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# This experiment was running to determine the relationship between the heat conduction

trough the material and the thermal conductivity, k of the substance. Conduction is heat transfer
by means of molecular agitation within a material without any motion of the material as a whole.
If one end of a metal rod is at a higher temperature, then energy will be transferred down the rod
toward the colder end because the higher speed particles will collide with the slower ones with a
net transfer of energy to the slower ones. While, thermal conductivity, k is the property of a
material to conduct heat. It is evaluated primarily in terms of Fourier's Law for heat conduction.

Chart Title
100

90 y = -753.67x + 98.672
R = 0.95
80
y = -551x + 79.817
R = 0.9697
70 y = -389x + 64.161
R = 0.9455 10 W
60
Axis Title

15 W
50
20 W
40 Linear (10 W)

30 Linear (15 W)
Linear (20 W)
20

10

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Axis Title

Figure 1.1

The first graph 1.1 from the experiment that plotted of the temperature ,T versus length ,x
show the heat transfer through the brass conductor. The heat transfer through the conduction of
the cylinder metal is inversely propotional to the length of the conductor. The heat was supplied
at the end of the cylinder near the T1 point with the higher reading of the temperature and
transferred through the molecules of the conductor to the other end of the cylinder near the point
T9 which at the lowest temperature reading. The thermal energy was transferred by the collisions
of the molecules with the nearest molecules with the temperature different as the driving force.
The molecules at T1 gain the energy in the form of heat from the power supply and the
molecules start to vibrates and collides with the nearest molecules to transfer the energy in form
of heat. Energy or heat was transferred through the collision from one molecule to another and it
was continuosly transferred to the nearest molecule until the heat was transferred to the molecule
at point T9 which at the lowest temperature. Energetic molecule will lose energy in the transfer
process, and the lower energy will received the energy.

The heat conduction eqution can be use to calculate the thermal conductivity of the metal. The
equation comes out from the Foriours Law equation which is for the cylinder metal. The thermal
conductivity was calculated for the three different power which is 10W,15W and 20W. The
thermal conductivity for q=10W is 4.0914W/C.m2 , q=15W is 4.3327 W/c.m2 and q=20W is
4.2085w/c.m2 . The thermal conductivity ,k of the bar was little bit different because of the error
that occur during the experiment.

Chart Title
80

70
y = -3440x + 171
R = 1
60
y = -2820x + 144.9
50 R = 1 paper
Axis Title

## y = -2050x + 113.6 cork

40
R = 1 blank
30 Linear (paper)
Linear (cork)
20
Linear (blank)
10

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Axis Title
Figure 1.2

From the graph 1.2, the thermal conductivity, k of the different substance which is paper and
cork was calculated using the Fourier,s Law of heat conduction. The thermal conductity, k of the
paper is 0.002980857W/C.M2 and the cork is 0.036115588W/C.M2. The thermal conductivity is
different for every subsatance and this thermal conductivity is one of the factor that affecting the
rate of heat transfer through the substance. The kind of material or substance being used in
thermal conductivity can affect the rate of energy flowing between the two regions. From the
result of the experiment, cork has higher thermal conductivity than the paper. The greater the
conductivity of the material, the faster the energy flows. According to the Physics
Hypertextbook, the material with the greatest conductivity is helium II, a superfluid form of
liquid helium, which exists only at very low temperatures. Other materials with high
conductivity are diamonds, graphite, silver, copper and gold. Liquids have low conductivity
levels and gases even lower.

As conclusion, the heat transfer rate through conduction is inversely propotional to the length of
the substance. The higher the thermal conductity , k of the substance the faster the heat transfer
rate through the substance.

http://www.ehow.com/list_6968113_factors-affecting-thermal-conductivity.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/heatra.html