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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION

Globalization is the process of international integration


arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and
mutual sharing, and other aspects of culture.

Advances in transportation, such as the steam


locomotive, steamship, jet, container ships, and
in telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of
the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet, and mobile
phones, have been major factors in globalization, generating
further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.

Though scholars place the origins of globalization


in modern times, others trace its history long before the
European Age of Discovery and voyages to the New World.

Some even trace the origins to the third millennium


BCE. Large-scale globalization began in the 19th century. In the late
19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the
world's economies and cultures grew very quickly.

The concept of globalization is a very recent term, only


establishing its current meaning in the 1970s, which 'emerged from
the intersection of four interrelated sets of "communities of
practice": academics, journalists, publishers/editors, and librarians.

In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF)


identified four basic aspects of
globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment move

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ments, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination
of knowledge.

Further, environmental challenges such as global


warming, cross-boundary water and air pollution, and over-
fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing
processes affect and are affected by
business and work organization, economics, sociocultural resource,
and the natural environment.

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CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


To study the different aspects of globalization.
To study the various forms of socio-cultural globalization.
To study relation between globalization and socio-culture.
Also to study the impact of globalization on socio-culture.

2.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The present study has been made to study the concept of
globalization.
Also to know the impact of globalization on higher
education.
And to study the challenges of globalization.

2.3 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM


The present study seeks to understand globalization and
also different aspects of it.
It also includes study with reference to socio-cultural
globalization, different forms of it.

2.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


The time period is of two months.
The topic is vast to cover.
It was not easy to collect primary data about globalization.

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The secondary data is gathered from standard textbooks
and other records which might possess inherent
limitations.

2.5 HYPOTHESIS

Globalization has led to changes in the world and


society. Also globalization has greater impact on higher education.

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CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW

The occurrence of globalisation seemed to be fast-paced


and inevitable. Once a forecast by Theodore Levitt (1983),
globalization resulted into a new commercial reality the
explosive emergence of global markets for globally standardized
products, gigantic world-scale markets of previously unimagined
magnitudes. He argued that differences in national or regional
preferences in business transactions and consumption patterns
would disappear, thus, leading to the homogenization of the
products, manufacturing and the vital institutions of trade,
including marketing.

Levitt coined the phrase, globalization of markets in


his published work of the same title that explained:

1) The university of taste and preferences


2) The standardization of products and services
3) The appropriateness of marketing designs.

Aside from integration of trade, investment, financial


markets and other elements of commerce, globalization has also
integrated consumer markets.

Another school of thought thinks otherwise. As clearly


discussed by Douglas and Wind (1987), globalization is merely a
myth due to the over simplistic nature of Levitts thesis of
globalization of markets. To quote the two scholars:

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The adoption of a strategy of universal standardization
appears naive and over simplistic... such an approach as a universal
strategy in relation to all markets may be desirable, and may lead to
major strategic blunders... The design of an effective global
marketing strategy does not necessarily entail the marketing of
standardized products and global brands worldwide.

The main point of anti-globalization perspective is


pegged on the presence of local variations in taste, both in
individual and shared scales, which influence decision-making
processes.

Arnold (2004), shed light to this dilemma when he


explained that the changes in the trade and markets are not driven
by the convergence of consumer taste as he forecast. Instead the
phenomenon most

The term globalization is used to describe the economic,


political, social and cultural changes of the world in the last odd
fifty years, which was accelerated by the scientific revolution to the
diminishing of national and geopolitical boundaries in
an expanding transnational movement of goods, services and
capital.
No single definition exists, when we talk about the
definition of globalization, as it is with all other core concepts in
the social sciences; its precise meaning remains contested. Lets
take few definitions into consideration here. According to the
sociologist, Roland Robertson, globalization as a concept refers

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both to the compression of the world and the intensification of
consciousness of the world as a whole, both concrete global
interdependence and consciousness of the globe whole.
Economists refer to globalization in a narrow sense,
where it involves integration of national economy with the world
economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows,
migration and the spread of technology.
According to Mary C Waters, Globalization is
understood in social process in which geographical obstacles to
social and cultural arrangements lose importance.
For Peter Dicken, Globalization is inherently
geographical as a process requires us to consider the way; space,
place and time are configured and recognized as a result of
contemporary changes in technological, economic and political
practices. Thus globalization is defined in different aspects
depending upon the background we discuss it. Anyhow Alan L
Mittleman, comprehend the definition of globalization under three
aspects; First, as an intensification of global flow of goods and
production factors facilitated by modern transportation and
communication.
Secondly, as a compression of time and space in a way
that events in one part of the world have instantaneous effects on
distant locations and finally to comprehend globalization as a
historical structure of material power.
The term globalization started appearing in literature
from 1980s. Initially it referred mainly the economic transactions

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and growth of economy. Soon it started penetrating to other fields
like political, with weakening authority of states, emergence of
global governance order system etc.
Globalization acquired cultural connotations with
global culture, global civil society etc. and today the cultural
connotation of globalization is also widely discussed. Thus the term
globalization acquired all these connotations and exemplifying its
influence on different realms of life. It is difficult to say what exactly
constitute globalization as it is interpreted by different schools of
thought on different matter at different point of times. But all of
them agree on one point that globalization has a major impact on in
this contemporary world.
Many are not still sure whether globalization is a
civilizing force or destructive force. The globalization gained more
momentum after decolonization that lead to the formation of new
states in Africa, Asia and the Pacific.
Many used the term neo-colonialism to mark
globalization which was more economic than political, more
ideologically than militarily supported. The neo colonialist powers
turned themselves into means of control which was facilitated by
the global telecommunications system.

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CHAPTER 4 GLOBALIZATION

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION

Globalization is an on-going process driven by a


combination of political, economic, technological, and socio-cultural
forces. The process of globalization since World War II has been
driven by the planning of politicians to break down borders
hampering trade so as to increase prosperity and interdependence
and to decrease the chance of future war.

The process of globalization has been further


accelerated by the global expansion of multinational corporations
and the worldwide exchange of new developments in science,
technology and in product manufacturing and design. Hence, the
term globalization is often used to refer to economic
globalization, that is, the integration of national economies into the
international economy through trade, direct foreign investment,
capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.

However, sometimes the term globalization is also


used to refer to cultural globalization because many people believe
that globalization is driven by the worldwide export of western
culture through the new mass media: film, radio, television and
recorded music. The development of international transport and
telecommunication is another driving force which speeds up the
process of globalization.

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Globalization has various aspects which affect the world
in several different ways. These aspects include:

Industrial globalization development of worldwide


production markets and broader access to a range of foreign
products for consumers and companies involving particularly
movement of material and goods between and within national
boundaries.
Financial globalization development of worldwide financial
markets and better access to external financing for borrowers.
Economic globalization establishment of a global common
market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital.
Political globalization - creation of international organizations
to regulate the relationships among governments and to
guarantee the rights arising from social and economic
globalization.
Informational globalization increase in information flows
between geographically remote locations. (This can also be seen
as a technological change related to the advent of fibre optic
communications, satellites, and increased availability of
telephone and Internet.)
Cultural globalization - sharing of ideas, attitudes and values
across national borders. This sharing generally leads to an
interconnectedness and interaction between peoples of diverse
cultures and ways of life. Mass media and communication
technologies are the primary instruments for cultural
globalization.

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4.2 BACKGROUND OF GLOBALIZATION:

Roots of globalization can be traced backed to the


colonization of Asia, Africa and America by the Europeans, the then
supreme power of the world. Search of new markets and source
of wealth polished by industrial revolution lead to the
establishment of international commodity markets and
mercantilist trade.

The deepened economic protectionism after the First


World War and the Great Depression in The 1930s and end of
Second World War along with expansion of capitalism was
tempered by establishment of socialism as an alternative form
of capital accumulation and distribution.

After Second World War the world has become more


inter-connected through innovations and advancement in sciences,
travel and transportation, communication along with information
and technology.

It is also a result of specifically conceived, planned and


targeted neo- liberal policy and structural measures that was
designed to bring all aspects of social, economic and political life
under the tag of market capitalism.

The Reagan administration in USA and Thatcher


government in UK accelerated globalization through clearing the
debt crisis, establishment of neo liberalism as an economic
framework (later came to be known as Washington Consensus)and

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the International Financial Institutions imposition of structural
adjustment programs (SAPs) in developing countries.

The fall of Soviet Union along marking an end to Cold


War along with the acceptance of nations on capitalism as the only
viable economic order to create wealth and stability further made
the way easier for globalization.

4.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GLOBALIZATION:

ADVANTAGES OF GLOBALIZATION:

Reduces international poverty

Contributes to the spread of technology

Adds to the profitability of companies and corporations

Builds stronger trade ties and dependencies between nations

Major motivation for moving overseas is to exploit more lax


labour laws and low environmental standards

Homogenizes the world culture, both positively and negatively

Destroys entire industries in developed countries (e.g. US


automakers, textile manufacturing)

Resources of different countries are used for producing goods


and services they are able to do most efficiently

Consumers to get much wider variety of products to choose from

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Consumers get the product they want at more competitive prices
Companies are able to procure input goods and services
required at most competitive prices
Companies get access to much wider markets
It promotes understanding and goodwill among different
countries
Businesses and investors get much wider opportunities for
investment
Adverse impact of fluctuations in agricultural productions in one
area can be reduced by pooling of production of different areas
Globalisation helps in brining whole world as one village. Every
consumer has free and frequent reach to the products of foreign
countries
Optimum use of natural resources possible.
Helpful in cost reduction by eliminating cross border duties and
fees
Helpful in employment generation and income generation

DISADVANTAGES OF GLOBALIZATION:

Globalization can ruin the environment. Moving things from one


area to another wastes oil, etc

Globalization can ruin local economies. There is a movement


that wants to buy local - especially organic foods

Globalization can lead to hyper-specialization, which can be


good, but also negative. There is something great about being a

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generalist. Also if something goes wrong, then to know things
generally give an incredible perspective that specialists do not
have

Globalization can be driven by people with "know how" and


power and they can systematically fleece the world

Developed countries can stifle development of undeveloped and


under-developed countries

Economic depression in one country can trigger adverse


reaction across the globe.

It can increase spread of communicable diseases

Companies face much greater competition. This can put smaller


companies, at a disadvantage as they do not have resources to
compete at global scale

It increases the gap between the poor and rich.-income


inequalities-poverty trap-

Cultural convergence-more people are moving towards the


western fashion

Environmental harm-resources are used up-scarcity-creates


externalities-pollution-waste products

Demand more of skilled workers and causing redundancy of


skilled workers

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CHAPTER 5 SOCIO-CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION:

Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of


ideas, meanings and values around the world in such a way as to
extend and intensify social relations. This process is marked by the
common consumption of cultures that have been diffused by the
Internet, popular culture media, and international travel.

This has added to processes of commodity exchange and


colonization which have a longer history of carrying cultural
meaning around the globe.

The circulation of cultures enables individuals to


partake in extended social relations that cross national and
regional borders. The creation and expansion of such social
relations is not merely observed on a material level.

Cultural globalization involves the formation of shared


norms and knowledge with which people associate their individual
and collective cultural identities. It brings increasing
interconnectedness among different populations and cultures.

Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural


contacts but may be accompanied by a decrease in the uniqueness
of once-isolated communities. For example, sushi is available in
Germany as well as Japan but Euro-Disney outdraws the city of
Paris, potentially reducing demand for "authentic" French pastry.

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5.2 DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL
GLOBALIZATION:

Religions and Traditions:

Globalization's contribution to the alienation of


individuals from their traditions may be modest compared to the
impact of modernity itself, as alleged by existentialists such as Jean-
Paul Sartre and Albert Camus. Globalization has expanded
recreational opportunities by spreading pop culture, particularly
via the Internet and satellite television.

Religious movements were among the earliest cultural


elements to globalize, being spread by force, migration, evangelists,
imperialists and traders. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and more
recently sects such as Mormonism, have taken root and influenced
endemic cultures in places far from their origins.

Music:

The term globalization implies transformation. Cultural


practices including traditional music can be lost or turned into a
fusion of traditions. Globalization can trigger a state of emergency
for the preservation of musical heritage.

Local musicians struggle for authenticity and to


preserve local musical traditions. Globalization can lead performers
to discard traditional instruments. Fusion genres can become
interesting fields of analysis.

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Music has an important role in economic and cultural
development during globalization. Music genres such as jazz and
reggae began locally and later became international phenomena.

Globalization gave support to the Music phenomenon by


allowing music from developing countries to reach broader
audiences. The term "World Music" was originally intended for
ethnic-specific music. Now, globalization is expanding its scope
such that the term often includes hybrid subgenres such as "World
fusion", "Global fusion", "Ethnic fusion", and World beat.

Multilingualism:

Most people in the world are multilingual. Language


contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact.
Language contact occurs in a variety of phenomena,
including language convergence, borrowing, and relexification. The
most common products are pidgins, creoles, code-switching,
and mixed languages.

Multilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon


governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness.
Thanks to the ease of access to information facilitated by the
Internet, individuals' exposure to multiple languages is becoming
more and more frequent, triggering, therefore, the need to acquire
more and more languages.

While multilingualism is common among individuals,


globally the number of spoken languages is decreasing. The top 20
languages spoken by more than 50 million speakers each are

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spoken by some 50% of the world's population, whereas many of
the other languages are spoken in small communities, most with
less than 10,000 speakers.
Historically, these less widespread languages were
afforded protection through geographical isolation. Today,
speakers of regional and minority languages are increasingly
unable to compete with those who speak dominant languages such
that these languages are now considered endangered languages.

The total number of languages in the world is not


precisely known and estimates vary depending on many factors.
The current estimate is that there are between 6000 and 7000
languages spoken and between 5090% of those will have become
extinct by the year 2100.

Politics:
In general, globalization may ultimately reduce the
importance of states. Supranational institutions such as
the European Union, the WTO, the G8 or the International replace
or extend national functions to facilitate international agreement.

In particular, the globalization of the US grand


strategy may have already reduced the importance of both nation
states and the above-mentioned supranational institutions.

Some observers attribute a relative decline in US power


to globalization, particularly due to the country's high trade deficit.
This led to a global power shift towards Asian states, particularly
China, which unleashed market forces and achieved tremendous

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growth rates. As of 2011, the Chinese economy was on track to
overtake the United States by 2025.

As a response to globalization, some countries have


embraced isolationist policies. For example, the North Korean
government makes it very difficult for foreigners to enter the
country and strictly monitors their activities when they do. Aid
workers are subject to considerable scrutiny and excluded from
places and regions the government does not wish them to enter.
Citizens cannot freely leave the country.
Media and public opinion:

In 2004, Philip Gordon stated that "a clear majority of


Europeans believe that globalization can enrich their lives, while
believing the European Union can help them take advantage of
globalization's benefits while shielding them from its negative
effects." The main opposition consisted of socialists, environmental
groups, and nationalists. Residents of the EU did not appear to feel
threatened by globalization in 2004.

Many in developing countries see globalization as a


positive force that lifts them out of poverty. Those opposing
globalization typically combine environmental concerns with
nationalism. Opponents consider governments as agents of neo-
colonialism that are subservient to multinational corporations.

Much of this criticism comes from the middle class;


the Brookings Institution suggested this was because the middle
class perceived upwardly mobile low-income groups as threatening
to their economic security.
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Internet:

Both a product of globalization as well as a catalyst, the


Internet connects computer users around the world. From 2000 to
2009, the number of Internet users globally rose from 394 million
to 1.858 billion. By 2010, 22 percent of the world's population had
access to computers, 1 billion Google searches every day, 300
million Internet users reading blogs, and 2 billion videos viewed
daily on YouTube.

According to research firm IDC, the size of total


worldwide e-commerce, when global business-to-business and -
consumer transactions are added together, will equate to US$16
trillion in 2013. A report by Oxford Economics adds those two
together to estimate the total size of the digital economy at $20.4
trillion, equivalent to roughly 13.8% of global sales.

An online community is a virtual community that exists


online and whose members enable its existence through taking part
in membership ritual. Significant socio-technical change may have
resulted from the proliferation of such Internet-based social
networking services.

Population Growth:

The world population has experienced continuous


growth since the end of the Great Famine and the Black Death in
1350, when it stood at around 370 million. The highest rates of
growth global population increases above 1.8% per year were
seen briefly during the 1950s, and for a longer period during the

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1960s and 1970s. The growth rate peaked at 2.2% in 1963, and had
declined to 1.1% by 2011.

Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at


about 138 million, and are now expected to remain essentially
constant at their 2011 level of 134 million, while deaths number
56 million per year, and are expected to increase to 80 million per
year by 2040. Current projections show a continued increase in
population (but a steady decline in the population growth rate),
with the global population expected to reach between 7.5 and
10.5 billion by 2050.

Urbanization:

Growth in population during the period of rapid


industrialization and globalization in the 20th century was
accompanied by increased urbanization on a global basis. Although
many critics blame globalization for a decline of the middle class in
industrialized countries, the middle class has been growing rapidly
in developing countries.

This has led to increasing disparities in wealth between


urban and rural areas. As a result, mass movements in the
countryside at times have expressed objections to globalizing
processes.

Health:

Global health is the health of populations in a global


context that transcends the perspectives and concerns of individual
nations. Health problems that transcend national borders or have a

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global political and economic impact are emphasized. It has been
defined as 'the area of study, research and practice that places a
priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for
all people worldwide'.

Thus, global health is about worldwide improvement of


health, reduction of disparities, and protection against global
threats that disregard national borders. The application of these
principles to the domain of mental health is called Global Mental
Health.

Tourism:

Globalization has made tourism a popular global leisure


activity. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people
"travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment
for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and
other purposes". The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates
that up to 500,000 people are in flight at any one time.

As a result of the late-2000s recession,


international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown from the
second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. This negative trend
intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the
outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide
decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists
arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts.

In 2010, international tourism reached US$919B,


growing 6.5% over 2009, corresponding to an increase in real

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terms of 4.7%. In 2010, there were over 940 million international
tourist arrivals worldwide

Sports:

Modern international sports events can be big business


for as well as influencing the political, economical, and other
cultural aspects of countries around the world. Especially
with politics and sports, sports can affect countries, their identities,
and in consequence, the world.

The ancient Olympic Games were a series of


competitions held between representatives of several city-
states and kingdoms from Ancient Greece, which featured mainly
athletic but also combat and chariot racing events. During the
Olympic Games, all struggles between the participating city-states
were postponed until the games were finished. The origin of the
Olympics is shrouded in mystery and legend. During the 19th
century, the Olympic Games became a popular global event.

Globalization has continually increased international


competition in sports. The FIFA World Cup, for example, is the
world's most widely viewed sporting event; an estimated 700
million people watched the final match of the 2010 FIFA World Cup
held in South Africa.

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Education:

According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific


and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in their 2009 World
Conference on Higher Education report, Over 2.5 million students
were studying outside their home country. UNESCO also predicted
that the number of international students might rise approximately
to 7 million by the year 2020. The main destinations preferred by
international students are the United States, United Kingdom,
Germany, France, Canada and Australia.

Overall, the number of international students more than


doubled to over 2 million between 2000 and 2007. However the
sharpest percentage increases of international students have
occurred in New Zealand, Korea, the Netherlands, Greece, Spain,
Italy and Ireland.

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CHAPTER 6 GLOBALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Most of the students for higher education migrate to


foreign countries. This is referred to as student migration.

6.1 INTRODUCTION TO STUDENT MIGRATION:

Student migration is the movement of students who


study outside their country of birth or citizenship for a period of 12
months or more.

During the period of globalization, the


internationalization of higher education increased dramatically and
it has become a market driven activity.

With the rapid rise of international education more and


more students are seeking higher education in foreign countries
and many international students now consider overseas study a
stepping-stone to permanent residency within a country.

The contributions that foreign students make to host


nation economies, both culturally and financially has encouraged
major players to implement further initiatives to facilitate the
arrival and integration of overseas students, including substantial
amendments to immigration and visa policies and procedures.

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6.2 HISTORY:

During the colonial period, the majority of student flow


came from colonies to the world capitals. Imperial governments
provided pathways for selected nationals to pursue higher
education.

The concept of studying abroad was based on the


assumption that graduates would return to their homeland to serve
colonial administration once they had developed skills and
absorbed the values of the colonial rulers.

The Cold War era had a significant impact on foreign aid


and the funding of overseas students. The policy of distributing
scientific knowledge and sharing industrial progress with the
developing world required the help of higher education
institutions.

Support for USAID linked the foreign policy mission


with support to higher education. Cold war rivals funded study
abroad programmes and were in competition to attract students
from the developing world.

One of the most famous international exchange


programmes that facilitates and encourages international student
migration is the Fulbright Program. Established in 1946, the
Fulbright Program provides grants for students, scholars, teachers
and professionals to undertake studies and research.

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The Fulbright Program was initially funded by using
proceeds from the sales of surplus war property and was founded
on the principal of promoting "international good will through the
exchange of students in the fields of education, culture and
science".

The Colombo Plan was another program that


encouraged the movement of students between countries. The
Colombo Plan was established in 1951 with the intention of
strengthening economic and social development of the Asia Pacific
region. The Colombo Plan has been responsible for sponsoring over
40,000 Asian students to study or train in Australian higher
education institutions. Funding is provided by member countries,
which includes a mixture of 26 Commonwealth and non-
Commonwealth countries.

Since the colonial and Cold War eras, the profile of


international students has made a significant shift. The way in
which students travel has changed, and the majority of students
seeking education abroad are now self-funded.

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6.3 FINANCING AND COST:

The international student market has become an


important source of revenue for local economies and many
institutions rely heavily on the income brought by cross-border
students. Receiving countries could benefit from qualified skilled
migrants who make considerable contributions to their new
countries.

In most host countries, higher education was tuition fee-


free. Until the 1980s, many countries had not any provision for
levying fees on domestic and international students. The UK was
the first to introduce fees on overseas students; other countries,
such as Australia, began to follow suit.

The international market for students now accounts for


billions of dollars and, subsequently, competition between
institutions is fierce. Studying abroad is expensive and in most
cases is funded by the individual.

In OECD countries there are three patterns to the levying of fees:

In some countries fees for international students are


higher than domestic students. This occurs in Australia, Canada,
New Zealand, the UK and the USA. Sweden started levying fees for
non-European students from 2011.

Some countries make no distinction between


international and domestic student fees. Tuition fees remain the

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same for foreign and domestic students in France, Greece, Hungary,
Italy and Japan.

Countries such as Denmark, Finland and Norway have


not begun levying tuition fees from foreign students.

6.4 DESTINATION COUNTRIES

Between 1963 and 2006 the number of students


studying in a foreign country increased 9 times. In 2006 there were
2.7 million students studying abroad and there are predictions that
the demand for cross-border education will increase to 7.2 million
by 2025.

OECD countries receive approximately 85% of the


worlds foreign students with the majority concentrated in just 6
countries. In 2007, the United States accounted for 21.4% of foreign
enrolments, the United Kingdom 12.6%, France 8.8%, Australia
7.6%, Germany 7.4%, and Japan 4.5%.

The main region receiving foreign students is Europe,


which has approx. 840,000 international students. However the
majority of this figure comes from students moving from one
European country to another.

East Asia and the Pacific top the list for sending students
and accounts for 29% of all international higher education
students. (Students from China account for 15% of this total.) North
America and Western Europe account for 18%, then Central and

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East Europe 11%, South and West Asia 9%, Arab States 7% and Sub
Saharan Africa 5.8%.

6.5 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO GROWTH IN STUDENT


MIGRATION

There are many factors contributing to the growing


numbers of student migration. Many developing countries have an
under supply of university places to satisfy demand and as a result
students have no other choice but to study abroad. In addition to
this it is a common expectation that studying overseas can enhance
professional business opportunities.

Generally, students seeking cross-border education


migrate to countries with more developed education institutions
than their own. For example, students in Arab countries migrate to
Egypt and Jordan to pursue their studies, and many students from
Bangladesh and Nepal travel to India. The flow of students from
developing countries to developed countries is often due to the
belief that the quality and standards of education offered in OECD
countries is superior to what is offered in the country of origin.

Higher education has become a major global export


commodity with developing countries capitalising on domestic
shortages by recruiting foreign students. Subsequently, changes to
visa and immigration policies have provided incentives for students
to travel abroad and potentially offer a gateway to permanent
residency within a host nation. Migration opportunities are one of
the major contributions to the growth of student migration. A 2006

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survey, undertaken by Australias Monash University, produced
statistics which showed 75% of Indian students who completed
university education in Australia applied for and were granted
residency. The author of the research, Michiel Bass suggests that
the most influential reason Indian students studied in Australia was
not because of academic reputation, but the opportunity to gain
permanent residency.

An important factor contributing to student migration is


the desire to study in a language other than the student's first
language. For example, a growth in the number of students
travelling to study in the UK from Central and Eastern Europe has
been partially attributed to the wish "to study in a higher education
environment where communication is in English".

Other factors for the rise in student migration include


lowering travel expenses and greater communication technology
which has made studying abroad more accessible.

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CHAPTER 7 IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION

SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS:

The combination of increasingly advanced technology


and complex social structure which were sustained by the ideas of
change as desirable progress accelerated social change being one
of the major spheres of impacts of globalization.

The social dimension of globalization refers to the


impact of globalization on the life and work of people, families and
societies. There are more social aspects for globalization beyond
the employment, working dimensions, income, social protection
etc. the idea of social justice is been now been a distant dream to be
accomplished.

The increased political and economic movement of


globalization has left the major aspect of society, i.e. people.

When we talk about the gender aspect with reference to


globalization, we can see increased participation of women in all
fields of life. But evidences prove that women still work more as a
casual labour.

Though globalization has expanded womens access to


employment it has not done much considerable to reduce the
gender inequality. Also, due to the influence of media and other
socio-political- cultural aspects, the crimes against women have
increased considerably. Another major social aspect is that

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globalization has deeply influenced the social structure of different
societies.

A particular society following their style of living


without being much influenced by the western culture is now seen
as uncivilized which was a very cunningly designed propaganda of
the west to inculcate their culture into the rest of the world and
thereby dominating the globe.

Globalization involves the process of stretching or


extension and intensification of human activities, relations and
networks across globe. Since globalization is a work in progress,
the end result cannot be predicted. But it is obvious that
globalization has a major impact on social realm of society across
the world.

The economic and political impacts of globalization are


discussed very vividly among the scholars. The cultural aspect of
globalization is something which attained global attention recently.
So I will be discussing about the cultural impact of globalization
much broadly compared to the other three.

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CHAPTER 8 GLOBALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN
INDIA ISSUES AND CONCERNS:

This particular section brings out clearly the changes in


the higher education sector that have occurred as a consequence of
the recent emphasis on globalization and structural reforms in
order to integrate Indian economy with the world economy .

Globalisation of higher education in India needs to address two


critical questions:

1. Why do we need globalisation of the higher education sector?

2. How should the higher education sector reforms proceed?

A comprehensive answer can be drawn from pre-


nationalization and post-nationalization experiences and
experiments. Globalisation driven by macroeconomic problems
should be carefully re-examined, especially for public utilities like
education. Indian higher education sector is experiencing a
paradox. On the one hand there is pragmatic view to adjust with
free trade regime while on the other hand there is hard protective
policy since internationalization is treated as threat to domestic
higher education institutions.

Recently, however, publicly owned domestic enterprises


have been criticized as inherently inefficient, leading to the global
phenomenon of globalisation.

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Supply management:

The States ability to expand higher education services is


not elastic to the demand in the form of increasing enrolments with
the growing population size. The conventional domestic university
sector is not able to cater to the demands of the growing market
segment of the relevant age group population for higher education.

Demand-led Market:

Conventional domestic university courses are not flexible enough


to adjust with the growing demand of the professional stream.
These State run higher education institutions lack the
responsiveness to the changing labour market demands.

Conventional higher educational institutions are failed to bring


changes within the formal system of education by creation of
financial incentives for research, internships, on-job training, and
part-time academic appointments and by inclusion of market
oriented courses.

It is argued that an explicit partnership between the


university and the local business community, with the objective of
turning out more commercially oriented research that would result
in more marketable products, more new businesses and more high-
paying jobs is needed.

On the other hand the new private global higher


education providers focus on vocational courses, training for jobs,
short-term courses, corporate sponsorships, contracted training,

35
consultancies and also high paid industrial placements for the
students.

There is a gap between what a university provides and


what the labour market demands or needs. The global private
education institutions meet a nexus between academics and
industry.

Resource Constraints:

The trends in financing higher education sector in India


show that the share of higher education in the total Government
expenditure on education is declining; both in plan allocation and
in recurring expenditure.

The increasing fiscal compulsion envisaged a reduced


Government intervention in higher education sector. The
government decided to adopt the policy to aim at universalizing
primary education. This policy change led to the diversion of funds
from higher education to primary education.

Since provision of free and compulsory education at the


elementary stage is a Constitutional commitment, budgetary
allocation for this sector of education is continuously on increase
while, higher education has particularly been hit hard due to the
resource crunch.

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CHAPTER 9 FUTURE OF INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATION
SECTOR UNDER THE FORCES OF GLOBALIZATION

It is essential to discuss the Future of Indian higher


education sector under the forces of globalization along with the
challenges and risks.

Economic significance of the globalization in the higher


education services is changing dimensions of the traditional role of
higher education institutions.

Changing Paradigm:

The commercialization of higher education due to global forces will


lead to minimize the importance of public services. The basic
structure of Universities in India would be changing with the
changing relationship between the Government and Universities,
which annuls its democratic function. Privatization,
decentralization and institutional autonomy would be the magic
words defining success of globalization process.

Shifting the role of agencies to serve society:


The priorities of international and domestic higher education
service providers are bound to be different. The global providers of
higher education services have clear goal of profit maximization
and no intentions to be service providers as horizontal equity
principle is followed. Hence higher education could be well out of
the reach of the people who are marginally participating in the play
of the market economy.

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With commoditization of higher education those who are fit to pay
the warranted set prices for degrees will be the beneficiaries.

Evidence:

World Bank insisted on charging compulsory fees on the member


countries receiving loans for education. The implication of
implementing World Bank directive leads to reduction in the
enrollment rate and increase in the dropout percentage in
developing countries.

Pressure of maintaining quality in the light of international


competition:

The Neo-liberal trend has simultaneously stimulated toward the


globalization of the ownership of private assets in developing
countries and the globalization of a number of transnational
enterprises.

Commercial international higher education emerges from market


forces and tied to economic and global forces. It is important to
understand that the developing countries are under pressure from
international rating agencies and international- institutions.

On one hand there is a tremendous impact of the external finance,


while on the other hand tight fiscal constraints have made it
impossible for the Government to promote higher education
without assistance of domestic and foreign/private investors and
providers of higher education services.

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High Cost of higher education services

The cost of educating one student in higher education in a global


college is much higher than that of the public college. There is
greater burden on students through levying fees under multiple
heads by the global colleges. Philanthropy, charity were the main
considerations of the private participants in education sector in the
past.

Today global private providers of higher education services make


decisions based on commercial profit maximizing grounds. As per
current scenario there is an exit of Indian elites from public
institutions, as private philanthropy is slowly withdrawing.

Access and equity


The doctrine of full cost recovery leads to denying access of
privately provided global higher education services. Increase in
cost of higher education by international private providers
discourages the enrollment of meritorious students from
economically disadvantageous section of population and the
oppressed castes, classes, minorities and other toiling masses.

The women, minorities and other disadvantaged members may not


able to enroll due to hike in fees structure under privatization
process. The principle of equity is neglected in the education
services provided by the private providers.

The both issues of access and equity need to be tackled. In the vast
populated countries like India generally disparities appear in the

39
number of aspirants and the available admission seats; which could
be removed by entry of several foreign institutions in the higher
education market.

A more systematic focus on institutional partnership could also


become part of Indias approach to bi-lateral scholarly exchange
programmes such as those sponsored by Fulbright, DAAD and the
British council.

40
CHAPTER 10 SURVEY (PRIMARY DATA)
Guys please do answer the following questions and mail me back at
ashu.modale14@gmail.com
1)
1. Name: Aakanksha Anil Mahante
2. Age: 23
3. Gender: Female
4. Qualification: Post-Graduation
5. Home country: India
6. Place of Migration: United Kingdom
7. Course opted: Masters in Global Marketing
8. Duration of the course: 1 and half years
9. Course fee per year: 12000 pounds in all
10. Did you take up any job over there? Yes
11. How do you manage living there, your job and studies?
It is a great responsibility that is on your shoulders. You learn a lot.
I had my lectures in university at morning timing. I used to be free
by 3 in afternoon. Later time I utilized for my part time job in Marks
& Spencers plus my studies. It was great feeling to manage studies,
job and cooking. Also I made sure I give my time to extra-curricular
activities that was dancing.
12. Your views about globalization of higher education:
I personally loved the post-graduation course that I opted for. The
education in Britain is very realistic, research based. You learn even
a lot more things. Research is the best thing one should do for every
aspect in life. Globalization study patterns teach you to do that in

41
appropriate way. I was glad I never used Google for research. The
research was done through journal articles, thesis, and books. This
helped me to read more. They say you just need to read read and
read. Earlier it didnt make sense but honestly it does make,
reading is something that helps you gain knowledge and then
through your own understanding you put that in your assignments,
which was great. That helped the professors to understand what
we learnt from the topic. Overall a great experience and it is truly
doing good in abroad countries.

42
2)

1. Name: Nikhil Nitin Lokhande


2. Age: 24
3. Gender: Male
4. Qualification: Pursuing Masters in
international contemporary arts and Design
Practices, Bachelor in Computer Engineering
from Mumbai University
5. Home country: India
6. Place of migration: Malaysia
7. Course opted: Masters in international contemporary arts and
Design Practices
8. Duration of the course: 2 years
9. Course fee per year: 6 lakhs plus in all
10. Did you take up any job over there?
Yes, I was working as a freelancer as job permits are not available
for students. I was handing an event management firms graphics
department.
11. How do you manage living there, your job and studies?
It was hectic but eventually it helped and also classes were just
twice a week and more of research work, so basically not too much
of studies load made it possible.
12. Your views about globalization of higher education:
I believe rather than investing in some other country its better to
invest in our own, as there is no assurance of getting a permanent

43
job or residency. Also you are dependent and the expenditure is
huge as compared to our country.

44
CHAPTER 11 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION:

FINDINGS:
o Globalization has played a significant role in changing the world
and making it globalized.
o Education has also been globalized in all these years.
o Education is a part of socio-cultural factors.
o Many students migrate from their home country to foreign
countries for pursuing higher education.
o It involves high cost to study abroad.
o Financing and costing changes as per that particular country, its
currency and currency rate.
o Its not affordable for a lower middle class family or people
below that class to send their children abroad for education.
o After talking to two of my cousins, who pursued or is pursuing
education abroad, one found it very interesting and realistic
while other one thought that its good to invest in home country
rather than foreign country.
o Globalization has negative and positive effects on home country
as well as the host country.

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CONCLUSION:
o Globalization is thus an on-going syndrome.
o Globalization is not only about interplays between local,
regional, national and global scales, but also about the
interconnectedness, flows and uneven development in the
world.
o The strategic keys that accelerated the growth of globalization
were transnational corporations, technical change, governments
etc.
o Globalization has brought not only advantages to the globe by
providing large range of imported products or by raising the
basic standard of living of people.
o But also has major impacts on the socio-political- economic and
cultural realms of life by diminishing the role of state,
challenging the unique culture of every society, attacking the
social structures, much diversity in the global society etc.
o However, despite of identification of risks and opportunities of
globalization, the whole phenomenon is still very difficult
to predict.

46
APPENDICES:

WEBLOGRAPHY:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalisation_in_India

http://business.mapsofindia.com/globalization/india-industry/

http://www.academia.edu/4668865/GLOBALIZATION_AND_ITS_S
OCIO-CULTURAL-POLITICAL_AND_ECONOMIC_IMPACTS

https://docs.google.com/document/d/19pYq7gyUMHR7PO6AT5d
dVHLzVuSShpHe3h9DqTyvpSY/edit

http://www.wikipedia.com/student-migration

http://www.wikipedia.com

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