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Table 22-7(Concluded)

Problem Probable Cause Possible Remedy


C. Porosity in the weld deposit. 1. Dirty base metal; heavy oxides, mill scale. 1. Clean base metal before welding.
2. Gas cylinder and distribution system. 2. Gas cylinder and distribution system.
a) Gas cylinder valve off. a) Turn cylinder valve on.
b) Regulator diaphragm defective. b) Replace diaphragm or regulator.
c) Flowmeter cracked or broken. c) Replace and repair.
d) Gas supply hose connections loose. d) Tighten fittings.
e) Gas supply hose leaks. e) Repair or replace.
f) Insufficient shielding gas flow. f) Increase flow rate of gas.
g) Moisture in shielding gas. g) Replace gas cylinder or supply.
h) Freezing of carbon dioxide regulator/ h) Thaw unit; install gas line heater.
flowmeter.
3. Wire-feeder control. 3. Wire-feeder control.
a) Gas solenoid defective. a) Replace solenoid.
b) Gas hose connections loose. b) Tighten connections.
4. Gun and casing assembly. 4. Gun and casing assembly.
a) Gun body and/or accessories aspirating a) Test; replace or repair faulty units.
atmosphere or air.
b) Check O-rings on quick connect type guns. b) Replace defective O-rings.
c) Contact tube extended too far. c) Distance from nozzle end maximum 18in.
d) Nozzle-to-work distance too great. d) Should be as recommended by equipment
manufacturer.
e) Improper gun angles. e) Use correct travel angle; approximately
15 angle.
f) Welding speed too fast. f) Adjust welding condition for slower speed.
g) Electrode not centered in nozzle. g) Adjust contact tube, nozzle, and wire.
h) Air turbulence. h) Set up wind screen.
5. Improper electrode wire composition. 5. Obtain and use correct electrode wire.
D.Welding electrode wire stubs 1. Power source. 1. Power source.
into workpiece. a) Excessive slope numerical values set. a) Reduce slope settings as required.
b) Arc voltage too low. b) Increase voltage at power source.
c) Excessive inductance value set. c) Reduce inductance setting as required.
2. Wire-feeder control. 2. Wire-feeder control.
a) Excess wire-feed speed. a) Reduce wire-feed speed rate.
E.Excessive spatter while 1. Shielding gas system. 1. Shielding gas system.
welding. a) Excessive gas flow rates. a) Adjust gas flow rate as required.
b) Insufficient gas flow. b) Adjust gas flow rate as required.
2. Power source. 2. Power source.
a) Excessive arc voltage. a) Reduce voltage at power source.
b) Insufficient slope setting value. b) Increase slope setting as required.
c) Insufficient inductance setting value. c) Increase inductance setting as required.
3. Gun contact tube recessed in nozzle too far. 3. Replace contact tube with longer one.
4. Improper electrode, shielding gas 4. Obtain and use correct electrode wire, shielding
combination. gas combination.
F.Weld bead appearance indicates 1. Power source. 1. Power source.
need for more amperage and/or a) Volt-ampere condition too low. a) Increase voltage slowly with applicable in-
larger bead. crease in wire feed.
G.Weld bead appearance indicates 1. Power source. 1. Power source.
need for less amperage and/or a) Volt-ampere condition too high. a) Reduce voltage and wire feed as required.
smaller bead.

Source: Miller Electric Manufacturing Co.

730 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)
Check your welding speed. Welding speeds
that are too high cause porosity, and speeds
that are too slow may cause an incomplete
fusion.
Make sure that the gas flow is adequate. The
entire weld area must have the protection of
the gaseous shield.
Keep the wire location centered in the gas
pattern and in the center of the joint. Make
sure that the correct electrode angle is main-
tained at all times.
S
 elect the proper filler wire for material
being welded and for such special situations
as rust, scale, and excessive oxygen.
Fig. 22-20 GMAW root pass 2G short circuit transfer on 38-inch thick plate.
W
 hen welding from both sides of the plate,
Note the excellent penetration and fusion and no whiskers protruding on the be sure that the root pass on the first side
back side of this test piece. Edward R. Bohnart is deeply penetrated by the root pass on the
second side. Backgouge to sound metal as
required.
stable arc, improves the flow of weld metal, and reduces
the tendency to undercut.
For video of GMAW troubleshooting, please visit
Argon with 10 percent CO2 is sometimes used. With www.mhhe.com/welding.
100 percent carbon dioxide, the arc is not a true spray arc.
For short arc welding of carbon steel, a mixture of 75 per-
cent argon and 25 percent carbon dioxide may be used. Fillet Welds: Jobs 22-J3J10 Fillet welds are used in T-
Straight carbon dioxide is popular for MAG small wire joints, lap joints, and corner joints. Much of the welding
welding. done with the gas metal arc process is fillet welding. The
Code welding requires great care in its application. deposit rate and rate of travel are high, and there is deep
Good fusion and a minimum of porosity are necessary. penetration. Since the strength of a fillet weld depends on
The following precautions should be observed when the throat area, the deep penetration that gas metal arc
doing the practice jobs, Fig. 22-21: welding provides permits smaller fillet welds than is pos-
Avoid excessive current values. If the current seems to sible with stick electrode welding.
be too high and cannot be reduced without affecting the The position of the nozzle and the speed of welding
transfer of metal, switch to a larger size wire. are important. You must make sure that penetration is se-
cured at the root of the weld in order to take advantage
of the deep penetration characteristics. The welding tech-
nique should provide protection for the vertical
plate to avoid undercutting. Many of the skills
learned in making fillet welds with stick elec-
trodes and the TIG process can be applied to
MAG welding.
Welding may be single pass or multipass,
depending on the requirements of the job. Mul-
tipass welding may be done with weave beads
or stringer beads, Fig. 22-22. The sequence of
weld passes is the same as that used with stick
electrodes. Each pass must be cleaned carefully.
In making each pass, fusion must be secured
Fig. 22-21 GMAW final passes short circuit transfer on 38-inch thick plate.
Groove angle 60, SG-AC-25, and 0.035 wire diameter. Note the complete
with the underneath pass and the surface of the
fusion, uniform bead width, location, and the ripple pattern created by the slight plate. Review the precautions listed previously
whipping motion. Edward R. Bohnart for groove welds.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 731
Corner joint in the flat position: Figs. 22-23 and22-24
Lap joint in the horizontal position: Fig. 22-25
Lap joint in the vertical position; direction of travel,
down: Fig. 22-26
T-joint in the horizontal position: Fig. 22-27
Beveled-butt joint in the flat position; no backing bar;
Figs. 22-28 and 22-29. Note that penetration must be
secured through the back side in open root joints like that
required when welding with other processes.
To determine the soundness of your welds, test lap, T-,
and butt joints in the usual manner.
Fillet and Groove Welding Combination Project: Job
Qualification Test 1 This combination test project will
allow you to demonstrate your ability to read a drawing,
develop a bill of materials (SI conversions are optional),
thermally cut, fit components together, tack, and weld a
carbon steel project. You will be using the techniques de-
veloped in Jobs 22-J1 through J10 using the short-circuit-
ing mode of metal transfer. Follow the instructions found
in the notes on Fig. 22-30 (p. 735).
Inspection and Testing After the project has been tacked,
have it inspected for compliance to the drawing. On mul-
Fig. 22-22 A 3F vertical-up fillet weld using GMAW short circuit
transfer. SG-AC-25 with 0.035 wire root pass was stringer. Note the tiple-pass welds, have your instructor inspect after each
uniform ripple pattern, uniform width, and minimal spatter on this weld unless otherwise instructed. Use the following ac-
as-welded 38-inch weld. Edward R. Bohnart ceptance criteria to judge your welds. Look for surface
defects. Keep in mind that it is important to have good
Inspection and Testing After each weld has been com-
appearance and uniform weld contour. These character-
pleted, use the same inspection and testing methods that istics usually indicate that the weld was made properly
you have used in previous welding practice. Look for and that the weld metal is sound throughout. Only visual
surface defects. Keep in mind that it is important to have inspection will be used on this test project to the following
good appearance and uniform weld contour. These char- acceptance requirements:
acteristics usually indicate that the weld was made prop- There shall be no cracks or incomplete fusion.
erly and that the weld metal is sound throughout. Observe There shall be no incomplete joint penetration in
the appearance of the welds shown in Figs. 22-23 through groove welds except as permitted for partial joint pen-
22-29, page 734. etration groove welds.
Your instructor shall examine the weld for acceptable
Butt joint in the horizontal position Fig. 22-19A
appearance and shall be satisfied that the welder is
and 19B.
Tee joint in the vertical position Fig. 22-19C skilled in using the process and procedure specified
for the test.
Undercut shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of
the base metal thickness or 132 inch.
Where visual examination is the only criterion for ac-
JO B TI P ceptance, all weld passes are subject to visual exami-
nation, at the discretion of your instructor.
Salary
The frequency of porosity shall not exceed one in each
When negotiating a salary with a new
employer, avoid disclosing what you made in your last
4 inches of weld length, and the maximum diameter
job. Many businesses decide what your salary will be by shall not exceed 332 inch.
knowing your last pay rate. Instead, say what range you Welds shall be free from overlap.
are expecting. Only minimal weld spatter shall be accepted, as
viewed prior to cleaning.

732 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)
Fig. 22-23 Outside corner joint in steel plate welded with the gas metal arc
welding process in the flat position.

Fig. 22-24 Penetration through the back side of a corner joint welded in the
flat position.

Fig. 22-26 Fillet weld on a lap joint in steel plate


welded with the gas metal arc welding process in the 3F
position, downhill. Note the porosity caused by poor gas
shielding.

Fig. 22-25 Fillet weld on a lap joint in steel plate welded with the gas metal
arc welding process in the 2F position.

Fillet and Groove Welding Combination Project: Job inspection will be used on this test project to the following
Qualification Test 2 This combination test project will acceptance requirements:
allow you to demonstrate your ability to read a drawing,
There shall be no cracks or incomplete fusion.
develop a bill of materials (SI conversions are optional), There shall be no incomplete joint penetration in
thermally cut, fit components together, tack, and weld
groove welds except as permitted for partial joint pen-
a carbon steel project. You will be using the techniques
etration groove welds.
developed in Jobs 22-J1 through J10 using the spray arc Your instructor shall examine the weld for acceptable
mode of metal transfer. Follow the instructions found in
appearance and shall be satisfied that the welder is
the notes on Fig.22-31 (p. 736).
skilled in using the process and procedure specified
Inspection and Testing After the project has been tacked, for the test.
have it inspected for compliance to the drawing. On mul- Undercut shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of
tiple-pass welds, have your instructor inspect after each the base metal thickness or 132 inch.
weld unless otherwise instructed. Use the following ac- Where visual examination is the only criterion for
ceptance criteria to judge your welds. Look for surface acceptance, all weld passes are subject to visual
defects. Keep in mind that it is important to have good examination, at the discretion of your instructor.
appearance and uniform weld contour. These character- The frequency of porosity shall not exceed one in each
istics usually indicate that the weld was made properly 4 inches of weld length, and the maximum diameter
and that the weld metal is sound throughout. Only visual shall not exceed 332 inch.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 733
acceptance criteria to visually judge your welds.
Look for surface defects. Keep in mind that it is
important to have good appearance and uniform
weld contour. These characteristics usually in-
dicate that the weld was made properly and that
the weld metal is sound throughout. Once visual
inspection is completed to the following criteria,
you will perform side bend tests. Follow side
Fig. 22-27 Fillet weld on a T-joint welded in the 2F position with the gas
bend test procedures as outlined in Chapter 28.
metal arc welding process in steel plate. There shall be no cracks or incomplete
fusion.
There shall be no incomplete joint penetra-
tion in groove welds except as permitted for
partial joint penetration groove welds.
Your instructor shall examine the weld for
acceptable appearance and shall be satisfied
that the welder is skilled in using the process
and procedure specified for the test.
Undercut shall not exceed the lesser of
10 percent of the base metal thickness or
1
32 inch.
Fig. 22-28 The first (root) pass of a V-groove butt joint welded in the 1G Where visual examination is the only crite-
position with the gas metal arc welding process in steel plate.
rion for acceptance, all weld passes are sub-
ject to visual examination, at the discretion
of your instructor.
The frequency of porosity shall not exceed
one in each 4 inches of weld length and the
maximum diameter shall not exceed 332 inch.
Welds shall be free from overlap.
Only minimal weld spatter shall be accepted,
as viewed prior to cleaning.

Fig. 22-29 Penetration through the back side of a V-groove butt joint welded Side bend acceptance criteria as measured on
in the 1G position. the convex surface of the bend specimen are the
following:
No single indication shall exceed 18 inch measured in
Welds shall be free from overlap. any direction on the surface.
Only minimal weld spatter shall be accepted, as The sum of the greatest dimensions of all indications
viewed prior to cleaning. on the surface, which exceed 132 inch, but are less than
or equal to 18 inch, shall not exceed 38inch.
Groove Weld Project: Job Qualification Test 3 This test Cracks occurring at the corner of the specimens shall
project will allow you to demonstrate your ability to read not be considered unless there is definite evidence that
a drawing, fit components together, tack, and weld a car- they result from inclusions, fusion, or other internal
bon steel unlimited thickness test plate. You will be using discontinuities.
the techniques developed in Jobs 22-J1 through J10 using
the spray arc mode of metal transfer. Follow the instruc-
MIG Welding of Aluminum
tions found in the notes on Fig.22-32, page 737.
You will recall that aluminum is readily joined by welding,
Inspection and Testing After the project has been tacked, brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fas-
have it inspected for compliance to the drawing. After the tening. Aluminum is lightweight, and yet some of its alloys
project has been completely welded, use visual inspec- have strengths comparable to mild steel. Pure aluminum
tion and cut specimens for bend testing. Use the following can be alloyed readily with many other metals to produce

734 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)
( )
Inch Millimeters
See Notes 10 & 11
1/4 9/32 5/16
60 1/16 1.6
1/8 3.2
1/4 1/4 6.4
1/4 1/2 12.7
1/4 1 25.4
6"

11"
1D 6" 313/16" 1E See Note 8
3/4" TYP

2" 2"
2"

(5/16) 50
Manual OFC Manual
See
9/32
This Edge OFC- 1" 2"
Note 10 6"
1F
2"
1/2"
1C TYP
1B

( )
1 /4
1A 5" 2-4
8" 1/4 2-4 See Notes 10 & 12
9/32 5/16
50

Drawing Not to Scale


Part No. Reqd. Size S.I. Conversion
Tolerances:
1A Fractions: + or 1/16"
1B Angles: +10, 5

1C
1D
1E
1F

Notes:
1. All dimensions U.S. customary unless otherwise specified.
2. 3/8" thickness plain carbon steel material.
3. The welder shall prepare a bill of materials in U.S. customary units of measure prior to cutting.
4. The welder shall convert the above bill of materials to S.I. metric units of measure.
5. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine OFC unless indicated manual OFC.
6. All welds GMAW-S, FCAW-G, or FCAW-S as applicable.
7. Fit and tack entire assembly on bench before attaching to positioning fixture arm.
8. Attach 2" 2" extension tab of Part 1E to positioning fixture arm. All welding done in position according to drawing orientation.
9. Employ boxing technique where applicable.
10. Partial penetration weld.
11. Weld joins Part 1C and 1D to 1E.
12. Weld joins Part 1C and 1E to 1A.

Fig. 22-30 Performance Qualification Test GMAW-S. Adapted from AWS SENSE Program

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 735
(5/16) 60
See Note 10 Inch Millimeters
9/32
1/16 1.6
1/8 3.2
1/4 6.4
1/2 12.7
6" 1 25.4

Manual OFC
This Edge

Manual
OFC- 1" 2" 51/2"
1/4
1B
1/4
1/2" 2"

1A 1A
3" 11/2"
6"

Drawing Not to Scale


Part No. Reqd. Size S.I. Conversion Tolerances:
1A Fractions: + or 1/16"
1B Angles: +10, 5

Notes:
1. All dimensions U.S. customary unless otherwise specified.
2. 3/8" thickness plain carbon steel material.
3. The welder shall prepare a bill of materials in U.S. customary units of measure prior to cutting.
4. The welder shall convert the above bill of materials to S.I. metric units of measure.
5. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine OFC unless specified manual OFC.
6. All welds GMAW, spray transfer.
7. Fit and tack entire assembly on bench before welding.
8. All welding done in position according to drawing orientation.
9. Employ boxing technique where applicable.
10. Melt-through not required.

Fig. 22-31 Performance Qualification Test GMAW, Spray Transfer. Adapted from AWS SENSE Program

a wide range of physical and mechanical properties. It is wide variety of shapes. Machining ease and speed are im-
highly ductile and retains that ductility at subzero tempera- portant factors in using aluminum parts. Aluminum may
tures. It has high resistance to corrosion, forms no colored also be given a wide variety of mechanical, electrochemi-
salts, and is not toxic. Aluminum has good electrical and cal, chemical, and paint finishes.
thermal conductivity and high reflectivity to both heat and Pure aluminum melts at 1,220F, and aluminum alloys
light. It is nonsparking and nonmagnetic. have an approximate melting range of 900 to 1,220F, de-
Aluminum is easy to fabricate. It can be cast, rolled, pending upon the alloying elements. Aluminum does not
stamped, drawn, spun, stretched, and roll formed. The change color when heated to the welding or brazing range.
metal may also be hammered, forged, and extruded into a This makes it difficult to judge when the metal is near the

736 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)