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Investigation of Permanent Magnet Motor Drives Incorporating Damper Bars for Electrified Vehicles

Xiaomin Lu, Student Member, IEEE, K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Student Member, IEEE, Kaushik Mukherjee, Member, IEEE, Kannan Ramkumar, Member, IEEE, and Narayan C. Kar, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractUnderstanding the need for steady-state and tran- sient performance improvement in an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) drive, this paper exclusively investigates the IPMSM incorporating damper bars in the rotor of electric motor for electrified vehicles (EVs). Firstly, motivation for the employment of damper bars in IPMSM is provided and justified with a case study. Thereafter, mathematical model of an IPMSM drive with damper bars in the rotor has been developed based on dq axis theory and validated through experiments per- formed on a laboratory IPMSM containing damper bars. The validated mathematical model has been then employed to arrive at satisfactory rotor bar parameters for an existing IPMSM onboard a commercially available EV. Moreover, a replica of the existing onboard EV motor with and without incorporating dampers have been designed and finite element analysis (FEA) has been performed to investigate various performance charac- teristics. Comparative performance analyses of both the ma- chines with and without damper bars under steady-state and transient conditions have been performed wherever necessary and the results elicited have been discussed.

Index TermsDampers, dq axis, electrified vehicle, finite el- ement analysis, interior, permanent magnet synchronous ma- chine.

NOMENCLATURE

v ds , v qs

i ds , i qs

r s

L md , L mq

L ds , L qs

i kd ', i kq ' r kd ', r kq '

L kd ', L kq ' λ'

p

: d- and q-axis voltages : d- and q-axiscurrents : stator resistance :d- and q-axis magnetizing inductances : d- and q-axis synchronous inductances : d- and q-axis damper currents the referred to the stator side : d- and q-axis damper resistance the referred to the stator side : d- and q-axis damper inductance referred to the stator side : flux linkage developed by the magnets referred to the stator side

: differential operator d/dt : electromagnetic torque

T e

P : number of poles

Manuscript received June 3, 2014; revised August 30, 2014; accepted Sep- tember 28, 2014. Copyright (c) 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org.

This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Re- search Council of Canada (NSERC). 1 X. Lu, 2 K. L. V. Iyer, and 5 N. Kar are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B3P4. ( 1 lu117@uwindsor.ca, 2 iyerl@uwindsor.ca and 5 nkar@uwindsor.ca) 3 K. Mukherjee is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India.

( 3 kmukherjee@ee.becs.ac.in) 4 K. Ramkumar is with the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation at SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India. ( 4 ramkumar@eie.sastra.edu)

θ r

ω r

J

acτ

K w1

T ph

A d

δ

a

d d

N d

d

d

: electrical rotor angular position : electrical rotor angular frequency

: moment of inertia : ampere conductors per pole : winding factor : turns per phase : total area of damper bars per pole : current density value : cross-section of each damper bar : diameter of the damper bar : number of damper bars per pole

I. INTRODUCTION

Over the last decade, substantial investment, geo-political interest, multiple motor topologies, cost reduction, varying performance, compact packaging and integration have been some of the factors that have led to an increased interest in studying electric motors for electrified vehicles. By the end of 2018, it is predicted that the global demand for electric trac- tion motors will rise to 8 million from the current 4.5 million. More than 61% of this volume will come from full-hybrid non-plug-in-vehicles and 13% will come from battery electric vehicles. The electrified vehicle (EV) market including hy- brids and battery electrics will be the strongest in 2016 due to the activation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standards. Hybrid variants of existing vehicles will be the primary driver of higher volumes of electrified vehicles until 2016, thereafter led by plug-in hybrid vehicles and bat- tery electric vehicles. It has also been predicted that the per- manent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) will continue to dominate the market and other motor technologies will remain as niche technologies with less than 5% market volume over the next five years [1]. On the other hand, enhanced dynamic and steady-state per- formance of the traction motor is of paramount importance to uplift customer experience on acceleration, speed, noise and vibrations, extended driving range, climbing capability and cost of the vehicle. Understanding the above, this paper exclusively puts an ef- fort to investigate the steady-state and transient performances of a permanent magnet traction motor drive with damper bars in the rotor of the machine.

A. Background Literature Survey Most of the EVs use IPMSM’s as their traction motors due to their large power densities, higher efficiencies and capabili- ties to run over a large speed ranges with an almost constant power output with zero maintenance [2]. These synchronous motors for such vehicle applications invariably run under self- synchronous mode with rotor position feedback through a

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pulse-width modulated (PWM) inverter. Self-synchronous operation or self-control of the synchronous motor cause the drive to be self-starting and rules out the probability of the rotor falling out of step since the rotor-position synchronized switching of the inverter devices always keeps the rotor speed synchronous with the exciting currents in the armature [3]. IPMSM’s are known to be generally designed with an expec- tation of sinusoidal back EMF distribution [4], [5] and the inductances of the armature circuit of the conventional IPMSM’s generally provide enough filtering to cause the ar- mature currents to be sinusoidal in response to the PWM volt- age pulses impressed by the inverter on the armature termi- nals. Hence, torque ripple should be zero if purely sinusoidal currents are injected into a PMSM with a purely sinusoidal back EMF distribution. Conventional wisdom, based on above, tells us that dampers are not required in such motors for such applications as operation will always be synchronous. Dampers will therefore not be required - neither for starting nor for pulling into synchronism for such synchronous motors. The above are generally the reasons why the IPMSM’s em- ployed in EVs never possess dampers. A line start PMSM (LSPMSM), on the other hand, operates without rotor position feedback and in order to be self-starting must possess dampers. The dampers for such applications should provide enough starting torque and should help to- wards the pull-in phenomenon. Additionally, for such applica- tions, the design of the dampers should be such that while drastic load disturbances appear on the system and the transi- ent operation of the machine becomes asynchronous, the dampers should help in increasing the transient stability limit of the machine. Hence, substantial amounts of research papers to investigate the role of dampers for LSPMSMs have been written [6] [10]. Similarly, for any permanent magnet synchronous genera- tor (PMSG) which does not operate under rotor position feed- back, dampers come into play during the transient asynchro- nous durations and help in restoring stability. The damper de- sign for such applications should solely concentrate towards restoring transient stability and researchers have worked on this also [11], [12]. However, papers published until date, to the best of au- thors’ knowledge, have not yet investigated the performance of IPMSM incorporating dampers bars for an EV application.

B. Motivation for the Proposed Investigation Most of the PMSMs on-board commercially available EVs have either a distributed or concentric winding arrangement in their stators and permanent magnets in their rotor. They are mostly 3-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous ma- chines (IPMSMs) machines driven with maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control strategy [13], [14]. The DC link volt- age of the 3-phase voltage source converter (VSC) driving the traction motor for such a vehicle remains constant and the inverter runs with under-modulation in the low-speed region and with over-modulation in the high-speed region of opera- tion of the motor drive [14]. As the speed becomes progres- sively higher, the back EMF of the motor keeps increasing and over a certain speed, the inverter starts operating as a pure square wave inverter, impressing a six-stepped phase voltage at the motor terminals. For EVs, this mode of operation some-

times continues for a long time. As this mode of operation also calls for speed control, it is performed by the speed controller of the drive by controlling the phase angle of the six-stepped phase voltage waveform with respect to the back EMF of the corresponding armature phase, as dictated by the MTPA con- trol strategy. It is imperative that when the VSC operates in the under- modulation zone of the PWM strategy, the switching of the inverter devices of the same leg are more frequent than a square wave operation. Hence, the value of the equivalent inductance of the d-q equivalent circuits of the conventional IPMSM seems sufficient to make the armature current almost sinusoidal to cause negligible torque ripple, assuming the back EMF of the machine to be sinusoidally distributed. However, when the square wave, 180° conduction mode of operation of the inverter prevails, the inverter devices switch at much slower rates. Consequently, lower order side-band harmonics start appearing along with the fundamental, and the authors felt that in this operating mode, exploring the need of addi- tional dampers in the conventional IPMSM’s to improve the transient response of the motor and the converter by improv- ing the wave-shape of the armature current and air-gap voltage is justified. The idea to investigate such a case struck the minds of the authors when they thought of an analogous case, where a 3-phase current source inverter (CSI), operating under 120° conduction, feeding a wound field 3-phase synchronous motor with dampers, has already been reported to yield im- proved transient performance of the comprehensive drive [4]. The authors also intuitively believe that incorporation of dampers can control the spatial distribution of the back EMF waveform of a conventional PMSM to provide transient and steady state improvement in performance and can reduce the effect of permanent magnet demagnetization under MTPA regime of control of the PMSM drive of the vehicle. This paper therefore takes a combined approach to predict improved damper parameters for improved performances, and also investigate the effects of incorporating dampers in IPMSM viewing the research problem from a dq axis model based approach and a finite element model based approach; thereby capitalizing on the mutual advantages of each. This will be subsequently presented in the following sections.

C. Case Study for Illustrating Repeated Over-modulation Operation Periods in IPMSM Drive Samples of experimental data collected from performance- mapping test performed on a traction motor on-board a com- mercially available EV by Oak Ridge National Labs is pre- sented in Table I [14]. The vehicle has an IPMSM with maxi- mum output power of 50 kW and a peak torque of 400 Nm. A DC-DC converter is connected between the battery pack and the inverter to maintain the input voltage to the inverter at a level of 500 VDC as shown in the measurement data in Table I. The 3-phase VSC is switched based on space vector pulse- width-modulation (SVPWM) technique. The magnitude and frequency of the ac output depend on the reference voltage space vector and the PWM. The funda- mental-frequency voltage magnitude increases proportionally with the reference voltage space vector magnitude in under- modulation (linear) region. However, on further increase in the required voltage level, the over-modulation mode is en-

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countered. In this mode, the voltage magnitude no longer var- ies in proportion with the reference voltage and saturation starts creeping in. Finally, beyond this region, the controller loses its control over the voltage amplitude and PWM degenerates into a square-wave inverter waveform. With a given DC link voltage (V DC ), the output line-to-line voltage fundamental RMS value gets fixed at 0.78 times V DC .As seen from Table I, when the speed and torque of the motor are low such as data sets 1-1, 2- 1, etc., the output voltage level depends on the reference volt- ages. As the speed increases, in sets 5-1, 6-1, etc., the output voltage exceeds the linear region and the inverter operates in 180 0 conduction mode. As indicated from table in [14], for a large number of operating conditions, the motor is controlled by a square-wave inverter during which the harmonic compo- nents of the voltage signal is significantly high and the torque response depends mainly on the load angle command sent to the inverter.

D. Paper Objectives

Based on the practical performance characteristics, issues and hypotheses discussed above, the authors derive motivation to exclusively investigate steady-state and transient perfor- mance characteristics of the IPMSM with the employment of damper bars in the rotor for EV application. Section III of the paper presents a mathematical model of an IPMSM drive with damper bars in the rotor which has been developed based on dq axis theory and validated through ex- periments performed on a laboratory IPMSM containing damper bars. The validated mathematical model has been then employed to arrive at satisfactory rotor bar parameters for an existing IPMSM drive onboard a commercially available EV. Comparative performance analysis between the onboard EV motor drive with and without dampers has been performed through dq axis models developed and results elicited have been discussed. Section III also presents the aforementioned dq axis based modeling and transient state analyses activities conducted in this paper. Section IV presents FEA based results from investigations performed on three machines designed, replicating the existing onboard EV motor with and without incorporating dampers. It also provides the machine design details and damper design approach employed to develop the machines.

TABLE I

SAMPLE TEST DATA FROM PERFORMANCE MAPPING TEST [11]

 

Mechanical

Inverter DC link side (rms)

Inverter AC side per phase (rms)

Conditions

Test #

Speed

Torque

Voltage

Current

Voltage

Current

(rpm)

(Nm)

(V)

(A)

(V)

(A)

1-1

302

179.2

504.0

21.32

108.0

87.3

2-1

703

30.2

504.0

6.74

112.3

20.2

3-1

1303

69.6

503.7

22.47

166.1

38.2

4-1

2104

70.4

504.4

34.83

204.5

38.8

5-1

3804

98.6

499.0

91.37

241.0

95.6

6-1

5004

59.8

499.4

73.17

239.7

113.7

7-1

6005

49.4

499.6

73.60

240.7

68.2

II. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF IPMSM DRIVE WITH DAMPER BARS IN THE ROTOR

In order to:1) arrive at the rotor bar parameters which yield satisfactory machine performance, 2) incorporate them into

the IPMSM drive on-board EV and 3) analyze the behavior of

the machine under steady-state and transient conditions, a

model of the IPMSM with damper bars along with its drive have to be developed based on the dq axis theory.

 v  r  L  s ds ds    v 
v
 r
L
s
ds
ds
v
L
qs
r
ds
0
L
p
md
0
0
 
 
T
 3 P
4   i
'
e
qs

p



r

L

qs

L

md

p



r

L

mq

 i









kd

kq

ds

i

qs

i '

  i '




r

0

'

0

 

0

1

r

s

0

L

mq

i

i

ds qs

L p  L L p qs r md mq r '  L '
L
p
L
L
p
qs
r
md
mq
r
'
 L
'
p
0
kd
p
kd
0

r
'
 L
'
P
kq
p  
r
2 J
T
e
T
L

kq

p

(

L

ds

 L )  3 P L pr r qs  4  md i
 L
)  3 P L
pr r
qs
4
md
i

(1)

0

 

(2)

'

i

kd qs

'

L

mq

i

'

i

kq ds

(3)

(4)

The volt-ampere equations of the LSPMSM can be written

as in (1), and the mechanical equations of the motor may be

written as in (2), (3) and (4), where symbols have their usual

meanings [15]. A parameter determination method to deter- mine the electrical circuit parameters of such a machine was proposed by the authors and the parameters were incorporated into the above machine model and validated using experi- ments performed on a laboratory LSPMSM containing rotor bars under steady-state and transient conditions [16].However, the machine model and the parameters determined were vali- dated only under direct on-line starting.

A. Experimental Validation of the Developed Machine Model Driven bySquare Wave Inverter under Self-control The machine model developed in [16] along with the drive has been exclusively validated in this section with a laboratory LSPMSM. The LSPMSM has been operated in the self- controlled mode (with rotor position feedback) through a 3- phase square wave inverter as illustrated in the schematic

shown in Fig. 1(a). As shown in the experimental setup in Fig. 1(b), the test machine is equipped with a low-cost position sensor indicating the position at every 60° and coupled with a

dc machine (operating in the generator mode) as load. A 3-

phase IGBT inverter stack is used as the voltage source con- verter, and a TMS320 series digital signal controller is used to provide rotor position synchronized gate signals based on 180° conduction scheme to actuate the inverter. The DC link voltage is set as 132 V and the load angle δ is controlled to be 60°. The machine settles at a speed of 1125 rpm at a load torque of 7.8 Nm. The calculated current wave-

form, shown in Fig. 1(c), is in close agreement with the meas- ured waveform, shown in Fig. 1(d). The amplitude of calculat-

ed current has been found a little higher than the experimental

one for all cases of loads and load angles for which the drive is operated, because the mechanical and core losses are ne-

glected in the calculations, as is generally done in typical dq axis based models. Instantaneous current flowing into the ma- chine armature is considered positive in the presented wave- forms. The fact that the actual operating load angle is equal to

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Current (A)

Voltage (V)

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Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS (a) 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200

(a)

Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS (a) 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200

200

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

(b)

ELECTRONICS (a) 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 (b) the one given in

the one given in the simulation and the experiment is verified by comparing the phase of the terminal line-to-line voltage with the phase of the corresponding back EMF, by appropri- ately calibrating the rotor position sensor. The proximity of the calculated and experimental results thus establishes that the developed model of the rotor-position-synchronized, square wave inverter driven LSPMSM, characterized by its dq equivalent circuit resistance and inductance parameters, satis- factorily describes an interior PMSM with dampers under steady state and dynamic conditions. Thus, this model, once validated, is henceforth employed to study the effect of damp- ers in the performance of the drive, by changing its damper parameters in an iterative way, as it is imperative that any LSPMSM, controlled under self-synchronous mode, might not be a good candidate as traction motor for an EV.

B. Investigation of the Effects of Damper Parameters in Dy- namic and Steady-state Performance When a sudden change in the applied voltage at the stator terminals occurs, in the dq equivalent circuits of a PMSM with dampers [16], the branches containing the damper parameters become operative. It remains operational in the circuit till a

steady state condition is reached. During this dynamic condi-

tion, the damper R-L branch comes in parallel with the branch 20 containing the magnetising reactance. The equivalent imped-

15 ance of the two parallel branches is lower than the magnetiz- ing reactance, resulting in a low value of net impedance

10 viewed from the d- or q- axis stator terminals. This low im- pedance across the stator terminal causes larger overshoots in

5

0

-5

-10

-15

-20

the current when compared to a machine without the damper.

When a damper branch is paralleled across the magnetizing inductances L md or L mq , an additional resistance is present in the parallel branch which causes the equivalent resistance of the circuit to also reduce. But the practical values of damper parameters employed are such that, the net decrease in L is much more than the net decrease in R. Hence, the net time constant reduces resulting in a faster dynamic response. In order to further study the effect of damper on IPMSM so as to consider it for EV application, the developed and vali- dated model is used to simulate a 50 kW on-board EV motor with emulated dampers, the equivalent circuit parameters of which are given in Appendix A. The measured parameters of the LSPMSM are utilized for the starting of this investigation. The LSPMSM has a symmetrical squirrel cage, and therefore the equivalent circuit parameters in d-axis equal to that in q- axis. The ratio between the stator resistance and damper re- sistance is 3:2, and the ratio between the stator leakage induct- ance and rotor leakage inductance is 1:1 [16]. The steady-state and dynamic performance of the on-board EV motor and the proposedon-board EV motor with emulated damper parameters of the same stator to damper ratio as that in the LSPMSM is firstly investigated to understand the role of dampers in the high speed region of the EV motor. Both machines are driven by a square-wave inverter with rotor feedback, which initially controlled the machine with a load angle of 30° and later changes to a load angle of 40° after the speed reaches steady-state. Load torque is a constant of 50 Nm. The DC link of the inverter is also kept constant at a level of 500 V. The values of the major electrical and mechanical variables are presented in Table II.

Time (10 ms/div)

(c)

variables are presented in Table II. Time (10 ms/div) (c) (d) Fig. 1. Calculated and measured

(d)

Fig. 1. Calculated and measured voltage and current waveforms of the IPMSM with damper bars driven by a square wave inverter under self-control.

(a)

Overall block diagram of the motor drive system. (b) Experimental setup.

(c)

Calculated results. (d) Measured results.

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TABLE II

SAMPLE STEADY STATE AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE DATA OF THE EXISTING AND PROPOSED MACHINES (STATOR RESISTANCE TO DAMPER RESISTANCE RATIO 3:2, STATOR LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE TO DAMPER LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE RATIO 1:1)

Load An-

 

Original on-board EV motor

Proposed on-board EV motor with damper

gle

 

Speed (r/min)

3951

3952

30°

Torque Ripple (%)

14

64

Stator Current (A)

47.1

47.1

 

THD in Current (%)

11.1

66.8

 

Speed (r/min)

5579

5577

40°

Torque Ripple (%)

12

36

Stator Current (A)

61.7

61.7

 

THD in Current (%)

5.8

36.6

 

Transition Time (s)

1.255

0.59

Transition

Max. Electromagnetic Torque (Nm)

90

340

Max. Stator Current (Nm)

76

255

TABLE III

SAMPLE STEADY STATE AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE DATA OF THE PROPOSED MACHINE WITH DAMPER KEEPING STATOR TO DAMPER RESISTANCE RATIO OF 1:1 AND VARYING THE STATOR TO DAMPER LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE RATIO

Load An-

   

Stator to Damper Leakage Inductances Ratio

 

gle

3:1

2:1

1:1

1:3

1:5

1:10

 

Speed (r/min)

5584

5580

5576

5572

5571

5570

40°

Torque Ripple (%)

64

50

32

22

16

14

Stator Current (A)

61.5

61.6

61.6

61.6

61.6

61.6

 

THD in Current (%)

56.6

48.6

35.9

79.6

13.4

9.8

 

Transition Time (s)

0.88

0.901

0.898

0.885

0.853

0.847

Transition

Maximum Electromag- netic Torque (Nm)

480

430

334

200

150

125

Maximum Stator Cur- rent (A)

373

410

317

155

142

118

TABLE IV

SAMPLE STEADY STATE AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE DATA OF THE PROPOSED MACHINE WITH DAMPER KEEPING STATOR TO DAMPER LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE RATIO OF 1:5 AND VARYING THE STATOR TO DAMPER RESISTANCE RATIO

Load

   

Stator to Damper Resistance Ratio

 

Angle

3:1

2:1

1:1

1:3

1:5

1:10

 

Speed (r/min)

5575

5572

5571

5570

5570

5570

40°

Torque Ripple (%)

18

16

16

16

16

16

Stator Current (A)

61.6

61.6

61.6

61.6

61.6

61.6

 

THD in Current (%)

13.4

13.4

13.4

13.4

13.4

13.4

 

Transition Time (s)

0.424

0.499

0.853

1.022

1.151

1.188

Transition

Maximum Electromag- netic Torque (Nm)

155

150

150

160

159

145

Maximum Stator Cur- rent (A)

143

142

142

121

121

114

As seen from Table II, for both machines, the final speeds of the machines are determined by the load angle. The speed increases when the load angle increases. Because of the distor- tion in the terminal voltage, now containing lower side band harmonics, the phase current has high distortion, and causes higher torque ripple in the machine. The distortion is greater at lower speed than that at higher speed. The current waveforms of both machine at a load angle of 40° is shown in Fig.2. The maximum current and torque of the machines during transition from one steady-state speed to another are greatly influenced by the damper. It can be seen from the transition time, (defined as the time for the speed to reach 90% of the steady-state val- ue) that by adding a damper, the machine responds faster to changes and restores to a new steady-state faster. This fast dynamic response is desired in an EV application. The final

speed of the machine does not change much with the added damper. The fundamental current amplitude is not affected by the damper either. However, the damper increases the distor- tion in current and consequently increases the torque ripple significantly. As a result, it is necessary to design a damper for traction motor in order to improve dynamic performance as well as keeping satisfactory steady-state performance. Further studies to investigate the effect of damper on ma- chine performance are conducted to understand the role of damper in IPMSM for EV application. The operation condi- tions are kept same as mentioned previously. Firstly, the ratio between stator resistance and damper re- sistance is kept constant as 1:1, and the ratio between stator leakage inductance and damper leakage inductance is varied as shown in the cases presented in Table III. The steady-state

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i a [A]

i a [A]

i a [A]

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evaluations are only shown at a load angle of 40 ° as the trend at lower speed can be inferred from Table II. It can be elicited from Table III that, given a resistance, the current distortion reduces as the damper leakage inductance increases. The cur- rent overshoot of the motor is more significant with smaller rotor leakage inductances. However, the response time re- mains almost same. Based on the performance analysis in Table IV, stator to damper leakage inductance ratio of 1:5 is selected for the analysis of the effect of damper resistance as it yields satisfac- tory performances out of the considered cases. From results shown in Table IV, the system response time is marginally different with different values of damper resistance. Moreover, the distortion in the current, torque ripple, as well as the over- shoot of current and torque during transition do not change significantly with the rotor resistance. It can be inferred from Table III and Table IV that the im- provement of transition time with damper is mainly deter- mined by the damper resistance. The harmonic components and the overshoot during transient conditions are influenced largely by the damper leakage inductance. Fig.3 illustrates the current waveform of an emulated machine with a stator to damper resistance ratio of 1:1 and stator to damper leakage inductance ratio of 1:5. It can be seen that the waveform quali- ty is significantly improved compared the current waveform of the machine with line-start damper.

100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5 17.502 17.504 17.506
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
17.5
17.502
17.504
17.506
17.508
17.51

time [sec]

(a)

100

80

60

40

20

0

17.51 time [sec] (a) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5
17.51 time [sec] (a) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5
17.51 time [sec] (a) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5
17.51 time [sec] (a) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5
17.51 time [sec] (a) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5
17.51 time [sec] (a) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5
17.51 time [sec] (a) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

17.5

17.502

17.504

17.506

17.508

time [sec]

100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 17.5 17.502 17.504 17.506
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
17.5
17.502
17.504
17.506
17.508
17.51

time [sec]

Fig.3. Current waveform of the finalized EV motor with damper having a stator todamper resistance ratio of 1:1 and stator to damper leakage inductance ratio of 1:5.

Further investigation to select the optimized damper pa- rameters for traction application is considered as future scope of this research. When the range of values is selected, the de- sign methodology will be influenced in a way similar to how the damper bars are designed for wound-field synchronous machines [17]. Fine tuning will be performed through finite element based design, simulation and analysis. It is very interesting to note that when research papers on electrical drives talk about reduction of torque ripples by try- ing to make the armature current fed from an inverter to an

IPMSM as close as possible to pure sinusoid, the prime as-

sumption is the generalized theory/two axes theory of electri-

cal machines, which assumes the fields are sinusoidally dis-

tributed in space. Fig. 3 is also a consequence of this assump-

tion. Hence, everyone might think that such a current as in Fig.

3 will give rise to torque ripple, as it does not look like a pure

sinusoid. But the authors have found that even with a current

quality as presented in Fig. 3, torque ripple is below 5% be-

cause the dampers give the flexibility of designing the field

distribution in space, as discussed in Section IV of the paper

and here lies the relevance of this section. In fact, the authors

have found that even with pure sinusoidal current injected into

the PMSM armature of a traction motor on-board a commer- cially available EV, the torque ripple is even more than 20%

[18]. The reason for this is the fact that the air-gap field distri-

bution for such motors in practice is far from sinusoidal in

space. Hence, the distortion level of the current waveform in

Fig. 3 will not degrade system performances.

Due to the paralleled effect of the damper, the phase current

in the machine with damper shown in Fig. 4(b) rises to a high-

er value in a shorter amount of time compared to the phase

current of the IPMSM without damper shown in Fig. 4(a). As

a result of the transient response of the current, the peak elec-

tromagnetic torque developed in the machine with damper

shown in Fig. 5 (b) is higher than that of the original machine

presented in Fig. 5(a). The corresponding speed responses of

the two machines are given Fig. 6. As the torque response of the finalized EV motor with damper is faster, speed of that motor also settles faster for the same load torque as evident from Fig. 6. The torque and speed of the machine with damp- er definitely shows a better dynamic response compared to the original machine.

17.51

(b)

Fig.2. Current waveforms of the machines investigated driven by square-wave inverter with rotor position feedback at a load angle of 40°. (a) Original on- board EV motor. (b) On-board EV motor with damper parameters correspond- ing to Table II.

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i a (A)

i a (A)

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C. Investigation of Dynamic Response under Symmetrical Short-circuit Conditions Generally, any machine is protected against short-circuit conditions using high rupturing capacity (HRC) fuses. The melting ability of fuses are measured by various characteristics which include the ratio of threshold current to rated continuous current (threshold ratio), peak let-through current versus pro- spective short-circuit current characteristic curves, and I 2 t

characteristics[19].

Considering the machine to be operating with a constant load torque of 100 Nm at a speed of 4,000 rpm, a 3-phase symmetric fault is initiated at the machine terminals. The cal- culated currents for the original EV motor without damper and the finalized EV motor with damper are shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen that the overshoot is more and rise time is less in the machine with the damper. This feature will cause the fuse to blow off faster in the case of the machine with damper, thus, saving the machine.

100 0 -100 4.5 5 5.5 6
100
0
-100
4.5 5
5.5
6
(a) 100 0 -100 4.5 5 5.5 6
(a)
100
0
-100
4.5 5
5.5
6

(b)

Time [sec]

Fig.4. Stator current waveforms of (a) original EV motor without damper (b) the finalized EV motor with damper, under a sudden increase in load angle from 30 0 to 40 0 .

100 50 0 4.5 5 5.5 6 T e (Nm)
100
50
0
4.5
5
5.5
6
T e (Nm)

(a)

100 50 0 4.5 5 5.5 6 T e (Nm)
100
50
0
4.5
5
5.5
6
T e (Nm)

(b)

Time [sec]

Fig.5. Developed electromagnetic torque waveforms of (a) original EV motor without damper (b) the finalized EV motor with damper, under a sudden in- crease in load angle from 30 0 to 40 0 .

6000 without damper with damper 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5
6000
without damper
with damper
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
n m (rpm)

Time [sec]

Fig.6.Calculated speed waveforms of the original EV motor without damper and the finalized EV motor with damper, under a sudden increase in load angle from 30 0 to 40 0 .

a sudden increase in load angle from 30 0 to 40 0 . (a) (b) Fig.7.Calculated

(a)

increase in load angle from 30 0 to 40 0 . (a) (b) Fig.7.Calculated responses under

(b)

Fig.7.Calculated responses under 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit fault for

original EV motor without damper and the finalized EV motor with damper. (a) Machine terminal voltage. (b) Machine phase current.

III. DESIGN AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PMSMS WITH

AND WITHOUT DAMPER BARS IN THE ROTORS

In order to investigate the effect of dampers in a traction

machine drive, three IPMSMs - two machines without damper bars and one with damper bars have been developed. These three machines will henceforth be referred to as Machines A, B and C whose distinguishing features are given in Fig. 8. The machine A has been designed to replicate the existing traction motor that is on-board a commercially available EV. Stator dimensions/frame size, stator design, number of phases,

rotor outer diameter and length, air-gap length, magnet vol- ume, and materials in the stator, magnet & rotor have been

kept the same as that of the commercially available EV motor. The only difference between the commercially available EV

motor and this motor lies in the configuration of the permanent

magnets [20] and this causes the power and torque rating to be almost the same as that of the commercially available one. Machine B is the one with everything the same as machine A

but with the magnets buried deeper. Hence, torque rating of

this motor is expected to go down a little. Subsequent studies,

presented later, quantify the reduction. Machine C is similar in

all respects with Machine B, with additional damper bars in-

corporated. As stator design for all these three machines are

the same and in line with the existing commercially available

EV motor whose design parameters are established [21], a detailed explanation of various design parameters chosen is not provided. Only design details related to the novelty of the paper are presented. Cross-sections of each of these motors designed have been provided in Fig. 8.

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Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS Magnets placed closer to the air-gap (a) (b) Magnets buried

Magnets placed closer to the air-gap

(a)

ELECTRONICS Magnets placed closer to the air-gap (a) (b) Magnets buried deeper (c) Damper bars Fig.

(b)

Magnets buried

deeper

placed closer to the air-gap (a) (b) Magnets buried deeper (c) Damper bars Fig. 8. Overall

(c)

Damper bars

Fig. 8. Overall schematic of the developed machines. (a) Machine A PMSM without damper bars, with the magnet placed closer to the air-gap periphery. (b) Machine B - PMSM without damper bars with magnets buried deeper. (c) Machine C- PMSM with damper bars with the magnets placed at same depth as in Machine B.

TABLE V [14]

MACHINE DATA COMMON TO THE DESIGNED MACHINES

Stator outer diameter

269.24

mm

Stator inner diameter

161.9

mm

Stator slots

48

Number of poles

8

Stack length

83.82

mm

Magnet thickness

6.48 mm

Magnet width

36

mm

Rotor outer diameter

160.4

mm

Rotor inner diameter

110.64

mm

Turns per coil

9

Coils per phase

8

Peak power

50

kW

Rated speed

3000 rpm

Maximum DC bus voltage

500 VDC

Winding configuration

Single Layer, Distributed

This section will mainly focus on time-stepping finite ele- ment analysis based comparative performance analysis of all the machines designed, as the objective of the paper is to compare a PMSM with damper and without damper for EV application. Optimizing the magnet configuration is not under the scope of this paper. Such optimal rotor design with differ- ent magnet configurations and placement activities have been widely published in the literature. The authors would also like to emphasize that this paper does not focus on designing a superior machine to the commercially available EV motor at this stage, but investigate the effect of damper bars in PMSM in order to design a superior machine in future.

A. Basis of Design of the Damper Bars

The damper windings employed in Machine C were de- signed following the approach presented below. The ampere conductors per pole, acτ, taken into consideration in this ma- chine can be calculated using (5) and MMF of the damper winding through (6) [22]. The winding factor, K w1 , is 0.9341 considering a coil pitch of 5, angular slot pitch of 30 degrees

and slot per pole per phase value to be 2. T ph is turns per phase equaling 72.

(5)

6 I

ph

T

ph

ac

p

MMF of damper winding

4 2 ac
4
2 ac

6

K

w 1

(6)

Considering a typical design practice, [17], [22], A d , the total area of damper bars per pole is designed to be 40% more than the actual computed value and a current density value, δ d , is considered to be 5 A/mm 2 .

(7)

0.2

A

ac

d

d

Since circular bars are chosen for design simplicity, cross- section of damper bar, a d is designed according to (8) and (9).

(8)

(Totalarea of bars per pole)

(number of damper bars per pole)

A

d

N

d

ad

a

d

  

d

4

d

2

(9)

where, d d is the diameter of the damper bar and is considered to be 7 mm in the machine designed. N d is chosen to be 4 in order to avoid magnetic locking, excessive noise and vibration in the machine. Aluminum was chosen to be the damper mate- rial as used in conventional cage windings.

B. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Back EMF Waveforms

Figure 9 presents the back EMF (phase) waveforms of the three machines. These waveforms illustrate that for Machine A, the peak of the induced EMF is highest, as the magnets are near the air-gap periphery. The shape of this back EMF wave- form, however, clearly depicts that in the available PMSM of the vehicle, it is far away from sinusoidal, as is assumed for

IPMSM’s superficially. The peak comes down for Machine B

as magnets are buried deep, which reduces the magnet induced average torque also for the same armature current, as evident in Fig. 10. Studies presented in Fig. 10 are for an operating condition where γ, the angle between the stator current and back EMF phasors is maintained zero, i.e. the torque under this condition will be only the magnet assisted torque. The interesting fact that comes out from Machine C’s back EMF waveform is that the placement of dampers in strategic posi- tions has increased the peak value, created an intermediate step in the waveform, thereby increasing the fundamental

250 Without Damper (Machine A) Without Damper (Machine B) 150 With Damper (Machine C) 50
250
Without Damper (Machine A)
Without Damper (Machine B)
150
With Damper (Machine C)
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
-50
-150
-250
Time[ms]
Fig. 9.Back EMF (phase) waveforms of Machines A, B and C under a con-
stant speed of 3000 rpm and at zero armature current.
Back EMF [V]

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200 Without Damper (Machine A) Without Damper (Machine B) With Damper (Machine C) 150 100
200
Without Damper (Machine A)
Without Damper (Machine B)
With Damper (Machine C)
150
100
50
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
Torque [Nm]

Stator Current [A pk]

Fig. 10. Developed magnet-induced average torque as a function of increasing stator current for all
Fig. 10. Developed magnet-induced average torque as a function of increasing
stator current for all three machines under a constant speed of 3000 rpm and γ
= 0.
(γ = 70 deg)
200
Machine C (Gamma = 70 deg)
350
(γ= 45deg)
Machine C (Gamma = 45 deg)
(γ = 70deg)
300
Machine B (Gamma = 70 deg)
(γ = 45 deg)
150
Machine B (Gamma = 45 deg)
250
(γ = 45 deg)
Machine A (Gamma = 45 deg)
(γ = 70deg)
Machine A (Gamma = 70 deg)
200
100
150
100
50
50
0
0
0 25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
Torque [Nm] for Machines B&C
Torque [Nm] for Machine A

Stator Current [A pk]

Fig. 11. Developed average torque as a function of increasing stator current for machines A, B and C under a constant speed of 3000 rpm under different γ values.

content, compared to Machine B. This has resulted in an in- crease in the magnet-induced torque for the same armature current in Machine C compared to Machine B, as evident in Fig. 10. It is true that the damper bars are carrying harmonic current components due to the high frequency switching. However, according to [23] and as seen in Fig. 9, the damper bars are also effective in changing the air-gap magnetic flux density distribution. As a result, the damper bars increase the harmon- ic components of the current at no load but suppressing the harmonic components at high load and therefore improving the efficiency. Although adding of damper bars will increase damper copper losses, a decrease in magnet losses due to im- proved waveform of air-gap magnetic flux density and mar- ginal increment in torque/output power will make a contribu- tion for improving the efficiency. However, due to the limited scope of the paper, initial designs and a few noteworthy results from comparative performance analyses between motors with and without dampers are provided in the paper. The authors’ feel that further investigations need to be performed on an optimally designed motor incorporating the designed damper parameters considering various factors to obtain conclusive decisions on the efficiency of the machine.

C. Developed Electromagnetic Torque and Cogging Torque

Magnet induced torque-developing capability of all three ma- chines was tested at a constant speed of 3000 rpm under dif- ferent stator current excitations as shown in Fig. 10. All phase current excitations to the motor were purely sinusoidal. Ma- chine A which has its magnets near the air-gap delivers higher

Motor with Damper (Machine C) Motor without Damper (Machine B) 6 4 2 0 0
Motor with Damper (Machine C)
Motor without Damper (Machine B)
6
4
2
0
0
3
6
9
12
15
-2
-4
-6
Time [ms]
Torque [Nm]

Fig. 12.Cogging torques of Machines B and C.

torque than the other two machines due to the reason that the

concentration of magnet flux in the air-gap is more than that of the other two machines. The point to note is that the Machine

C tends to produce more magnet-induced average torque than

Machine B, even though the magnet placements in both ma- chines B and C are maintained the same. The increase in the torque in Machine C can be attributed to the flux guiding ca-

pability of the damper bars.

In order to study the variation of the total electromagnetic

torque (comprising of the reluctance and magnet assisted

torque components in an IPMSM) with increasing stator cur- rents for Machines B and C, developed torques at two different

non-zero γ values are presented in Fig. 11. The trends seem to

be almost similar. Cogging torque corresponds to the interaction torque due to the shape, dimensions and number of the stator teeth, damper bars and the permanent magnets. This torque component is generally small compared to the full load torque. Cogging torque is an undesirable component for the operation of such PMSMs as it is very prominent in low speeds of the motor causing jerkiness as in the case of a direct drive EV driven under urban conditions. Various techniques are presented in the literature to reduce

the cogging torque in PMSMs based on optimal design of sta-

tor tooth, slot opening, magnet configuration and skewing of either stator teeth or magnet poles [24] [25]. However, usage of damper bars has not been investigated to the best knowledge of the authors. Fig. 12 presents the cogging torque determined for both the machines B and C by moving the rotor

at the speed of 1 deg/s when all the coils excitations are main-

tained at zero. It is apparent that the cogging torque in Ma- chine C with damper is lesser than that of machine B. The cogging torque arising out of the interaction of stator teeth/slot and magnets in Machine B is present in Machine C also but its effect is found to get partially nullified by another cogging torque component arising out of the interaction of the stator teeth/slots with the damper slots and this effect is therefore extremely beneficial.

D. Harmonics

Figure13 shows the harmonic spectrum of back EMFs (re- ferred to as no load EMF in the figure) in Machines B and C.

It is seen that the third harmonics in Machine C are relatively

higher than that of Machine B. In case of 3-phase PMSMs, the triplen harmonic EMFs from the line EMFs get eliminated by star connection. Hence, in the time of winding, attention was mainly directed for the attenuation of 5 th and 7 th harmonics by adopting a chording angle of 30° in the EV motor designed with and without dampers [26]. 5 th and 7 th harmonic amplitudes

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100 80 Without Damper (Machine B) 60 With Damper (Machine C) 40 20 0 1
100
80
Without Damper (Machine B)
60
With Damper (Machine C)
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
% of Fundamental
No-Load EMF

Harmonic Modes

Fig. 13.Harmonic spectrum of the back EMF for Machines B and C.

are comparable in both the machines although they have high- er values in Machine C. The authors feel that an optimal de- sign of the rotor bars in terms of number of rotor bars and electrical parameters of the damper bars can improve harmon- ic suppression also. Additionally, this can be further sup- pressed by skewing the rotor as conventionally done.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

This research manuscript exclusively investigated an IPMSM drive with damper bars in the rotor for improvement in performances for an electrified vehicle application. This is the novelty of the paper. Through dq axis modeling approach and FEA based designs the performance of an existing traction motor on-board a commercially available EV was investigated with and without incorporating the damper bars. Incorporation of proper damper parameters have been found to improve tran- sient response of the drive in high speed region of the IPMSM traction motor drive, maintaining satisfactory power quality and less torque ripples. It also causes to isolate the machine faster from the power converter on occurrence of short circuit faults at the machine terminals. Additionally, placement of damper bars strategically at proper locations in the rotor can cause the back EMF distribution to become more sinusoidal and hence can increase the magnet assisted torque component in the IPMSM’s. It is also shown that the damper is capable of reducing cogging torques.

V. APPENDIX

The equivalent circuit parameters of the IPMSM available on- board a commercial EV are:

R s = 0.0065 Ohm, L ls = 0.15 mH, L d = 1.598 mH, L q = 2.057 mH, λ= 0.1757 Wb.t

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Xiaomin Lu received her Bachelor in Engineering from Sun-Yet Sen University, China in July, 2010 and Doctoral degree in electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Windsor, Canada in 2014. She is currently a Research Engineer. Her research areas include modeling and analysis of permanent magnet synchronous machines & drives and condition monitoring for electric vehicle drive-train system and power system applications.Xiaomin Lu

K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer received the B.Tech. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from SASTRA University, India, in the year 2009 and the M.A.Sc. degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from University of Windsor, Canada in the year 2011. He is currently pursuing his Doctoral studies in Electrical and Computer Engineering, under the Canada Research Chair Program in Electrified Transportation Systems at the University of Windsor, Canada. His research presently focuses on electric machines & drives and associated sustainable energy solutions for electrified transportation application.K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2014.2367023, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Kaushik Mukherjee (M’03) was born in 1970. He re- ceived the B.E. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India, in 1993, the M.E. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Engineering College, Howrah, India, in 1998, and the Ph.D. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, in 2003. Since 1993, he has spent al- most two and a half years in the industry. In 2002, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, Jadavpur University, India as a Lecturer. From 2006 onwards, he is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engi- neering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah, India. Dr. Mukherjee is presently a Visiting Professor at the Centre for Hybrid Automo- tive Research & Green Energy, University of Windsor, Canada. His research interests include electrical machine drives and power electronics applications in general.Kaushik Mukherjee (M’03) was born in 1970. He r

Kannan Ramkumar received the B.Tech degree in In- strumentation and control engineering from Madurai Kamaraj University in 1997; subsequently he did his M.Tech from Regional Engineering College, Trichy in 2000 and obtained his Ph.D. degree in Control Engineer- ing from SASTRA University, India in 2010. Since June 1998, he has been with the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, where he was a Lecturer, became an Assistant Professor in 2008 and an Associate Professor in 2011. He is current- ly a Visiting Professor at the Centre for Hybrid Automotive Research & Green Energy, University of Windsor, Canada. His current research interests include Mobile Robotics, Estimation and Control theory and electrical drive systems.Kannan Ramkumar

Estimation and Control theory and electrical drive systems. Narayan C. Kar received the B.Sc. degree in

Narayan C. Kar received the B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 1992 and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido, Japan, in 1997 and 2000, respectively. He is an associate professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Windsor, Canada where he holds the Canada Research Chair position in hybrid drivetrain systems. His research presently focuses on the analysis, design and control of permanent magnet synchronous, induction and switched reluctance machines for hybrid electric vehicle and wind power applications, testing and performance analysis of batteries and development of optimization techniques for hybrid energy management sys- tem. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.

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