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Table 23-2 Position of Welding, Shielding, Polarity, and Application Requirements for Flux Cored Electrodes

AWS Welding AWS

Classification Position1 Shielding2 Current3 Application4 Classification Welding Position1 Shielding2 Current3 Application4
E70T-1 H and F CO2 DCEP M E70T-9 H and F CO2 DCEP M
E70T-1M H and F 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M E70T-9M H and F 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M
E71T-1 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP M E71T-9 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP M
E71T-1M H, F, VU, OH 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M E71T-9M H, F, VU, OH 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M
E70T-2 H and F CO2 DCEP S E70T-10 H and F None DCEN S
E70T-2M H and F 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP S E70T-11 H and F None DCEN M
E71T-2 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP S E71T-11 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN M
E71T-2M H, F, VU, OH 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP S E70T-12 H and F CO2 DCEP M
E70T-3 H and F None DCEP S E70T-12M H and F 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M
E70T-4 H and F None DCEP M E71T-12 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP M
E70T-5 H and F CO2 DCEP M E71T-12M H, F, VU, OH 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M
E70T-5M H and F 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M E61T-13 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN S
E71T-5 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP or DCEN 5
M E71T-13 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN S
E71T-5M H, F, VU, OH 7580% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP or DCEN 5
M E71T-14 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN S
E70T-6 H and F None DCEP M EX0T-G H and F Not specified Not specified M
E70T-7 H and F None DCEN M EX1T-G H, F, VD or VU, OH Not specified Not specified M
E71T-7 H, F, VU, OH None DCEN M EX0T-GS H and F Not specified Not specified S
E70T-8 H and F None DCEN M EX1T-GS H, F, VD or VU, OH Not specified Not specified S
E71T-8 H, F, VU, OH None DCEN M

H = horizontal position; F = flat position; OH = overhead position; VD = vertical position with downward progression; VU = vertical position with upward progression.

Properties of weld metal from electrodes that are used with external gas shielding (EXXT-1, EXXT-1M, EXXT-2, EXXT-2M, EXXT-5, EXXT-5M, EXXT-9, EXXT-9M, EXXT-12, and

EXXT-12M) vary according to the shielding gas employed. Electrodes classified with the specified shielding gas should not be used with other shielding gases without first consulting the manufacturer of the
The term DCEP refers to direct current electrode positive (d.c., reverse polarity). The term DCEN refers to direct current electrode negative (d.c., straight polarity).

M = single- or multiple-pass; S = single-pass only.


Some E71T-5 and E71T-5M electrodes may be recommended for use on DCEN for improved out-of-position welding.

Source: HOBART Welding ProductsAn Illinois Tool Works Company.

Table 23-3 Typical Mechanical Properties of Several Flux Cored Electrodes (AW)1

Tensile Yield Typical Charpy V-Notch

AWS Strength Strength Elongation Reduction Impact Values (ft-lb)
Classification (p.s.i.) (p.s.i.) % in 2 in. of Area 0F 20F 40F 50F
E71T-1 85,500 79,400 26.5 67.5 85 75 65 60
E71T-8 81,900 67,500 25.5 69.2 80 50
AW indicates as welded, as compared to SR which indicates the welds have been stress relieved.

Table 23-4 Comparative Index of Self-Shielded Flux Cored Wires


E70T-4 FABSHIELD 4 Self-Shield 4 Coreshield 40 Innershield NS-3M
E70T-7 FABSHIELD 31,7027 Self-Shield 7 Coreshield 7 Innershield NR-311
E71T-8 FABSHIELD 7018 Innershield 202, NR-203M, NR-232,
E70T-10 FABSHIELD HSR Self-Shield 10 Coreshield 10 Innershield NR-131
E71T-11 FABSHIELD 21B Self-Shield 11 Coreshield 11 Innershield NR-211-MP
E71T8-K6 FABSHIELD 3Nil Innershield NR-207, NR-400, NR-203
E71T-GS FABSHIELD 23 Self-Shield 11 GS Coreshield 15 Innershield NR-151, NR-152, NR-157,

Source: HOBART Welding ProductsAn Illinois Tool Works Company.

Square Groove /
1 4 / Max.
1 4

Actual Throat Dimension 31 Volts, 450 Amperes
12 Inches per MinuteOne Pass
Actual Throat Dimension Fig. 23-16 Butt joints with backing up to 38 inch thick do not
require beveling. Thickness up to 14 inch can be welded with
one pass.
Fillet Weld

Dimensions Square Groove /
1 4 / Min.
1 4

Fillet Throat Dimensions 31 Volts, 450 Amperes

12 Inches per MinuteTwo Passes
Fig. 23-15 A fillet weld made with SMAW has less penetration
at the root than a weld made with FCAW-G. A fillet weld made with Fig. 23-17 Butt joints with backing in plate more than 38inch
flux cored wire may be reduced in leg size and still secure maximum thick require beveling. Plates 14 to 12 inch thick are welded with
strength because of the greater actual throat dimension. two passes.

760 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1
Table 23-5 Comparative Index of Gas Shielded Flux Cored Wires

AWS Class HOBART COREX ESAB Lincoln McKay Tri-Mark

E70T-1 FabCO RXR Flux-Cor 7 Dual Shield 111 A-C, R-70 Outershield 70 Speed Alloy 71 TM-11, TM-RX7
FabCO TR-70
E70T-5 FabCO 85 Tuf-Cor 5 Dual Shield T-75 Outershield 75-H Speed Alloy 75 TM-55
E71T-1 (CO2) FabCO 802 Verti-Cor 71 Dual Shield 7100 Ultra Outershield Speed Alloy 71V TM-711M, Triple 7
EXCEL-ARC 71 Versatile 71, 71-H, 71M
E71T-1 FabCO 825 Verti-Cor 71 Dual Shield 7000 Outershield 71, 71M Speed Alloy 71V TM-711M, Triple 7
(75 Ar/25 CO2) EXCEL-ARC 71 Versatile Dual Shield 7100 Ultra
E71T-1 (CO2) XL-550 Verti-Cor II Dual Shield II-71 Ultra Outershield 71M-H Speed Alloy 71-VC TM-771
Low H2
E71T-1 (75 Ar/25 CO2) XL-525 Verti-Cor II Dual Shield II-70 Outershield 71C-H TM-770
Low H2 Dual Shield II-70T12 Ultra
E81T1-Ni1 XL8Ni1 Verti-Cor II Ni1 Dual Shield II-80-Ni Outershield 81Ni1-H Speed Alloy 81Ni1-V TM-881N1,
Dual Shield 800003 TM-811N1
E81T1-Ni2 FabCO 803 Verti-Cor 81Ni2 Dual Shield 8000-Ni2 Speed Alloy 81Ni2-V TM-811N2
E110T5-K4 FabCO 115 Tuf-Cor 115 Dual Shield T-115 Speed Alloy 115 TM-115

Source: HOBART Welding ProductsAn Illinois Tool Works Company.

Double Bevel Butt A Single Bevel Butt
1 4
/ Max.
3 4 0 1 Max.

31 Volts, 450 Amperes

1220 Inches per Minute
Two Passes Each Side
31 Volts, 450 Amperes
Fig. 23-18 Butt joints without backing in plate up to 34 inch thick 1215 Inches per MinuteFive Passes
require 30 double bevel groove welds.
Fig. 23-20 Butt joints with backing in plate up to 1 inch thick
require 30 single bevel groove weld and no root face.
Double Bevel Butt B
/ Min.
3 4
Double V Butt
1 Min.

1 16

31 Volts, 450 Amperes

1220 Inches per Minute
Two Passes Each Side

Fig. 23-19 Butt joints without backing in plate over 34 inch thick 31 Volts, 450 Amperes
require 45 double bevel groove welds. 1220 Inches per Minute
Two Passes Each Side

manifolded together. A pressure-reducing regulator and Fig. 23-21 Butt joint with double V-groove welds on plates,
1 inch and thicker, may have a heavy root face with no root opening
flowmeter are needed for controlling the shielding gas in and a 22 bevel on each plate.
the weld zone.
Weld porosity is a result of poor shielding of the arc and
molten weld pool when the gas flow is inadequate. Exces- from the base metal by the molten pool. Less penetration
sive gas flow can cause turbulence of the arc. This causes results, and a flatter and wider weld bead is deposited.
porosity, weld spatter, and irregular beads. Slag may be forced ahead of the weld pool to the extent
that incomplete fusion and slag inclusions may results. A
Welding Variables push angle is seldom used for FCAW. Generally a push
You will recall the effect that changes in the various vari- angle is used only for the 3F and 3G positions vertical up.
ables had on solid and metal cored wire welding. The ef- A drag angle of 2 to 15 is recommended. Welders usually
fect on flux cored wire is similar. Consistently good welds prefer to use the drag angle because there is a better view
throughout a wide range of conditions are easily obtained of the arc action and the weld being deposited.
when the variables are understood and controlled. All The work angle and wire location like MCAW and
variables must be in balance for sound welds of good GMAW must be appropriate for bead placement and en-
appearance. suring proper penetration and fusion. Undercut can also
Review the material in Chapter 22 concerning the ef- be affected by the work angle and wire location.
fects changing the welding variables has on the weld bead.
Electrode ExtensionYou will recall from Chapter 22
Gun Angles Gun travel and work angle affects the flux that electrode extension is the length of the electrode wire
cored arc welding process as it does the MCAW and extending from the tip of the contact tube. This extended
GMAW processes, Fig. 23-22. length is subject to resistance heating called electrode
A push travel angle causes the gas shield to be directed preheat. Electrical extension has an effect on weld qual-
over the molten pool. A portion of the arc is insulated ity, penetration, arc stability, and deposition rate.

762 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1
Drag Gun Push Gun
Travel Angle Travel Angle
Nozzle Nozzle

Contact Tube Contact Tube

Electrode Direction of Travel
Direction of Travel
Weld Weld

Work Work
Drag Angle Push Angle

Fig. 23-22 Gun travel angles.

When welding with the FCAW process, electrode ex- electrode preheating. A correct setting at the nozzle of the
tension has an effect on the weld characteristics similar welding gun assures maximum weld quality, penetration,
to that produced by solid and metal core wire. There is a deposition, and appearance.
difference, however, in the length of electrode extension. With the FCAW-S electrodes, long extensions (2 to
Typical minimum and maximum extensions for FCAW- 4 inches) require insulated wire guides. These insulated
G electrodes are 14 to 1 inches. guides allow the welder to more closely control the elec-
In FCAW-S, the minimum extension is 18 inch and the trode extension by a visual stickout of, for example, 1 inch.
maximum extension may go as high as 4 inches. The The guides can reduce the effects of helix and cast in these
manufacturers specification for the electrodes should be type of electrodes, Fig. 23-23, page 764. On a horizontal
followed to get optimum welding results. fillet weld electrode extension and electrode placement can
With the FCAW-S electrodes, long extensions are re- help control penetration and undercut, Fig. 23-24, page 764.
quired to properly preheat the electrode before it reaches
the welding arc. This preheating activates the vaporizing Flux Cored Arc WeldingGasShielded
and slag forming ingredients in the core of the electrode. Practice Jobs
It also burns off drawing compound (lubricant) residues
from the sheath of the electrode. Preheating helps elimi- Instructions for Completing
nate hydrogen contamination and porosity. Practice Jobs
Preheating the FCAW-G electrodes also helps burn off Complete the practice jobs according to the specifica-
any residual drawing compounds (lubricants) from the tions given in the Job Outline, Table 23-10, page 787,
sheath of these electrodes as well. It also helps reduce po- in the order assigned by your instructor. Before begin-
rosity (worm tracking) if the electrode extension is not too ning welding practice, turn to Chapter 22 and review
short. With the FCAW-G electrodes, the external shield- the steps for setting up the equipment and the welding
ing gas may be lost if the extension is excessive and the recommendations.
gas nozzle contact tube is not properly adjusted. Exces- These jobs should provide about 20 to 30 hours of prac-
sively long electrode extensions cause spatter, irregular tice, depending upon the skill of the individual student.
arc action, incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, and After you have completed these jobs, you may wish to
slag inclusions. With excessively short electrode exten- practice with other forms of joints, other sizes of filler
sion, spatter will build up on the end of the gun, porosity wire, and a wide range of current values. If you have any
may increase, and the weld profile may be affected. particular trouble in your practice, consult Tables 23-6
It is also recommended when using a long extension through 23-8 (pp. 765766).
with FCAW-G electrodes that the contact tube tip be re-
cessed a distance of 12 to 34 inch from the end of the gas Welding Technique
nozzle to reduce the spatter buildup and the possibility Welding current is DCEP. The extension is about 12 to
of overheating the contact tube. The correct nozzle-to- 1 inch. The work angle of the gun is about 60 from
work distance ensures complete gas shielding and proper the lower plate when welding a lap joint and about 45

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1 Chapter 23 763
Contact Tube

Gas Nozzle Insulated

Contact Tube
Flux Cored Electrode
Electrode Extension
Flux Cored
Electrode Electrode Extension

Work Metal Work Metal

Nozzle for Use with Auxiliary Gas Shielding Nozzle for Use with Self-Shielding

Fig. 23-23 (A) Electrode extension for the gas shielded electrodes. (B) Electrode extension for the
self-shielded electrodes.

Work Angle penetrating. The arc transfer has a semispray character-

45 istic, and the arc appears to be buried in the pool. The
weld deposits are even lower in hydrogen than those
made with low hydrogen stick electrodes. The chief
source of any hydrogen and porosity in the weld deposit
is moisture absorbed from the metal surfaces or from the
One Electrode
Diameter Offset
Spatter may be caused by an arc that is too long. In
such a case the voltage setting is too high. Another pos-
sible cause of spatter is poor arc stability at low wire-feed
Fig. 23-24 Flux cored arc welding electrode position on a T-joint speeds. This can be corrected by increasing the wire-feed
in the 2F position. speed or by shortening the extension. Normal voltage is
29 to 35 volts; but higher voltage may be needed if the
welding cables are long.
from the lower plate when welding a T-joint. A backing Penetration is directly related to the travel speed. At
material strip is required when welding a butt joint. The a given wire-feed speed, penetration decreases if travel
groove angle for butt joints is about 30. speed is increased or decreased too greatly. Keep the arc
Check the extension distance carefully. Excessive toward the leading edge of the weld pool. Penetration is
extension reduces the gas shield and overheats the wire. deeper with the drag travel angle welding technique than
The arc and the welding area must be properly shielded with the push travel angle technique.
from drafts that can blow the shielding gas away from Groove WeldingYou are reminded to make sure that
the weld area. Do not let the weld metal overheat. If smooth, even penetration is obtained at the root of the
the weld gets too hot, the flux on the bead surface is weld. The bead should be equally proportioned and fused
hard to remove. Take particular care not to overheat to the root face and to the groove face of each beveled
the weld metal when making multiple-pass welds. Also workpiece. Pay particular attention to the width of the
be very careful to remove all the flux from the under- bead formation so that it is not morethan 116 inch on each
neath passes when making multiple-pass welds. Make side beyond thewidth of the groove. Regulate your speed
use of all the welding skills that you have learned up of travel so that the face of the weld is not more than
to this point in order to ensure sound welds and good 1
8 inch higher than the plate surface.
You will find that the arc is smooth, steady, and es- Fillet Welding The angle of the electrode is most impor-
sentially spatter-free when operated at the proper wire- tant in making a fillet weld. For 2F the electrode wire is
speed feed and voltage settings. It is also forceful and pointed at the bottom plate, close to the corner of the joint,

764 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1
Table 23-6Troubleshooting

If a weld should be defective, there is one or more welding conditions that must be changed or corrected in order
to obtain a satisfactory weld. This table lists some of the weld discontinuities and the possible causes of these

Trouble Possible Causes

Excess melt-through Current too high
Excessive root opening between plates
Travel speed too slow
Bevel angle too large
Root face too small
Wire size too large
Insufficient metal holddown or clamping
Excess reinforcement or excess concavity Current too high or low
Voltage too high or low
Travel speed too slow or fast
Improper weld backing
Improper spacing in welds with backing
Workpiece not level
Penetration too deep or too shallow Current too high or low
Voltage too high or low
Improper gap between plates
Improper wire size
Travel speed too slow or fast
Porosity Flux too shallow (SAW)
Improper cleaning
Contaminated weld backing
Contaminated electrode (electrode extension)
Contaminated gas shield
Contaminated plate
Improper fitup in welds with manual backing
Insufficient penetration in double welds
Reinforcement narrow and steep-sloped (pointed) Insufficient width of flux (SAW)
Voltage too low
Mountain range reinforcement Flux too deep (SAW)
Undercutting Travel speed too high
Improper wire position (fillet welding)
Voltage too high
Use slight pause at edge of weave beads
Incomplete fusion and cracks Improper cooling
Failure to preheat
Improper fitup
Concave reinforcement (fillet weld)
Verify correct electrode extension
Longitudinal depression in weld face Verify correct voltage
Verify correct amperage and wire-feed speed
Contaminated electrode (electrode extension)

FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1 Chapter 23 765
Table 23-7 Troubleshooting Adjustments for Flux Cored Arc Welding

Problem Current Voltage Speed Stickout Drag Angle
Porosity 5 1 4 2 3
Spatter 4 2
1 5 3 2
Convexity 4 1 5 2 3
Back arc blow 4 3 5 2 1
Insufficient penetration 2 3 4 1 5
Not enough follow 4 1 5 2 3
Stubbing 4 1 3 2

Arrows indicate the need to increase or decrease the setting to correct the problem. Numbers indicate order ofimportance.

With E70T-G electrodes, increasing the current reduces droplet size and decreases spatter.

Source: The Lincoln Electric Co.

Inspection and Testing

Table 23-8 Flux Indicators for Mechanical Properties
After the project has been tacked,
Designator Tensile Strength Minimum Yield Percent Elongation in have it inspected for compliance to
Number (p.s.i.) Strength (p.s.i.) 2 in. the drawing. Examine Figs. 23-26
6 60,00080,000 48,000 22 through 23-28, page 768 carefully
7 70,00095,000 58,000 22 for weld formation and appear-
8 80,000100,000 68,000 20
ance. On multiple-pass welds have
your instructor inspect after each
9 90,000110,000 78,000 17
weld unless otherwise instructed.
10 100,000120,000 88,000 16
Use the following acceptance cri-
teria to judge your welds. Look
for surface defects. Keep in mind
so that the weld metal will wash up on the vertical plate that it is important to have good appearance and uniform
and form a weld that does not have undercut along its top weld contour. These characteristics usually indicate that
edge. Here again, speed of travel is important in bead for- the weld was made properly and that the weld metal is
mation. Travel speed that is too fast for the current forms sound throughout. Only visual inspection will be used on
an undersized bead that has poor penetration at the root, this test project to the following acceptance requirements:
undercut along the edges of the weld, and convexity at There shall be no cracks or incomplete fusion.
the center. Travel speed that is too slow for the current There shall be no incomplete joint penetration in
causes excessive pile up of weld metal, slag entrapment, groove welds except as permitted for partial joint pen-
and porosity. etration groove welds.
Your instructor shall examine the weld for acceptable
appearance and shall be satisfied that you are skilled
Fillet and Groove Welding
in using the process and procedure specified for the
Combination Project with FCAW-G: test.
Job Qualification Test 1 Undercut shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of
This combination test project will allow you to demon- the base metal thickness or 132 inch.
strate your ability to read a drawing, develop a bill of Where visual examination is the only criterion for
materials (SI conversions are optional), thermally cut, fit acceptance, all weld passes are subject to visual
components together, tack, and weld a carbon steel proj- examination, at the discretion of your instructor.
ect. You will be using the techniques developed in prior The frequency of porosity shall not exceed one in each
jobs in this chapter using the FCAW-G process and elec- 4 inches of weld length and the maximum diameter
trodes. Follow the instructions found in Table 23-10, Job shall not exceed 332 inch.
23-JQT1, page 787, and the notes in Fig. 23-25. Welds shall be free from overlap.

766 Chapter 23 FCAW (Plate), SAW, and Related Processes: FCAW-G Jobs 23-J1J11, FCAW-S Jobs 23-J1J12; SAW Job 23-J1