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CHEMISTRY

PROJECT

SUBMITTED BY:
ANAND BABURAJAN ( XII A )
ESTIMATION OF ACETIC
ACID IN DIFFERENT
SAMPLES OF VINEGAR

Submitted to Central Board of Secondary Education in


partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Senior
Secondary Examination

By: Anand Baburajan (XII - A)

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY

BLOOMING BUDS BETHANIA ENGLISH SCHOOL

SENIOR SECONDARY
VELLITHURITHY, MARHAMCODE (PO), THRISSUR.

BLOOMING BUDS BETHANIA ENGLISH SCHOOL


SENIOR SECONDARY
(AFFILIATED TO CBSE, NEWDELHI, NO: 930307)
VELLITHURITHY, MARATHAMCODE, THRISSUR

DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMISTRY
CERTIFICATE
Certified that this is a bonafide record of the project work in
CHEMISTRY
Submitted to the Central Board of Secondary Education in partial fulfillment
of Senior Secondary Examination.

---------------- -----------------
Faculty Guide Principal
Submitted for Practical Examination and Viva-Voce held on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

---------------------- -------------------------
Internal Examiner External Examiner

DECLARATION
I, ANAND BABURAJAN, hereby declare that this project
work entitled ESTIMATION OF ACETIC ACID IN DIFFERENT
SAMPLES OF VINEGAR submitted to Blooming Buds
Bethania English School Senior Secondary, Velliturithy,
Marathamcode, (Affiliated to CBSE, New Delhi, and
Affiliation No. 930307) is original record work done by me
under the supervision and guidance of Mrs. JEENA JOSE T.,
Department of Chemistry.

Name of the candidate Register No Signature of the candidate

------------------------ ----------------------- ----------------------------

Countersigned By:

Mrs. Jeena Jose T.


Teacher in Charge
Department of Chemistry
Blooming Buds Bethania English School
Senior Secondary,
Marathamcode.
Place: Marathamcode

Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of
guidance and assistance from many people and I am extremely
fortunate to have got this all along the completions of my project
work. Whatever I have done is only due to such guidance and
assistance and I would not forget to thank them

I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been
possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I
would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

I am highly indebted to my chemistry teacher Mrs. Jeena Jose T. for


her guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing
necessary information regarding the project & also for supporting me
in completing this project. I also thank our respected Principal Mrs.
Remabai V.K and Vice Principal Mrs. Sathidevi Rajagopal for their
support.

I am thankful to and fortunate enough to get constant


encouragement, support and guidance from all teaching staff of
Department of Chemistry which helped me in successfully completing
this project
I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents for their kind
co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of
this project.
My thanks and appreciations also go to my colleague in developing
the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their
abilities.

ESTIMATION
OF ACETIC
ACID IN
DIFFERENT
SAMPLES OF
VINEGAR
CONTENTS

1. INTRODUNCTION
2. AIM OF THE PROJECT
3. THEORY
4. APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS
5. PROCEDURE
6. OBSERVATIONS
7. CALCULATIONS
8. CONCLUSION
9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION
Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic
chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its
sour taste and pungent smell. Pure water-free acetic acid
(glacial acetic acid) is a colorless hygroscopic liquid and
freezes below 16.7C (62F) to a colourless crystalline solid.
Acetic acid is corrosive, and its vapour is irritating to eyes
and nose, although it is a weak acid based on its ability to
dissociate in aqueous solutions.

Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids (the


second-simplest, next to formic acid). It is an important
chemical reagent and industrial chemical that is used in the
production of polyethylene terephthalate mainly used in
soft drink bottles; cellulose acetate, mainly for
photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as
well as many synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households
diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the
food industry acetic acid is used under the food additive
code E260 as an acidity regulator.

Acetic acid has the empirical formula CH2O and the


molecular formula C2H4O2. The latter is often written as
CH3-COOH, CH3COOH, or CH3CO2H to better reflect its
structure. The ion resulting from loss of H+ from acetic
acid is the acetate anion. The name acetate can also refer
to a salt containing this anion or an ester of acetic acid.
The crystal structure of acetic acid[4] shows that the
molecules pair up into dimers connected by hydrogen
bonds. The dimers can also be detected in the vapour at
120 C. They probably also occur in the liquid phase of
pure acetic acid, but are rapidly disrupted if any water is
present. This dimerisation behaviour is shared by other
lower carboxylic acids.

Acetic acid can be detected by its characteristic smell. A


colour reaction for salts of acetic acid is iron(III) chloride
solution, which results in a deeply red colour that
disappears after acidification. Acetates when heated with
arsenic trioxide form cacodyl oxide, which can be detected
by its malodorous vapours.

In the form of vinegar, acetic acid solutions (typically 5% to


18% acetic acid, with the percentage usually calculated by
mass) are used directly as a condiment, and also in the
pickling of vegetables and other foodstuffs. Table vinegar
tends to be more dilute (5% to 8% acetic acid), while
commercial food pickling generally employs more
concentrated solutions. The amount of acetic aid used as
vinegar on a worldwide scale is not large, but historically,
this is by far the oldest and most well-known application.
AIM OF THE PROJECT
The aim of the project is to determine volumetrically the
amount of acetic acid present in commercial vinegar
sample.
THEORY
According to the theory of acid base titration, the end
point in the titration of vinegar with NaOH will be
observed between ph 8 and 10. Therefore in the titration
also, the phenolphthalein is a suitable indicator. The
reaction between vinegar and NaOH is given by:
CH3COOH + NaOH --> CH3COONa + H2O

By knowing the volume of vinegar solution reacting with a


definite volume of NaOH solution, the strength of vinegar
solution can be calculated. The equation for
standardization of NaOH and Oxalic acid is:
2NaOH + (COOH)2 --> 2COONa + 2H2O
APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS
Burette and burette stand
Pipette (20 ml)
Standard flask (100 ml)
Conical flash (250 ml)
Weighing Bottle
Funnel
Solution
a) 0.1 N NaOH solution prepared by dissolving 4 g
NaOH in a litre of pure water.
b) Phenolphthalein indicator prepared by dissolving
0.4 g phenolphthalein in 500cc of water by
constantly stirring (and filtering if needed)
Chemicals
a) Vinegar sample
b) Oxalic acid (AR)
PROCEDURE
1. PREPARATION OF STANDARD OXALIC ACID
SOLUTION
Carefully weigh the dry bottle with about 0.63g of AR
oxalic acid crystals in a chemical balance. Determine the
weight of the weighing bottle again and find the exact
mass of oxalic acid transferred by taking the difference
between the two weights. The oxalic acid in the funnel is
washed down into the standard flask by a jet of water from
a wash bottle (about 20ml). By carefully giving the flask a
rotator motion the oxalic acid is dissolved. The funnel and
its stem are then rinsed down into the standard flask and
the funnel removed. Then make up the solution to the
mark and shake well to get uniform concentration.

2. STANDARDISATION OF NaOH SOLUTION


Rinse the burette with a little of oxalic acid solution and
then fill it to the zero mark with the acid. Pipette out 20m1
of standard NaOH solution to 250m1 conical flask. Add
one or two drops of phenolphthalein indicator to generate
a pink colour to the solution. Titrate this solution against
oxalic acid in the burette till the pink colour just
disappears. Note the burette reading. Repeat the titration
to get concordant titrate values.
3. ESTIMATION OF ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR
Rinse a clean burette with a small amount of the vinegar
sample solution and fill it to the zero mark with the same
solution. Now pipette out of 20 ml of NaOH solution into a
250 ml conical flask and add one or two drops of
phenolphthalein indicator. This solution is titrated against
the vinegar solution from the burette until the pink colour
just disappears. Note the burette reading. Repeat the
titration to get concordant titrated values.
OBSERVATIONS
Mass of weighing bottle + oxalic acid crystals = 7.14g

Mass of weighing bottle = 6.51g

Mass of oxalic acid transferred = 0.63g

TABLE 1: OXALIC ACID V/S NAOH SOLUTION - PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR

S.No. Volume of Initial Final Volume of


NaOH burette burette oxalic acid
solution reading reading

1 20ml 0ml 25.2ml 25.2ml

2 20ml 0ml 25.2ml 25.2ml

TABLE 2: VINEGAR SOLUTION (GREEN CHILLIES) V/S NAOH - PHENOLPHTHALEIN

S.No. Volume of Initial Final Volume of


NaOH burette burette vinegar
solution reading reading solution

1 20ml 0ml 3ml 3ml

2 20ml 0ml 3ml 3ml


TABLE 3: VINEGAR SOLUTION (KALYAN) V/S NAOH - PHENOLPHTHALEIN

S.No. Volume of Initial Final Volume of


NaOH burette burette vinegar
solution reading reading solution

1 20ml 0ml 3.6ml 3.6ml

2 20ml 0ml 3.6ml 3.6ml

TABLE 4: VINEGAR SOLUTION (KISSAN) V/S NAOH - PHENOLPHTHALEIN

S.No. Volume of Initial Final Volume of


NaOH burette burette vinegar
solution reading reading solution

1 20ml 0ml 4.5ml 4.5ml

2 20ml 0ml 4.5ml 4.5ml

TABLE 4: VINEGAR SOLUTION (DOUBLE HORSE) V/S NAOH - PHENOLPHTHALEIN

S.No. Volume of Initial Final Volume of


NaOH burette burette vinegar
solution reading reading solution

1 20ml 0ml 3.5ml 3.5ml

2 20ml 0ml 3.5ml 3.5ml


TABLE 4: VINEGAR SOLUTION (ORMA) V/S NAOH - PHENOLPHTHALEIN

S.No. Volume of Initial Final Volume of


NaOH burette burette vinegar
solution reading reading solution

1 20ml 0ml 4.2ml 4.2ml

2 20ml 0ml 4.2ml 4.2ml


CALCULATIONS
STANDARDISATION OF NaOH SOLUTION

Equivalent mass of oxalic acid=126/2 = 63

Mass of oxalic acid present in 100ml solution =0.63g

Normality of oxalic acid, N1 = (0.63*100)/(63*100) = 0.1 N.


Volume of NaOH solution, V2= 20ml

Volume of oxalic acid required to react with 20ml of NaOH


solution, V1= 25.2ml

Let the normality of NaOH solution be N2

We know

N1 x V1 = N2 x V2

N2 = (N1 x V1)/V2 = (0.1*25.2)/20 = 0.126 N

ESTIMATION OF STRENGTH OF VINEGAR SOLUTION


[GREEN CHILLIES]

Normality of NaOH solution, N2 = 0.126 N

Volume of NaOH solution, V2 = 20ML

Volume of vinegar solution reacting with 20ml NaOH


solution, V3 = 3ml
Let normality of vinegar solution be N3,

N2 x V2=N3 x V3

N3 = (N2 x V2)/V3 = (0.126 x 20)/3 = 0.84 N

Equivalent mass of acetic acid=60

Strength of commercial Vinegar = 5 x N3 x 60

= 5 x 0.84 x 60

= 252 g/l

ESTIMATION OF STRENGTH OF VINEGAR SOLUTION


[DOUBLE HORSE]

Volume of vinegar solution reacting with 20ml NaOH


solution, V4 = 3.5ml

Let normality of vinegar solution be N4,

N2 x V2=N4 x V4

N4 = (N2 x V2)/V4 = (0.126 x 20)/3.5 = 0.72 N

Equivalent mass of acetic acid=60

Strength of commercial Vinegar = 5 x N4 x 60

= 5 x 0.72 x 60

= 216 g/l
ESTIMATION OF STRENGTH OF VINEGAR SOLUTION
[ORMA]

Volume of vinegar solution reacting with 20ml NaOH


solution, V5 = 4.2ml

Let normality of vinegar solution be N5,

N2 x V2=N5 x V5

N5 = (N2 x V2)/V5 = (0.126 x 20)/4.2 = 0.60 N

Equivalent mass of acetic acid=60

Strength of commercial Vinegar = 5 x N5 x 60

= 5 x 0.60 x 60

= 180 g/l

ESTIMATION OF STRENGTH OF VINEGAR SOLUTION


[KALYAN]

Volume of vinegar solution reacting with 20ml NaOH


solution, V6 = 3.6ml

Let normality of vinegar solution be N3,

N2 x V2=N6 x V6

N6 = (N2 x V2)/V6 = (0.126 x 20)/3.6 = 0.70 N


Equivalent mass of acetic acid=60

Strength of commercial Vinegar = 5 x N6 x 60

= 5 x 0.70 x 60

= 210 g/l

ESTIMATION OF STRENGTH OF VINEGAR SOLUTION


[KISSAN]

Volume of vinegar solution reacting with 20ml NaOH


solution, V7 = 4.5ml

Let normality of vinegar solution be N7,

N2 x V2=N7 x V7

N7 = (N2 x V2)/V7 = (0.126 x 20)/4.5 = 0.56 N

Equivalent mass of acetic acid=60

Strength of commercial Vinegar = 5 x N7 x 60

= 5 x 0.56 x 60

= 168 g/l
CONCLUSION
The vinegar with brand name Green Chillies has high
normality of 0.84 N and more strength (252 g/l). So among
the other brands, Green Chillies is the good quality vinegar.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
1. Comprehensive Practical Chemistry N.K.
Sharma
2. Practical Chemistry A.O. Thomas
3. NCERT Chemistry Text Book