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The Regulating Act, 1773 EIC was becoming corrupt, so Crown wanted to regulate control

The Regulating Act, 1773 was the first attempted by British Parliament to regulate the affairs
of the Company in India. this act also brought an end to Dual system of Government of India.

This was the first attempt towards Centralised Administration. Intitiay, all 3 presidencies were ruled indip. by 24
member CoD. Now Bengal at top and rest
In this act, Governor of Bengal became Governor General for allcontrolled by it
British territories in India.

Bombay and Madras Presidency subordinated to Bengal Presidency in certain matters.

Supreme Court to be set up at Calcutta and also founded Calcutta Madarasa.

The Pitts India Act, 1784 to counter defects of 1773 Act. Crown and EIC both ruled Governor General was given more
power (he didn't have much power in
The Pitts India Act, 1784 (The East India Company Act 1784) gave the British 1773 Act
supreme control over the Companys affairs and its administration in India.

It established dual system of governance:

1. Government by Board of Control by crown

2. Government of Court of Directors. CoD by EIC Size 0f same decreased from 4 to 3. to boost GG's
The Board of Control was to guide and control the work of the Court of Directors.

Presidencies of Madras and Bombay were subordinated to the Governor-General and

Council of Bengal in all matters of diplomacy

The Charter Act of 1813 B0C had bec0me ridded with nep0tism and c0rrupti0n

The Charter Act 1813 is also known as The East India Company Act 1813.

The East Indian Company was deprived of its monopoly of trade with India except in tea and
Under this act, a sum of one lakh rupees earn marked annually for education and this
amount paid by the company.

The Charter Act of 1833

The Charter Act of 1833 brought an end to the East Indian Companys trade monopoly even
in tea and trade with China. TERRIT0RIES

The Act centralised the administration of India.

The Governor-General of Bengal became the Governor-General of India (1st Governor-

General was Lord William Bentick).

Government of Madras and Bombay deprived of legislative powers.

A fourth member, law member, added to Council of Governor-General. HE DIDNT HAVE ANY EXECUTIVE
The Charter Act of 1853

The Charter Act of 1853 extended life of the East Indian Company for an unspecified period.

Law member was made a full member of the Executive Council of the Governor-General.
Recruitment to Civil Services was based on open annual competitive examination (excluding

The Government of India Act, 1858

Indian Administration transferred from Company to British crown i.e. end of rule of East
India Company and beginning of direct rule of Crown.

In this act, the Court of Directors and Board of Control abolished. Thus the Double
Government introduced by the Pitts India Act of 1784 was finally ended. The doctrine of
lapse was also withdrawn under this act.

The post of Secretary of state for India was created (who was the member of the British
cabinet and a direct representative of the Parliament).

Governor-General was to be called the Viceroy and was the direct representative of the
crown in India.

A unitary and highly centralized administrative structure was created.

The Indian Councils Act, 1861

Foundation of Indian legislature was laid down in 1861 and the Policy of association of
Indians in legislation started.

Legislative power of the Presidency Government deprived in 1833 were restored.

Under this act, the Civil Services became Indian Civil Services.

Portfolio (or Cabinet) system in the Government of India was introduced.

Viceroy could issue ordinances in case of emergency.

The Indian Councils Act, 1892

In 1892, representative system started in India.

Council to have the power to discuss Budget and of addressing questions to the executive.

The Indian Councils Act, 1909 (The Morely-Minto Reforms)

Morely was the Secretary of State and Minto was the Indian Viceroy.

It introduced for the first time indirect elections to the state Legislative councils.

Separate electorates were introduced for the Muslims.

Resolution could be moved before the Budget takes its final form. Supplementary questions
could be asked.

The Government of India Act, 1919 (The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms)

Devolution Rules: Subjects of administration were divided into two categories Central
and Provincial. All important subjects (like Railways and Finance) were brought under the
category of Central, while matters relating to the administration of the Provinces were
classified as Provincial.

Dyarchy system introduced in the Provinces.

The Provincial subjects of administration were divided into two categories Transferred and
Reserved subjects.

The Transferred subjects were to be administered by the Governor with the aid of ministers
responsible to the Legislative Council.

The Reserved subjects (Rail, Post, Telegraph, Finance, Law & order, etc.) were to be
administered by the Governor and his Executive Council.

Indian legislature became bicameral for the first time.

Communal representation extended to Sikhs.

Secretary of State for India now to be paid from British revenue.

An officer of the High Commissioner of India was created in London.

The Government of India Act, 1935

The Government of India Act, 1935 provided for setting up of the Federation of India
comprising British Indian provinces and Indian States (Princely States). The joining of Princely
states was voluntary and as a result, the federation did not come into existence.

Dyarchy in the Provinces was replaced by Provincial autonomy. They were granted separate
legal identity.

It main three fold division of powers : Federal, Provincial and Concurrent. Residuary powers
were to be with Governor-General.

The Indian Council of Secretary of State for India was abolished.

Principle of separate electorate was extended to include Anglo-Indians, Indian Christmas and

The Federal Bank (The Reserve Bank of India) and the Federal Court (Supreme Court of India)
were established in 1935 and 1937 respectively.

Indian Independence Act, 1947

Indian Independence Act, 1947 did not lay down any provision for the administration of

Partition of India and the establishment of two countries (India and Pakistan).

Consistent Assembly of each Dominion would have unlimited powers to frame and adopt
any Constitution.

The office of the Secretary of State for India was to be abolished and his work was to be
taken over by the Secretary of State for common wealth affairs.


In British India, the Vernacular Press Act (Act IX of 1878) was enacted to curtail the freedom of
the Indian press and prevent the expression of criticism toward British policiesnotably, the
opposition that had grown with the outset of the Second Anglo-Afghan War (187880). The act
was proposed by Lord Lytton, then Viceroy of India, and was unanimously passed by the
Viceroy's Council on March 14, 1878. The act excluded English-language publications as it was
meant to control seditious writing in 'publications in Oriental languages' everywhere in the
country, except for the South.
The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act, was a
legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely
extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without
trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World
War. Passed on the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee and named after its president,
British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt, this act effectively authorized the government to imprison any
person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj for up to two years without a trial, and gave the
imperial authorities power to deal with all revolutionary activities. Once, the army was called
into Punjab, and on April 13 where people from neighbouring villages gathered for Baisakhi Day
celebrations in Amritsar, which led to the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919.
The Land Acquisition Act, 1894 is a British era law that governed the process of land acquisition
in India until 2013 and continues to do so in Pakistan and Myanmar. It allows the acquisition of
land for some public purpose by a government agency from individual landowners after paying a
government-determined compensation to cover losses incurred by landowners from
surrendering their land to the agency. In India, a new Act, The Right to Fair Compensation and
Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013, replaced this Raj