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C. V. RAO

Nagarjuna University, Guntur 522510, India

Analysis of means (ANOM) is a graphical technique initially developed for testing the equality of several

population means. Later, ANOM was extended for testing the equality of several (i) treatment eects,

(ii) interaction eects, (iii) linear contrasts, (iv) proportions, (v) counts, (vi) variances, (vii) correlation

coecients. ANOM procedures reveal the statistical signicance as well as the practical signicance of

samples being compared. Hence, ANOM procedures are vital aids in the search-and-identication process.

ANOM procedures are highly useful in general and in particular to the practitioners in decision making.

This paper presents a brief review of work done so far along with the bibliography in this area.

cision lines. For process control, the control chart is

T HE ANALYSIS of one and multifactor experimental

designs has been traditionally carried out by the

analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. ANOVA

ideal. ANOM is only useful to determine if signi-

cant dierences exist in past data. ANOM is useful

for the improvement of quality rather than the con-

identies factors and interactions that are statisti- trol of quality.

cally signicant. Beyond this, however, the experi-

menter and decision maker has to identify the spe- Professor Ott observed that ANOVA was di-

cic congurations and factor-level combinations for cult for nonstatisticians to understand. His objec-

superior results from a consideration of cost, quality, tive was to give quality-control practitioners some-

and feasibility point of view. Analysis of means is thing that they could use. ANOM is more eective

an alternative to ANOVA for factors involving xed than ANOVA because graphical display of data is

eects but is inappropriate for factors involving ran- a key part of the procedure. An old Chinese say-

dom eects. ing is more apropos here A picture is worth 1,000

words and 10,000 numbers. The concepts of the

Analysis of means (ANOM) is a technique origi- two procedures ANOM and ANOVA are basically

nally developed by Ott (1967) for comparing a group the same and the conclusions are usually the same.

of treatment means to see if any one of them diers The comments of Schee (1947) and Craig (1947),

signicantly from the overall mean. Otts procedure addressing the comparison of ANOVA and control

is carried out by comparing the sample mean values charts, are applicable to a comparison of the ANOVA

to the overall grand mean, about which decision lines with the ANOM. ANOVA looks to see if the group

have been constructed. If a sample mean lies outside taken as a whole displays any evidence of criminality,

these decision lines, it is declared signicantly dier- whereas the ANOM looks to see if the group harbors

ent from the grand mean. An ANOM chart, concep- a criminal, it provides a method for identifying the

tually similar to a control chart, portrays decision individual criminal. Therefore, ANOM procedures

lines so that statistical signicance as well as practi- with decision lines are vital aids in this search-and-

cal signicance of samples may be assessed simulta- identication process. Recognizing the importance of

neously. The main dierence between control charts ANOM, the Journal of Quality Technology devoted

and ANOM charts is that the value of k (number of its January 1983 issue entirely to ANOM in honor of

samples being compared) is usually as large as 20 or Professor Ott.

more in control charts to compute the control limits,

Review of Literature

Dr. Rao is a Professor in the Department of Statistics. His The review of papers is presented by dividing the

email address is cvrao1950@yahoo.co.in work done so far into several subheadings.

ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 309

For testing the equality of several population

x h S (k 1)/kn,

means, Ott (1967) introduced the analysis of means

procedure, which is based on the multiple signicance where S 2 is the pooled sample variance and h is a

test proposed by Halperin et al. (1955). Halperin et critical point, which depends on k, (degrees of free-

al. (1955) computed upper and lower bounds to the dom in S 2 ), and . h is the upper (/2k) percentage

upper 5% and 1% points of the distribution of d, point of the Students t-distribution with = k(n1)

where d = maxi=1,...,k {|xi x|/s} and conjectured degrees of freedom. Ott (1967) and Schilling (1973a)

the true values were close to the lower bound. Ott used the range statistic and d2 to estimate in their

(1967) considered the averages of the above upper procedure. It is important to note that this proce-

and lower bounds as H . For comparing the individ- dure gives an approximate result (although usually

ual sample means with the overall mean, Ott (1967) quite satisfactory). By using S in the estimation of

computed the decision lines as , Nelson (1982) obtained exact critical values of h

for = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10 in the case of equal

x H x , sample sizes. L. S. Nelson (1983a) extended the ta-

where bles of h factors for = 0.001, when the sample

sizes are equal. Also, he gave a procedure for obtain-

x : average of k sample means, ing the critical values h when the sample sizes are

xn x x x1 unequal. The above exact critical values were com-

H = max , , puted for the case k. Nelson (1993) has shown

x x

that these exact critical values are appropriate not

R only for balanced complete designs but also for Latin

x = , = ,

n d2 squares, Graeco-Latin squares, balanced incomplete

block (BIB) designs, Youden squares, and axial mix-

R : average of k sample ranges, ture designs. When analyzing the main eects in a

d2 : a factor for estimating from R and it depends factorial experiment or for certain parameter combi-

on k (whereas the usual d2 factor in the control nations in Graeco-Latin squares and BIB designs, the

chart is independent of k), degrees of freedom for error can be less than the num-

ber of levels for some (or possibly all) of the factors.

n : sample size. Therefore, Nelson (1993) provided critical values for

Tables of H for = 0.05 and 0.01 have been devel- the case < k and = 0.10, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001. Also, a

oped by Ott (1967) for selected values of k and se- new table of critical values is given for = 0.25. Re-

lected degrees of freedom for error = 0.90k(n 1). cently, Farnum (2004) developed new formulas to cal-

culate the ANOM constants using commonly avail-

Schilling (1973a) used the critical values h in able mathematical processors. This approach makes

computing the decision lines the ANOM constants easily accessible, portable, and

unrestricted with regard to the choice of signicance

k1

x h x , level, sample size, and number of populations.

k

Sheesley (1980) provided a computer program

where h = H k/(k 1). The upper bound from that will perform the analysis of variables data as

Halperin et al. (1955) was considered as H by well as experiments for analysis of attributes data.

Schilling (1973a), who developed the tables of h for A computer program for analysis of factorial exper-

= 0.05 and 0.01. Nelson (1974) extended the ta- iments simultaneously by ANOM and ANOVA was

bles of h for = 0.10 and 0.001. Sheesley (1981) developed by Schilling et al. (1980) and subsequently

presented simplied factors A and computed the modied by P. R. Nelson (1983b) to include exact

decision lines as critical values.

x A R,

P. R. Nelson (1983a) presented the tables of sam-

where ple sizes for the ANOM necessary for detecting dier-

A = H /d2 n. ences among k treatments when two of the treatment

means dier by at least a specied amount for xed

Later, Nelson (1982) obtained the exact critical levels of signicance and power and compared these

310 C. V. RAO

sample sizes with the previously published sample (1973a) extended the ANOM procedure to the anal-

sizes for the ANOVA by Bratcher et al. (1970). ysis of main eects and interaction eects in a de-

signed experiment and called the procedure analysis

Nelson (1985) presented power curves for ANOM

of means for treatment eects (ANOME). The deci-

similar to those in Pearson and Hartley (1951) for

sion lines in ANOME procedure are given by

ANOVA. The curves give the power for detecting dif-

ferences among k treatments at level of signicance

0 e h q/ N ,

when two of the treatment means dier by at least

a specied amount . where

In testing the equality of several means, all q = degrees of freedom associated with the

the above authors considered homogeneity of vari-

treatment (or interaction) plotted,

ances. Nelson and Dudewicz (2002) developed a het-

eroscedastic analysis of means (HANOM) procedure N = total number of observations in the

for testing the equality of several means when the experiment,

population variances are not equal and provided e = estimate of experimental error.

power curves that enable an experimenter to design

a study for detecting dierences among I treatment The treatment eects or interaction eects are plot-

means when any two of them dier by at least a spec- ted against the decision lines. The procedure for

ied amount . Dudewicz and Nelson (2003) gave an ANOME was illustrated for testing treatment ef-

example to illustrate the HANOM procedure of Nel- fects in a two-factor crossed model, two-factor nested

son and Dudewicz (2002). model, split-plot design, and incomplete block de-

sign. Schilling (1973a) used his ANOME plots to test

Bakir (1989) developed a nonparametric pro-

higher order interactions with no restrictions on the

cedure called the analysis of means using ranks

number of levels of the factors involved. Later, Nel-

(ANOMR) for testing the equality of several pop-

son (1988a) suggested an ANOM procedure for test-

ulation means. Results from a Monte Carlo power

ing the signicance of two-factor interactions in bal-

study are presented that indicate that, for light-

anced designs. When at least one factor is at only two

tailed distributions such as the uniform and the nor-

levels, the suggested procedure uses the exact critical

mal, ANOMR is only slightly less powerful than the

points given by L. S. Nelson (1983a). The correlation

parametric competitive procedure based on ANOVA

structure for interaction eects is dierent from that

and ANOM. For heavy-tailed distributions, such as

for main eects, and hence the exact critical values

the Cauchy, ANOMR is shown to provide greater

given by L. S. Nelson (1983a) are not, in general,

power than the parametric procedures. The results

appropriate when testing for interactions. However,

also indicate that, for both light- and heavy-tailed

the correlation structure is the same when one of the

distributions, the use of the ANOMR test instead

factors has only two levels. Nelson (1988a) gave new

of the KruskalWallis test leads to only a small loss

critical points for the case in which both the factors

of power for a range of alternatives. Bakir (1994)

are at more than two levels but fewer than six lev-

proposed a procedure ANOMR for the analysis of

els. The procedure can be extended to higher order

randomized complete block design (RBD). A Monte

interactions.

Carlo study is made to compare the powers of

the proposed procedure with those of the ANOVA, To analyze the experimental data with missing ob-

ANOM, and the Friedman procedures. Results of the servations in a randomized block design Subramani

study indicate that the proposed procedure has supe- (1992) developed a step-by-step ANOME procedure.

rior power performance when testing against slippage

alternative hypotheses under heavy-tailed distribu- Recently, Budsaba et al. (2000) introduced a new

tions, such as the Cauchy distribution. graphical method, called compass plot, that com-

bines the advantages of the star plot and the ANOM

Comparison of Treatment Eects and to visualize the signicant interactions in complex

Interaction Eects toxicology studies.

Ott (1967) also discussed the use of ANOM in test- All the above authors considered homogeneity of

ing for main eects and interaction eects. His tech- error variances in their studies. Nelson and Dudewicz

nique was limited to two-way interactions in which (2002) and Dudewicz and Nelson (2003) extended the

one of the factors is at only two levels. Schilling HANOM procedure for testing the main eects and

ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 311

interaction eects in a two-way layout model wherein dom. p is the average of k sample proportions pi , and

the error variances are unequal. each

sample contains the same number of items n and

S = [p (1 p)]/n.

Comparison of Linear Contrasts

When the attributes data of interest are given by

Schilling (1973b) extended the ANOM method to

count data, this can be represented with a Poisson

linear contrasts and called the procedure analysis of

distribution. The Poisson distribution can be ade-

contrasts (ANCON). The decision lines in ANCON

quately approximated by the normal if the mean

procedure are given by

of the Poisson distribution is at least ve. Here the

k

proportions are replaced by counts ci . Ramig (1983)

0 e qF,q, ai2 nx , computed the decision lines as

i=1

c h c (k 1)/k,

where

e = error standard deviation, where c is the average of all ci obtained from k sam-

ples.

q = degrees of freedom associated with

treatment involved, It may be noted that Schilling (1973b) also studied

the above problems, i.e., ANOM for attributes data

F,q, = critical value for signicance level,

using old h values.

from the F -distribution with q and

degrees of freedom, Comparison of Variances

= degrees of freedom for error standard To use the ANOM graphical method, an impor-

deviation, tant prerequisite is that the statistic or a function of

k the statistic plotted against the decision lines should

ai = contrast coecient ( i=1 ai = 0, )

have a normal distribution (at least, approximately).

n x = number of observations in each

treatment mean used in contrast, Rao and Harikrishna (1997) developed an ANOM-

type graphical procedure for testing the equality of

k = total number of levels (means) for the

several variances of normal populations, using cube-

treatment of interest. root transformation of chi-square to normal distribu-

Schilling (1973b) used the ANCON procedure in 2p tion due to Wilson and Hilferty (1931). They com-

and 3p experiments. puted the decision lines in the case of equal sample

sizes as

Comparison of Proportions and Counts
1/2

C(k 1)

t z/2k t ,

Attributes data is probably the most common and k

readily attainable type of information available in an where

industrial environment. ANOM was extended to the

2/3

attributes type data. This procedure makes use of the Si

fact that both the binomial and Poisson distributions ti = , Si2 = ith sample variance,

A

may be approximated by the normal distribution. k

ti 9n 11 18(n 1)

t= , A= , C= ,

The normal approximation to binomial distribu-

i=1

k 9(n 1) (9n 11)2

tion is generally considered to be adequate if np > 5

and n(1p) > 5, where p is the proportion of items in and Z/2k is the upper (/2k) percent point of the

the population having the attribute of interest. The standard normal distribution. Here ti are plotted

ANOM for proportions data is similar to that for against decision lines. Pran Kumar and Rao (1998)

variables data with quantitative measurements re- developed another ANOM-type procedure in the

placed by proportions. For the comparison of k sam- above problem using log transformation of Bartlett

ple proportions, Ramig (1983) computed the decision and Kendall (1946). They computed the decision

lines as lines in the case of equal sample sizes as

p h S (k 1)/k,

where h is the tabled value from L. S. Nelson 1 2 1

t z/2k 1 ,

(1983a) for k proportions and innite degrees of free- n1 k

312 C. V. RAO

where where

1 1 1

k

k

t = t , t1i = ln Si2 . (ni 3)zi

k i=1 i 1 1 + ri i=1

zi = ln , zw= ,

2 1 ri (ni 3)

Here t1iare plotted against decision lines. Pran Ku- i=1

mar and Rao (1998) compared their procedure with ri = ith sample correlation coecient,

that of Rao and Harikrishna (1997). These authors

1

SE(zi z w ) =

1

also derived the decision lines when the sample sizes k .

are not equal. ni 3

(n 3)

i

Wludyka and Nelson (1997a) proposed a proce- i=1

dure called ANOMV for testing the equality of vari- Here zi are plotted against decision lines. In the

ances of normal populations in balanced designs and case of equal sample sizes, the decision lines using

computed ANOMV critical values for = 0.10, 0.05, Hotellings Z transformation are computed as

and 0.01. They also presented a large-sample version

of the test, which uses ANOM critical values of L. S. z Z/2k SE(zi z ),

Nelson (1983a), as well as a version of the test for un- where

balanced designs for which approximate critical val-

1

k

ues can be calculated. Later, Wludyka et al. (2001) 3zi + ri

zi = zi , z = z ,

presented power curves for the ANOMV procedure 4(n 1) k i=1 i

developed by Wludyka and Nelson (1997a) and of-

fered guidance regarding the choice of sample size 1 1

SE(zi z ) = 1 .

and interpretation of results based on power consid- (n 1) k

erations. Wludyka and Nelson (1997b) proposed an-

Here zi are plotted against decision lines.

other procedure for testing the equality of variances

using subsampling and jackkning techniques. Applications in Industry

Wludyka and Nelson (1999) presented two non- Some of the papers written by people working in

parametric ANOM-type tests for homogeneity of industries, cited applications of ANOM to grand-lot

variances. The rst test is based on analysis of means acceptance sampling procedure, electrical data, anal-

for ranks (ANOMR), which is a nonparametric ver- ysis of multiple-head machines, silicon crystal termi-

sion of the ANOM that uses ranks as input for an nation problem, and analysis of Taguchi signal-to-

ANOM test. The second test uses normal scores of noise ratio.

the ranks of scale transformations of the observations

Schilling (1979) incorporated the ANOM tech-

as input to the ANOM.

nique in the grand-lot scheme of Simon to verify

Bernard and Wludyka (2001) and Wludyka and the homogeneity of a grand lot. This resulting ap-

Sa (2004) developed robust ANOM-type randomiza- proach simplies application of the grand-lot scheme

tion tests for variances in balanced and unbalanced and can be applied to attributes or variables data,

designs. Also, Wludyka (1999), Wludyka (2000), and is easy to use, and provides high levels of protec-

Wludyka and Sa (2002) developed a SAS package to tion economically and a reduction in sample size of

perform the above ANOM-type tests. 80%. Enrick (1976) applied ANOM to wire-life data

obtained from a three-way factorial design. Ott and

Snee (1973) applied the ANOM method to identify

Comparison of Correlation Coecients the dierences in a circular multiple-head speed ma-

chine, which runs continuously. All the heads are in-

Rao and Pran Kumar (2002) developed ANOM- tended to perform the same operation, which may

type graphical procedures for testing the equality be lling a bottle, can, or box to a desired aver-

of several correlation coecients. In the case of un- age or minimum. Tomlinson and Lavigna (1983) gave

equal sample sizes, the decision lines using Fishers an application of ANOM for percent defective data

Z-transformation are computed as obtained from the silicon crystal growing, the rst

processing step in semiconductor manufacturing. Ull-

z w Z/2k SE(zi z w ), man (1989) has expanded the area of application by

ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 313

use in the analysis of Taguchi signal-to-noise ratio.

Parra and Loaiza (2003) applied the ANOM tech-

nique to a case-study data from chemical and phar-

maceutical industries and demonstrated the value of

the application of ANOM as a powerful visualization

and communication tool, to complement the conven-

tional analysis of nested designs.

General

Ott (1975), Wadsworth et al. (1986), Wheeler

(1987), Ryan (1989), and Mason et al. (1989) pre-

sented some of the ANOM techniques with illustra-

tive examples in their books. Some related papers

in this area are Ohta (1981), Snee (1983), Wescott

(1983), L. S. Nelson (1983b), Nelson (1988b), Guir-

guis and Tobias (2004).

Numerical Example

This example demonstrates the importance of

ANOMs graphical technique using published data. A

product-development engineer is interested to know

whether the cotton weight percentage in a synthetic FIGURE 1. ANOM X-Chart.

ber used to make cloth for mens shirts aects the

tensile strength of the ber. An experiment was con-

UDL = 19.05.

ducted with ve levels of cotton weight percentage

(15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%), each with ve repli-

5. The ANOM X-chart with the above decision

cations and the data of tensile strengths as shown in

lines is drawn in Figure 1 and the sample means

Table 3.1 of Montgomery (2001, p. 62). Applying the

xi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) are plotted against the deci-

ANOVA method to the data, it was reported in Ta-

sion lines.

ble 3.4 of Montgomery (2001, p. 71) that HO (the

cotton weight percentage does not aect the tensile

From Figure 1, we observe that some of the points

strength), is rejected at a 1% level of signicance.

lie outside the decision lines. Hence, HO is rejected

Applying the ANOM graphical method of Nelson in this method also. Further, the ANOM X-chart

(1982) to the same data, we have the following re- gives additional information that the mean tensile

sults: strengths at 15% and 35% levels of cotton weight

lie below the LDL and the mean tensile strength at

1. k = 5, n = 5, = 0.01, we have h = 3.53.

30% level of cotton weight lies above the UDL. That

2. The sample means and the overall mean are means the tensile strengths are less at 15% and 35%

x1 = 9.8, x2 = 15.4, x3 = 17.6, x4 = 21.6, levels and more at 30% level when compared with

the overall mean. This information may be useful to

x5 = 10.8, and x= 15.04. the development engineer and the management for

making further managerial decisions.

3. The sample variances and the pooled standard

deviation are

Concluding Remarks

s21 = 11.2, s22 = 9.8, s23 = 4.3, s24 = 6.8,

The classical tests available in the literature for

s25 = 8.2, and S = 2.84. solving certain problems and the parallel ANOM

graphical procedures developed for the same pur-

4. The lower decision line (LDL) and the upper

pose convey the same information when the null hy-

decision line (UDL) are

pothesis is not rejected. When the null hypothesis

LDL = 11.03, is rejected, the classical tests reveal the statistically

314 C. V. RAO

signicant dierences among the populations being Halperin, M.; Greenhouse, S. W.; Cornfield, J.; and Za-

compared while the ANOM procedures not only re- lokar, J. (1955). Tables of Percentage Points for the Stu-

dentized Maximum Absolute Deviate in Normal Samples.

veal the statistically signicant dierences but also

Journal of American Statistical Association 50, pp. 185195.

identify those populations leading to these dier- Mason, R. L.; Gunst, R. F.; and Hess, J. L. (1989). Sta-

ences. Hence, this additional information from the tistical Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley &

graphical procedures is useful to the nonstatistician Sons, New York, NY.

or the practitioner for making further managerial de- Montgomery, D. C. (2001). Design and Analysis of Experi-

cisions. ments, 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Nelson, L. S. (1974). Factors for the Analysis of Means.

Even though Professor Ott and others developed Journal Quality Technology 6, pp. 175181.

ANOM procedures keeping in mind the practitioners Nelson, L. S. (1983a). Exact Critical Values for Use with

from industrial sector, the applications of ANOM can the Analysis of Means. Journal of Quality Technology 15,

be extended to the data from agriculture, biology, so- pp. 4044.

cial sciences, and other areas wherever ANOVA and Nelson, L. S. (1983b). Transformations for Attribute Data.

Journal of Quality Technology 15, pp. 5556.

other classical tests can be used. Nelson, P. R. (1982). Exact Critical Points for the Anal-

ysis of Means. Communications in StatisticsTheory and

Acknowledgments Methods 11, pp. 699709.

Nelson, P. R. (1983a). A Comparison of Sample Sizes for the

The author thanks the two referees for their help- Analysis of Means and the Analysis of Variance. Journal of

ful suggestions and comments, which helped in im- Quality Technology 15, pp. 3339.

proving the nal version of the paper, and the editor Nelson, P. R. (1983b). The Analysis of Means for Balanced

for his encouragement. Experimental Designs. Journal of Quality Technology 15,

pp. 4554.

Nelson, P. R. (1985). Power Curves for the Analysis of

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ANALYSIS OF MEANSA REVIEW 315

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