You are on page 1of 21




Group members :

1) Siti Hajar Mohamed (55213114225)

2) Wan Azlin Shakirah bt Wan Mohd Yusof (55213114198)
3) Syarafina Ajdrina bt Zulkipli (55213114301)
4) Tuan Nur Ayunie bt Tuan Rozam Shah ( 55213114240)

Lecturers name : En. Azahari bin Hamzah



1 Objectives 3

2 Section 1: Executive Summary 4

3 Section 2 : Introduction 5-8

4 Section 3 : Tube Bank Analysis 9

5 Section 4 : Shell and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 10-12

6 Section 5 : Product Quality Assurance 13-14

7 Section 6 : Cost Estimation 15-17

9 References 18

10 Appendices 19-21


The main purpose in constructing and designing a heat exchanger is to implement all the
knowledge about factors that influence heat exchanger. Besides, by designing a heat
exchanger, we learn how to manipulate the parameter in order to minimize the weight, the
cost, pressure drop and obtain most efficiency heat exchanger for the needed process.
Furthermore, through this assignment, we are able to observe and decide which type of heat
exchanger is suitable to be used in desired industry.


The main purpose in designing a heat exchanger is to implement all the knowledge
about factors that influence heat exchange and to manipulate the parameter in order to
minimize the overall heat transfer coefficient, number of tubes bank, area of shell, cost,
product assurance and efficiency heat exchanger for the process where we can able to observe
and decide which type of heat exchanger is suitable to be used in desired industry which is
important to reduce the cost for additional heating and cooling. In our design, basic structure
of a shell and tube heat exchanger is a shell with a bundle of tubes inside it and the flow type
is counter flow. The basic concept of a heat exchanger is based on the concept that the loss of
heat on the high temperature side is exactly the same as the heat gained in the low
temperature side after the heat and mass flows through the heat exchanger. The process
involves two streams, which is the hot and cold stream. The cold stream (water) with
temperature inlet and outlet 25C and 65.88C, respectively while hot stream (engine oil)
with temperature inlet and outlet 150C and 100C, respectively where the heat is exchange
between two fluids facilitate by heat exchanger where the fluid in the heat exchanger are at
different temperature and do not mix with each other and without using the cooler and heater
to heat up and cooled down fluid. It can be done by transferring heat from one stream to
another by using heat exchanger. Selection and sizing of heat exchanger in our design is
selected according few factors which is selection of tube and shell material, the diameter of
tube use, the type of flow and the condition of baffles used.


The technology of heating and cooling of systems is one of the most basic areas of
mechanical engineering. Wherever steam is used, or wherever hot or cold fluids are required
we will find a heat exchanger. They are used to heat and cool homes, offices, markets,
shopping malls, cars, trucks, trailers, aero-planes, and other transportation systems. They are
used to process foods, paper, petroleum, and in many other industrial processes. They are
found in superconductors, fusion power labs, space-crafts, and advanced computer systems.
The list of applications, in both low and high tech industries, is practically endless. In our
basic study of thermodynamics and heat transfer, we studied the form of the control volume
energy balance and its application too many engineering problems, including to a basic heat
exchanger problem. In this module, we will extend heat exchanger analysis to include the
convection rate equation, and demonstrate the methodology for predicting heat exchanger
performance that include both design and performance rating problems. Heat exchangers are
typically classified according to flow arrangement and type of construction. In this
introductory treatment, we will consider three types that are representative of a wide variety
of exchangers used in industrial practice. The simplest heat exchanger is one for which the
hot and cold fluids flow in the same or opposite directions in a concentric-tube (or double-
pipe) construction. In the parallel-flow arrangement of Figure 1.1a, the hot and cold fluids
enter at the same end, flow in the same direction, and leave at the same end. In the counter-
flow arrangement, Figure 1.1b, the fluids enter at opposite ends, flow in opposite directions,
and leave at opposite ends. A common configuration for power plant and large industrial
applications is the shell-and-tube heat exchanger, shown in Figure 1.1(c). This exchanger has
one shell with multiple tubes, but the flow makes one pass through the shell. Baffles are
usually installed to increase the convection coefficient of the shell side by inducing
turbulence and a cross-flow velocity component. The cross-flow heat exchanger, Figure 1.1d,
is constructed with a stack of thin plates bonded to a series of parallel tubes. The plates
function as fins to enhance convection heat transfer and to ensure cross-flow over the tubes.
Usually it is a gas that flows over the fin surfaces and the tubes, while a liquid flows in the
tube. Such exchangers are used for air-conditioner and refrigeration heat rejection
applications. (Heat exchanger)

Figure 1.1 Types of heat exchangers (a) concentric-tube parallel-flow; (b)
concentric-tube counter-flow; (c) shell-and-tube; and (d) cross flow.

The list of products of heat exchanger are shell and tube heat exchangers are most
commonly used in heating or cooling process fluids and gases. Typically found in
applications where a need to heat or cool large volumes exist; however small volume
applications are also very common. Brazed plate heat exchangers are a popular option with
their compact size and high efficiency design. They are composed of a number of plate
elements, each of which comprises two thin nested plates, the elements defining flow spaces
between them, with adjacent elements being joined around their periphery by brazing bent
edge portions. The Mueller Accu-Therm plate heat exchanger is a compact heat exchanger
consisting of embossed heat transfer plates with perimeter gaskets to contain pressure and
control the flow of each medium. The gasketed plates are assembled in a pack, mounted on
upper and lower guide rails, and compressed between two end frames with compression
bolts. ooling tower is a heat rejection device that transfers waste heat from a process to the
atmosphere though the cooling of the recirculated water. The type of heat rejection is
commonly termed "evaporative cooling" in that the process heat energy is absorbed by the
evaporation of a small portion of the circulated flow there by reducing the temperature of
remaining water for reuse. Cooling towers can commonly provide lower water temperatures
than are attainable with "air cooled" or "dry" heat rejection devices. (Product of heat


In almost any chemical, electronic, or mechanical system, heat must be transferred from one
place to another or from one fluid to another. Heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from
one fluid to another. a basic understanding of the mechanical components of a heat exchanger
is important to understand how they function and operate. a heat exchanger is a component
that allows the transfer of heat from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another fluid. reasons for heat
transfer include the following, which is, to heat a cooler fluid by means of a hotter fluid,
reduce the temperature of a hot fluid by means of a cooler fluid, to boil a liquid by means
hotter fluid, to condense a gaseous fluid by means of a cooler fluid, and boil a liquid while
condensing a hotter gaseous fluid. Regardless of the function the heat exchanger fulfils, in
order to transfer heat the fluids involved must be at different temperatures and they must
come into thermal contact. heat can flow only from the hotter to the cooler fluid. in a heat
exchanger there is no direct contact between two fluids. The heat is transferred from the hot
fluid to the metal isolating the two fluids and then to the cooler fluid.

3.1 Introduction

Before going through the design process, it is important to identify the properties and
parameters of the heat exchange process inside the heat exchanger equipment. The
parameters of the process will affect the design of the heat exchanger. Properties that must be
considered is including the pressure, inlet and outlet temperature of cold stream, inlet and
outlet temperature of hot stream, flow rate, etc.

Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. One set of these tubes contains
the fluid that must either be heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are
being heated or cooled so that it can either provide or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes
is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes; plain, longitudinally
finned, etc. Shell and tube heat exchangers are typically used for high-pressure applications
(with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260 degrees Celsius). This
is because shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape. There are several
thermal design features that must be taken into account when designing the tubes in the shell
and tube heat exchangers. In the heat exchanger, the process that occurred is the heat transfer
from the stream of ethanol, acetaldehyde and hydrogen mixture to the stream of ethanol

vapour. There are no chemical reaction involved in the heat exchanger, hence the inlet and
outlet component is not change.

In designing heat exchanger, the characteristics that should be determined from manual
calculation is the tube count, heat transfer area, outer and inner diameter of tube, tube pitch,
etc. There is several calculations that should be made to determine the heat balance and log
mean temperature difference inside the heat exchanger in order to obtain the exact design of
the heat exchanger.

Before the designation process, some characteristics of the heat exchanger will be
assumed based on the theoretical concept. It is including the type of the heat exchanger,
number of tube and shell passes and the overall heat transfer coefficient. The assumption will
be used to determine the design of the heat exchanger. The assumptions made for the heat
exchanger design are:-

Heat exchanger used is shell and tube

Number of tube pass = 6
Number of shell pass = 1


Tube Bank

in = 35 kg/s
Tin = 150 C / 423 K
Pin = 5.5 bar / 550 kPa
Outlet Diameter (OD) = 0.019 m
Inner Diameter (ID) = 0.015 m
Length of tube (L) = 1.6 m
Heat transfer area per tube = L ID = 0.0754 m2
1. QC = QH
QH = Cp (T) = (35 kg/s) (2441 J/kg.K) (50)K = 4271750 J/s
2. Velocity
V = (35 kg/s)/(825.88 kg/m3 X 0.0754 m2 X 6)
= 0.0937 m/s
3. Reynolds number
Re = (825.88 kg/m3 X 0.0937 m/s X 0.,015 m2)/(0.009357 kg/m.s)
= 124.054
4. Nusselts number (In-Line)
Nu = 0.9 (124.054)0.4 (59.9)0.36 (59.9/98.31)0.25
= 23.865

5. Heat Transfer Coefficient (in line)

h = (Nu.k)/D = (47.85 X 0.1367W/m.K)/0.015 m2 = 436.073


in = 23 kg/s
Tin = 25 C / 298 K
Pin = 9 bar / 900 kPa
Tout,c = 338.88K/ 65.88C
Tout,h = 373K/ 100C
Tin,c = 298K/ 25C
Tin,h = 423K/ 150C
Outlet Diameter (OD) = 0.75 m
Inner Diameter (ID) = 0.55 m
Length of shell (L) = 3 m
Area = X 0.55m X 3m = 5.1836m2

1. To find CC
QC = QH = Cp (T
4271750 J/s = (25 kg/s) (4180 J/kg.K) (Tout,c 298)K
Tout,c = 338.88K/ 65.88C
2. Tavg
Tavg = (65.88 + 25)/2 = 45.44K

3. Velocity
V = Q/A
Q = / = (25 kg/s)/(989.92m3/kg) = 0.0232 m3/s
V = (0.0232 m3/s)/( 5.1836m2) = 4.4757X10-3
4. Density, (interpolation)
(5) (988.1 x) = (4.56) (-2)
4940.5 5x = -9.12
x = 989.92 kg/m3

5. Vmax
Vmax = [ (0.0213)/(0.0213-0.019) ] (4.4757X10-3)

= 0.04145m/s
6. Dinamic viscocity,(interpolation)
(5) (0.547X10-3 x) = (4.56) (-4.9X10-5)
2.735X10-3 5x = -2.2344X10-4
x = 0.5917X10-5 kg/s.m
7. Reynolds number
Re = [(989.92 kg/m3) (0.04145m/s) (0.55m2)] / 0. 5917X10-5 kg/s.m
= 38141.218 (laminar)
8. Prandtl number, Prs (interpolation)
(5) (3.55 x) = (4.56) (-0.36)
17.75 5x = -1.6416
x = 3.878
9. Nusselts number, Nu
Nu = (0.27) (38141.218)0.63 (3.878)0.36 (3.878/6.14)0.25
= 301.7544
10. Thermal conductivity,k (interpolation)
(5) (0.644 x) = (4.56) (7X10-3)
3.23 5x = 0.03192
x = 0.6376
11. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
1/U = 1/hshell + 1/htube
= 1/ 349.8156 + 1/213.6713
U = 132.65 W/m.C
12. (T)LM
1 = Tin,h Tout,c
= 423 338.88
= 84.12
2 = Tout,h Tin,c
= 373 298
(T)LM = (84.12 75)/ ln (84.12/75)
= 79.473

13. Correction factor from graph

P = (Tout,h Tin,h)/(Tin,c Tin,h)
= (373.15 423.15)/(323.15 423.15)
= 0.4
R = (Tin,c Tout,c)/(Tout,h Tin,h)
= (298.15 339.03)/(373.15 423.15)
From the graph, the value for correction factor is 0.95

14. Overall area, AS

As = Q/ (U F (T)LM)
= 4271750 W/(132.65 W/m2.K X 0.95 X 79.473)
=426.536 m2
15. Number of Tubes
No. Of tube = Ashell / Atube
= 5.1836/ 0.0754
= 69 tubes


In developing products and services, quality assurance is any systematic process of

checking to see whether a product being developed is meeting specified requirements. A
quality assurance systems is said to increase customer confidence and a companys
credibility, to improve work processes and efficiency, and to enable a company to a better
compete with others. Quality assurance is the way of preventing defects in manufactured of
products and avoiding problems when delivering a service to customers. Quality assurance
refers to administrative and also procedural activities implemented in a quality systems so
that requirements and goal for a product, service or activity will be fulfilled. There are a few
selection that should be taken such :

1) Selection of tube and shell material

To be able to transfer heat well, the tube material should have a good thermal
conductivity. Because heat is transferred from a hot to a cold side through the tubes,
there is a temperature difference through the width of the tubes. Because of the
tendency of the tube material to thermally expand differently at various temperatures,
thermal stresses occur during operation. This is in addiction to any stress from high
pressure from the fluid themselves. The tube material also should be compatible with
both shell and tube side fluids for long periods under the operating conditions to
minimize deterioration such corrosion. So, the type of shell and tube that had been
designed is brass which good in selection of strong, thermally conductive, corrosion
resistant, high quality tube materials and minimize corrosion.

2) Tube diameter
Using a small tube diameter makes the heat exchanger both economical and compact.
However, it is more likely for the heat exchanger to foul up faster and the small size
makes mechanical cleaning of the fouling difficult. To prevail over the fouling and
cleaning problems, larger tubes diameter must be used. So, we decided to use the
diameter inlet and diameter outlet for the tube is 0.015m and 0.019m.

3) Type of flow
For this design problem, we choose counter flow. Both fluids flow in opposite
directions, and are used for liquid-liquid, condensing and gas cooling applications.
Units are usually mounted vertically when condensing vapour and mounted
horizontally when handling high concentrations of solids.

4) Baffles
Baffles are used in shell and tube heat exchangers to direct fluid across the tube
bundle. They run perpendicularly to the shell and hold the bundle, preventing the
tubes from sagging over a long length. They can also prevent the tubes from vibrating.
The most common type of baffle is the segmental baffle. Baffle spacing is of large
thermodynamic concern when designing shell and tube heat exchangers. Baffles must
be spaced with consideration for the conversion of pressure drop and heat transfer.
For thermo economic optimization, it is suggested that the baffles be spaced no closer
than 25 % of the shells inner diameter which it is double segmental baffles. Having
baffles spaced too closely causes a greater pressure drop because of flow redirection.
Consequently having the baffles spaced too far apart means that there may be cooler
spots in the corners between baffles. It is also important to ensure the baffles are
spaced close enough that the tubes do not sag.


1 : Purchase cost for shell tube Heat Exchanger

Determined by size factor , A ( ft2 ) and the type of tube sheet is fixed head and the
purchase cost is 19 000 USD

2 : Purchase cost


2.1 : Pressure factor

FP = 0.9803 + 0.018 ( P / 100 ) + 0.0017 ( P2 / 100 )2

PT = 9 bars + 5.5 bars

= 14.5 bars

1 bars = 14.504 psia

14.5 bars = 210.30472 psia

= 0.9803 + ( 0.018 )( 210.30472 / 100 ) + ( 0.0017 )( 210.30472 / 100 )2

= 1.02572

2.2 : Tube length correction factor

Overall length = 3m

3m = 9.8 ft

Interpolation for FL

Tube length of 8 ft = 1.25 and 12 ft = 1.12

( 12 8 )( 1.12 ) = ( 12 9.8 )( 1.12 1.25 )

X = 1.1915

2.3 : Fixed head

CB = exp { 11.0545 0.9228 ln [A] + 0.09861 ln [ A ]2

= exp { 11.0545 0.9228 ln ( 426.536 m2 ) + 0.09861 ln ( 426.536 m2 ) }

= 24.68

2.4 : Materials of construction factors , FM for shell tube heat exchanger

FM = a + ( A / 100 )b

For carbon steel / brass :

a = 1.08

b = 0.05

FM = ( 1.08 ) + ( 426.536 / 100 )0.05

= 2.155


= ( 2.155 )(1.02572 )(24.68 )(1.1915 )

= 65.00

Cost estimation :

CP * Purchase cost

= 65.00 * 19,000 USD

= 1,235,000 USD

1 USD = 4.34 MYR

= RM 5,359,900


1. Arthur H. Tuthill. The Right Metal for Heat Exchanger Tubes. Chemical Engineering. 1990,
es/index.htm [Accessed 8 December 2015].
control/overview/overview.html [Accessed 12 December 2015].
4. DoganEryener (2005), Thermoeconomic optimization of baffle spacing for shell and tube
heat exchangers, Energy Conservation and Management, Volume 47, Issue 1112, Pages
5. Perry, Robert H. and Green, Don W. (1984). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (6th
Edition ed.). McGraw-Hill.
6. Coulson, J. M. & Richardson, J. F., 1971. Chemical Engineering. Volume 3. Oxford: Pergamon
Press Ltd.
7. Felder, R. M. & Rousseau, R. W., 2005. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes. 3rd ed.
United States of America: John Wiley & Sons.
8. Ling, A. L. & Mulyandasari, V., 2010. Heat Exchanger Selection And Sizing (Engineering
Design Guideline). Available at:
_HX_Rev2.pdf [Accessed 9 December 2015].
9. Peters, M. S., Timmerhaus, K. D. & West, R. E., 2003. Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
10. Silla, H., 2003. Chemical Process Engineering: Design and Economics. New York: Marcel
11. The Engineering Toolbox, 2011. Heat Transfer Coefficient in Heat Exchangers. [Online].
Available at:
d_450.html [Accessed 10 December 2015].
12. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 2011. Shell and tube heat exchanger. [Online] Available
at: [Accessed 9 December