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The Mesozoic Era, covering an interval of Earth history from about 230 million to 65 million

years ago, comprises three geologic time periods: Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. The
term, meaning "middle life," was introduced in 1841 by the English geologist John Phillips.
In most places the rock layers deposited during the three eras are separated from one another
by unconformities, breaks in the sequence of deposition of the geologic record.

Paleogeography and Tectonics


The Mesozoic was a time of transition in the history of life and in the evolution of the Earth.
By the close of the Paleozoic Era, geosynclines were confined to the Tethys Seas (modern
Mediterranean Sea and Middle East) and circum-Pacific region, the others having undergone
the final phases of mountain-building orogenies that transformed them into ranges. According
to the theory of plate tectonics, the supercontinent of Pangaea, created by the merging of the
ancestral continents during the Paleozoic Era, was slowly torn apart during the Mesozoic. In
the Jurassic, shallow seas spread northward out of the Tethys and southward from the Arctic
onto western Europe. This also happened in North America, where an Arctic sea spread over
the present-day Rocky Mountains south to Utah; the area adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico and
Atlantic coastal plain was also inundated. These seas retreated by the end of the Jurassic but
returned in the Early Cretaceous to roughly their former extent: one reached from the Gulf of
Mexico to the Arctic, another covered much of western Europe, and a broad channel spread
across the Sahara, joining the Gulf of Guinea and the Tethys. At the close of the Cretaceous
Period the seas retreated from the continents. Deformation of the Earth's crust, minor during
the Triassic, intensified in the Jurassic and reached a peak in the Cretaceous, during which
time our present Alpine-Himalayan chain, Rocky Mountains, and Andes began forming.
Carbonates are the major sedimentary rock of the Mesozoic in the Tethyan belt; outside this
region, detrital rocks predominate. Desert deposits and red bed facies are characteristic of the
Triassic, as is chalk of the Cretaceous.

Mesozoikum Era, meliputi selang sejarah Bumi dari 230 juta sampai 65 juta tahun yang lalu,
terdiri dari tiga geologi periode waktu: Trias, Jura, dan Kapur. Istilah, yang berarti "hidup
tengah," diperkenalkan pada tahun 1841 oleh ahli geologi Inggris John Phillips. Di
kebanyakan tempat lapisan batuan diendapkan selama tiga era dipisahkan satu sama lain oleh
ketidakselarasan, istirahat di urutan pengendapan catatan geologi.
Paleogeografi dan Tektonik

Mesozoikum adalah waktu transisi dalam sejarah kehidupan dan dalam evolusi Bumi.
Dengan penutupan Era Paleozoic, teori geosinklin yang terbatas pada Seas Tethys (yang
modern Laut Mediterania dan Timur Tengah) dan sirkum-Pasifik, yang lain telah menjalani
tahap akhir orogenies gunung-bangunan yang mengubah mereka menjadi rentang. Menurut
teori lempeng tektonik, superbenua Pangaea, yang diciptakan oleh penggabungan dari benua
leluhur selama Era Paleozoic, perlahan terkoyak selama Mesozoikum. Dalam Jurassic, laut
dangkal menyebar ke utara keluar dari Tethys dan selatan dari Kutub Utara ke Eropa Barat.
Hal ini juga terjadi di Amerika Utara, di mana penyebaran laut Arktik selama masa kini
Rocky Mountains selatan ke Utah; daerah yang berdekatan dengan Teluk Meksiko dan
dataran pantai Atlantik juga terendam. laut ini mundur pada akhir Jurassic namun kembali di
Kapur Awal kira-kira mantan sejauh mereka: satu dicapai dari Teluk Meksiko ke Kutub
Utara, yang lain menutupi sebagian besar Eropa Barat, dan saluran penyebaran yang luas di
seluruh Sahara, bergabung dengan Teluk Guinea dan Tethys. Pada penutupan Periode
Cretaceous laut mundur dari benua. Deformasi kerak bumi, kecil selama Trias, intensif di
Jurassic dan mencapai puncaknya di Cretaceous, selama waktu kita sekarang Alpine-
Himalaya rantai, Rocky Mountains, dan Andes mulai membentuk.

Karbonat adalah batuan sedimen utama dari Mesozoikum di sabuk Tethyan; luar daerah ini,
batu detrital mendominasi. Desert deposito dan facies tidur merah merupakan ciri khas dari
Trias, seperti kapur dari Kapur.

http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/mesozoic-era

Distribution of landmasses, mountainous regions, shallow seas, and deep ocean basins during
the

Adapted from: C.R. Scotese, The University of Texas at Arlington


Triassic Period, in geologic time, the first period of the Mesozoic Era. It began 252 million
years ago, at the close of the Permian Period, and ended 201 million years ago, when it was
succeeded by the Jurassic Period.

The Triassic Period marked the beginning of major changes that were to take place
throughout the Mesozoic Era, particularly in the distribution of continents, the evolution of
life, and the geographic distribution of living things. At the beginning of the Triassic,
virtually all the major landmasses of the world were collected into the supercontinent
of Pangea. Terrestrial climates were predominately warm and dry (though seasonal monsoons
occurred over large areas), and the Earths crust was relatively quiescent. At the end of the
Triassic, however, plate tectonic activity picked up, and a period of continental rifting began.
On the margins of the continents, shallow seas, which had dwindled in area at the end of the
Permian, became more extensive; as sea levels gradually rose, the waters of continental
shelves were colonized for the first time by large marine reptiles and reef-building corals of
modern aspect.
The Triassic followed on the heels of the largest mass extinction in the history of the Earth.
This event occurred at the end of the Permian, when 85 to 95 percent of marine invertebrate
species and 70 percent of terrestrial vertebrate genera died out. During the recovery of life in
the Triassic Period, the relative importance of land animals grew. Reptilesincreased in
diversity and number, and the first dinosaurs appeared, heralding the great radiation that

Another episode of mass extinction occurred at the end of the Triassic. Though this event was
less devastating than its counterpart at the end of the Permian, it did result in drastic
reductions of some living populationsparticularly of the ammonoids, primitive mollusks
that have served as important index fossils for assigning relative ages to various strata in the
Triassic System of rocks.
The name Trias (later modified to Triassic) was first proposed in 1834 by the German
paleontologist Friedrich August von Alberti for a sequence of rock strata in
central Germany that lay above Permian rocks and below Jurassic rocks. (The name Trias
referred to the division of these strata into three units: the Bunter [or
Buntsandstein], Muschelkalk, and Keuper.) Albertis rock sequence, which became known as
the Germanic facies, had many drawbacks as a standard for assigning relative ages to
Triassic rocks from other regions of the world, and so for much of the 19th and 20th centuries
Triassic stages were based mainly on type sections from the Alpine facies in
Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy. Since the mid-20th century more complete
sequences have been discovered in North America, and these now serve as the standard for
Triassic time in general. Meanwhile, studies of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics have
yielded important new information on the paleogeography and paleoclimatology of the
Triassic, allowing for a better understanding of the evolution and extinction of life-forms and
of the paleoecology and paleobiogeography of the period. In addition, paleontologists
continue to be occupied with defining the lower and upper boundaries of the Triassic System
on a worldwide basis and with understanding the reasons for the mass extinctions that took
place at those boundaries.

Periode Triassic, dalam waktu geologi, periode pertama dari Era Mesozoic. Ini dimulai 252
juta tahun yang lalu, pada penutupan Periode Permian, dan berakhir 201 juta tahun yang lalu,
ketika digantikan oleh Periode Jurassic.

Periode Trias menandai awal dari perubahan besar yang terjadi di seluruh Era Mesozoikum,
khususnya dalam distribusi benua, evolusi kehidupan, dan distribusi geografis dari makhluk
hidup. Pada awal Trias, hampir semua daratan utama dunia dikumpulkan ke dalam
superbenua Pangea. iklim terestrial yang didominasi hangat dan kering (meskipun musim
hujan musiman terjadi di daerah yang luas), dan kerak bumi relatif diam. Pada akhir Triassic,
namun, piring aktivitas tektonik dijemput, dan periode rifting benua mulai. Di pinggiran
benua, laut dangkal, yang telah menyusut di daerah pada akhir Permian, menjadi lebih luas;
sebagai permukaan air laut secara bertahap naik, perairan landas kontinen dijajah untuk
pertama kalinya oleh reptil laut besar dan karang pembentuk terumbu aspek modern.

Trias diikuti pada tumit dari kepunahan massal terbesar dalam sejarah Bumi. Peristiwa ini
terjadi pada akhir periode Permian, ketika 85 hingga 95 persen spesies invertebrata laut dan
70 persen dari hewan bertulang belakang genera mati. Selama pemulihan kehidupan di
periode Triassic, kepentingan relatif dari hewan darat tumbuh. Reptilesincreased dalam
keragaman dan nomor, dan dinosaurus pertama muncul, menggembar-gemborkan radiasi
besar yang akan mencirikan kelompok ini selama periode Jurassic dan Cretaceous. Akhirnya,
akhir Triassic melihat penampilan pertama mamalia-kecil, bulu-bantalan, shrewlike hewan
yang berasal dari reptil.

episode lain dari kepunahan massal terjadi pada akhir Triassic. Meskipun acara ini kurang
menghancurkan dari rekan di akhir Permian, hal itu mengakibatkan penurunan drastis dari
beberapa populasi-terutama hidup dari ammonoids, moluska primitif yang telah menjabat
sebagai fosil indeks penting untuk menetapkan usia relatif terhadap berbagai strata di Trias
Sistem batuan.

Nama Trias (kemudian dimodifikasi untuk Trias) pertama kali diusulkan pada tahun 1834
oleh ahli paleontologi Jerman Friedrich August von Alberti untuk urutan lapisan batuan di
Jerman Tengah yang terletak di atas batu Permian dan di bawah batu Jurassic. (Nama Trias
disebut pembagian strata ini ke dalam tiga unit. Yang Bunter [atau Buntsandstein],
Muschelkalk, dan Keuper) Alberti urutan batuan, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai "facies
Jerman," memiliki banyak kekurangan sebagai standar untuk menetapkan usia relatif Trias
batu dari daerah lain di dunia, dan untuk sebagian besar abad 19 dan 20 Trias tahap
didasarkan terutama pada jenis bagian dari "Alpine facies" di Austria, Swiss, dan Italia utara.
Sejak pertengahan abad ke-20 urutan yang lebih lengkap telah ditemukan di Amerika Utara,
dan ini sekarang berfungsi sebagai standar untuk waktu Trias pada umumnya. Sementara itu,
studi dasar laut menyebar dan lempeng tektonik telah menghasilkan informasi baru yang
penting pada paleogeography dan paleoklimatologi dari Trias, memungkinkan untuk lebih
memahami evolusi dan kepunahan bentuk kehidupan dan dari paleoecology dan
paleobiogeography periode. Selain itu, ahli paleontologi terus sibuk dengan mendefinisikan
batas-batas bawah dan atas dari Sistem Trias pada dasar di seluruh dunia dan dengan
memahami alasan untuk kepunahan massal yang berlangsung di batas-batas.

https://www.britannica.com/science/Triassic-Period

Distribution of landmasses, mountainous regions, shallow seas, and deep ocean basins during
the

Adapted from: C.R. Scotese, The University of Texas at Arlington

Jurassic Period, second of three periods of the Mesozoic Era, extending from 201.3 million
to 145 million years ago. It immediately followed the Triassic Period (252.2 million to 201.3
million years ago) and was succeeded by the Cretaceous Period (145 million to 66 million
years ago). The Morrison Formation of the United States and the Solnhofen
Limestone of Germany, both famous for their exceptionally well-preserved fossils, are
geologic features that were formed during Jurassic times.

The Jurassic was a time of significant global change in continental configurations,


oceanographic patterns, and biological systems. During this period the
supercontinent Pangea split apart, allowing for the eventual development of what are now the
central Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Heightened plate tectonic movement led to
significant volcanic activity, mountain-building events, and attachment of islands onto
continents. Shallow seaways covered many continents, and marine and marginal marine
sediments were deposited, preserving a diverse set of fossils. Rock strata laid down during
the Jurassic Period have yielded gold, coal, petroleum, and other natural resources.

During the Early Jurassic, animals and plants living both on land and in the seas recovered
from one of the largest mass extinctions in Earthhistory. Many groups of vertebrate
and invertebrate organisms important in the modern world made their first appearance during
the Jurassic. Life was especially diverse in the oceansthriving reef ecosystems, shallow-
water invertebrate communities, and large swimming predators, including reptiles and
squidlike animals. On land, dinosaurs and flying pterosaurs dominated the ecosystems, and
birds made their first appearance. Early mammals also were present, though they were still
fairly insignificant. Insect populations were diverse, and plants were dominated by
the gymnosperms, or naked-seed plants.

The Jurassic Period was named early in the 19th century, by the French geologist and
mineralogist Alexandre Brongniart, for the Jura Mountainsbetween France and Switzerland.
Much of the initial work by geologists in trying to correlate rocks and develop a
relative geologic time scale was conducted on Jurassic strata in western Europe.

THE JURASSIC ENVIRONMENT

Paleogeography
Although the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea had already started in the Triassic Period,
the continents were still very close together at the beginning of Jurassic time. The landmasses
were grouped into a northern regionLaurasiaconsisting of North America and Eurasia,
and a southern regionGondwanaconsisting of South America, Africa, India, Antarctica,
and Australia. These two regions were separated by Tethys, a tropical east-west seaway.
During the Jurassic, spreading centres and oceanic rifts formed between North America and
Eurasia, between North America and Gondwana, and between the various segments of
Gondwana itself. In the steadily opening, though still restricted, ocean basins, there was a
continuous accumulation of thick flood basalts and a subsequent deposition of sediments.
Some of these deposits, such as salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico and oil-bearing shales of
the North Sea, are economically important today. In addition to ocean basin spreading,
continental rifting initiated during the Jurassic, eventually separating Africa and South
America from Antarctica, India, and Madagascar. The numerous microplates and blocks
making up the complex Caribbean region today can be traced to this time interval.
To accommodate the production of new seafloor along the proto-Atlantic Ocean,
significant subduction zones (where seafloor is destroyed) were active along virtually all the
continental margins around Pangea as well as in southern Tibet, southeastern Europe, and
other areas. All along the west coast of North, Central, and South America, plate tectonic
activity in the subduction zones brought on the initial formation of north-south mountain
ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and the Andes. Along western North America, several
terranes (islands or microcontinents riding on a moving plate) were brought east on oceanic
crust and collided with the continent, including parts of a microcontinent that collided into
the Alaskan and Siberian regions in the northern Pacific. These collisions added to the growth
of the North American continent and its mountain chains. One mountain-building event,
known as the Nevadan orogeny, resulted in the emplacement of massive igneous and
metamorphic rocks from Alaska to Baja California. Granites formed in the Sierra Nevadas
during this time can be seen today in Yosemite National Park, California.
BRITANNICA STORIES

In the Early Jurassic the western interior of North America was covered by a vast sand sea,
or ergone of the largest deposits of dune sands in the geologic record. These deposits
(including the Navajo Sandstone) are prominent in a number of places today, including Zion
National Park, Utah. In Middle and early Late Jurassic times, the western regions of North
America were covered by shallow seaways that advanced and retreated repeatedly, leaving
successive accumulations of marine sandstones, limestones, and shales. By Late Jurassic time
the seaway had retreated, and strata bearing dinosaur fossils were deposited in river
floodplains and stream channel environments, such as those recorded in the Morrison
Formation, Montana.

Cross-bedded sandstone cliffs in Zion National Park, Utah, U.S.

Peter L. Kresan

Records of sea level changes can be found on every continent. However, because of the
significant tectonic activity occurring around the world, it is not clear which of these local
changes can be correlated to global sea level change. Because there is no evidence of major
glaciations in the Jurassic, any global sea level change must have been due to thermal
expansion of seawater or plate tectonic activity (such as major activity at seafloor ridges).
Some geologists have proposed that average sea levels increased from Early to Late Jurassic
time.

Paleoclimate
Jurassic climates can be reconstructed from the analyses of fossil and sediment distribution
and from geochemical analyses. Fossils of warm-adapted plants are found up to 60 N and
60 S paleolatitude, suggesting an expanded tropical zone. In higher paleolatitudes, ferns and
other frost-sensitive plants indicate that there was a less severe temperature difference
between the Equator and the poles than exists today. Despite this decreased temperature
gradient, there was a marked difference in marine invertebrates from northern higher
latitudesthe boreal realmand the tropical Tethyan realm. Decreased latitudinal
temperature gradients probably led to decreased zonal winds.

Large salt deposits dating from the Jurassic represent areas of high aridity, while extensive
coal deposits suggest areas of high precipitation. It has been suggested that an arid belt
existed on the western side of Pangea, while more-humid conditions existed in the east. These
conditions may have been caused by large landmasses affecting wind and precipitation in a
manner similar to that of modern continents.

Analyses of oxygen isotopes in marine fossils suggest that Jurassic global temperatures were
generally quite warm. Geochemical evidence suggests that surface waters in the low latitudes
were about 20 C (68 F), while deep waters were about 17 C (63 F). Coolest temperatures
existed during the Middle Jurassic and warmest temperatures in the Late Jurassic. A drop in
temperatures occurred at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

It has been suggested that increased volcanic and seafloor-spreading activity during the
Jurassic released large amounts of carbon dioxidea greenhouse gasand led to higher
global temperatures. Warm temperatures and decreased latitudinal gradients also may be
related to the Tethys Sea, which distributed warm, tropical waters around the world. Ocean
circulation was probably fairly sluggish because of the warm temperatures, lack of ocean
density gradients, and decreased winds. As stated above, there is no evidence of glaciation or
polar ice caps in the Jurassic. This may have been caused by the lack of a continental
landmass in a polar position or by generally warm conditions; however, because of the
complex relationships between temperature, geographic configurations, and glaciations, it is
difficult to state a definite cause and effect.

Periode Jurassic, kedua dari tiga periode dari Era Mesozoic, memperluas 201.300.000-
145.000.000 tahun yang lalu. Segera diikuti periode Triassic (252.200.000-201.300.000 tahun
yang lalu) dan digantikan oleh Periode Cretaceous (145.000.000-66.000.000 tahun yang lalu).
Morrison Pembentukan Amerika Serikat dan Solnhofen Limestone dari Jerman, keduanya
terkenal karena fosil mereka sangat terawat baik, adalah fitur geologi yang terbentuk pada
masa Jurassic.
Jurassic adalah masa perubahan yang signifikan global dalam konfigurasi benua, pola
oseanografi, dan sistem biologi. Selama periode ini superbenua Pangea terpecah, yang
memungkinkan untuk pengembangan akhirnya apa yang sekarang Samudera Atlantik pusat
dan Teluk Meksiko. Semakin tingginya lempeng gerakan tektonik menyebabkan aktivitas
signifikan vulkanik, peristiwa pembentukan gunung, dan lampiran pulau ke benua. seaways
dangkal ditutupi banyak benua, dan laut dan marginal sedimen laut diendapkan, melestarikan
beragam rangkaian fosil. Batu strata meletakkan selama Periode Jurassic telah menghasilkan
emas, batubara, minyak bumi, dan sumber daya alam lainnya.

Selama Awal Jurassic, hewan dan tumbuhan yang hidup baik di darat dan di laut pulih dari
salah satu kepunahan massal terbesar di Earthhistory. Banyak kelompok vertebrata dan
invertebrata organisme penting dalam dunia modern membuat penampilan pertama mereka
selama Jurassic. Hidup terutama beragam di ekosistem lautan-berkembang karang,
masyarakat invertebrata air dangkal, dan predator renang besar, termasuk reptil dan hewan
squidlike. Di darat, dinosaurus dan terbang pterosaurus mendominasi ekosistem, dan burung
membuat penampilan pertama mereka. Awal mamalia juga hadir, meskipun mereka masih
cukup signifikan. populasi serangga yang beragam, dan tanaman didominasi oleh
gymnosperma, atau "telanjang-benih" tanaman.

Periode Jurassic bernama awal abad ke-19, oleh ahli geologi Perancis dan mineralogi
Alexandre Brongniart, untuk Jura Mountainsbetween Perancis dan Swiss. Sebagian besar
pekerjaan awal oleh ahli geologi dalam mencoba untuk mengkorelasikan batu dan
mengembangkan geologi skala waktu relatif dilakukan pada strata Jurassic di Eropa Barat.

THE JURASSIC LINGKUNGAN

paleogeography

Meskipun pecahnya Pangea superbenua sudah mulai di periode Triassic, benua masih sangat
dekat bersama-sama di awal waktu Jurassic. The daratan dikelompokkan menjadi utara
wilayah-Laurasia-yang terdiri dari Amerika Utara dan Eurasia, dan selatan wilayah-
Gondwana-yang terdiri dari Amerika Selatan, Afrika, India, Antartika, dan Australia. Kedua
daerah dipisahkan oleh Tethys, tropis timur-barat Seaway. Selama Jurassic, pusat penyebaran
dan perpecahan samudera terbentuk antara Amerika Utara dan Eurasia, antara Amerika Utara
dan Gondwana, dan antara berbagai segmen Gondwana sendiri. Dalam cekungan laut terus
membuka, meskipun masih terbatas,, ada akumulasi terus menerus dari basal banjir tebal dan
deposisi berikutnya sedimen. Beberapa deposito tersebut, seperti deposito garam di Teluk
Meksiko dan serpih bantalan minyak di Laut Utara, secara ekonomi penting hari ini. Selain
cekungan laut menyebar, benua rifting dimulai pada Jurassic, akhirnya memisahkan Afrika
dan Amerika Selatan dari Antartika, India, dan Madagaskar. Banyak microplates dan blok
yang membentuk kawasan Karibia yang kompleks saat dapat ditelusuri ke interval waktu ini.

Untuk mengakomodasi produksi dasar laut baru di sepanjang proto-Samudra Atlantik, zona
subduksi yang signifikan (di mana dasar laut hancur) yang aktif sepanjang hampir semua tepi
benua sekitar Pangea serta di Tibet selatan, tenggara Eropa, dan daerah lain. Sepanjang pantai
barat Amerika Utara, Tengah, dan Amerika Selatan, piring aktivitas tektonik di zona
subduksi membawa pada pembentukan awal pegunungan utara-selatan seperti Pegunungan
Rocky dan Andes. Seiring barat Amerika Utara, beberapa terranes (pulau atau
microcontinents naik di atas piring yang bergerak) dibawa timur pada kerak samudera dan
bertabrakan dengan benua, termasuk bagian dari mikrokontinen yang bertabrakan ke daerah
Alaska dan Siberia di Pasifik utara. tabrakan ini ditambahkan ke pertumbuhan benua
Amerika Utara dan rantai gunung tersebut. Salah satu acara pembentukan gunung, yang
dikenal sebagai orogeny Nevadan, mengakibatkan emplacement batuan beku dan metamorf
besar dari Alaska ke Baja California. Granit terbentuk di Sierra Nevadas selama ini dapat
dilihat hari ini di Taman Nasional Yosemite, California.

CERITA Britannica

Di awal Jurassic interior barat Amerika Utara ditutupi oleh lautan pasir yang luas, atau erg-
salah satu deposit terbesar dari pasir dune dalam catatan geologi. Deposito tersebut (termasuk
Navajo Sandstone) yang menonjol di sejumlah tempat saat ini, termasuk Zion National Park,
Utah. Di Tengah dan awal Akhir kali Jurassic, wilayah barat Amerika Utara ditutupi oleh
jalur laut dangkal yang maju dan mundur berulang kali, meninggalkan akumulasi berturut
batupasir laut, batugamping, dan serpih. Pada saat Jura Akhir seaway telah mundur, dan
bantalan strata fosil dinosaurus yang disimpan di dataran banjir sungai dan aliran lingkungan
channel, seperti yang tercatat dalam Formasi Morrison, Montana.

Cross-bedded tebing batu pasir di Zion National Park, Utah, AS

Peter L. Kresan

Catatan perubahan permukaan laut dapat ditemukan di setiap benua. Namun, karena aktivitas
tektonik signifikan yang terjadi di seluruh dunia, tidak jelas mana yang perubahan lokal dapat
dikorelasikan dengan perubahan permukaan laut global. Karena tidak ada bukti glasiasi
utama dalam Jurassic, setiap perubahan permukaan laut global harus telah karena ekspansi
termal air laut atau piring aktivitas tektonik (seperti aktivitas utama di pegunungan dasar
laut). Beberapa ahli geologi telah mengusulkan bahwa permukaan laut rata-rata meningkat
dari awal ke waktu Jurassic Akhir.

paleoklimatik

iklim Jurassic dapat direkonstruksi dari analisis fosil dan distribusi sedimen dan dari analisis
geokimia. Fosil tumbuhan hangat-disesuaikan ditemukan hingga 60 N dan 60 S
paleolatitude, menunjukkan zona tropis diperluas. Dalam paleolatitudes lebih tinggi, pakis
dan tanaman frost-sensitif lainnya menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan suhu kurang parah
antara Khatulistiwa dan kutub dari yang ada saat ini. Meskipun ini menurun gradien suhu,
ada perbedaan yang jelas dalam invertebrata laut dari utara lintang-tinggi boreal ranah-dan
Tethyan ranah tropis. Penurunan gradien suhu lintang mungkin menyebabkan angin zonal
menurun.

endapan garam besar berasal dari Jurassic tersebut merupakan daerah kekeringan yang tinggi,
sedangkan deposito batubara luas menyarankan daerah curah hujan tinggi. Ia telah
mengemukakan bahwa sabuk gersang ada di sisi barat Pangea, sementara kondisi yang lebih
lembab ada di timur. Kondisi ini mungkin disebabkan oleh daratan besar yang mempengaruhi
angin dan curah hujan dengan cara yang sama dengan yang benua modern.

Analisis isotop oksigen dalam fosil laut menunjukkan bahwa suhu global Jurassic umumnya
cukup hangat. bukti geokimia menunjukkan bahwa permukaan air di lintang rendah sekitar
20 C (68 F), sedangkan perairan dalam sekitar 17 C (63 F). suhu paling keren ada
selama suhu Jurassic Tengah dan terpanas di Jurassic Akhir. Penurunan suhu terjadi pada
batas Jurassic-Cretaceous.

Ia telah mengemukakan bahwa peningkatan aktivitas vulkanik dan dasar laut menyebar
selama Jurassic merilis sejumlah besar gas karbon-dioksida dan-rumah kaca menyebabkan
suhu global yang lebih tinggi. suhu hangat dan penurunan gradien lintang juga mungkin
terkait dengan Laut Tethys, yang didistribusikan hangat, perairan tropis di seluruh dunia.
sirkulasi laut mungkin cukup lesu karena suhu hangat, kurangnya gradien kepadatan laut, dan
penurunan angin. Sebagaimana dinyatakan di atas, tidak ada bukti dari glaciation atau es
kutub di Jurassic. Ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kurangnya daratan benua dalam posisi kutub
atau dengan kondisi umumnya hangat; Namun, karena hubungan yang kompleks antara
temperatur, konfigurasi geografis, dan glasiasi, sulit untuk menyatakan penyebab pasti dan
efek.

https://www.britannica.com/science/Jurassic-Period
Distribution of landmasses, mountainous regions, shallow seas, and deep ocean basins during
the

Adapted from C.R. Scotese, The University of Texas at Arlington

Cretaceous Period, in geologic time, the last of the three periods of the Mesozoic Era. The
Cretaceous began 145.0 million years ago and ended 66 million years ago; it followed
the Jurassic Period and was succeeded by the Paleogene Period (the first of the two periods
into which the Tertiary Period was divided). The Cretaceous is the longest period of
the Phanerozoic Eon. Spanning 79 million years, it represents more time than has elapsed
since the extinction of the dinosaurs, which occurred at the end of the period.
The name Cretaceous is derived from creta, Latin for chalk, and was first proposed
by J.B.J. Omalius dHalloy in 1822. DHalloy had been commissioned to make a geologic
map of France, and part of his task was to decide upon the geologic units to be represented by
it. One of his units, the Terrain Crtac, included chalks and underlying sands. Chalk is a
soft, fine-grained type of limestone composed predominantly of the armourlike plates
of coccolithophores, tiny floating algae that flourished during the Late Cretaceous. Most
Cretaceous rocks are not chalks, but most chalks were deposited during the Cretaceous. Many
of these rocks provide clear and easily accessed details of the period because they have not
been deformed or eroded and are relatively close to the surfaceas can be seen in the white
cliffs bordering the Strait of Dover between France and England.

The Cretaceous Period began with Earths land assembled essentially into two
continents, Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south. These were almost completely
separated by the equatorial Tethys seaway, and the various segments of Laurasia
and Gondwana had already started to rift apart. North America had just begun pulling away
from Eurasia during the Jurassic, and South America had started to split off from Africa,
from which India, Australia, and Antarctica were also separating. When the Cretaceous
Period ended, most of the present-day continents were separated from each other by expanses
of water such as the North and South Atlantic Ocean. At the end of the period, India was
adrift in the Indian Ocean, and Australia was still connected to Antarctica.
SIMILAR TOPICS

The climate was generally warmer and more humid than today, probably because of very
active volcanism associated with unusually high rates of seafloor spreading. The polar
regions were free of continental ice sheets, their land instead covered by forest. Dinosaurs
roamed Antarctica, even with its long winter night.
The lengthy Cretaceous Period constitutes a major portion of the interval between ancient
life-forms and those that dominate Earth today. Dinosaurs were the dominant group of land
animals, especially duck-billed dinosaurs (hadrosaurs), such as Shantungosaurus, and
horned forms, such as Triceratops. Giant marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs,
and plesiosaurs were common in the seas, and flying reptiles (pterosaurs) dominated the sky.
Flowering plants (angiosperms) arose close to the beginning of the Cretaceous and became
more abundant as the period progressed. The Late Cretaceous was a time of great
productivity in the worlds oceans, as borne out by the deposition of thick beds of chalk in
western Europe, eastern Russia, southern Scandinavia, the Gulf Coast of North America, and
western Australia. The Cretaceous ended with one of the greatest mass extinctions in the
history of Earth, exterminating the dinosaurs, marine and flying reptiles, and many marine
invertebrates.
THE CRETACEOUS ENVIRONMENT
Paleogeography
The position of Earths landmasses changed significantly during the Cretaceous Periodnot
unexpected, given its long duration. At the onset of the period there existed two
supercontinents, Gondwana in the south and Laurasia in the north. South
America, Africa (including the adjoining pieces of what are now the Arabian Peninsula and
the Middle East), Antarctica, Australia, India, Madagascar, and several smaller landmasses
were joined in Gondwana in the south, while North America, Greenland,
and Eurasia (including Southeast Asia) formed Laurasia. Africa had split from South
America, the last land connection being between Brazil and Nigeria. As a result, the
South Atlantic Ocean joined with the widening North Atlantic. In the region of the Indian
Ocean, Africa and Madagascarseparated from India, Australia, and Antarctica in Late
Jurassic to Early Cretaceous times. Once separated from Australia and Antarctica, India
began its journey northward, which culminated in a later collision with Asia during
the Cenozoic Era. Madagascar broke away from Africa during the Late Cretaceous,
and Greenland separated from North America. Australia was still joined to Antarctica. These
were barely attached at the junction of what are now North and South America.

Sea level was higher during most of the Cretaceous than at any other time in Earth history,
and it was a major factor influencing the paleogeography of the period. In general, world
oceans were about 100 to 200 metres (330 to 660 feet) higher in the Early Cretaceous and
roughly 200 to 250 metres (660 to 820 feet) higher in the Late Cretaceous than at present.
The high Cretaceous sea level is thought to have been primarily the result of water in
the ocean basins being displaced by the enlargement of midoceanic ridges.

As a result of higher sea levels during the Late Cretaceous, marine waters inundated the
continents, creating relatively shallow epicontinental seas in North America, South
America, Europe, Russia, Africa, and Australia. In addition, all continents shrank somewhat
as their margins flooded. At its maximum, land covered only about 18 percent of the Earths
surface, compared with approximately 28 percent today. At times, Arctic waters were
connected to the Tethys seaway through the middle of North America and the central portion
of Russia. On several occasions during the Cretaceous, marine animals living in the South
Atlantic had a seaway for migration to Tethys via what is presently Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and
Libya. Most of western Europe, eastern Australia, parts of Africa, South America, India,
Madagascar, Borneo, and other areas that are now land were entirely covered by marine
waters for some interval of Cretaceous time.
Detailed study indicates 5 to 15 different episodes of rises and falls in sea level. The patterns
of changes for the stable areas throughout history are quite similar, although several
differences are notable. During most of the Early Cretaceous, parts of Arctic Canada, Russia,
and western Australia were underwater, but most of the other areas were not. During the
middle Cretaceous, east-central Australia experienced major inundations called
transgressions. In the Late Cretaceous, most continental landmasses were transgressed but not
always at the same time. One explanation for the lack of a synchronous record is the concept
of geoidal eustacy, in which, it is suggested, as the Earths continents move about, the oceans
bulge at some places to compensate. Eustacy would result in sea level being different from
ocean basin to ocean basin.

Water circulation and mixing were not as great as they are today, because most of the oceans
(e.g., the developing North Atlantic) were constricted, and the temperature differences
between the poles and the Equatorwere minimal. Thus, the oceans experienced frequent
periods of anoxic (oxygenless) conditions in the bottom waters that reveal themselves today
as black shales. Sometimes, particularly during the mid-Cretaceous, conditions extended to
epicontinental seas, as attested by deposits of black shales in the western interior of North
America.
The Cretaceous world had three distinct geographic subdivisions: the northern boreal, the
southern boreal, and the Tethyan region. The Tethyan region separated the two boreal regions
and is recognized by the presence of fossilized reef-forming rudist bivalves, corals,
larger foraminiferans, and certain ammonites that inhabited only the warmer Tethyan waters.
Early in the Cretaceous, North and South America separated sufficiently for the marine
connection between the Tethys Seaand the Pacific to deepen substantially. The Tethys-to-
Pacific marine connection allowed for a strong westward-flowing current, which is inferred
from faunal patterns. For example, as the Cretaceous progressed, the similarity between
rudist bivalves of the Caribbean and western Europe decreased, while some Caribbean forms
have been found on Pacific seamounts, in Southeast Asia, and possibly in the Balkans.

The remnants of the northern boreal realm in North America, Europe, Russia, and Japan have
been extensively studied. It is known, for instance, that sediments in the southwestern
Netherlands indicate several changes of temperature during the Late Cretaceous. These
temperature swings imply that the boundary between the northern boreal areas and the Tethys
region was not constant with time. Russian workers recognize six paleobiogeographic zones:
boreal, which in this context is equivalent to Arctic; European; Mediterranean, including the
central Asian province; Pacific; and two paleofloristic zonations of land. Southern boreal
areas and the rocks representing the southern Tethys margin lack this level of detail.

Magnetically, the Cretaceous was quiet relative to the subsequent Paleogene Period. In
fact, magnetic reversals are not noted for a period of some 42 million years, from the
early Aptian to the late Santonian ages. The lengths of Earths months (see synodic period)
have changed regularly for at least the past 600 million years because of tidal friction and
other forces that slow the Earths rotation. The rate of change in the synodic month was
minimal for most of the Cretaceous but has accelerated since. The reasons for these two
anomalies are not well understood.

Kapur Periode, dalam waktu geologi, yang terakhir dari tiga periode dari Era Mesozoic.
Kapur mulai 145,0 juta tahun yang lalu dan berakhir 66 juta tahun yang lalu; itu diikuti
Periode Jurassic dan digantikan oleh Periode Paleogen (yang pertama dari dua periode di
mana Periode Tersier dibagi). Kapur adalah periode terpanjang dari Eon Fanerozoikum.
Spanning 79 juta tahun, itu merupakan waktu lebih telah berlalu sejak kepunahan dinosaurus,
yang terjadi pada akhir periode.

Nama Kapur berasal dari creta, Latin untuk "kapur," dan pertama kali diusulkan oleh J.B.J.
Omalius d'Halloy di 1822. D'Halloy telah ditugaskan untuk membuat peta geologi dari
Perancis, dan bagian dari tugasnya adalah untuk memutus unit geologi untuk diwakili oleh
itu. Salah satu unit nya, yang Crtac Medan, termasuk kapur dan pasir yang mendasari.
Kapur adalah, jenis halus lembut batu kapur terdiri terutama dari piring armourlike dari
coccolithophores, kecil ganggang mengambang yang berkembang selama Late Cretaceous.
Kebanyakan batuan kapur yang tidak kapur, tetapi sebagian kapur diendapkan selama Kapur.
Banyak dari batu-batu ini memberikan rincian yang jelas dan mudah diakses dari periode
karena mereka belum cacat atau terkikis dan relatif dekat dengan permukaan-seperti dapat
dilihat di tebing putih berbatasan dengan Selat Dover antara Perancis dan Inggris.
Periode Cretaceous dimulai dengan tanah bumi dirakit dasarnya menjadi dua benua, Laurasia
di utara dan Gondwana di selatan. Tersebut hampir sepenuhnya dipisahkan oleh Tethys
seaway khatulistiwa, dan berbagai segmen Laurasia dan Gondwana sudah mulai Rift terpisah.
Amerika Utara baru saja dimulai menarik diri dari Eurasia selama Jurassic, dan Amerika
Selatan telah mulai memisahkan diri dari Afrika, yang India, Australia, dan Antartika juga
memisahkan. Ketika Periode Cretaceous berakhir, sebagian besar benua masa kini yang
terpisah satu sama lain oleh hamparan air seperti Utara dan Samudra Atlantik Selatan. Pada
akhir periode, India terpaut di Samudera Hindia, dan Australia masih terhubung ke Antartika.

TOPIK SERUPA

iklim umumnya lebih hangat dan lebih lembab dari hari ini, mungkin karena vulkanisme
sangat aktif dikaitkan dengan tingkat yang sangat tinggi dari dasar laut menyebar. Daerah
kutub bebas dari lapisan es benua, tanah mereka bukan ditutupi oleh hutan. Dinosaurus
menjelajahi Antartika, bahkan dengan malam musim dingin yang panjang.

Periode Cretaceous panjang merupakan bagian utama dari interval antara-bentuk kehidupan
kuno dan orang-orang yang mendominasi bumi saat ini. Dinosaurus adalah kelompok
dominan hewan darat, terutama "bebek" dinosaurus (hadrosauria), seperti Shantungosaurus,
dan bentuk-bentuk bertanduk, seperti Triceratops. reptil laut raksasa seperti ichthyosaurus,
mosasaurus, dan plesiosaurus yang umum di laut, dan reptil terbang (Pterosaurus)
mendominasi langit. Tanaman berbunga (angiosperma) muncul dekat dengan awal
Cretaceous dan menjadi lebih berlimpah sebagai periode berlangsung. Kapur Akhir adalah
waktu produktivitas yang besar di lautan dunia, seperti yang ditanggung oleh pengendapan
tidur tebal kapur di Eropa barat, timur Rusia, Skandinavia selatan, Gulf Coast Amerika Utara,
dan Australia Barat. Kapur berakhir dengan salah satu kepunahan massal terbesar dalam
sejarah Bumi, membasmi dinosaurus, laut dan reptil terbang, dan banyak invertebrata laut.

Kapur LINGKUNGAN

paleogeography

Posisi daratan bumi berubah secara signifikan selama Cretaceous Period-tidak terduga,
mengingat durasi panjang. Pada awal periode sana ada dua Superbenua, Gondwana di selatan
dan Laurasia di utara. Amerika Selatan, Afrika (termasuk potongan sebelah apa sekarang
Semenanjung Arab dan Timur Tengah), Antartika, Australia, India, Madagaskar, dan
beberapa daratan yang lebih kecil bergabung di Gondwana di selatan, sementara Amerika
Utara, Greenland, dan Eurasia (termasuk Asia Tenggara) dibentuk Laurasia. Afrika telah
berpisah dari Amerika Selatan, koneksi tanah terakhir menjadi antara Brasil dan Nigeria.
Akibatnya, Samudra Atlantik Selatan bergabung dengan pelebaran Atlantik Utara. Di wilayah
Samudra Hindia, Afrika dan Madagascarseparated dari India, Australia, dan Antartika di Jura
Akhir untuk kali Kapur Awal. Setelah dipisahkan dari Australia dan Antartika, India memulai
perjalanan ke utara, yang memuncak dalam tabrakan kemudian dengan Asia selama Era
Kenozoikum. Madagascar memisahkan diri dari Afrika selama Late Cretaceous, dan
Greenland terpisah dari Amerika Utara. Australia masih bergabung ke Antartika. Ini nyaris
tidak terpasang di persimpangan apa yang sekarang Amerika Utara dan Selatan.

permukaan laut lebih tinggi selama sebagian besar Cretaceous dari pada waktu lainnya dalam
sejarah Bumi, dan itu adalah faktor utama yang mempengaruhi paleogeography periode.
Secara umum, lautan dunia sekitar 100 sampai 200 meter (330-660 kaki) lebih tinggi di
Kapur Awal dan kira-kira 200-250 meter (660-820 kaki) lebih tinggi pada Kapur Akhir
daripada sekarang. Permukaan laut Kapur tinggi diduga telah terutama hasil dari air di
cekungan laut yang terlantar akibat pembesaran pegunungan midoceanic.

Sebagai hasil dari permukaan air laut lebih tinggi selama Late Cretaceous, perairan laut
terendam benua, menciptakan laut epicontinental relatif dangkal di Amerika Utara, Amerika
Selatan, Eropa, Rusia, Afrika, dan Australia. Selain itu, semua benua menyusut agak sebagai
margin mereka kebanjiran. Pada maksimum, lahan yang tertutup hanya sekitar 18 persen dari
permukaan bumi, dibandingkan dengan sekitar 28 persen hari ini. Pada kali, perairan Arktik
yang terhubung ke seaway Tethys melalui tengah-tengah Amerika Utara dan bagian tengah
Rusia. Pada beberapa kesempatan selama Cretaceous, hewan laut yang hidup di Atlantik
Selatan memiliki seaway untuk migrasi ke Tethys melalui apa yang saat ini Nigeria, Niger,
Chad, dan Libya. Sebagian besar Eropa Barat, Australia timur, bagian dari Afrika, Amerika
Selatan, India, Madagaskar, Kalimantan, dan daerah lainnya yang sekarang tanah seluruhnya
tertutup oleh air laut untuk beberapa interval waktu Cretaceous.

studi rinci menunjukkan 5 sampai 15 episode yang berbeda naik dan turun di permukaan laut.
Pola perubahan untuk daerah yang stabil sepanjang sejarah cukup mirip, meskipun beberapa
perbedaan yang terkenal. Selama sebagian besar Kapur Awal, bagian dari Arktik Kanada,
Rusia, dan Australia Barat yang di bawah air, tetapi sebagian besar daerah lain tidak. Selama
Kapur tengah, Australia timur-tengah mengalami genangan besar yang disebut pelanggaran.
Dalam Kapur Akhir, yang paling daratan benua yang melanggar tetapi tidak selalu pada
waktu yang sama. Satu penjelasan untuk kurangnya catatan sinkron adalah konsep eustacy
geoidal, di mana, disarankan, sebagai benua bumi bergerak, lautan tonjolan di beberapa
tempat untuk mengkompensasi. Eustacy akan mengakibatkan permukaan laut menjadi
berbeda dari cekungan laut ke cekungan laut.

sirkulasi air dan pencampuran yang tidak sama besar seperti sekarang, karena sebagian besar
lautan (misalnya, mengembangkan Atlantik Utara) yang terbatas, dan perbedaan suhu antara
kutub dan Equatorwere minimal. Dengan demikian, lautan mengalami periode sering anoxic
(mengandung oksigen) kondisi di dasar perairan yang mengungkapkan diri mereka hari ini
sebagai serpih hitam. Kadang-kadang, terutama selama pertengahan Cretaceous, kondisi
diperluas ke epicontinental laut, seperti yang dibuktikan oleh deposito serpih hitam di
pedalaman barat Amerika Utara.

Dunia Kapur memiliki tiga berbeda subdivisi geografis: boreal utara, boreal selatan, dan
wilayah Tethyan. Wilayah Tethyan memisahkan dua wilayah boreal dan diakui oleh
kehadiran fosil bivalvia pembentuk karang rudist, karang, foraminiferans lebih besar, dan
Amon tertentu yang hanya dihuni perairan Tethyan hangat. Di awal Cretaceous, Amerika
Utara dan Selatan dipisahkan cukup untuk sambungan laut antara Tethys Seaand Pasifik
untuk memperdalam substansial. Tethys-to-Pacific koneksi kelautan diperbolehkan untuk
kuat ke arah barat-mengalir saat ini, yang disimpulkan dari pola fauna. Misalnya, sebagai
Cretaceous berkembang, kesamaan antara bivalvia rudist dari Eropa Karibia dan barat
menurun, sementara beberapa bentuk Karibia telah ditemukan di gunung laut Pasifik, di Asia
Tenggara, dan mungkin di Balkan.

Sisa-sisa dari dunia boreal utara di Amerika Utara, Eropa, Rusia, dan Jepang telah dipelajari
secara ekstensif. Hal ini diketahui, misalnya, bahwa sedimen di barat daya Belanda
menunjukkan beberapa perubahan suhu selama Late Cretaceous. perubahan suhu ini
menyiratkan bahwa batas antara wilayah utara bumi utara dan wilayah Tethys itu tidak
konstan dengan waktu. pekerja Rusia mengakui enam zona paleobiogeographic: boreal, yang
dalam konteks ini adalah setara dengan Arctic; Eropa; Mediterania, termasuk provinsi Asia
tengah; Pasifik; dan dua zonasi paleofloristic tanah. daerah boreal selatan dan batu-batu yang
mewakili margin Tethys selatan kekurangan tingkat detail.

Magnetis, Kapur tenang relatif Periode Paleogen berikutnya. Bahkan, pembalikan magnet
tidak dicatat untuk jangka waktu sekitar 42 juta tahun, dari Aptian awal untuk usia Santonian
akhir. Panjang dari bulan Bumi (lihat periode synodic) telah berubah secara teratur untuk
setidaknya 600 juta tahun terakhir karena gesekan pasang surut dan kekuatan lain yang
memperlambat rotasi bumi. Tingkat perubahan di bulan synodic sangat minim untuk sebagian
besar Kapur tetapi telah dipercepat sejak. Alasan untuk dua anomali ini tidak dipahami
dengan baik.

https://www.britannica.com/science/Cretaceous-Period