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Session 7: Values

What is a possible source of conflict?

lack of value similarity/congruence (e.g. with a romantic partner,org)

VALUES are classified as what kind of psychological construct?

guiding principles in our lives

it is a COGNITION (not affect or behaviour)

beliefs about desirable end states or behaviours that transcend specific situations,” (Schwartz & Bilsky, 1987)

values are NOT neutral or negative —> all values are positive

values are something we DESIRE —> desired end state

when people judge someone else’s values, or ways to get there and too much of it can be BAD

Features of Values (Schwartz, 2012) - BMTSOP

1. beliefs that need to be ACTIVATED / has to be salient

2. all values are motivationally distinct

a DESIRED goal, a desired end state

goal: desired outcome

one way to differentiate one value from another: what is the main goal/motivation that you value it so much

all values that are highly important to you are PURSUED

you want to protect and defend your values

3. trans-situational (at least for BASIC values)

all values are good/desired across situations and time and place

4. serve as standard or criteria

5. ordered by importance

ranking most important and least important

6. pursued at the expense of competing values

there is a trade off, you cannot pursue everything at the same time

How are values MEASURED?

How important are the following as guiding principles in your life [the lives of Filipinos] Portrait Values Questionnaire

each item is a description of an individual

each has a difference underlying motivation

gender is a factor

How are values organised and ordered?

Values are all related to each other

Structural relations among ten motivational types of values

those that are next to each other —> motivationally related, similar, can be used the same time

opposite —> tradeoff (e.g. if you pursue benevolence you cant pursue achievement)

relative to two

the closer, the more similar

the farther/more opposite, the more incongruent/distinct/different

bigger scale

1. openness to change

2. self-transcendence

3. conservation

4. self-enhancement

hedonism: both openness to change and self enhancement —> seek for plreasure self-direction: exploration, creativity, independent thought achievement: value success but success depends on society kapwa: core value

How are values related to attitudes and behaviours? Duterte voters- more conservative, higher traditional morality and higher law and order, high blind patriotism

How are values different from traits, beliefs, and attitudes?

value - always positive, cultural dimensions so they are LEARNED, often violated or activated / tell you your goals i.e. what you pursue, what my goals are

beliefs tell you HOW to person them i.e. how can i get to my goals/accomplish goals

traits - general pattern of behaviour / can be desirable or undesirable

attitude - an evaluation of something (liking something, disliking, being satisfied), theres a specific target in mind, can be negative or positive (negative attitude towards smoking)

norms - standards of how to behave, prescriptive behaviour (e.g girls should not study), don't have to be legalised

thus, attitudes, beliefs, and norms are motivated by values

attitudes, beliefs, and norms are motivated by values In sum… • one way of unpacking CULTURE

In sum…

one way of unpacking CULTURE and its influences would be study VALUES (one of the elements of culture are values)


describe both individuals and groups

help us answer a fundamental question: WHAT GOALS SHOULD I PURSUE IN LIFE?

UNIVERSAL values stem from universal needs of humans (values stem from needs of humans)

however, more CULTURALLY-RELEVANT values may be a consequence of more idiosyncratic (not universal, anchored in a particular group) needs of a group

Session 8: Kapwa

Ilang mga tanong ni Doc E

there was a search for the national character and filipino personality



on national character have long been suspect because of


risk of stereotyping a


[there is a] “


to correct the imbalance in a situation where the Filipino is primarily

characterized from the judgmental and impressionistic point of view of the colonizers

language and perspective


analysis and interpretation of Filipino values is substantially keyed to a foreign


adjusting to the needs of others perhaps on the expense of your own

being considerate of other people (e.g. throwing away trash) the one who is benefited is the OTHER (not the self)

PAKIKIPAGKAPWA: act of relating with others as kapwa-tao

Doc E: ideal form of interaction with an another

Dr. Enriquez defines kapwa as a shared identity, and a natural connection or oneness with another. Kapwa is the very foundation and core of all Filipino values that determines not just one’s own personality, but more of his or her pagkatao. The underlying goal and desired end-state of people who highly endorse a sense of kapwa would be to achieve a sense of oneness with others; to realise that each person is equal, and to treat each other with utmost respect.

Conceptual Definition of KAPWA

HINDI ito katulad ng OTHER sa Ingles


there is a merging of the self and other in “Mahal Kita” —> kita

KAPWA: shared identity of self and other


it is a model of agency: KAPWA can be construed as a type of self that people adopt

you can adapt a non-kapwa self


KAPWA model of agency/self

Steps for KP as a type of self?

1. A sense of identification with an other (based on similar attitudes values or traits, or similar/ shared experiences)

Pagiging TAO i.e. “humanity”

You can have kapwa with foreigners

Pagkilala ng pinagsasaluhang pagkakatulad o pagkakapareho

Hindi ako iba sa ‘yo, hindi ako iba sa inyo.”

2. Value egalitarian treatment

idea that power relations are equal

“Kahit sino ka pa, ikaw at ako ay MAGKAPANTAY

dahil pareho tayong TAO.”

3. There are expected behaviours when you adopt a KAPWA sense of self / model of agency

Ano ba ang pagkakapareho nating lahat? Bakit tayo nakaka-identify sa isa’t isa?

nating lahat? Bakit tayo nakaka-identify sa isa’t isa ? What happens if you adapt KAPWA? •

What happens if you adapt KAPWA?

higher empathy

more aware and sensitive to needs

change of mindset

motivations are less self directed

could become too other-oriented

change of mindset • motivations are less self directed • could become too other-oriented Page 3

Possible consequences when KAPWA is adopted as a type of self

Pagkilala na kung ano ang makakabuti (o makakasama) sa ‘kin ay makakabuti (o makakasama) sa ‘yo

Pagkilala at paggalang sa dangal at halaga ng bawat isa

Ayaw natin na may na-o-OP o may nakakaramdam na hindi siya kasali.

Ayaw nating nakakasakit tayo ng iba. / We don’t want to hurt others

Hinihikayat tayong ituring na kapantay ang lahat ng iba-sa- atin.

Hinihikayat tayong maging magalang.

Hinihikayat tayong maging patas at ‘wag manamantala.

Hinihikayat tayong kilalanin ang mga KARAPATAN ng bawat isa.

How does a high (or low) sense of KP influence pakikipagkapwa (relating with others)? Dr. E identified 12 Filipino values that have a conceptual structure

Some features of the KAPWA theory

May 12 values at may conceptual structure ang values na ito

May 3 salient features ang modelo.

3 salient features of the model:

1. A priori categories: surface, pivot, core, foundation of human values

A priori values: surface value, confrontative surface value, pivotal interpersonal value, core value,

2. 3-tiered structure: surface sa taas, pivot at core sa gitna, foundation values sa pinakababa

3. (a sense of) KAPWA ang core value

core value: all other values are related to the core value

core value: all other values are related to the core value Ano kaya ang ibig sabihin

Ano kaya ang ibig sabihin o implikasyon ng pagiging CORE VALUE ng KAPWA?

endorsement is the most important i.e. is it highly endorsed by Filipinos?

core: central compared to the rest

If a sense of KAPWA is a value

sense of oneness with the world

goal: people have a desired outcome of a

what is the underlying motivation? Desired end doal?

harmonious relationships and egalitarian


part of a high sense of KAPWA is to value the self in relation to others


If (a sense of) KAPWA is a value


is the underlying motivation?

relation to others KAPWA AS A VALUE If (a sense of) KAPWA is a value what

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If (a sense of) KAPWA is a value

1. Ginagamit natin ang ating VALUES para i-evaluate ang mga tao, sitwasyon, bagay, atbp i.e. we use values to evaluate people

2. Mahalagang ma-ACTIVE ang values para along tumid lang kakayhan nailing maimpluwensiyan lang kilos natin


In the case of kapwa, what do we actually activate?

We active our desired end state

goal of harmonious relationship and egalitarian treatment

What constitutes as a kapwa violation and how do we react to it?

PAKIKIBAKA is a sanctioned response

we react to it? • PAKIKIBAKA is a sanctioned response Core vs Pivot Values • core
we react to it? • PAKIKIBAKA is a sanctioned response Core vs Pivot Values • core

Core vs Pivot Values

core value: to value harmonious relationships & egalitarianism

pivot value: heightened awareness and sensitivity /

PAKIKIRAMDAM was a pivot value for Dr. E, which is a COGNITION (because it a value)

pakikiramdam is the crucial bridge from kapwa to surface values since it will orient you to what you should do

e.g. seeing your friend down in the dumps so pakiramdam will orient you to become more accommodating

Accommodative Surface Values


INHIBIT actions

trying to accommodate a harmonious relationship

“compliant pinoy"

three types

hiya: accommodating others feelings, you won't assert yourself

utang loob: accommodating mutual interest of one another / safeguard mutual interest/

pakikisama: accommodating others needs/interest and smooth interpersonal relations

Confrontative Surface Values


ENCOURAGES action in the pursuit of your interest


bahala na: confronting uncertainty, since you are not sure of ht outcome but you will take the risk and perform anyway/ willingness to face and accept consequences

lakas ng loob: confronting fear and difficulties with perseverance and grit, in pursuit of interest

pakikibaka: confronting injustice, confronting oppression, exploitation

Enriquez’s KAPWA values theory is a guide on how to behave properly in culturally-expected ways in the context of relationships

KAPWA-tao as basis of categorising relationships

A few things to think about:

Doesn’t the KAPWA values theory seem like a fantasy/fairy tale? Ganyan ba talaga tayo makipagkapwa-tao? Pagiging TAO lang ba ang konsiderasyon?

Paano nga ba makipagkapwa(-tao)? How does categorizing people and our relationships influence PAKIKIPAGKAPWA (relating with others)?

In “real life”, we categorize people and our relationships.

“real life”, we categorize people and our relationships. Pag-Iiba ng Ibang Tao (IT) – Hindi Ibang
“real life”, we categorize people and our relationships. Pag-Iiba ng Ibang Tao (IT) – Hindi Ibang

Pag-Iiba ng Ibang Tao (IT) – Hindi Ibang Tao (HIT)

Hindi Ibang Tao

e.g. close family members, close friends, best friends, boyfriend, girlfriend

Ibang tao

e.g. strangers, casual acquaintances, classmates with minimal interaction, friends of

friends, ka-pamilya na hindi ka- close

The HIT/IT Distinction

3 major predictors of HIT/IT

LAPIT NG LOOB: effective closeness that you feel with one another

higher lapit ng loob,

GAAN NG LOOB: light hearted

PAGKAKATULAD: similarity

2 minor predictors of HIT/IT

tagal ng pagkakilala (longer you know somebody, the more HIT)

how long you’ve known one another

dalas ng pagsasama how often your together

*these dimensions are measuring RELATIONSHIP DISTINCTIONS, not individual people

May mga pagkilos na maaari lamang sa isang partikular na kategorya ng kapwa

BIRO - can only be done to HIT

LAMBING - affection


H.I.T. Bias

once you categorise someone as HIT, theres a halo effect

if you consider someone as HIT, there is an increase in source of credibility

e.g. competence, trustworthiness, and good will


Sinong teacher kaya yung tingin ng mga estudyante e ka-close nila? HIT

Sinong teacher kaya yung sa tingin ng mga estudyante e mas magaling? HIT

Sinong teacher kaya yung sa tingin ng mga estudyante e mas FAIR? HIT

Summary - There are culturally-expected ways of relating with an other: PAKIKIPAGKPAWA.


KAPWA type of self/KAPWA as basis of identification (and social categorisation?)


sense of shared identity


basis of behavior is a sense of shared humanity


treating the other as an equal


KAPWA self or model of agency


(SENSE OF) KAPWA as a value/value system


when endorsed, the goal is to pursue harmonious relationships and egalitarian practices

KAPWA as a guiding principle in your life


KAPWA-tao categorizes/as basis of categorizing relationships


through IT/HIT, thus can be more naunced


involves you and other


can be categorized to IT and HIT, pero parehong KAPWA-tao


Session 9: Pakikiramdam at Pahiwatig

In our relationships…

We are not always direct in our interactions

There are times that we do not mean what we say directly

It is not always clear what the appropriate behaviours are in a particular context

This makes PAKIKIRAMDAM invaluable in our interactions, especially when we need to surface shared meanings

Philippines is considered a

low context: meanings are explicit

high context: meanings are imbedded in words and in contexts such as time, experience


(Hall, 1976)

(nonverbal aspects), type and nature of relationship involved i.e. meaning is covered and discovered

HC means there is a

Why? high frequency of interaction, bound in same space, homogenous

high degree of shared meaning

e.g. HC seen in farmers

Doc E defined pakikiramdam as:


shared inner perception / heightened awareness and

emotional a priori

kung literal na paki-ramdam

—> “please feel”

isang pakiusap na makaramdam o maging sensitive

but if pakiKIramdam

an act/process that refers to assessing a situation or reading internal and external cues

during interactions, involves trying to feel and understand the feelings and intentions of others i.e. empathy

activated to ensure we are responding appropriately during our interactions

internal cues: reading what is happening inside of you

assessing involves of weighing, estimating, measuring

What are some forms of the cues we use? PAHIWATIG (Maggay, 1999)

literally, a cue or hint

verbal or nonverbal

sent by a messenger

a combination, class, or “syndrome” of pahiwatig may express:

hurt or offense (through silent treatment)

a need, want or request

biro: joke

lambing: compliment a person/sweetness

tampo: moody/ dissapointment


e.g. paalaala, paglalangis

When do we exercise pakikiramdam?

both an affective and cognitive process

used “in the service of something we value”

may stem from adopting a KAPWA self and endorsing a high sense of kapwa

if kapwa theory is accurate: situations that involve hiya, utang na loob, pakikisama, bahala na, lakas ng loob, pakikibaka / pakikiramdam manifested in hiya, utang na loob etc

With WHOM o we exercise pakikiramdam?


goal: harmony and good relations

ibang tao

goal: to identity appropriate response (more utilitarian)

hindi ibang tao

goal: relationship maintenance

Instances when PAKIKIRAMDAM does/will not work?

pakikiramdam entails reading clues, so if someone throws the wrong cue, it won’t work

Hypothesis #1 (Maggay, 1999): Social distance is positively correlated with degree of ambiguity.

social distance: degree of equality in power relations between the two people i.e. social status

the higher the social distance (the higher the difference in social status) i.e. the less egalitarian relationships, the higher the ambiguity

Less pakikiramdam means higher ambiguity

less pakikiramdam = you don’t feel for the other person as much so there’s more of an ambiguous relationship

e.g. boss and girl wont have as much pakikiramdam w one another kasi malaki yung social distance

if one does not care about the other or the situation, there is no need for pakikiramdam

Features of Pakikiramdam - DDGCHP

deliberate (sinadya maging dense; hindi nag-adjust)

dynamic (Read, react, reward, repeat)

goal-oriented (e.g. elicit more information)

cues-based (misreading, overreading, kluging lang impormasyon; mali lang pakakilala sa isang tao o mali ang assessment sa relasyon) heightened sensitivity and awareness

possibly depositional (ability/competency; manhid)

Motivations for indirectness (indirectioness = pahiwatig)



you don’t want to hurt her


being deliberately indirect for the sake of harmony & good relations

Hypothesis #2: Level of relationship influences degree of directness.

the more interaction (i.e. di-ibang tao), the more direct/less pahiwatig marker: pakikipag-palagayang loob

Hypothesis #3: Power held by a person influences degree of directness.

the more authority/power someone has, the more expressive/less pahiwatig

e.g. Mocha Uson


Pakikiramdam: conceptually defined both as a (PIVOT) VALUE and PROCESS/ACT/ MECHANISM.

We deliberately use PAKIKIRAMDAM (as a behavior) to read pahiwatig and understand

We deliberately use PAKIKIRAMDAM (as a behavior) to read pahiwatig and understand


We deliberately use PAKIKIRAMDAM (as a behavior) to read pahiwatig and understand ambiguity.

As a mechanism, we use pakikiramdam to read and respond to PAHIWATIG

pakikiramdam is what you do when you see the cues (cues e.g. pahiwatig)

Both the use of PAKIKIRAMDAM and PAHIWATIG may be motivated by the importance of harmony/positive relationships as a guiding principle in one’s life.

Power and level of relationship may influence the use of PAHIWATIG during an interaction.

Social distance may influence the effectiveness of PAKIKIRAMDAM during an interaction.


Family as a powerful socialisation agent (Huston & Robins, 1982)

socialization: process of teaching and learning culture, in order to shape the person

relations within family are “more enduring, involve more frequent interaction, span a greater range of activities and be subject to a larger set of culture norms than most other relationships”

According to Medina (1991)

Socialization - deliberate vs undeliberate

deliberate (sadya, planado, pinaghandaan) “ikaw yung panganay”

undeliberate (through observation) - volunteering to play a role

Socialization shapes IDENTITY, which depends on





Parentification: role reversal

process through which children are assigned to the role of an adult, taking on both emotional and functional responsibilities that typically are performed by the parent

functional: bread winner, pay bills, do chores

emotional: mediator, counselor, fulfilling socio-emotional needs

Carandang (1987)

tagasalo o mananalo, of responsibilities and problem


seeing it as an obligation i.e. compulsive

being driven by guilt i.e. unconscious

overgeneralized and indiscriminate

“Kailangan kong gawin ito. Obligasyon ko ito.” (COMPULSIVE) “Hindi ko alam bakit hindi ako maka-hindi. Basta nagi-guilty lang ako.” (UNCONSCIOUS) “Kailangan kong alagaan lahat.” (OVERGENERALIZED AND INDISCRIMINATE)

RELIEVE tension

Characteristics of the Tagasalo *you don’t need to have all these characteristics


sense of responsibility

ability for listening

ability to mediate

high need for harmony* (if the person has a high sense of KAPWA, then he/she is likely to be tagasalo —> has discomfort when there is conflict thus wanting harmonious relationships)

high need for control

capacity for caring and self-sacrifice

capacity for emotional distance

How does the TAGASALO personality develop?

sex and birth order are INCONCLUSIVE

family dynamics and conflicts


parental expectations: approval and appreciation —> internal motivation

parental behaviours: role reversal, when parent is incapable of functioning

driven by the need for power (possibly unconsciously)

Is it possible that there is no TAGASALO in one’s family? Possible

Why do we need to identify the TAGASALO in the family?

“prime movers” in the family —> they have high power

they get tired

stress, burn out, and demoralization

indiscriminate and overextended caring

How do we ease the burden of the TAGASALO? For the TAGASALO:

for the tagasalo

set clear limits

physical distancing

for the friends and family members of the tagasalo

pag-alalay (“to move with someone”)



TAGASALO is not necessarily maladaptive

TAGASALO is a personality, it occurs ACROSS situations, and has a consistent pattern

gender and birth order does not play a role, more of family dynamics

ADOLESCENCE: Panahon ng eksplorasyon at pagkatuto ng mga kakayahan at limitasyon






Super Typhoon Haiyan / Yolanda hit the PH in November 2013

survivors of natural disasters tend to be at risk of mental health disorders because of the experience of TRAUMA


What kinds of mental health and psychosocial support do disaster survivors need? Psychosocial impact of typhoon on survivors (Hechanova et al. 2015)

somatic (e.g. high blood headache, high blood pressure, pimples, hairfall)

emotional (e.g. depression)

cognitive (e.g. guilt, difficulties in planning and thinking)

behavioural (e.g. drug use)

spiritual (e.g. starting to question existence of God)

Intervention Pyramid for Mental Health and Psychosocial Supports (MHPSS) (IASC, 2007) From top —> bottom:

1. Fourth level: Specialized services e.g.

target: those who have PTSD

professional i.e. psychiatrists, etc.

2. Third level: Focused, non-specialised psychosocial supports

focused because there is a clearer & smaller population

targeted to mild-moderate

e.g. PFA

specialised i.e. trained volunteers, social workers, psychologists, teachers, medical/mental health professionals

psychologists, teachers, medical/mental health professionals 3 . Second level: Community and family supports •

3. Second level: Community and family supports

making sure community thrives and people are on their feet after

e.g. community rituals, such as mass or funerals or concerts

e.g. programs targeted at youth/children

usually government provides

4. First level: Basic services and security

includes everyone who survived

e.g. food, water + systems of government


Learn about and, where appropriate, use local cultural practices to support local people

so you do no harm

learn how they deal with family

Use methods from outside the culture where it is appropriate to do so

Psychological First Aid

through debriefing and counselling, which can be done even if you are not a psychologist


assess needs

connect to relevant information, services, and other types of support

basic principles

look - is person safe? does the person need to eat?

listen -

link - important information or services/support


force survivor to repeat/talk about personal details or their own experience

give simple reassurances: everything will be ok, at least you survived

make promises that may not be kept

criticise insufficient of lack of basic services to survivors

try and solve the problem (goal is not to solve the problem)


promote safety

promote calm; listen to whatever they are saying

promote connectedness

promote self-efficacy; they should help themselves

promote hope

How can we mitigate (i.e. lessen) risk AND promote recovery in the wake of trauma?


Identify needs, vulnerabilities, and protective factors - target them



Protective Factors

markers that may exacerbate the negative effects of a risk condition

those that modify the risk in a positive direction / strengths going for the Philippines

e.g. poverty, inefficient government conditions, lack of transport

e.g. sense of collectivism, getting together of people, resilient mindset, optimism, humor



rebound/bounce back after adversity

capacity to retain to a stable state after trauma

Resilience (Masten, 2014)

Build resilience

“to rebound”

“capacity of a dynamic system to adapt successfully to disturbances that threaten system function, viability, or development”

that threaten system function, viability, or development” What counts as RESILIENCE or positive adaptation? •

What counts as RESILIENCE or positive adaptation?

sign of no resilience: giving up, disengage from social support

Focus of the KATATAGAN intervention (a person with a positive adaptation)

kalakasan - courage, self-efficacy, cultivates personal strength

katawan - can manage physical symptoms or physical reactions to trauma (e.g. stress management, breathing, mindfulness)

kalooban - able to manage unhelpful cognitions and emotions (e.g. PSTD, depression)

kalutasan at kaagapay - problem-solving, able to find solutions to problems, trying to connect with a community for social support (using social support as a mean to problem solve)

kapaki-pakinabang na gawain - productive, stay away from harmful things (e.g. drugs, not sleeping), learning a new routine, engaging in healthy & productive activities

kinabukasan - has hope, able to plan for the future


target: adults with mild-moderate symptoms

Third level: Focused, non-specialised supports

who can conduct? trained people

How did the KATATAGAN team ensure that the intervention was culturally sensitive? / “Western invention” was culturally sensitive through

use of groups

recognition of the protective factors (spirituality and social support)

use of local language

use of Filipino symbols

How do we ensure that positive adaptation and thriving persist?

Resilience is a psychological resource

But, in the context of disaster risk reduction, hazards are minimised by systemic & systematic interventions outside the self’s control

The resilience discourse may lead to:

reliance on dole-outs (e.g. donations)

vulnerabilities are not addressed (lack of transportation, poverty, geography)

reactive mindset vs preventive mindset

In sum…

the KATATAGAN intervention is an immediate and level 3 psychosocial response after a disaster or traumatic event. It is also designed for adults. It can be administered by paraprofessionals.

Katatagan hones individual coping skills but employs social resources including faith & family

The Katatagan program employed a quasi-experimental design to assess its efficacy. It also utilised indigenization (from without) to ensure cultural appropriateness of the program.

In keeping with the IASC( 2007) guidelines for MHPSS in emergency settings, the implementation of a psychosocial intervention needs to be part of an integrated effort to support survivors






Filipino identity = citizenship

1987 Consti

Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines

Those born before Jan 17, 1973, of Filipino Mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority;

Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

Filipino identity is



(citizenship can be) lost, or reacquired

Bilang mga tao…

Natural para sa atin na hatiin ang mundo sa mga GRUPO. (categorization)

Ginagamit natin ang ating mga grupo para IPAKILALA ang sarili. (identification)

Tinitiyak nating positibo ang IMAHE ng mga grupo natin. (comparison)

Mahalaga ba ang Social Categories?

Social categories: grupo ng mga taong pinagsama batay sa isang pamantayan (hal. Filipino)

Para di magulo (organization)

Para alam natin kung saan tayo lulugar (identity)

Ang pagiging Isko at Iska (ang yabang!) ay isang halimbawang SOCIAL CATEGORY o grupo kung saan tayo kabilang (o miyembro).

Social identity: aspects of an individual’s self image (or definition of self) that derive from social categories to which one perceives him/herself as belonging

highly subjective, choice based

The Filipino identity is an example of a SOCIAL IDENTITY.

NATIONAL IDENTITY: pagiging Filipino

Is citizenship different from national identity? Citizenship - objective, legal basis, can be under national identity National identity - more nuanced,

How does one BECOME Filipino and how do we evaluate one’s Filipino-ness (BEING Pinoy)? being vs becoming


concerned with BOUNDARY conditions

who is outside, who is from the inside

Identity Positions - Gaano ka lalim

quality of Filipino-ness

how deep is the Filipino-ness

When does a person BECOME a PINOY?

3 basis/dimensions

Pinagmulan - legal (socio-political) basis

e.g. parents are Pinoy

by law

basis • e.g. parents are Pinoy • by law • Kinalakhan - cultural basis (behaviours “asal”

Kinalakhan - cultural basis (behaviours “asal” and values “halaga”)

participation and immersion in local culture

speaking the language

Kamalayan - psychological basis (awareness, acceptance, pride)

going beyond the self


How do we evaluate the quality of one’s Filipino-ness? (babaw o lalim?)

Emphasizing or de-emphasizing certain aspects of Filipino identity may affect the lalim of our Filipino-ness

quality of being a Filipino

based on identity’s performative aspect (GALAW)


Pilipino sa pangalan (superficial integration of Filipino-ness within the self —> pagkilala o pagtanggap ng pagiging Pinoy)

Pilipino sa puso (deep integration of Filipino-ness within the self —> may conviction na Pinoy)

Something to think about (a possible hypothesis)

Malaki ang kinalaman ng ating kontekstong ginagalawan sa lalim o babaw ng pagka-Pilipino natin


Mas positibong imahe ng Pinoy, mas Pinoy sa puso

Mas negatibong imahe ng Pinoy, mas Pinoy sa pangalan

Saan posibleng ibatay ang BABAW o LALIM ng Filipino-ness (PAGKA-PILIPINO)?

Galaw (activity)

posibleng makita sa KILOS (behaviour) at GAWA (habit)

tanggap ang sarili at ang iba bilang Pinoy

mas nakikilahok sa buhay ng kapwa Pinoy

Why does a Pilipino sa puso have a deeper integration of Filipino-ness? What dimension of Filipino identity does s/he emphasize the most?

/deeper KAMALAYAN, quality of Filipino-ness

quality of Filipino-ness (PILIPINO sa PUSO), emphasis on KINALAKHAN

In sum…

Flexible at pwedeng i-negotiate ang pagiging Pinoy (Filipino identity). Inclusive tayo!

Dahil importante ang pagiging Pilipino (bahagi ng national identity at hindi madaling i-give- up), kaya natin i-emphasize o de-emphasize ang ilang dimensyon ng pagiging Pilipino.

Malaki ang kinalaman ng (lalim o babaw ng) KAMALAYAN sa kalidad ng pagka- Pilipino (Filipino- ness).

Sa kabilang banda, naiimpluwensyahan ng kalidad ng pagka-Pilipino ang paglubog at pakikilahok sa kultura (KINALAKIHAN aspects).