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6/10/2017 SoilMapofIndia

Soilisoneofthemajornaturalresources,likeairandwater.Itisthetopmostlayeroftheearth'scrustandisa
mixtureoffinepowderedrocks,organicmatter,liquids,myriadorganismsandotherminerals.Itactsasan
interfacebetweenhydrosphere,lithosphere,earth'satmosphereandbiosphere.Theproportionofthekey
ingredientsdeterminesthetypeofsoil.But,factorssuchasvegetation,climaticconditions,humanactivitiesfor
e.g.grazing,farming,gardeningetcalsoinfluencesoilformation.InIndia,varioustypesofsoilsarefoundand
theirformationsareinfluencedbycertainfactorssuchasaltitude,climatedisproportionaterainfallandmany
others.Thetypeofsoildiffersindifferentareasofthecountry.ThemajortypesofsoilsfoundinIndiaare:

LateriteSoil:Thelateritesoilisfoundinthoseregionsofthecountrywhichreceiveheavyrainfallwith
alternatedryandwetperiod.Intheseclimaticconditions,leachingofsoiltakesplacewhichisaprocess
in which fertile portion of the soil gets washed away by heavy rains. They are formed from the
decompositionofrocksandcontainironoxidewhichgivesthemredorpinkcolour.Thistypeofsoilis
normallydeficientinnitrogenandispoorinlimecontent.Thistypeofsoilisfoundinseveralpartsofthe
countrymainlyWesternandEasternGhats,Vindhyas,MalwaplateauandSatpuras.Thestateswhere
this type of soil can be found are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Meghalaya, Assam, Odisha to
nameafew.

MountainSoils:Mountainsoilsareformedduetotheaccumulationoforganicmatterwhichisderived
from the forest growth. This type of soil is rich in humus but has poor lime, potash and phosphorus
content. It is generally sandy and has gravels. It is mainly found in Himalayan region of the country.
Maize, barley, wheat and temperate fruits are grown in this soil in the Himalayan region. Plantation of
crops like tropical fruits, coffee, tea or spices in states of south India like Kerala, Tamil Nadu and
Karnatakaareundertakeninthistypeofsoil.

BlackSoil:Thistypeofsoilismadeupofvolcanicrocksandlava.Blacksoilisalsoknownas'regur'
whichisderivedfromaTeluguword'reguda'.BlacksoilisalsoknownasBlackCottonSoilascottonis
an important crop which is grown in this type of soil. The soil content is rich in calcium carbonate,
potash, lime and magnesium carbonate but has poor phosphorus content. It is mostly found in areas
suchasGujarat,MadhyaPradeshandMaharashtra.ItisalsofoundinstateslikeTamilNadu,Andhra
PradeshandKarnataka.

RedSoil:Thistypeofsoilisformedasaresultofweatheringofmetamorphicandigneousrocks.The
red colour of the soil comes from the high percentage of iron content. The soil's texture varies from
beingsandytoclayey,butitismainlyloamy.Itisrichinpotashcontentbutlacksphosphate,humusand
nitrogen content. The red soil is found in regions such as Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand,
Odisha,somepartsofKarnatakaandsoutheastMaharashtra.

AlluvialSoil:Alluvial soils are formed by the deposits of the sediments brought by rivers. Most of the
rivers originate from the Himalayas and bring along high amount of sediments with them. The soil is
made up of particles like silt, sand and clay. It has adequate amount of phosphoric acid, potash and
lime.Alluvialsoilisoftwotypes(i)oldalluviumknownasbangar,and(ii)newalluviumcalledkhaddar.
It is the most important type of soil found in the country as it covers about 40% of the total land. It is
foundintheareasofnorthernplainsbeginningfromPunjabtoWestBengalandAssam.Itisalsofound
indeltasofdifferentriverssuchasKrishna,Godavari,KaveriandMahanadiinpeninsularIndia.

DesertSoil:Thedesertsoilisfoundinregionswithlowrainfall.Thesandinthedesertareasispartly
originalandpartlyblownfromIndusValley.Thesoilcontenthas9095%ofsandand510%ofclay.The
phosphate content in the soil is high while the nitrogen content is low. The water content in the soil is
fulfilled through irrigation. This type of soil is found in arid and semiarid areas. Desert soil is found
mostlyinareasofRajasthan,andalsoinHaryanaandPunjab.

SalineandAlkalineSoil:Therearemanymineralbasedandundecomposedcontentsinsidetheearth.
Due to weathering, they release certain minerals such as magnesium, sodium, sulphurous acid and
calcium salts. Some of the released salts get carried in solution by rivers and mix in subsoils of the
plainsmakingthesoilssalineandalkaline.ThistypeofsoilcanbefoundinUttarPradeshandPunjab
andalsoinsomepartsofGujarat.

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6/10/2017 SoilMapofIndia

PeatSoil:Accumulation of high amount of organic matters in the soil in humid regions results in the
formationofpeatysoils.Thesetypesofsoilsconstituteabout10to40%oftheorganicmatterandalsoa
reasonableamountofsolublesalts.Peatysoilsareheavy,blackincolourandhavehighacidiccontent.
They are low in phosphate and potash content. Peaty and marshy soils are found in a few districts of
Kerala.Ontheotherhand,marshysoilsarefoundincoastalareasofsomestatessuchasTamilNadu,
Bihar,AlmoradistrictofUttaranchalandSunderbansofWestBengal.

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