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Networking Essentials Exam Notes

Sample Application Layer Question (20 Points)

1. The above figure shows the encapsulation process. Explain this process giving specific detail at each
layer of the OSI Model. Be sure to explain the different PDUs at each stage. (10 points)

As application data is passed down the protocol stack on its way to be transmitted across the network media, various protocol
information is added at each level. This is known as the encapsulation process.

The form that a piece of data takes at any layer is called a protocol data unit (PDU). During encapsulation, each succeeding layer
encapsulates the PDU that it receives from the layer above in accordance with the protocol being used. At each stage of the process, a
PDU has a different name to reflect its new functions. Although there is no universal naming convention for PDUs, in this course, the
PDUs are named according to the protocols of the TCP/IP suite, as shown in the figure.

Data - The general term for the PDU used at the application layer
Segment - Transport layer PDU
Packet - Network layer PDU
Frame Data Link layer PDU
Bits - A Physical layer PDU used when physically transmitting data over the medium
Explain the following terms used for email data.
a. SMTP (2 points)

SMTP message formats require a message header and a message body. While the message body can contain any amount of text, the
message header must have a properly formatted recipient email address and a sender address. When a client sends email, the client
SMTP process connects with a server SMTP process on well-known port 25.

b. POP3 (2 points)

POP is used by an application to retrieve mail from a mail server. With POP, mail is downloaded from the server to the client and then
deleted on the server. This is how POP operates, by default.The server starts the POP service by passively listening on TCP port 110
for client connection requests.

c. MUA (2 points)

A mail user agent (MUA) is a program that allows you to receive and send e-mailmessages; it's usually just called an e-mail program.

d. MTA (2 points)

A message transfer agent or mail transfer agent (MTA) or mail relay is software that transfers electronic mail messages from one
computer to another using a clientserver application architecture.

e. MDA (2 points)

A mail delivery agent or message delivery agent (MDA) is a computer software component that is responsible for the delivery of e-
mail messages to a local recipient's mailbox. Also called an LDA, or local delivery agent.
Sample Cabling and Router/Switch Configuration Question (20 points)

1. What cable is used to connect a router to a PC? (1 point)

Crossover Cable

2. What cable is used between a router and another router? (1 point)

Crossover Cable

3. What cable is used between a router and a switch? (1 point)

Straight-Through Cable

4. What does Hyperterminal emulation software allow a user to do? (1 points)

HYPERTERMINAL enable communication with other computer systems, devices, hardware, and pieces of
equipment. Connect using Telnet or SSH over TCP/IP networks, using a direct serial connection, or
modem to modem.

5. What is an alternative to using Hyperterminal emulation software? (1 points)


6. What do the following commands allow? (1 points)

line con 0
password cisco

The following commands allow encrypted console access to the user interacting to the system.

7. How many vty lines are on a router? (1 points)

Many Cisco switches support up to 5 VTY lines that are numbered 0 to 4.

8. How many vty lines are on a switch? (1 points)

Many Cisco switches support up to 16 VTY lines that are numbered 0 to 15.

9. How can you securely configure the vty lines on a router or switch? (1 points)

The "login" command after the password command

10. How do you remove an incorrect configuration line? (1 points)

No (previous command).

11. What is the purpose of a banner? (1 points)

Display access warning messages.

12. How can you save a configuration file to NVRAM? (1 points)

Perform the command "write mem"

13. What layer 1 (Physical Layer) problems might you have in a network? (1 points)
14. What layer 2 (Data Link Layer) problems might you have in a network? (1 points)
15. What layer 3 (Network Layer) problems might you have in a network? (1 points)
16. IPv6 addresses are 128 bits long. How are they written and what is the significance of
the subnet mask? (1 points)
17. What must be configured on a router to permit IPv6 addresses to be configured on
interfaces? (1 points)

ipv6 unicast-routing or sdm prefer dual-ipv4-and-ipv6 default

18. How are subnet masks written when using IPv6 addresses? (1 points)


19. Switches are layer 2 devices. Explain why is it possible to configure addresses (layer
3) on Layer 2 devices? (1 points)

It is possible to configure due to the sub layer after Layer 2, which is the Virtual Interface of the Switch.
This is the interface of vlan 1.

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20. Switches use SVIs. What are SVIs, and how are they different to physical interfaces?
(1 points)

SVI are the virtual local area network of that sector. SVI are level 3 whereas the Physical Interfaces are
Level 2.

21. In what ways is a Router similar to a Computer? (1 points)

They both have a IP address, MAC address and Broadcast address.

Sample Data Link Layer Question (20 Points)

1. Name the computing device that would display the output shown in the above figure.
(1 point)

Windows PC due to

2. Answer the following questions about the ARP command:

a. What command would be used to display all entries in ARP cache? (1 point)
b. What command would be used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush ARP cache) (1 point)
c. What command would be used to delete the ARP cache entry for (2 points)
3. How is an ARP entry added to the ARP cache? (Note: This is not found in the table above.) (4
4. For what purpose is an ARP cache held? (5 points)
5. What is the difference between static ARP and dynamic ARP cache entries? (2 point)
6. What occurs when a computing device receives an ARP request? (2 points)
7. If a destination for a communication is outside the LAN, how is ARP for this communication
determined? (2 points)