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Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg.

Strong Chronic Treatment Other

Type number of Time prevalence Age Genetic or
symptoms Period of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Major Depression -depressed mood 5 (atleast 1 2 weeks Depression: 40 Yes Episodic Antidepressents - With or without
Depressive - adhedonia (decreased pleasure) must be M:10-15% Psychotherapy psychotic
Disorder - weight change depressed F: 10-25% ECT symptoms
- psychomotor agitation or retardation mood or Phototherapy
- feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt adhedonia) MDD: Hospitalization
- suicidal thoughts 1 out of 6
- fatigue americans
- societal impairment (17%)
Dysthymia Depression - poor apetite or overeating 2 (must 2 years Dysthymia: 21 Yes Chronic Antidepressents
- insomnia or hypersomnia also be (no more 6% Psychotherapy
- fatigue depressed than 2 ECT
- low self esteem most of the months Phototherapy
- problems concentrating or decision making day, more symptom Hospitalization
- feeling of hopelessness often than free)
Bipolar I Mania & (With or without rapid cycling) Shift in BPI: 20 Yes Episodic Lithium Suicide rate:
Depression - atleast one manic or mixed episode polarity: 0.4%-1.6% Valproate 10-15%
- Recurrent indicated by shift in polarity Atleast 2 Carbamazepine rapid cycling:
months in 5-15% BPI
without patients
Bipolar II Hypomania & Same as Bipolar I but mania does not require Shift in 0.05% Yes Episodic Lithium
Depression hospitalization (less extreme) polarity: Valproate
Atleast 2 Carbamazepine
Cyclothymia Mania & Symptoms cause clinically significant 0.4%-1% Yes Chronic Lithium
Depression impairement or distress
Specific Phobia Anxiety - Unconditional stimulus paired with a M: 4% No Episodic - Systemic
conditional F: 9% Desensitization
stimulus - Exposure
- specific stimulus/target/trigger that causes - Exposure with
anxiety response
- NE antagonists
- GABA enhanced
drugs (Benzodiazepine)
Obsessive Anxiety (Obsessions and Compulsions) Occupies 2-3% M: 6- Yes Chronic Group therapy Correlated with
Compulsive - avoidance more 15 (with SSRIs Tourretts
Disorder - person realizes obsessions or compulsions than 1 equally increase Clomipramine syndrome
- interferes with functioning hour a likely in F: 20- s and Flouxetine
day males and 29 decrease (Avoid Neuroleptics)
females s) ECT / Surgery
General Anxiety Anxiety - restlessness 3 Occurs 5% No Chronic Therapy -ongoing worry
Disorder - easily fatigued more Benzodiazepines and anxiety
- difficulty concentrating days 66% are SSRIs - no specific
- irritability than not female NSRIs target for anxiety
- muscle tension for
- sleep disturbence atleast 6
Social Phobia Anxiety - Fear of embarrassment in social situations 3-13% No Chronic Group/Individual
- fear/avoidance interfere markedly with Therapy
persons life Medication
- focus usually more on giving offense than Behavior Modification
being embarrassed
Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalence Age Genetic or
symptoms Period of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Panic Disorder Anxiety - accelerated heart rate 4 (Reached 3 attacks 1.5% Early No Episodic Benzodiazepine with/without
- Sweating, chills, hot flashes, or trembling peak within in a 3- 20s Exposure with/without Agoraphobia
- Sensations of shortness of breathe or 10 minutes) week response prevention ---------------
70-80% are
choking period Respiration training Cued, Uncued,
- Chest pain, Nausea or abdominal distress Cognitive Therapy or Situational
- Feeling dizzy, or paresthesias prediposed
- Derealization or depersonalization
- Fear of losing control, going crazy, or dying
Narcolepsy Sleep (REM) - Sleep attacks / excessive daytime Onset of NO CURE Linked to a
sleepiness REM within - CNS stimulants deficiency in
- Hypnagogic Hallucinations (i.e. bobble 10 minutes - TCA for catalepsy hypocretin
head) of sleeping - Amphetamines protein transport
- Sleep paralysis
- Catalepsy
Sleep Apnea Sleep| (Delta) - short sleep durations Male to - weight loss Types:
- frequent wakenings female - repitory stimulants for Central:
- insomnia ratio: central apnea - older, fat
- decrease stage 1, delta, REM 8:1 - continuous positive people
- Healy snoring with frequent pauses airway pressure Obstructive:
- tonsillectomy - middle age, fat,
- tracheostomy snorers
Sudden Infant Sleep - death occurs suddenly to healthy babies 50% reduction if baby 2-3X higher rate
Death while they is placed on back in smoking family
Syndrome are asleep
(SIDS) - cause is unknown
Insomnia Sleep - difficulty falling asleep (DFA) Occur - short acting
- difficulty remaining asleep (DRA) s more Benzodiazepines
often -Insomnia exclusive
with drugs
Hypersomnia Sleep - oversleeping (inability to wake up in - alcohol or depressant
morning) medications
- daytime sleepyness
Somnambulism Sleep |(Delta) - has trouble transitioning into REM sleep - benzodiazapines
(sleep walking) - rising from bed in the first 1/3 of the night
- blank stare, uncommunicative/unresponsive
- individual does not remember event
Night Terror Sleep - has trouble transitioning into REM sleep Lasts about More -benzodiazapines
(Delta) - individual wakes up agitated, screaming, or 10 minutes common in
terrified young boys
- individual is unresponsive or disoriented
- individual has NO RECALL of the event
Nightmares Sleep| (REM) - occurs during REM (dream) sleep - densensitization NOT night terrors
- Nightmare recalled - increase NE pathway
- associated with daytime anxiety activity:
- content of imagery causes fear - SNRIs
Bruxism Sleep - teeth grinding while sleeping - oral devices (preserve
(phase 2) - occurs during stage 2 sleep
- anxiety medication
Enuresis Sleep - bed wetting 7% boys, 5 Yes- -Imipramine regression-
(Delta) - occurs during delta sleep 3% girls History of - Bed and Pad classical often begins
enuresis during family
in same conditioning method crisis
Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalence Age Genetic or
symptoms Period of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?

Bereavement Grief - minor weight loss (1-3 lbs) Severe - Supportive

- minor sleep disturbances symptom psychotherapy
- some feelings of guilt :<2 - short acting
- illusions (think one briefly sees the dead months benzodiazepines (for
person) temporary sleep loss)
Abnormal Grief Depression - significant weight loss (>8lbs) Severe - anti-depressants
- significant sleep disturbace symptom - anti-psychotics
- intense feelings of guilt and worthlessness s - ECT
- hallucinations & delusions (hearing dead >2
person months
talking) moderate
>1 year
Szhitzophrenia Psychotic - Delusions (false beliefs) - Two or Continuo Adoles Yes - hospitalization - psychotic
- Hallucinations more us signs cence - anti-psychotics symptoms
- disorganized speech - only one for - 70% improve caused by
- Grossly organized or catatonic behavior required if atleast 6 - dopamine blockers dopamine
- Negative symptoms delusions or months - i.e. haloperidol activity
hallucinatio atleast 1 - supportive / behavior - 50% attempt
n are month of therapy suicide
severe symptom - group therapys
s - family therapy
- reduces relapse rate
Substance- Psychotic - delusions
Induced - Hallucinations
Psychotic - must be caused by:
Disorders - amphetamines, cocaine, alcohol, LSD
Brief Psychotic Psychotic - Delusions <1 50-80% fully
disorder - Hallucinations month recover
Schitzo- Psychotic - Schitzophrenia like symptoms 1-6 33% fully recover
phreniform months
Schitzo- Psychotic - Mood disorder symptoms + psychotic 1-6 Lifelong social
affective symptoms months and occupational
disorder impairment
Delusional Psychotic - fixed, persistant, nonbizarre delusions 50% recover
Disorder - erotomanic: Tom Cruise is in love with me completely
- jealous
- persecutory
Delirium Cognitive - common impairment of consciousness Sudden - find and remove - often occurs in
- impairment of cognitive functions onset underlying medical hospitalized
- abnormalities of mood, perception, behavior problem patients
- tremors, nystagmus (jerky movement of - anti-psychotics
eyeballs), - i.e. haloperidol
un-coordination, urinary incontinence - short acting
- to treat insomia
Dementia Cognitive - cognitive defects (including memory One or Slow >60 years - rarely reversible Alzheimer:
impairement) more of progressi _ - Acetylcholinesterase 60-80% _
- i.e. intelligence, learning, language, Aphasia, ve onset Alzheimers: inhibits (for Vascular:
problem Apraxia, early/late onset: Alzheimers 10-20% _
solving, concentration, judgement Agnoxia before or after 65 type dementia) Dementia w/
- NO impairment in consciousness impairment years __ lewly bodies:
- Aphasia (language), Apraxia (motor), Vascular: 60-70 years associated w/
Agnosia parkinsons
Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Amnestic Cognitive - memory impairment in absence of other Slow - rarely reversible Found in
Disorder significant progressi alcoholics or
cognitive impairments ve onset brain injury
- memory loss causes impairment in personal,
or occupational functioning
- i.e. inability to learn new information or
inability to
recall previously learned information
- disturbance is the direct physiological
of a general medical condition (i.e. trauma)
Pseudo- Depression - depression that mimics dementia - anti-depressants
dementia - moderate memory loss - ECT
- other cognitive problems - psychotherapy
- no decrease in IQ
- disruption of normal life
Normal Aging Aging - minor changes in normal aging brain - emotional support
- minor forgetfulness
- reduction in ability to learn new things
- no decrease in IQ
- no disruption in normal life
Hypo-active Sexual - deficiency or absence of fantasies or desires 20% of Men: low
Sexual Desire Dysfunction population testosterone
Disorder Women > women: post-
men surgery
Sexual Sexual - distaste for all sexual content
Aversion Dysfunction
Female Sexual Sexual - woman wants to have sex but is incapable 33% of
Arousal Dysfunction of it females
Disorder - i.e. decrease in vaginal lubrication
Male Erectile Sexual - male version of sexual arousal disorder 10-20% of - postage stamp test 50% more likely
Disorder Dysfunction - inability to erect penis males in smokers
- primary type: could never erect penis
- secondary type: could erect penis before,
now cant
Retrograde Sexual - - male ejaculation does not come out Only in
Orgasm Orgasmic - goes into bladder instead males
Female Sexual - - female cannot achieve orgasm 30% _ >35 - increase masturbation Likelihood of
Orgasmic Orgasmic 5% of achieving
Disorder women orgasm
over 35 increases with
years age
Male Orgasmic Sexual - - inability for male to achieve orgasm in 5%
Disorder Orgasmic vagina
Premature Sexual - male ejaculates before or immediately after - squeeze technique
Ejaculation Orgasmic entering - classical
vagina conditioning
Dysparneuria Sexual Pain - recurrent and persistant pain before, during, W>M Men: usually
or after have herpes or
intercourse peyronies
disease (curved
Vaginismus Sexual Pain - involuntary muscle contraction of outer 1/ 3 Most - relaxation women who
of common in - hegar dilators consciously want
vagina (prevents penile penetration) highly to have sex but
educated unconsciously
women or want to prevent it
Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Exibitionism Sexual - Recurrent desire to show genitals to M>W
paraphilia strangers
Fetishism Sexual - sexual focus on objects M>W
paraphilia - Transvestite Fetishism:
- heterosexual males sexually excited
dressing up as females
Frotteurism Sexual - rubbing genitals against fully clothed women M>W Most common
paraphilia to paraphilia in
achieve orgasm Japan
Pedophilia Sexual - sexual urges towards children M>W Usually only
paraphilia - recurrent, intense, sexual arousal fantasies 95% are involve fondling
or sexual hetero- or oral sex _
urges, or behaviors involving sexual sexual vaginal/anal sex
activities with _ usually only in
children boys: 60% incestual
- person has acted on these urges or urges of touching pedophilia
cause victims
marked impairment or marked distress
- person is atleast 16 years of age girls: 99%
- vicitim is atleast 5 years younger of non-
Sexual Sexual - pleasure from being abused or dominated M>W May have had
Machisism paraphilia childhood
linking pain to
Sexual Sadism Sexual - sexual pleasure from other peoples pain M>W < 18
paraphilia years
Voyeurism Sexual - sexual pleasure only from watching other M>W
paraphilia people
naked, groomed, or having sex
Zoophilia Sexual - sexual preferences for animals M>W
Copraphilia Sexual - preference for defecation during sex M>W
Urophilia Sexual - preference for urination during sex
Necrophilia Sexual - preffered sex with cadavers M>W
Hypoxyphilia Sexual - preference to be choked (to hypoxia) just M>W
paraphilia before
(NOS) ejaculation to increase sexual experience
Gender Identity Sexual - strong persistant cross gender identification Males often seek
Disorder Identity - repeated desire to be, or insistence that they surgical
are, of reassignment
the opposite sex

Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Mild Mental Childhood - - IQ: 50-70 Child- - most common
Retardation Mental - can be self-supporting and independent with hood known cause:
Retardation some fetal alcohol
guidance syndrome
- diagnosed by primary school (dont learn
colors on
Moderate Childhood - - IQ: 35-40 Child- - most common
Mental Mental - trainable hood known cause:
Retardation Retardation - can perform simple jobs fetal alcohol
- need supervision (good at sheltered syndrome
- need someone to take care of them
Severe Mental Childhood - - IQ: 20-34 Child- - most common
Retardation Mental - can communicate hood known cause:
Retardation - can perform some basic skills fetal alcohol
- level of a 2 year old syndrome
Profound Childhood - - IQ: <20 Child- - most common
Mental Mental - need highly structured environment and hood known cause:
Retardation Retardation constant fetal alcohol
supervision syndrome
Autism Childhood - - central problem: social interaction & failure to Child- 80% have
Autistic interests show hood IQ <70 _
- delayed language and communication progress possible cause:
- do not show separation anxiety on prenatal /
- do not seem to recognize external world develop perinatal injury
- attachment to inanimate object ment by
age 3
Rhetts Childhood - - normal progress of development for first 5-6 Only 5-6
Disorder Autistic months reported in months
- decelaration of head growth following next females (Child-
5-48 hood)
- loss of social engagement during early
course (but
may return)
- coordination difficulties
- psychomotor retardation
- language impairment
Childhood Childhood - - normal development for first 12-24 months 12-24
Disintegrative Autistic of life months
Disorder in all areas (Child-
- clinically significant deterioration of all hood)
acquired abilities:
- language, social skills, bowel/bladder
control, play, motor skills
- degredation and impairment in social
and development
Aspergers Childhood - - significant impairment in social interaction Child-
Disorder Autistic and hood
- interests in activities
- No delay in language or cognitive
- nerd (very focused on a single task)
Pervasive Childhood - - problems with social interactions coupled Child-
Development Autistic with hood
Disorder (PDD) (NOS) other developmental delays that do not meet
for autistic spectrum disorders
Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Conducting Childhood - - aggression to people and animals One Child-
Disorder Conduct - destruction of property coupled hood
- deceitfulness and theft with severe
- serious violation of rules problems of
Oppositional Childhood - - pattern of negative, hostile and defiant Atleast 6 Child-
Defiant Conduct behavior months hood
Disorder - temper tantrums
- argues with adults
- active defiance
- blames others
- touchy, easily annoyed
- angry and resentful
Seperation Childhood - - excessive anxiety concerning separation Must be Child-
Anxiety Separation from home diagnose hood
Disorders or a major attachment figure d before
- anxiety may include: age 18
- excessive worry, fear, bad dreams, or
Reactive Childhood - - failure to initiate or respond to most social Child-
Childhood Separation interactions or diffuse and indiscriminate hood
Disorder of attachments
Infancy or Early - must be a victim of pathogenic care
Childhood - i.e. emotional or physical neglect or
care takers
Selective Childhood - - child all of a sudden become mute even Child-
Mutism Seperation though he hood
has the ability to talk
ADHD Childhood - 6 or more symptoms of inattention Symptom 3-7% of Child- - Amphetamines
- 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity or appear school hood - Methylphenidate
impulsivity before aged kids
- symptoms are present in 2 or more settings age 7 M>F
- symptoms cause impairment (2:1 9:1)
- symptoms not caused by another disorder
Pica Childhood - - persistant eating of non-nutritive substances Ages 2-3 Child- Common in
Feeding - i.e. eating non-food items (kids hood people with
under 2 development
doing disabilities (i.e.
this is autism)
Rumination Childhood - - repeated regurgitation and rechewing food Atleast Child-
Disorder Feeding 1 month hood
Feeding Childhood - - persistant failure to eat adequatly Child-
Disorder of Feeding hood
Infancy or Early
Tourettes Childhood - multiple motor and vocal tics simultaneously Onset Child-
Disorder - occur many times a day before hood
age 18
Encopresis Childhood - involuntary passage/release of feces
Enuresis Childhood - involuntary passage of urine (bed-wetter)
Adjustment Adjustment - residual: only diagnosed if other diagnoses Symptoms 6 types:
Disorder are appear - with depressed mood
not present within 3 - with anxiety
- symptoms mark distress in excess of what months of - with depressed mood and anxiety
would be stressor - with disturbance of conduct
expected or generate significant impairment and leave - with mixed disturbance of emotions and
- not bereavement within 6 conduct

Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Factitious Lying - person feels compelled to manufacture
Disorder symptoms
- person does not understand why
- motivation is unconscious
- i.e. munchausens or munchausens with
Malingering Lying - person manufactures symptoms knowingly
with a
conscious benefit
- lying and knowing why your lying
Post Traumatic PTSD - person must have direct personal Symptoms
Stress Disorder experience with an usually
event that involves real chance of serious appear
injury more than 1
- persons must involve intense fear, month
helplessness, or
horror (or in children: intense fear,
- symptoms:
- re-experience of traumatic event
- avoidance of stimuli
- repetition compulsion
- flattening
- concentration/headache problems
- sleep disturbance
Somatization Somatoform - history of many physical complaints that All Complain
Disorder occur over complaints t must
several years and result in treatment being must have begin
sought been met at before
and impairment in functioning some point age 30
- Complaints: (which cannot be explained fully
or are
in excess of the medical
- 4 pain symptoms in different site
- 2 GI symptoms (non-pain)
- 1 sexual symptom
- 1 pseudoneurological symptom
Conversion Somatoform - physical symptoms suggest physical Differential
Disorder disorders that diagnosis:
(hysteria) cannot be explained or are uncompatible - psychotic
with disorder
known physiological mechanisms - depression
- symptoms usually muscular in nature - neurologic
- loss of functioning is real disorder
Hypochondriasi Somatoform - unrealistic interpretation or physical signs Lasts Differential
s - worries about illness when none is present >6 diagnosis:
- reassurance does not help months - personality
- tend to spend a lot of time with family doctor disorders
- obsessional - delusional
- depression,
- disease
Somatoform Somatoform - severe, prolonged pain with no physical - identify secondary Differential
Pain Disorder cause gain diagnosis:
- disrupts day to day life - depression
- not caused by depression - injury
- usually a unconscious secondary gain -melingering
Body Somatoform - central symptom: adolesc Differential
Dysmorphic - unrealistic appraisal of ones appearance ence diagnosis:
Disorder - sees self as ugly - personality
- patient does not focus exclusively on weight disorder
- delusional
- eating

Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Bulemia Eating - compulsive eating followed by compulsive F>M - treat the addiction that Person is usually
purging 5-15% are is perky and has
- purging: vomiting, laxatives, exercise male _ causing the bolemia high sex drive__
- binge purge cycle usually associated with 1-3% of - SSRIs _
stress or women - individual and group Usually has
drugs develop therapy normal body
- minimal public eating bulimia weight
- esophageal tear
- cooking/food preoccupation
- tooth decay, bite marks on toothbrush or
- enlarged parotid and salivary glands
Anorexia Eating - dangerously thin people that see themselves F>M 13-20 - stabilize weight Mortality:
as 95% are (rare in - Drugs: - 5-18%
overweight women women - Cyproheptadine decreased
- repeatedly check body weight >40) - Chloropromazine interest in sex
- engage in methods to control body weight: 0.5-1% - Amitriptyline _
- compulsive exercise prevalence Common if they
- purging (vomiting) have
- laxative abuse overbearing
- enemas mother or
- diuretics intense
- often experience delay of onset of first relationship with
menstrual father
Binge Eating Eating - Eating more rapidly than normal Atleast 3 of Atleast 2 F>M Similar
Disorder - Eat until one feels uncomfortably full the days a 35% are compulsion to
- Eating large amounts of food when not symtoms week for male eat as bulimia
feeling 6 months (without the
physically hungry purging)
- Eating alone (to avoid embarrassment over
of food being eaten)
- Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed or
after overeating
Morbid Obesity Eating - BMI > 40 F>M 9 million
Americans have
Dissociative Dissocation - individual cannot recall important personal
Amnesia information
- often is blocking out unpleasant events that
- Localized Amnesia: loss of memory of a
- Selective Amnesia: loss of some piece of a
Dissociative Dissocation - sudden unexpected traveling from home 0.2% Usually occur
Fugue with during war or
general forgetting of ones identity and past natural disasters
- person assumes new identity
- person usually does not attract attention or
fairly normal during intervening time
- if fugue ends: person does not remember
happened during fugue
Depersonali- Dissocation - person has a sense that oneself is not real, Often occurs
zation or is with:
Disoder detached and disconnected from others - PTSD
- person can feel like a robot, or that one is - just before
outside panic attack
their own body watching oneself - in intense

Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Dissociative Dissocation - presence of two or more distinct identities F>M 30 - hypnosis 2/3 of patients
Identity - atleast two identities control behavior (5:1-9:1) - develop strong attempt suicide
Disorder (DID) - normally have 5-10 identities boundaries
- (can be of both sexes) - clarity, simplicity,
- patient forgets personal information relating support
other identitiy
- usually caused by traumatic childhood event
- usually with an absence of external
- patient is usually in an environment that
support development of multiple
Schizotypal Type A - truly odd, weird, and strange 3% _ more Problems
Personality Personality - magical thinking (ESP, telepathy) M>F _ common maintaining
Disorder - illusions bordering on hallucinations among social
(oddness and - Social aniety and paranoia schitzo- conventions
eccentricity) - suspiciousness phrenic poor eye contact
- lack of close friends relatives _
- odd speech, strange dressors 10% commit
- social isolation suicide
- schizophrenic like personality
Schizoid Type A - lifelong pattern of social withdrawl that is 7.5% Often passional
Personality Personality preferred hobbyists _
Disorder and enjoyed M>F (2:1) No close friends
(oddness and - often seen as eccentric, isolted, withdrawn
eccentricity) - restriction of affect and emotional expression
- little sexual interest
- have trouble expressing anger
- often directionless in life
Paranoid Type A - pervasive suspiciousness and mistrust of 0.5-2.5% First appear in
Personality Personality others that ------------ childhood:
Disorder permeates the persons attitude and M>F
(oddness and interactions with poor peer
eccentricity) others relationship
- preoccupied with issues of trust underachieve in
- reluctant to confide in others school
- read too deeply into messages (verbal or
- frequently carry grudges with a passion
- believe others are plotting against them
- not psychotic or delusional
Histrionic Type B - people who tend to focus on superficial and W>M - individual therapy Exaggerate
Personality Personality material aspects of the world - emphasis on emotional
Disorder - pull for drama takes over developing responses _
(behavior - want to be the center of attention insight and depth have difficulty
problems & - attention seeking behavior handling aging
substance - seductive behavior
abuse) - problems maintaining long-lasting
Narcissistic Type B - person brought up where they were praised 2-16% chronic - difficult to treat Have difficulty
Personality Personality when handing aging
Disorder they were the best, and rejected when they equally _
(behavior were common in often successful
problems & anything less males and
substance - fragile sense of self females
abuse) - need for admiration to prop up internal self
- grandiose sense of self importance
- does not do well with critisism
Borderline Type B - persons sense of self is unstable (flip-flop 1-2% 5% commit
Personality Personality between --------- suicide
Disorder intact and horrific) F>M Often self-
(behavior - in high anxiety / low structure environments, 2:1 mutilators
problems & person
substance crumbles, feels like theyre in a fight for
abuse) survival
- behave in primitive, angry, desperate
- very successful under high structured
- cannot handle anxiety, uncertainty, or
Disorder: Disorder Symptoms Min. Min. Life time Avg. Strong Chronic Treatment Other
Type number of Time prevalenc Age Genetic or
symptoms Period e of link? Episodic
needed Onset ?
Anti-Social Type B - individual never developed a sense of 3% of Onset 5 x more 75% of the
Personality Personality empathy males ; before common prison population
Disorder (ASP) - or empathy was beaten out of them as a 1% of age 15 in
(behavior child females relatives
problems & - no conscience ------------- of other
substance - inconsistent, non-existent super-ego M > F (3:1) ASPs
abuse) functioning
- capable of criminal acts without remorse
- little sense of need to adhere to social
- feeling of emptiness (stimulation seeking)
- masters of manipulation
- have a very difficult time planning ahead (for
longterm planning)
Obsessive Type C - Orderly, inflexible, perfectionist M>F No obsessions
Compulsive Personality - love lists, rules, and order ------------- or compulsions
Personality - dislike change more
Disorder (Anxious & - stubborn common in
Fearful) - poor sense of humor first borns
Dependent Type C - looks for others to assume responsibility W>M
Personality Personality - subordinates own needs to others (but not to
Disorder gain
(Anxious & power)
Fearful) - doesnt express disagreement
- fearful of independence or self care
- vulnerable to hooking up with abusive
Avoidant Type C - extremely sensitive to rejection Equally Stay in same job,
Personality Personality - sees self as socially inept common in same life
Disorder - excessive shyness, high anxiety males and situation, same
(Anxious & - social isolation coupled with intense, internal females relationship
Fearful) desire Often associated
for affection and acceptance with debilitating

Depressive Episode (DSM criteria):

- must have 5 or more of the following symptoms during the same 2 week period:
- (atleast one is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure)
- symptoms due to general medical conditions, or incongruent delusions or
hallucinations are not included
- symptoms may not meet those of mixed episode (i.e. bipolar) or
may not be better accounted for by bereavement
- depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day
- adhedonia- diminished interest in pleasure
- weight change (usually decreased)
- sleep disturbance (difficulty sleeping or waking)
- psychomotor retardation or agitation
- feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
- impairment in thinking or concentration (i.e. indecisiveness)
- recurrent thoughts/attempt/plan of death, suicide
- fatigue or loss of energy
- societal impairment

DSM IV Criteria for Manic Disorders:

- abnormally elevated, expansive, irritable mood must last atleast 1 week or
require hospitalization
- 3 or more of the following:
- inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
- decreased need for sleep
- more talkative or under pressure to keep talking
- flight of ideas
- distractable
- increase in goal directed activity
- excessive involvement in pleasurable activitiesthat have a high potential
for painful consequences
Neuro Chemical Changesin Affective Disorders: Sleep in Depression and Mania
Depressed Manic Depressed Manic

Decreased SER Increased SER Increase REM first half of night Decreased Sleep

Decreased NE Increased NE Decrease in REM latency Multiple Awakenings

Decreased DA Mild increase DA Decrease Stage 4 sleep

Metabolites also decreased Increase overall REM

Decreases in most hormones EMA

Anxiety Disorders- fear that is not attached to an external stimulus (that does not make sense)
- fear- anxiety that makes sense
- most common psychiatric disorder in women
- Anxiety itself is the main symptom
- other symptoms: (mainly constant state of anticipation)
- Angst
- Vague, gnawing sense of dread
- fear and loathing
- butterflies in the stomach
- Antsy
- Headache
- Sweating
- Palpitations
- Tightness in chest
- Stomach Aches
- Autonomic response
- Peripheral Manifestations:
- Diarrhea
- Dizziness (light headedness)
- Hypertension
- Tachycardia
- Tingling of extremities
- Tremor
- Urinary Frequency
Schizophrenia Suicide Risk are lower in patients:
- who are older at onset
- have social relationships
- are female
- have good employment histories
- have good mood symptoms
- have positive symptoms (less negative symptoms)
- have experienced few relapses

Highest Suicidal Risk are in:

- #1 risk: previous suicide attempt
- males
- over age 45
- white
- separated, divorced, widowed
- Unemployed or retired
- Living Alone
- Poorer Health
- Nervous or Mental Disorder
- Depression, alcoholism (alcoholics have 50 x the rate of general population)
- Hanging, drowning, firearm as method
- Between 6pm to 6am
- Between April and September
- adolescents
- between December and March
- over 65 year olds
- August

Before Age 1 Age 2 Age 3 Age 4 Age 5 Ages 6-12 Ages 12+
Age 1 adolescence
Smiles 8 weeks: smile
to pleasant
12-15 weeks:
Physical puts things in - kick and - very active -rides tricycle - - complete - boys - growth spurt
Developme mouth throw ball - walks - alternates alternates sphincter heavier than (girls first)
nt 4 weeks: follows - pats backwards feet feet when control girls
objects to pictures in - turn climbing up climbing - brain - refined 10+:
midline book doorknobs stairs down 75% motor skills sexual maturity
5 months: 13 months: & unscrew - bowel and stairs of adult - rides - primary and
feet in mouth walks jars bladder - hops on weight bicycle secondary sexual
6 months: alone - scribbles control one foot - draws - prints characteristics
moves toys from 18 months: with - draws - grooming recognizab letters develop
hand to hand - climbs crayons recognizable (i.e. tooth le person - gains
8 months: stairs 24 months: figures brushing) (i.e. head, athletic
stand with help alone stacks 6 - catches ball body, skills
9 months: - hand cubes with arms limbs) - increase in
crawls fear fall 30 months: - cuts paper - self coordination
12 months: preference - stands on with scissors dresses/ 11 years:
pincer grasp tiptoes - unbuttons - permanent
determined - can aim buttons undresses teeth
- stacks 3 thrown ball 36 months: - catches
cubes stacks 9 ball with 2
cubes hands
Piagetian Sensorimotor (ages: birth 2) Preoperational Thought (ages 2-7) Concrete Formal
Stages of - develops organized ideas/concepts - able to use symbols Operations Operations
Cognitive (schemas) - egocentric (cannot see another (Ages 7-11) (Ages 11+)
Dlopment - object permanence perspective) - Not - logical thoughts
egocentric (deductive
- learns reasoning)

Cognitive - sensation & Object - symbol -points and Counts 10 - abstraction - abstract ability
Developme movement permanenc use counts 3 objects from objects flowers
nt - initial schema e - transition objects - - systematic
development objects - repeats 4 conservation problem solving
- assimilation& - strong digits - logic abilities
accomodation egocentricis - names - - hypothetic
m colors understands reasoning
- concrete seriation - learns past,
use - uses present, future
of objects mnemonic concept
strategies - sense of time
- gains
sense or
right and

Social - mommy is god - - terrible - fixed gender - imitates - - focus on - critical issue:
Developme - trust issues dependent 2s identity adult roles emergence rules identity
nt - solitary and on parent - selfish / - sex specific - sex of peer - organized - romance
exploratory - No selfcentered play curiosity group games and 11 & 12 years:
play - parallel - imitates - learns to - - want to fit sports - conformity with
- pat a cake / play with mannerisms take turns nightmares in - learns to be peers is important
peek other - aggressive - knows - monstor - looks on a team
a boo babies - No, No, his/her name fears outside - sexes often
- rappro- No, No and gender - imaginary family separated
chement friend -romantic - no
feelings apparent
- oedipal sexual
phase feelings
- focus on
Attachment 6 months: 12 months:
and Stranger Anxiety Stranger
Seperation begins Anxiety
8 months: disappears
Stranger Anxiety 20-24
Peaks mths:
8-12 months: Seperation
Seperation anxiety
Anxiety appears begins to
Eriksons Stage 1: Trust Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Stage 3 : Initiative vs. Guilt Stage 4 : Stage 5: Identity
Stages of vs. Basic Shame (3 -5 years) Industry vs. vs. Role
Social Mistrust (18months -3 years) Virtue: Purpose Inferiority Confusion
Developme (0-18 months) Virtue: Will Pathology: (5-13 years) (13-21 years)
nt Virtue: Hope Pathology: - Conversion disorder Virtue: Virtue: Fidelity
Pathology: - Paranoia - phobia Competence Pathology:
- psychosis - Obsessions - psychosomatic disorder Pathology: -Bad behavior &
- addiction - Compulsions - inhibition - creative gender role
- depression - Self-doubt inhibition disorder
- inertia Stage 6: Intimacy
vs. Isolation
(21-40 years)
Virtue: Love
- Schizoid
Stage 7:
Generativity vs.
(40-60 years)
Virtue: Care
- midlife crisis
- premature
Stage 8: Integrity
vs. Despair
Virtue: Wisdom
Language 4 months: - timing of - telegraphic - complete - can tell - ask the - 50,000 - develops
Developme Laughs sounds sentences sentences stories meaning of words personal speech
nt 8 months: - 10 words - 2 word - 900 words - uses words - vocabulary pattern
Repetitive utterances - strangers preposition - abstract explosion - relationship
responding - 250 words can s works - self referral focused around
10 months: - pronouns understand - uses remain speech to communication
first word - parents speech plurals difficult / social
(Ma ma / Da da) can - recognizes - unclear speech
understand common compound - more
speech object sentences complete
names sentences
Shape Age 3: Age 4: Age 5: Age 6:
Production Circle Cross Square Triangle
Age 4.5: Age 7:
Rectangle Diamond
Brain and Last trimester of 2-4 years:
Memories pregnancy - 14 earliest memories (infantile amnesia)
Furious brain

Drug Type Generic Names Neurotransmitter Adverse Side Effects Uses

Typical Neuroleptics Heroperidol Block D2 (dopamine) Tardiva dyskinesia: - Treat positive symptoms
(Anti-Psychotics) Thioridazine receptors - slowed motor of
Pimozide movements psychotic patients
- tremors with fingertips - blocks mesolimbic
- torticollis pathway
Atypical Neuroleptics Clozapine Block D2 (dopamine) Tardiva dyskinesia: - Treat positive and
(Anti-Psychotics) Olanzapine receptors - slowed motor negative
Quetiapine & movements symptoms of psychotic
Risperidone 5HT2 (serotonin) receptors - tremors with fingertips patients
- torticollis - blocks mesolimbic and
mesocortical pathways
Mono-amino-oxidase Phenelzine - Inhibits MAO-A and Suicide by Sausage: - used with other drugs,
inhibitors (MAOIs) MAO-B Pathways - Tyramine from many and
- inhibits the breakdown of foods is not broken only with SEVERE
NE, epinephrine, down depression
serotonin, - causes hypertension
and dopamine Serotonin Syndrome
- agitation, sweating,
problems, cardiac
Reversible inhibitors of Moclobemide Weak inhibitor of MAO-A NO suicide by sausage - used for depression
mono-amino-axidase A pathway
(RIMAs) - inhibits the breakdown of

NE, epinephrine, and

Tricyclic Anti- Imipramine - Block reuptake of NE and - Suicide window of 2 - depression
depressants Amitryptaline weeks (motor - panic & anxiety
serotonin improvement before - chronic pain
psychomotor - sleep disorders
- Loss of Erections
Selective Serotonin Flouxatine (prozac) - block reuptake of Serotonin syndrome - depression
Reuptake Inhibitors Paroxetine serotonin - can be avoided if - anxiety
(SSRIs) Sertraline only given - PTSD
Citalopram with TCA - bolemia,
- do not cause sedation - OCD (prozac only)
- delayed orgasm - borderline personality
Suicide window of 2 weeks disorder
- social phobia
- tourettes syndrome
- migranes
- psychosis, mania
Drug Type Generic Names Neurotransmitter Adverse Side Effects Uses
Serotonin/NE reuptake Venlafaxine Blocks reuptake of Same as SSRIs - depression
inhibitors (SNRIs) serotonin and NE - social anxiety disorder
selectively - generalized anxiety
(more specific for anxiety
- Nightmares
Serotonin Dopamine Bupropion - very mild drugs - insomnia - helps with smoking
Reuptake inhibitors - Blocks mainly serotonin - NO decrease in sexual sensation
(SDRIs) and drive - weightloss (loss of
dopamine reuptake - NO problem with apetite)
- Blocks some NE sedation
Nifazodone Blocks 5HT and 5HT2 - sedation - depression
(serotonin) reuptake - prolonged erection,
- orthostatic hypertention
(blocks 1-receptors)
Lithium Blocks formation of - Nephrogenic diabetes - bipolar
secondary messengers insipidus - cyclothymia
(IP2) - hypothyroidism
- cerebral symptoms
Valproate, Increase GABA - seizures
Carbamazepine - acute mania
- rapid cycing (bipolar)
- impulse control
Barbituates Phenobarbital GABAA receptor agonist - respiratory distress - recurrent seizures
Thiopental (increase GABA) - straight line to death - anesthesia
- only given under
supervised conditions
Benzodiazepines Midazolam (short acting) GABAA receptor agonist - rebound insomnia Short acting:
Triazolam (short acting) (increases GABA) - decrease delta sleep - panic attacks, surgical
Alprazolam (moderate - REM happens earlier sedation, insomnia
acting) - Somnambulism (delta
Lorazepam (moderate D/O)
acting) - Night Terrors (delta D/O)
Diazepam (long acting) Medium acting:
Chlordiazepoxide (long - seizures, restless leg
acting) syndrome, withdrawl
Long acting:
- epilepsy, anxiety
Ramelteon Melatonin 1 & 2 agonist - makes you sleepy insomnia
Eszopidone Increases GABA - can cause hallucinations insomnia
Zolpidem, Zaleplon Increases GABA - short term insomnia
- rebound insomnia
Melatonin Jet lag
Propralol Nonselective beta - decreases heart rate Stage fright anxiety
antagonist - erectile dysfunction
Diaphenhydramine Anti-histamine - drowsiness - allergies
Amphetamines - Narcolepsy

Defense Mechanisms: person alters reality to make the world easier to perceive
Narcissistic Defenses: maintain composure by altering view of others in the world
Projection- attribute own wishes, desires, thoughts, or emotions to someone else
Denial- Not allowing reality to penetrate
Splitting- Dealing with anxiety by bifurcating the situation
- i.e. use of stereotypes..or..Dr. Kuang is the reason im doing bad but Dr. Burns is good
Immature Defenses: silly defenses
Blocking- mental lapse (convenient amnesia)
- single moment
Regression- acting silly or younger than is typical
Somatization- develping somatic symptoms to deal with problems
- i.e. headache during exam
Introjection- essential identification
- person identifies with the other person who is causing the stress
Anxiety Defenses:
- Displacement- take the affect that is bothering you and drop it on to someone else
- yell at an innocent someone because of you are frustrated
- Repression- blocking out or putting away information that you once knew
- removing them from awareness
- common in parents
- Isolation of Affect- maintain perfect awareness but drain away emotion
- I am going to fail...I have a 69..saying it in a normal robotic tone
- Intellectualization- think about things and get caught up in the technical details, thus taking your mind off the fear
- Acting Out- person acts inappropriately to take their mind off a previous stressful situation and placing your mind on this instead
- Rationalization- coming up with an excuse or justification for doing something you know your not supposed to do
- Reaction Formation- doing something to prevent you from ever having to deal with a preconscious conflict
- i.e. wearing anti-meat tattoos and stuff b/c your vegetarian but your tempted to eat meat
- Undoing- doing something to make up (compensate) for your bad urges
- Passive-Aggression- find ways to be angry and fus with people without taking responsibility for it
- Dissociation- split off part of yourself
- becoming a different person when your frustrated or stressed
- separating the memory from the memory itself
Mature Defenses:
- Humor- deal with conflicts or discomforts by making a joke out of it
- Sublimation- channel unacceptable urge in a positive direction
- taking your anger and using it to drive your studying
- Suppression- CONSCIOUS decision to postpone attention impulse or emotion
- suppression your emotions until you are ready to deal with it

Abused Drug Alternate Names Impairment Other Treatment

Marijuana Cannabis - impaired motor control & coordination No withdrawl - abstinence and support
- anxiety effects
- slow reaction times
- poor judgement
- conjuctival infection
- dry mouth
- increased apetite
- THC affects:
- drowsiness sedative (like alcohol)
- dulling of pain (like opiates)
- perception-distortion
Opiates - papillary constriction Release of - naloxane
- constipation enkephalins - naltrexone
- drowsiness suppresses - clonidine
- slurred speech the - methadone
- respiratory distress transmission
- bradycardia of pain
- coma
- Flu-like withdrawl, nausea, vomiting
- Fever, insomnia
Cocaine/Amphetamines - Euphoria Increase
- hypervigilance among
- anxiety middle
- grandiosity classes
- paranoia
- tachycardia
- papillary dilation
- increased appetite
- nightmares
- depression
- fatigue
Crystal Speed, Meth, crank, ice, - irritability Paraphernalia
Methamphetamine fire - increased blood pressure (needles,
- aggression razor blades,
- nervousness etc)
- hypothermia
- compulsive behavior
- stroke
- convulsions
- loss of apetite
- addiction, anxiety, paranoia, depression,

hallucinations, formication (sensation of

insects creeping on/under skin)

Abused Drug Alternate Names Impairment Other Treatment

Hallucigens - hallucinations No withdrawl
- anxiety effects
- ideas of reference
- illusions
- papillary dilation
- tremors
- loss of coordination
Inhalants - Belligerance No direct
- impaired judgement withdrawl
- nystagmus (eyeball movement) effects?
- coordination problems
- lethargy
- brain damage higly likely
Ecstasy MDMA - acts like hallucigen combined with - takes effect
amphetamines after 45
- dehydration minutes
- increased body temperature - lasts 2-4
- longterm: destroys serotonin receptors hours
CNS receptors
- causes increased impulsiveness
memory gaps
Non-Rem Sleep:
- higher muscle tone
- no eye movements
- no dreams
- slow pulse rate
- episodic involuntary body movements (tossing and turning)
- awake body in paralyzed brain
- Stage 1: least time spent here
- Stage 2: most time spent here
- Stage 3 & 4: delta sleep (usually occurs during first half of the night)
- deep sleep
REM Sleep:
- aroused EEG pattern
- sexual arousal
- saccadic eye movements (allow visual field to remain visible)
- dreaming (not always)
- associated with pons
- awake brain in paralyzed body
- near total paralysis of body
- REM latency: 90 minutes
5 Stages of Dying: (D A B D A)
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance

Behavioral Model (Classical Conditioning): focuses only on what can be seen

Pavlovs Dogs:
- Conditions:
1. unconditioned stimulus (UCS) has to produce and unconditional response
2. neutral stimulus (NS) must become the conditioned stimulus (CS)
3. conditioned stimulus, when applied by itself, must produce a response similar
to the unconditional response
- i.e. realized that over time, dogs begin to salivate when they see a light turn on
because the light turning on is always followed by food
- unconditioned stimulus: food
- unconditioned response: salivating
- neutral stimulus/conditioned stimulus: light switch / light turning on
- conditioned response: salivation

- Number of Trials to Extinction number of conditioned stimulus given before the

conditioned response stops occurring
- higher this number: better something is learned
- i.e. how many times you can turn the light switch and without giving the
dogs food, and still make the dogs salivate
- once extinction occurs, re-learning is much easier and faster
- Generalization- an alternate stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus that
also causes the conditioned response

Operant Conditioning- focuses on environmental events as being cues for behavior

- about the likelihood that an animal will perform a behavior
- focus on an external stimulus that causes you to repeat a behavior
Skinner- father of behaviorism

Discriminative Stimuli- easily detected signal that supplies an opportunity for

- organism may or may not emit a behavior
- greater the depth of learning and higher the need for the reinforcement, the more
likely the behavior will be elicited

Punishment: make something less likely to perform a behavior in the future

- Positive punishment- punishing someone when they perform a behavior you
dont want
- Negative punishment- taking something away when they perform a behavior
you dont want
Reinforcement: make something more likely to perform a behavior in the future
- positive reinforcement: additive reinforcement
- adding something to the environment
- rewarding for performing a behavior
- negative reinforcement: substractive reinforcement
- substract something from the environment
- i.e. take away allowance for not performing a behavior

Shaping: rewarding successive approximations towards complex behaviors

Fading: changing from a continuous schedule to an intermittent schedule
Schedules of Reinforcement:
- continuous schedule- everytime a behavior is elicited, a reward is given
- if you stop reward once, behavior stops
- intermittent schedules:
- **if you stop reinforcing, behavior will still be elicited longer than
continuous shedule
- fixed ratio: i.e. every two times the lever is pressed, food comes out
- expenses reduced
- fixed interval: i.e. give exams every 3 weeks
- behavior elicited more when closer to reinforcement period
- variable ratio/intervals: i.e. give random ratios each time
- i.e. give 1:2 ratio.. then 1:30, then 1:4, etc
- i.e. slot machine
- longest time period till extinction
Axis I: Major Clinical Syndromes
- do NOT include personality disorders or mental retardation
- i.e. Panic disorder, major depressive disorder, etc
- if more than one is present, list all, but list main one (responsible for current evaluation) first
Axis 2: Personality disorder & mental retardation
- long standing characteristics that help define a person
Axis 3: Physical diagnosis that contribute to your understanding of the patient
- i.e. asthma, obesity, diabetes mellitus
Axis 4: psychosocial stresses that may have caused or worsened the patients mental condition
- psychosocial or environmental problems
- 9 catagories
- i.e. unemployment for the past 3 months
Axis 5: Global Assessment of Functioning (Childrens Global Assessment Scale used for kids <18)
- does not include impairment of functioning due to physical environment
- rates patients overall functioning
- list current assessment, and highest assessment within the past year
- 100: superior functioning
- 70: mild symptoms (insomnia) or diffuculty in social, occupational, or school functioning
- 60: moderate symptoms
- 50: serious symptoms (suicidal ideation) or serious impairment in social, occupational, or school
- >40: impairment in reality testing

Projective Tests

Rorschach Inkblot Test has the individual interpret what inkblots look like
Thematic Apperception Test TAT storytelling test that has person make up stories about pictures shown to them

Objective Tests

MMPI-2 560 t/f questions; measures many different traits

SIRS (Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms) test of malingering

[Beck Depression Inventory asks questions concerning depressive symptoms

Strong Campbell Vocational Interest Inventory (SCVII) measures vocational interest
16 PF true false test that measures 16

IQ tests-

Stanford Binet