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ENGR. GIANCARLO P.

VENTURA
Institute of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering
8/17/2016
University of the Philippines Diliman 1 AY 16-17 Sem 1
What happens to axial members
subjected to stress?

DEFORMATION:
-change in the shape and size of a body subjected
to an external force or temperature change.
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-can be highly visible or practically unnoticeable.


STRAIN
-describes the deformation of a body
-change in length or angles
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NORMAL STRAIN
Contraction or elongation of a line segment per unit length

where:

= axial strain
= deformation

L L = original length of member

UNITS: mm/mm or m/m


SIGN: (+) elongates (-) shortens
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FOR AXIAL MEMBERS:


Deformation is always along the member
Strain is an average value and is constant throughout the length
of the member
SHEAR STRAIN
Change in angle between two originally perpendicular segments
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SIGN:
where:
- shear strain
(+) when < /2
= -new angle between two
(-) when > /2
initially perpendicular lines UNITS: radians
Note: For Small Strain Analysis
For very small deformations:

sin
cos 1
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tan
where is in radians
EXAMPLE 2.1:
A rigid bar AD is supported by two rods as shown. There is no strain in the vertical bars
before load P is applied. After load P is applied, the axial strain in rod BF is 400 m/m.
Determine:
A. axial strain in rod CE
B. axial strain in rod CE if there is a 0.25-mm clearance in the connection at pin C
before the load is applied
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A rigid bar AD is supported by two rods as shown.
There is no strain in the vertical bars before load P is
applied. After load P is applied, the axial strain in rod
BF is 400 m/m. Determine:

LCE
A. axial strain in rod CE avg _ CE
Linitial _ CE

Key points to consider in solution:


1. Bar AD is RIGID
2. Based on the order of magnitude of
the deflection (mm) and rotation in
most problems, assume DD ' AD
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90 2
A rigid bar AD is supported by two rods as shown.
There is no strain in the vertical bars before load P is
applied. After load P is applied, the axial strain in rod
BF is 400 m/m. Determine:

LCE
A. axial strain in rod CE avg _ CE
Linitial _ CE

Preliminary Steps:
BF 1. Determine configuration of the frame
CE
P considering the effect of the external
load (geometry of deformation)
AD ' cos AD as 0, DD ' AD
2. Based on the geometry of
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deformation, determine the


BF CE deformation in link CE that is
consistent with the deformation in BF
80mm 240mm and displacement of point D
A rigid bar AD is supported by two rods as shown.
There is no strain in the vertical bars before load P is
applied. After load P is applied, the axial strain in rod
BF is 400 m/m. Determine:

LCE
A. axial strain in rod CE avg _ CE
Linitial _ CE

Main Steps:
1. Based on the geometry of BF CE
deformation, set up deformation

80mm 240mm
equation
LBF LBFBF avg _ BF Linitial _ BF
avg _ BF L
2. Solve for BF Linitial _ BF avg _ BF L LBF BF avg _ BF Lini
BF
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initial _ BF
m m
BF 400 1.0 m
BF 400 1.0m
m m
BF 400 m BF 400 m
A rigid bar AD is supported by two rods as shown.
There is no strain in the vertical bars before load P is
applied. After load P is applied, the axial strain in rod
BF is 400 m/m. Determine:

LCE
A. axial strain in rod CE avg _ CE
Linitial _ CE

Main Steps:
1. Based on the geometry of
deformation, set up deformation CE BF
400m
400 m

CE BF

equation 240 mm 80
240mm 80mm 80 mm 80mm
mm
240mm
240 mm
CE 400m
400
CE m
2. Solve for BF 80mm
80 mm
CE 1200m
1200
CE
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3. Solve for CE
1200 m m
CE 2000
4. Determine CE 0.6m m
B. Determine axial strain in rod CE if there is In part B, consider the effect
a 0.25-mm clearance in the connection at of the clearance:
pin C before the load is applied.

LCE
avg _ CE
Linitial _ CE

dCC ' CE 0.25mm


Main Steps: BF dCC '

1. Based on the updated geometry 80mm 240mm
of deformation, setup deformation BF CE 0.25mm
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equation
80mm 240mm

2. Solve for BF BF 400 m BF LBF


B. Determine axial strain in rod CE if there is In part B, consider the effect
a 0.25-mm clearance in the connection at of the clearance:
pin C before the load is applied.

LCE
avg _ CE
Linitial _ CE

400 m 400 CEm0.25 CE


mm 0.25mm dCC ' CE 0.25mm
80mm
Main Steps: 80mm 240mm 240mm
240mm
3. Solve for CE
CE 0.25CE 0.25 mm
mm 400 m 240
400
mm m80
1.20 mm 1.20mm
80mm mm
CE
CE 0.95 mm 0.95mm
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950 m m
CE 1583.3
4. Determine CE 0.6m m
EXAMPLE 2.2:

The load P produces an axial


strain in the brass post B of
0.0014 mm/mm. Determine:

A. the axial strain in the


aluminum alloy rod A.

B. the axial strain in the


aluminum alloy rod A if there
is a 0.125-mm clearance in
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the connection between A


and C in addition to the 0.25-
mm clearance between B
and C.
The load P produces an axial
strain in the brass post B of
0.0014 mm/mm. Determine:

A. the axial strain in the aluminum


alloy rod A.

Determine the deformation in post B Determine total displacement of X


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B
B
B 0.0014
B d XX ' B 0.25mm
Li , B 375mm
B 0.525mm d XX ' 0.775mm
Determine the axial strain in the
aluminum alloy rod A.
Y
rod _ A dYY '
Y
rod _ A 1.292mm

rod _ A
rod _ A
Lrod _ A
1.292mm

d XX ' 0.775mm 1250mm
rod _ A 0.001033 m m
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Establish the deformation equation relating deformation of post B to that of rod A

d XX ' dYY ' 250mm


dYY ' 0.775mm
150mm 250mm 150mm
dYY ' 1.292mm
Y Determine the axial strain in the aluminum alloy rod
A if there is a 0.125-mm clearance in the connection
Y between A and C in addition to the 0.25-mm
clearance between B and C.
rod _ A dYY ' 0.125mm
rod _ A 1.1667mm

d XX ' 0.775mm rod _ A


rod _ A
Establish the deformation equation Lrod _ A
250mm
dYY ' d XX '
150mm 1.1667mm

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dYY ' 1.292mm rod _ A 0.001033 m m 1250mm


d XX '

A 0.125mm rod _ A 0.0009334 m m
150mm 250mm
A 0.125mm 1.292mm A 1.1667mm
EXAMPLE 2.3:

A thin rectangular plate is


uniformly deformed as
shown.
Determine the shearing
strain xy at P.
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xy '
2
SOLUTION 1
QR 2 PQ 2 PR 2 2 PQ PR cos '

' PQ 2 PR 2 QR 2
cos '
2 PQ PR

SOLUTION 2

1
xy 1 2
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RR ' 1 QQ '
2 xy 1
tan tan
PR PQ

xy '
2 SOLUTION 2
xy 1 2 xy 1 2
RR '
1 1 QQ '
tan tan
PR PQ
0.20mm
1 1 0.38mm
tan tan
250 mm 500 mm
1 0.0458o 0.0435o 0.0894o
xy 0.00156 radians
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2
PRACTICE PROBLEM 1.2 m
A force P was applied at end A
45o 45o of string AB resulting to a
G normal strain of 0.009
mm/mm on the string. Note
E that Point A translated to the
left by 15 mm. Simultaneously,
0.5 m
P A B Plate G is heated causing a
shear strain at Point E on the
plate equal to 8x10-3 radians.
0.75 m
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If member BCD is rigid, find the


resulting NORMAL STRAIN on
C D
member DE.
1m
0.5 m
Beer, F.P. et al. (2012) Mechanics of materials. 6th Ed. SI. McGraw-Hill
Hibbeler, R.C. (2011) Mechanics of materials. 8th Ed. Prentice Hall

ENGR. GIANCARLO P. VENTURA


Institute of Civil Engineering gianpventura@gmail.com
College of Engineering
University of the Philippines Diliman MH 104-106 / ICE 319