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Analysis of MeansA Review

C. V. RAO
Nagarjuna University, Guntur 522510, India

Analysis of means (ANOM) is a graphical technique initially developed for testing the equality of several
population means. Later, ANOM was extended for testing the equality of several (i) treatment eects,
(ii) interaction eects, (iii) linear contrasts, (iv) proportions, (v) counts, (vi) variances, (vii) correlation
coecients. ANOM procedures reveal the statistical signicance as well as the practical signicance of
samples being compared. Hence, ANOM procedures are vital aids in the search-and-identication process.
ANOM procedures are highly useful in general and in particular to the practitioners in decision making.
This paper presents a brief review of work done so far along with the bibliography in this area.

KEY WORDS: ANOM Graphical Method.

Introduction whereas k 2 in ANOM charts to compute the de-


cision lines. For process control, the control chart is
T HE ANALYSIS of one and multifactor experimental
designs has been traditionally carried out by the
analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. ANOVA
ideal. ANOM is only useful to determine if signi-
cant dierences exist in past data. ANOM is useful
for the improvement of quality rather than the con-
identies factors and interactions that are statisti- trol of quality.
cally signicant. Beyond this, however, the experi-
menter and decision maker has to identify the spe- Professor Ott observed that ANOVA was di-
cic congurations and factor-level combinations for cult for nonstatisticians to understand. His objec-
superior results from a consideration of cost, quality, tive was to give quality-control practitioners some-
and feasibility point of view. Analysis of means is thing that they could use. ANOM is more eective
an alternative to ANOVA for factors involving xed than ANOVA because graphical display of data is
eects but is inappropriate for factors involving ran- a key part of the procedure. An old Chinese say-
dom eects. ing is more apropos here A picture is worth 1,000
words and 10,000 numbers. The concepts of the
Analysis of means (ANOM) is a technique origi- two procedures ANOM and ANOVA are basically
nally developed by Ott (1967) for comparing a group the same and the conclusions are usually the same.
of treatment means to see if any one of them diers The comments of Schee (1947) and Craig (1947),
signicantly from the overall mean. Otts procedure addressing the comparison of ANOVA and control
is carried out by comparing the sample mean values charts, are applicable to a comparison of the ANOVA
to the overall grand mean, about which decision lines with the ANOM. ANOVA looks to see if the group
have been constructed. If a sample mean lies outside taken as a whole displays any evidence of criminality,
these decision lines, it is declared signicantly dier- whereas the ANOM looks to see if the group harbors
ent from the grand mean. An ANOM chart, concep- a criminal, it provides a method for identifying the
tually similar to a control chart, portrays decision individual criminal. Therefore, ANOM procedures
lines so that statistical signicance as well as practi- with decision lines are vital aids in this search-and-
cal signicance of samples may be assessed simulta- identication process. Recognizing the importance of
neously. The main dierence between control charts ANOM, the Journal of Quality Technology devoted
and ANOM charts is that the value of k (number of its January 1983 issue entirely to ANOM in honor of
samples being compared) is usually as large as 20 or Professor Ott.
more in control charts to compute the control limits,
Review of Literature
Dr. Rao is a Professor in the Department of Statistics. His The review of papers is presented by dividing the
email address is cvrao1950@yahoo.co.in work done so far into several subheadings.

Journal of Quality Technology 308 Vol. 37, No. 4, October 2005


ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 309

Comparison of Means points for h and used the decision lines as


For testing the equality of several population 
x h S (k 1)/kn,
means, Ott (1967) introduced the analysis of means
procedure, which is based on the multiple signicance where S 2 is the pooled sample variance and h is a
test proposed by Halperin et al. (1955). Halperin et critical point, which depends on k, (degrees of free-
al. (1955) computed upper and lower bounds to the dom in S 2 ), and . h is the upper (/2k) percentage
upper 5% and 1% points of the distribution of d, point of the Students t-distribution with = k(n1)
where d = maxi=1,...,k {|xi x|/s} and conjectured degrees of freedom. Ott (1967) and Schilling (1973a)
the true values were close to the lower bound. Ott used the range statistic and d2 to estimate in their
(1967) considered the averages of the above upper procedure. It is important to note that this proce-
and lower bounds as H . For comparing the individ- dure gives an approximate result (although usually
ual sample means with the overall mean, Ott (1967) quite satisfactory). By using S in the estimation of
computed the decision lines as , Nelson (1982) obtained exact critical values of h
for = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10 in the case of equal
x H x , sample sizes. L. S. Nelson (1983a) extended the ta-
where bles of h factors for = 0.001, when the sample
sizes are equal. Also, he gave a procedure for obtain-
x : average of k sample means, ing the critical values h when the sample sizes are
 
xn x x x1 unequal. The above exact critical values were com-
H = max , , puted for the case k. Nelson (1993) has shown
x x
that these exact critical values are appropriate not
R only for balanced complete designs but also for Latin
x = , = ,
n d2 squares, Graeco-Latin squares, balanced incomplete
block (BIB) designs, Youden squares, and axial mix-
R : average of k sample ranges, ture designs. When analyzing the main eects in a
d2 : a factor for estimating from R and it depends factorial experiment or for certain parameter combi-
on k (whereas the usual d2 factor in the control nations in Graeco-Latin squares and BIB designs, the
chart is independent of k), degrees of freedom for error can be less than the num-
ber of levels for some (or possibly all) of the factors.
n : sample size. Therefore, Nelson (1993) provided critical values for
Tables of H for = 0.05 and 0.01 have been devel- the case < k and = 0.10, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001. Also, a
oped by Ott (1967) for selected values of k and se- new table of critical values is given for = 0.25. Re-
lected degrees of freedom for error = 0.90k(n 1). cently, Farnum (2004) developed new formulas to cal-
culate the ANOM constants using commonly avail-
Schilling (1973a) used the critical values h in able mathematical processors. This approach makes
computing the decision lines the ANOM constants easily accessible, portable, and
 unrestricted with regard to the choice of signicance
k1
x h x , level, sample size, and number of populations.
k
 Sheesley (1980) provided a computer program
where h = H k/(k 1). The upper bound from that will perform the analysis of variables data as
Halperin et al. (1955) was considered as H by well as experiments for analysis of attributes data.
Schilling (1973a), who developed the tables of h for A computer program for analysis of factorial exper-
= 0.05 and 0.01. Nelson (1974) extended the ta- iments simultaneously by ANOM and ANOVA was
bles of h for = 0.10 and 0.001. Sheesley (1981) developed by Schilling et al. (1980) and subsequently
presented simplied factors A and computed the modied by P. R. Nelson (1983b) to include exact
decision lines as critical values.
x A R,
P. R. Nelson (1983a) presented the tables of sam-
where ple sizes for the ANOM necessary for detecting dier-

A = H /d2 n. ences among k treatments when two of the treatment
means dier by at least a specied amount for xed
Later, Nelson (1982) obtained the exact critical levels of signicance and power and compared these

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310 C. V. RAO

sample sizes with the previously published sample (1973a) extended the ANOM procedure to the anal-
sizes for the ANOVA by Bratcher et al. (1970). ysis of main eects and interaction eects in a de-
signed experiment and called the procedure analysis
Nelson (1985) presented power curves for ANOM
of means for treatment eects (ANOME). The deci-
similar to those in Pearson and Hartley (1951) for
sion lines in ANOME procedure are given by
ANOVA. The curves give the power for detecting dif-
ferences among k treatments at level of signicance
0 e h q/ N ,
when two of the treatment means dier by at least
a specied amount . where
In testing the equality of several means, all q = degrees of freedom associated with the
the above authors considered homogeneity of vari-
treatment (or interaction) plotted,
ances. Nelson and Dudewicz (2002) developed a het-
eroscedastic analysis of means (HANOM) procedure N = total number of observations in the
for testing the equality of several means when the experiment,
population variances are not equal and provided e = estimate of experimental error.
power curves that enable an experimenter to design
a study for detecting dierences among I treatment The treatment eects or interaction eects are plot-
means when any two of them dier by at least a spec- ted against the decision lines. The procedure for
ied amount . Dudewicz and Nelson (2003) gave an ANOME was illustrated for testing treatment ef-
example to illustrate the HANOM procedure of Nel- fects in a two-factor crossed model, two-factor nested
son and Dudewicz (2002). model, split-plot design, and incomplete block de-
sign. Schilling (1973a) used his ANOME plots to test
Bakir (1989) developed a nonparametric pro-
higher order interactions with no restrictions on the
cedure called the analysis of means using ranks
number of levels of the factors involved. Later, Nel-
(ANOMR) for testing the equality of several pop-
son (1988a) suggested an ANOM procedure for test-
ulation means. Results from a Monte Carlo power
ing the signicance of two-factor interactions in bal-
study are presented that indicate that, for light-
anced designs. When at least one factor is at only two
tailed distributions such as the uniform and the nor-
levels, the suggested procedure uses the exact critical
mal, ANOMR is only slightly less powerful than the
points given by L. S. Nelson (1983a). The correlation
parametric competitive procedure based on ANOVA
structure for interaction eects is dierent from that
and ANOM. For heavy-tailed distributions, such as
for main eects, and hence the exact critical values
the Cauchy, ANOMR is shown to provide greater
given by L. S. Nelson (1983a) are not, in general,
power than the parametric procedures. The results
appropriate when testing for interactions. However,
also indicate that, for both light- and heavy-tailed
the correlation structure is the same when one of the
distributions, the use of the ANOMR test instead
factors has only two levels. Nelson (1988a) gave new
of the KruskalWallis test leads to only a small loss
critical points for the case in which both the factors
of power for a range of alternatives. Bakir (1994)
are at more than two levels but fewer than six lev-
proposed a procedure ANOMR for the analysis of
els. The procedure can be extended to higher order
randomized complete block design (RBD). A Monte
interactions.
Carlo study is made to compare the powers of
the proposed procedure with those of the ANOVA, To analyze the experimental data with missing ob-
ANOM, and the Friedman procedures. Results of the servations in a randomized block design Subramani
study indicate that the proposed procedure has supe- (1992) developed a step-by-step ANOME procedure.
rior power performance when testing against slippage
alternative hypotheses under heavy-tailed distribu- Recently, Budsaba et al. (2000) introduced a new
tions, such as the Cauchy distribution. graphical method, called compass plot, that com-
bines the advantages of the star plot and the ANOM
Comparison of Treatment Eects and to visualize the signicant interactions in complex
Interaction Eects toxicology studies.
Ott (1967) also discussed the use of ANOM in test- All the above authors considered homogeneity of
ing for main eects and interaction eects. His tech- error variances in their studies. Nelson and Dudewicz
nique was limited to two-way interactions in which (2002) and Dudewicz and Nelson (2003) extended the
one of the factors is at only two levels. Schilling HANOM procedure for testing the main eects and

Journal of Quality Technology Vol. 37, No. 4, October 2005


ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 311

interaction eects in a two-way layout model wherein dom. p is the average of k sample proportions pi , and
the error variances are unequal. each 
sample contains the same number of items n and
S = [p (1 p)]/n.
Comparison of Linear Contrasts
When the attributes data of interest are given by
Schilling (1973b) extended the ANOM method to
count data, this can be represented with a Poisson
linear contrasts and called the procedure analysis of
distribution. The Poisson distribution can be ade-
contrasts (ANCON). The decision lines in ANCON
quately approximated by the normal if the mean
procedure are given by
 of the Poisson distribution is at least ve. Here the
 k
proportions are replaced by counts ci . Ramig (1983)
 
0 e qF,q,  ai2 nx , computed the decision lines as
i=1 
c h c (k 1)/k,
where
e = error standard deviation, where c is the average of all ci obtained from k sam-
ples.
q = degrees of freedom associated with
treatment involved, It may be noted that Schilling (1973b) also studied
the above problems, i.e., ANOM for attributes data
F,q, = critical value for signicance level,
using old h values.
from the F -distribution with q and
degrees of freedom, Comparison of Variances
= degrees of freedom for error standard To use the ANOM graphical method, an impor-
deviation, tant prerequisite is that the statistic or a function of
k the statistic plotted against the decision lines should
ai = contrast coecient ( i=1 ai = 0, )
have a normal distribution (at least, approximately).
n x = number of observations in each
treatment mean used in contrast, Rao and Harikrishna (1997) developed an ANOM-
type graphical procedure for testing the equality of
k = total number of levels (means) for the
several variances of normal populations, using cube-
treatment of interest. root transformation of chi-square to normal distribu-
Schilling (1973b) used the ANCON procedure in 2p tion due to Wilson and Hilferty (1931). They com-
and 3p experiments. puted the decision lines in the case of equal sample
sizes as
Comparison of Proportions and Counts 1/2
C(k 1)
t z/2k t ,
Attributes data is probably the most common and k
readily attainable type of information available in an where
industrial environment. ANOM was extended to the
2/3
attributes type data. This procedure makes use of the Si
fact that both the binomial and Poisson distributions ti = , Si2 = ith sample variance,
A
may be approximated by the normal distribution. k
ti 9n 11 18(n 1)
t= , A= , C= ,
The normal approximation to binomial distribu-
i=1
k 9(n 1) (9n 11)2
tion is generally considered to be adequate if np > 5
and n(1p) > 5, where p is the proportion of items in and Z/2k is the upper (/2k) percent point of the
the population having the attribute of interest. The standard normal distribution. Here ti are plotted
ANOM for proportions data is similar to that for against decision lines. Pran Kumar and Rao (1998)
variables data with quantitative measurements re- developed another ANOM-type procedure in the
placed by proportions. For the comparison of k sam- above problem using log transformation of Bartlett
ple proportions, Ramig (1983) computed the decision and Kendall (1946). They computed the decision
lines as  lines in the case of equal sample sizes as
p h S (k 1)/k,   
where h is the tabled value from L. S. Nelson 1 2 1
t z/2k 1 ,
(1983a) for k proportions and innite degrees of free- n1 k

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312 C. V. RAO

where where

1 1 1
k
k
t = t , t1i = ln Si2 . (ni 3)zi
k i=1 i 1 1 + ri i=1
zi = ln , zw= ,
2 1 ri (ni 3)
Here t1iare plotted against decision lines. Pran Ku- i=1
mar and Rao (1998) compared their procedure with ri = ith sample correlation coecient,
that of Rao and Harikrishna (1997). These authors 
 1
SE(zi z w ) = 
1
also derived the decision lines when the sample sizes  k .
are not equal.  ni 3
 (n 3)
i
Wludyka and Nelson (1997a) proposed a proce- i=1
dure called ANOMV for testing the equality of vari- Here zi are plotted against decision lines. In the
ances of normal populations in balanced designs and case of equal sample sizes, the decision lines using
computed ANOMV critical values for = 0.10, 0.05, Hotellings Z transformation are computed as
and 0.01. They also presented a large-sample version
of the test, which uses ANOM critical values of L. S. z Z/2k SE(zi z ),
Nelson (1983a), as well as a version of the test for un- where
balanced designs for which approximate critical val-
1
k
ues can be calculated. Later, Wludyka et al. (2001) 3zi + ri
zi = zi , z = z ,
presented power curves for the ANOMV procedure 4(n 1) k i=1 i
developed by Wludyka and Nelson (1997a) and of-   
fered guidance regarding the choice of sample size 1 1
SE(zi z ) = 1 .
and interpretation of results based on power consid- (n 1) k
erations. Wludyka and Nelson (1997b) proposed an-
Here zi are plotted against decision lines.
other procedure for testing the equality of variances
using subsampling and jackkning techniques. Applications in Industry
Wludyka and Nelson (1999) presented two non- Some of the papers written by people working in
parametric ANOM-type tests for homogeneity of industries, cited applications of ANOM to grand-lot
variances. The rst test is based on analysis of means acceptance sampling procedure, electrical data, anal-
for ranks (ANOMR), which is a nonparametric ver- ysis of multiple-head machines, silicon crystal termi-
sion of the ANOM that uses ranks as input for an nation problem, and analysis of Taguchi signal-to-
ANOM test. The second test uses normal scores of noise ratio.
the ranks of scale transformations of the observations
Schilling (1979) incorporated the ANOM tech-
as input to the ANOM.
nique in the grand-lot scheme of Simon to verify
Bernard and Wludyka (2001) and Wludyka and the homogeneity of a grand lot. This resulting ap-
Sa (2004) developed robust ANOM-type randomiza- proach simplies application of the grand-lot scheme
tion tests for variances in balanced and unbalanced and can be applied to attributes or variables data,
designs. Also, Wludyka (1999), Wludyka (2000), and is easy to use, and provides high levels of protec-
Wludyka and Sa (2002) developed a SAS package to tion economically and a reduction in sample size of
perform the above ANOM-type tests. 80%. Enrick (1976) applied ANOM to wire-life data
obtained from a three-way factorial design. Ott and
Snee (1973) applied the ANOM method to identify
Comparison of Correlation Coecients the dierences in a circular multiple-head speed ma-
chine, which runs continuously. All the heads are in-
Rao and Pran Kumar (2002) developed ANOM- tended to perform the same operation, which may
type graphical procedures for testing the equality be lling a bottle, can, or box to a desired aver-
of several correlation coecients. In the case of un- age or minimum. Tomlinson and Lavigna (1983) gave
equal sample sizes, the decision lines using Fishers an application of ANOM for percent defective data
Z-transformation are computed as obtained from the silicon crystal growing, the rst
processing step in semiconductor manufacturing. Ull-
z w Z/2k SE(zi z w ), man (1989) has expanded the area of application by

Journal of Quality Technology Vol. 37, No. 4, October 2005


ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 313

providing factors for ANOM on ranges suitable for


use in the analysis of Taguchi signal-to-noise ratio.
Parra and Loaiza (2003) applied the ANOM tech-
nique to a case-study data from chemical and phar-
maceutical industries and demonstrated the value of
the application of ANOM as a powerful visualization
and communication tool, to complement the conven-
tional analysis of nested designs.

General
Ott (1975), Wadsworth et al. (1986), Wheeler
(1987), Ryan (1989), and Mason et al. (1989) pre-
sented some of the ANOM techniques with illustra-
tive examples in their books. Some related papers
in this area are Ohta (1981), Snee (1983), Wescott
(1983), L. S. Nelson (1983b), Nelson (1988b), Guir-
guis and Tobias (2004).

Numerical Example
This example demonstrates the importance of
ANOMs graphical technique using published data. A
product-development engineer is interested to know
whether the cotton weight percentage in a synthetic FIGURE 1. ANOM X-Chart.
ber used to make cloth for mens shirts aects the
tensile strength of the ber. An experiment was con-
UDL = 19.05.
ducted with ve levels of cotton weight percentage
(15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%), each with ve repli-
5. The ANOM X-chart with the above decision
cations and the data of tensile strengths as shown in
lines is drawn in Figure 1 and the sample means
Table 3.1 of Montgomery (2001, p. 62). Applying the
xi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) are plotted against the deci-
ANOVA method to the data, it was reported in Ta-
sion lines.
ble 3.4 of Montgomery (2001, p. 71) that HO (the
cotton weight percentage does not aect the tensile
From Figure 1, we observe that some of the points
strength), is rejected at a 1% level of signicance.
lie outside the decision lines. Hence, HO is rejected
Applying the ANOM graphical method of Nelson in this method also. Further, the ANOM X-chart
(1982) to the same data, we have the following re- gives additional information that the mean tensile
sults: strengths at 15% and 35% levels of cotton weight
lie below the LDL and the mean tensile strength at
1. k = 5, n = 5, = 0.01, we have h = 3.53.
30% level of cotton weight lies above the UDL. That
2. The sample means and the overall mean are means the tensile strengths are less at 15% and 35%
x1 = 9.8, x2 = 15.4, x3 = 17.6, x4 = 21.6, levels and more at 30% level when compared with
the overall mean. This information may be useful to
x5 = 10.8, and x= 15.04. the development engineer and the management for
making further managerial decisions.
3. The sample variances and the pooled standard
deviation are
Concluding Remarks
s21 = 11.2, s22 = 9.8, s23 = 4.3, s24 = 6.8,
The classical tests available in the literature for
s25 = 8.2, and S = 2.84. solving certain problems and the parallel ANOM
graphical procedures developed for the same pur-
4. The lower decision line (LDL) and the upper
pose convey the same information when the null hy-
decision line (UDL) are
pothesis is not rejected. When the null hypothesis
LDL = 11.03, is rejected, the classical tests reveal the statistically

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314 C. V. RAO

signicant dierences among the populations being Halperin, M.; Greenhouse, S. W.; Cornfield, J.; and Za-
compared while the ANOM procedures not only re- lokar, J. (1955). Tables of Percentage Points for the Stu-
dentized Maximum Absolute Deviate in Normal Samples.
veal the statistically signicant dierences but also
Journal of American Statistical Association 50, pp. 185195.
identify those populations leading to these dier- Mason, R. L.; Gunst, R. F.; and Hess, J. L. (1989). Sta-
ences. Hence, this additional information from the tistical Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley &
graphical procedures is useful to the nonstatistician Sons, New York, NY.
or the practitioner for making further managerial de- Montgomery, D. C. (2001). Design and Analysis of Experi-
cisions. ments, 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Nelson, L. S. (1974). Factors for the Analysis of Means.
Even though Professor Ott and others developed Journal Quality Technology 6, pp. 175181.
ANOM procedures keeping in mind the practitioners Nelson, L. S. (1983a). Exact Critical Values for Use with
from industrial sector, the applications of ANOM can the Analysis of Means. Journal of Quality Technology 15,
be extended to the data from agriculture, biology, so- pp. 4044.
cial sciences, and other areas wherever ANOVA and Nelson, L. S. (1983b). Transformations for Attribute Data.
Journal of Quality Technology 15, pp. 5556.
other classical tests can be used. Nelson, P. R. (1982). Exact Critical Points for the Anal-
ysis of Means. Communications in StatisticsTheory and
Acknowledgments Methods 11, pp. 699709.
Nelson, P. R. (1983a). A Comparison of Sample Sizes for the
The author thanks the two referees for their help- Analysis of Means and the Analysis of Variance. Journal of
ful suggestions and comments, which helped in im- Quality Technology 15, pp. 3339.
proving the nal version of the paper, and the editor Nelson, P. R. (1983b). The Analysis of Means for Balanced
for his encouragement. Experimental Designs. Journal of Quality Technology 15,
pp. 4554.
Nelson, P. R. (1985). Power Curves for the Analysis of
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ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 315

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