. The load
R=10 ohm. Determine the delay angle required to
produce current of 50A.

Power Electronics and 41


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