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_ Band 11 '
" '

Neil Skinner


Rudiger Koppe Verlag KOLN

Maganin Gari Mai Nisa, Tafiya

Forum des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268:

Kulturentwicklung und Sprachgeschichte im Naturraum Westafrikanische Savanne

Johann Wolfgang Goethe - Universitat

Frankfurt am Main


unter Mitarbeit von M. BroB, R. Leger, U. Seibert und K. Winkelmann

Band 11


Neil Skinner

Hausa Comparative Dictionary


Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme

Skinner, Neil:
Hausa comparative dictionary / Neil Skinner. - Koln : Koppe, 1996
(Westafrikanische Studien ; Bd. 1
ISBN 3-927620-53-X

RuDiGER Koppe Verlag
Afrikanische Sprachen und Kulturen
Postfach 45 06 43
D- 50881 Koln

Herstellung: Druckerei Franz Hansen, Koln

Gedruckt auf saurefreiem und alterungsbestandigem Papier.

Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelines of the

ANSI to ensure permanence and durability.


George Percy Bargery

Digitized by tlie Internet Archive
in 2014

HAVE BEEN interested in53 Hausa words for years, and when I was a district
I officer in Nigeria, Bargery's dictionary travelled round with camp chair and
cook box on the heads of the carriers. Nagwamatse, who had been one of the
pupils at the first provincial school in Sokoto before 1910, gave me some of my

first lessons. But 1 did not move to eymology until 1 was at ucla in 1963.

I first started putting the material on a computer in 1985 with the help of
Anne Reynolds. At that time the main entries were English - Hausa. Paul
Newman suggested it would be better the other way round, and I found that he
was right, so I turned it round. As I completed the earlier parts I sent them to

various interested scholars, several of whom were kind enough to return

But it is only in the last few years that I have been lucky enough to have
the help of Andrew Sihler, who has keyed it all on his more professional ma-
chine and, in addition, supplied me with invaluable editorial advice.
Others who have helped in various way are: Herrmann Jungraithmayr,
Russell Schuh, Roger Blench, Lionel Bender, and Henry Tourneux.
Allah ya sakam musu da alheri, amin.

HESE PAGES are the result of some forty years' work with Hausa lexicon.

X This lexicon is rare for Africa in that it is available in print to the extent

of many thousands of words. Most African languages spoken north of the

equator and possible sources of comparison are much more scantily accessible.

It is accepted that Hausa is an Afroasian or whatever the agreed term may be

language, and, within that, it is now hardly disputed that it is a "Chadic"
language. Newman established 150 etymons for "over 100" languages spoken
between the Niger and Lake Chad and Lake Chad and Abeche, and there is

general agreement to call these "Chadic". This then is where one first seeks

comparative data for Hausa.

But it has also long been clear that a number of words from Hausa basic
vocabulary, such as "sun", "moon", "night", "fire", "water", "ashes", "meat, ani-

mal" are not Chadic. Reconstruction of a "Hausa group" is impossible since the
one closely related language, Gwandara, has too many words patently borrowed
from Hausa to be of much use for comparison, although the Nimbia dialect
according to Matsushita, the most archaic can be helpful. The next node up
the tree, "West Chadic", as far as can yet be said, does not seem much better in

this respect, its lexicon being closer to East and Central Chadic, though the Pla-
teau sub-group may have some Niger-Congo connections common with Hausa.
It was the question whether such Hausa words might have their cognates

elsewhere than in Chadic, presumably somewhere within Afroasian or Niger-

Congo or Nilo-Saharan, that inspired this work.
Superimposed on these earlier connexions thousands of years oldthere
are the more recent ones: between Hausa and Tuareg, with Mande, with the
Arabic of Islam, with Songhai, with Kanuri, with Yoruba and Niger-Congo Ian-

guages to the west and south and, lastly, with the colonial languages, English
and French. From the comparative point of view, these are all of great interest
and not too difficult to locate. But for pre-1900 borrowings ^it is not always
easy to be sure of the direction or the precise route of borrowing.
Hausa words included in this work have been selected on the basis of fre-

quency of use, subjectively judged from the standpoint of fifty years' acquain-
tance with the language and what others have written about it. But synonyms,
or part-synonyms often rare or dialect formshave been included, especially
when their relevance was suggested by data from other languages. "Ashes" and
"arrow" are cases in point. After the headword, a general gloss has been given
in emphatic type, often followed by connotations, metaphorical extensions of
meaning and derived forms. Next, relevant hypothesized reconstructions, and
then words in other languages which are similar in form or meaning.
What constitutes similarity of form or meaning is, of course, an important

question, when so few of the rules of Afroasiatic sound change have been

established. While no strict criteria controlling suggested form resemblances

have been used, +/- glottalization, +/- prenasalization, +/- voicing, +/- pre-

cedent vowel have generally been accepted as possible variations. Ruhlen's com-
ment at p. 232 of Greenberg's Universals of Human Language, Vol. 2, "it is clear

that the combination of glottal consonant plus low vowel is particularly vulner-

able to nasalization" seems relevant in many cases, e.g. Hausa abu / Gwandara
mbo. Change of place of articulation or metathesis have only rarely been sug-

gested, and then usually supported by strong evidence or the opinion of other

scholars. For vowels, there has been even less control, of course, but the editor
has become increasingly inclined to find relevant a dichotomy between /a/ on
the one hand and /i, u/ on the other as a good heuristic principle, while /0/ and
/e/ are very commonly a secondary development, perhaps via /aw/ and /ay/. For

previous work in establishing laws of sound change in Chadic, the reader is

referred to Newman (1977).

Where verb and noun, or noun and ideophone, seem to be cognate, often

they will be listed under the same Hausa entry. Most common verbs are listed

without final vowel. Publication of the Orel and Stolbova Hamito-Semitic die-

tionary in 1995 has enabled references to this work to be included where they
seemed relevant. The Roman orthography used by Russian scholars has been ad-

justed to conform with that used in this work.

In recent years the use of Hausa as a lingua franca has resulted in a large
number of words from Hausa being borrowed by other West African languages,
sometimes with Fulfulde as the intermediary, e.g. in Cameroun. An extreme
example of this may be the common Hausa collocation an kaan "a very small
amount" which seems to surface in Gbaya (Adamawa-Eastern) as denkeer)
"(ideophone) designe qui est seule, unique". In this work words likely to have
come FROM Hausa have usually been avoided. East Fulfulde is saturated with

words borrowed from Hausa, which makes reference to Poular, more likely to

be influenced, if at all, by Wolof or Mande, important as a touchstone.

For semantic change, a simple test has usually been where one of the
languages quoted has the double meaning. So a word meaning "roan antelope"
could be put with one for "buffalo", if one language has "buffalo, roan ante-

lope". There are a number of such that are quite strongly supported, such as
"neck, throat, voice", "testicle, egg" already noted by Greenberg "work, send"
and "shadow, soul, (life)", apart from such obvious ones as "bat, butterfly" (<

"fly"), "fly, mosquito, bee". In some cases, suggestion been made of a former
collocation, e.g. "chin" < "front (?) of ear"; "face" < "mouth + nose"; "jackal" <
"dog of bush"; "crocodile" < "dog of water"; "mouse, rat" < "rodent of home/
Proto-forms suggested by other scholars have been used as far as possible,
and in a number of subgroups of Chadic, an underlying common form has
sometimes been suggested. However, explicit diachronic speculation has mostly
been avoided, in the absence of adequate research for so many of the languages
concerned. Nevertheless, the ordering of the data often makes an implicit sug-
gestion, and, in some cases, the sheer weight of form-meaning resemblances is

impressive evidence of an ancient connection. The data arranged here should

be valuable for the sort of reconstructions discussed in Frajzyngier and Ross
(1991), where they suggest that "we may be able to reconstruct a word for the
whole family, without being able to reconstruct it for individual branches". The

work, as it stands, is not an attempt to reconstruct a proto-language, but to make

available in one place data for other scholars to consider, and then reject or use,

when they have brought their own areal expertise to bear. For this reason,

where data is hard to come by, the decision to include a possibly relevant form
has usually erred on the side of speculation. What is later not accepted can easi-

ly be deleted. If it is not there, it may be missed by others to come.

Particles and pronouns have, on the whole been excluded. The former, be-
cause the range of meaning is too wide even within one language; the latter,

because there have been a number of papers published dealing exhaustively

with Afroasiatic and Chadic pronouns; and both, because they tend to be min-
imal forms, which makes even intelligent speculation of little value. A number
of ideophones, on the other hand, have been included. These often have a rela-

tionship with a verb or noun that is instructive. John Hutchison's (1981) well

documented suggestion of the importance of ideophones for the development

of Kanuri is of great interest here. Of relevance too is his comment that 25% of

Kanuri lexicon today is k- initial. For Hausa, the figure for k- and - combined
is over 15%, and this itself is far more than chance would predict. Affixation in

general, it is clear from the following pages, must have played a part in the his-

tory of many of the words. In this connection, see Skinner (1995).

Non-head words are usually preceded by numbers, representing language

groups: I. W. Chadic; 2. Central Chadic; 3. East Chadic; 3a. Masa group (New-
man's suggestion); 4. Cushitic; 4a. Omotic; 5. Egyptian, Coptic; 6. Semitic; 7.

Berber; 8. Nilo-Saharan; and 9. Niger-Congo (including West Nigritic). The order

in which these entries have been made has varied and, increasingly, resem-
blance in form and meaning has suggested juxtaposition, even where this has
meant separating groups in which genetic theory might predict cognacy. In a

number of instances, a non-Hausa form may have been included under the
rubric of more than one Hausa word. Apart from such well-known examples as

H. laifi and aibi, both having relationship, via loan, with Arabic ^ayb, there
must be many similar but much older doublets. Or indeed, one of the entries

may not be relevant, to be deleted when more research suggests it.


For Hausa, the standard orthography is followed, except that vowels aX and u
in non-final syllables are marked by a macron, where long, and occasionally
lexical tones are given (Hi '
or unmarkedLo 'and Falling
For other languages, the source has usually been followed, with minor
changes in the interests of standardization and, occasionally, simplification. For
example, the plethora of vowel markings in the Kraft lists, doubtless of import-
ance for phonetic accuracy within one language, becomes less so in a mass

comparison involving great time depth. Generally speaking e and o have been
used where the source required signs for the lower counterparts, though some-
times e and o have been substituted. Egyptian vulture and reed signs have
been represented by 3 and i.

Glottalization is marked by the subscript point (occasionally superscript) or

hooked letter, or sometimes by the apostrophe, which represents the

glottal stop.

The subscript point also marks emphatic (velarized) consonants.

Subscript cedilla marks retroflexion.

Capital letters mark place of articulation without specification of other features.

X voiceless velar fricative

i voiceless lateral fricative

t voiced lateral fricative

tl voiceless lateral affricate

dl voiced lateral affricate

q regularly for Semitic emphatic (and sometimes Cushitic glottal) voiceless


WITHIN a form represents a vowel

BEFORE OR AFTER a form represents either vowel omitted or affix omitted
+ morphological boundary

All the main glosses are in bold type. Within each entry, additional glosses

may be omitted where the main gloss is understood. Sometimes it is abbreviated

to its initial letter(s). Where the meaning of the comparative data varies from

the main gloss, the specific meaning is entered in quotes. Increasingly, the
actual words of the source have been used.


Atar Atr. Bambara Bam.

Afroasiatic AA Banana Ban.
Agaw Ag. Bantu Bnt.

Akkadian Akk. Baram Barm.

Alaba Alb. Barein Bar.

Alagwa Alg. Bata Bat.

Amharic Amh. Bayso Bay.

Anfillo Anf. Bedauye Bye.

Angas Ang. Bedde Bed.

Ankwe Ank. Bedde-Ngizim Gp. BN

Arabic Ar. Bele Bel.

Arbore Abo. Bencho Bnc.

Argobba Arg. Benue-Congo BC
Asa As. Berber Ber.

Ari Ari. Bidiya Bid.

Awngi Awg. Bilin Bil.

Bacama Bac. Bogghom Bog.

Bagirmi Bgr. Boka Bok.


Bole Bol. DuUay Dly.

Bole-Tangle Gp. BT Dwot Dw.

Boni Bon. Dyula Dyl.

Borana Bor. East Cushitic EC

Buduma Bud. Egyptian Eg-

Bull Bui. English Eng.

Bura Bur. Ethiopian Semitic ES
Burji Brj. Fall R
Burma Brm. F.Bwagira FB
Burunge Brn. RGili FG
Bussa Bus. F.Jilbu FJ

Central Berber C.Ber. RKiria FK

Chadic Cha. F.Mucella FM
Cibak Cb. Felasha = Qwara
Cip Cp. French Fr.

Common Bantu CB Fula Ful.

Coptic Cop. Ga'anda Gan.

Cushitic Cu. Gabin Gab.
Daba Dab. Gabri Gbr.
Dacha Dch. Galambu Gib.
Daffo-Butura RD. Gava Gv.
Dahalo Dhl. Gawwade Gaw.
Dangaleat Dgl. Gbari Gb.
Dasenech Das. Gbaya Gby.
Daza Dz. Gedeo see Deresa
Dera Dr. Geez Gz.
Deresa (Gedeo) Der. Geji Gj.

Dime Dim. Gera Gra.

Dira/Zul DZ Geruma Ger.
Diri NBD Galavda Glv.
Dormo Drm. Ghadamsi Ghd.
Dorza Drz. Gidar Gid.

Gidole Gdo. Irakw Irk.

Gis. Taniprn (^Ypmsa^ Tni

v_j yy L/V^^V- Gob. Tpg-ii


vJLlClllCll /AllJSWC Tibh;ili


Goroa Gor. Jimbin NBJ

Gude Gd. Jukun Juk.
VJ LiVJUi Gdii
VJVJLi Kahvle Kah
Guduf Gdf. Kachama Kch.
Gurage Gur. Kafa Kefa Kf.

Guruntum Grn. Kajakse Kaj.

Gwandara Gwd. Kaniiri Kan.

Gwandara (Nimbia dial.) Karbo Krb.

Gwd.(N) Karpkarp KK
Hadiyya Had. NBK
Hamer Ham. Kefa Kef
Harari Hrr. Kembata Kmb.
Harsusi Hars. Kera Kr.

Hausa H. Kanzi (NS)J

XX\7XXZ^X 11 Knz.
Hebrew Heb. Kilba Klb.

Highland E.Cu. HEC Kirifi Krf.

Higi Hg. Kofyar Kof.

Higi Baza HB IWJLlOKJ 1x1 1 J .

Higi Futu HF Knnti 7ak^bi

Higi Ghye HG Kotoko Kot.

Higi Kamale (Kapsiki) IX wy 1 a Kov


HK Krio Kri.

Higi Nkafa HN Kiihi Kub

Hildi Hid. Kiijarke J\U).

Hina Hin. Kwa'adza Kwa.

Hitkala Htk. Laamang La am.
Hurza Hrz. Lame Lam.
Hwona Hwn. Lele Lei.

Libido Lib. Mupun Mup.

Logone Log. Mursi Mrs.

Ma'a Ma'. Musey Mus.

Maba Gp. Mab. MusgU; Musgum Msg.
Mada Mad. Muyang Muy.
Mafa Maf. Mwulyen Mwl.
Mafa-Mada Gp. MM Nakatsa Nkt.

Maha Mh. Nancere Nan.

Maji Mj. Ndam Ndm.
Malinke Mlk. Ngamo Ngm.
Mandara Mdr. Ngizim Ngz.
Mande Mnd. Ngwaxi Ngw.
Mangas Mgs. Niger-Congo NC
Margi Mg. Nilo-Saharan NS
Masa Mas. Njanye Njn.
Matakam Mat. North Bauci Gp. NB
Mbara Mba. Nupe Np.
Mboku Mbo. Nyaturu Nyt.
Mburku NBB Omotic Om.
Mehri Mhr. Oromo Or.

Migama Mgm. Pa'a (Afa) NBP

Misme, Mesme Msm. Padoko Pad.
Miya NBM Pero Pr.

Mocha Mch. Peve Pv.

Mofu Mf. Palci Pic.

Mofu-Gudur Mfg. Pidlimdi Pdl.

Mokulu Mkl. Qimant Qim.

Moloko Mol. Qwara Qwr.
Montol Mon. Rendille Rnd.
Mozabite Mzb. Rift Rft.

Mubi Mub. Ron (Bokkos) RB

Muktele Muk. Ron (Daffo) RD

Ron (Fyer) Rr Tirma Irm.

Ron (Kulere) RK Tiv Tv.

Ron (Scha) RS Tsagu NBT

Saho an. Tsamai Tsm.
Sam Gp. (Cu.) Sam. Tuareg Tur.
Sandawe Snd. Tubu lUD.

Semitic Sem. Tula Tul.

Senhayi Snh. Tumak Tum.

Seya Sey. Udlam Udl.
Sheri onr. Ugaritic
Uzam = Udlam
Shmasha Shn. Vame Vm.
Sidamo Sid. Wamdiu Wmd.
Sigidi Sig. Wargli Wrg.
Siri NBS Warji JNdW
Siwi Siw. Welamo Wei.
Socotri Soc. Werize Wer.
Sokoro Sok. W.Atlantic WA
Somali Sml. W.Nigritic WN
Somrai Smr. Wiaala Wia.
Songhai Sng. Wolane Wol.
South Arabian S.Ar. Aamta Amt.
South Bauci Gp. CD
bo Yoruba lor.

South Cushitic Zakshi (Kopti) ZiKS.

Sura Sur. Zari Zri.

Swahili Sw. Zarma Zar.

Tamazight Tam. Zayse Zys.

Tangale Tgl. Zenaga Zen.

Teda Ted. Zagvana Zgv.

Tera Ter. Z9lgwa Zlg.

Tigre Tge. Zime Zim.

Tigrinya Tna. Zul see Dira



AA Afroasiatic Ber. Berber Cop. Coptic

Abo. Arbore Bgr. Bagirmi Cp. Cip
Ag. Agaw Bid. Bidiya Cu. Cushitic
Akk. Akkadian Bil. Bilin Dab. Daba
Alb. Alaba BN Bedde-Ngizim gp. Das. Dasenech
Alg. Alagwa Bnc. Bencho Dch. Dacha
Amh. Amharic Bnt. Bantu Der. Deresa (Gedeo)
Anf. Anfillo Bog. Bogghom Dgl. Dangaleat
Ang. Angas Bok. Boka Dhl. Dahalo
Ank. Ankwe Bol. Bole Dim. Dime
Ar. Arabic Bon. Boni Dly. Dullay
Arg. Argobba Bor. Borana Dr. Dera
Ari. Ari Brj. Burji Drm. Dormo
As. Asa Brm. Burma Drz. Dorza
Awg. Awngi Brn. Burunge Dw. Dwot
Bac. Bacama BT Bole-Tangle Gp. Dyl. Dyula
Bam. Bambara Bud. Buduma DZ Dira/Zul
Ban. Banana Bui. Bull Dz. Daza
Bar. Barein Bur. Bura EC East Cushitic
Barm. Baram Bus. Bussa Eg. Egyptian
Bat. Bata Bye. Bedauye Eng. English
Bay. Bay so C.Ber. Central Berber ES Ethiopian Semitic
BC Benue-Congo CB Common Bantu F. Fall

Bed. Bedde Cb. Cibak FB F.Bwagira

Bel. Bele Cha. Chadic FG RGili

FJ FJilbu H. Hausa Kmb. Kembata

FK F.Kiria Had. Hadiyya Kns. Konso
FM FMucella Ham. Hamer Knz. Ksnzi (NS)
Fr. French Hars. Harsusi Kof. Kofyar
Ful. Fula HB Higi Baza Kot. Kotoko
Gab. Gabin Heb. Hebrew Koy. Koyra
Gan. Ga'anda HEC Highland E.Cu. Kr. Kera
Gaw. Gawwade HF Higi Futu Krb. Karbo
Gb. Gbari HG HigiGhye Krf. Kirifi

Gbr. Gabri Hg. Higi Kri. Krio

Gby. Gbaya Hin. Hina Kub. Kubi
Gd. Gude HK HigiKamale Kuj. Kujarke
Gdf. Guduf (Kapsiki) Kwa. Kwa'adza
Gdo. Gidole Hid. Hildi Laam. Laamang
Gdu Gudu HN Higi Nkafa Lam. Lame
Ger. Gemma Hrr. Harari Lei. Lele

Ghd. Ghadamsi Hrz. Hurza Lib. Libido

Gid. Gidar Htk. Hitkala Log. Logone
Gis. Gisiga Hwn. Hwona Ma'. Ma'a
Gj. Geji Irk. Irakw Mab. Maba gp.
Gib. Galambu Jg- Jegu Mad. Mada
Glv. Galavda Jib. Jibbali Maf. Mafa
Gob. Gobeze Jnj. Janjero (Yemsa) Mas. Masa
Gor. Goroa Juk. Jukun Mat. Matakam
Gra. Gera Kab. Kabyle Mba. Mbara
Grn. Guruntum Kaj. Kajakse Mbo. Mboku
Gur. Gurage Kan. Kanuri Mch. Mocha
Gv. Gava Kch. Kachama Mdr. Mandara
Gwd. Gwandara Kef. Kefa Mf. Mofu
Gwd.(N) Gwandara Kf. Kafa, Kefa Mfg. Mofu-Gudur
(Nimbia dial.) KK Karekare Mg. Margi
Gz. Geez Klb. Kilba Mgm. Migama

Mgs. Mangas NBW Warji SC South Cushitic

Mh. Maha NC Niger-Congo Sem. Semitic

Mhr. Mehri Ndm. Ndam Sey. Seya

Mj. Maji Ngm. Ngamo Shi. Shilh

Mkl. Mokulu Ngw. Ngwaxi Shn. Shinasha

Mlk. Malinke Ngz. Ngizim Shr. Sheri

MM Mafa-Mada Gp. Njn. Njanye Sid. Sidamo

Mnd. Mande Nkt. Nakatsa Sig. Sigidi

Mol. Moloko Np. Nupe Siw. Siwi

Mon. Montol NS Nilo-Saharan Sml. Somali

Mrs. Mursi Nyt. Nyaturu Smr. Somrai
Msg. Musgu, Om. Omotic Snd. Sandawe
Musgum Or. Oromo Sng. Songhai
Msm. Misme, Pad. Padoko Snh. Senhayi
Mesme Pdl. Pidlimdi Soc. Socotri

Mub. Mubi Pic. Paid Sok. Sokoro

Muk. Muktele Pr. Pero Sur. Sura
Mup. Mupun Pv. Peve Sw. Swahili
Mus. Musey Qim. Qimant Tam. Tamazight
Muy. Muyang Qwr. Qwara Ted. Teda
Mwl. Mwulyen RB Ron (Bokkos) Ter. Tera
Mzb. Mozabite RD Ron (Daffo) Tge. Tigre
Nan. Nancere RD. Daffo-Butura Tgl. Tangale
NB North Baud Gp. RF Ron (Fyer) Tna. Tigrinya
NBB Mburku Rft. Rift Trm. Tirma
NBD Diri RK Ron (Kulere) Tsm. Tsamai
NBJ Jimbin Rnd. Rendille Tub. Tubu
NBK Kariya RS Ron (Scha) Tul. Tula
NBM Miya S.Ar. South Arabian Tum. Tumak
NBP Pa'a (Afa) Sah. Saho Tur. Tuareg
NBS Siri Sam. Sam gp. (Cu.) Tv. Tiv
NBT Tsagu SB South Baud Gp. Udl. Udlam

Ug. Uzam = Udlam Wmd. Wamdiu Zen. Zenaga

Ug. Ugaritic WN W.Nigritic Zgv. Zagvana
Vm. Vame Wol. Wolane Zim. Zime
WA W.Atlantic Wrg. Wargli Zks. Zakshi (Kopti)
Wei. Wei am o Xmt. Xamta Zlg. Zalgwa
Wer. Werize Yor. Yoruba Zri. Zari

Wid. Widala Zar. Zarma Zys. Zayse


(B) Barth (1862) 1. W. Chadic

(C) Cohen (1947) 2. C. Chadic

(D) Dolgopolski (1973) 3. E. Chadic 3a. Masa Gp.

(E) Ehret (1987) 4. Cushitic 4a. Omotic
EDG Leslau (1979) 5. Egyptian, Coptic
Eg.(Bu) Budge (1978) 6. Semitic
(F) Faulkner (1976) 7. Berber

gp. group 8. Nilo-Saharan

ideo. ideophone 9. Niger-Congo
(J) Jungraithmayr & Shimizu (1981)

(K) Koelle (1854)

loc. locative

(N)Newman (1977)
OS Orel & Stolbova (1995)

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Abraham, Roy Clive Dictionary of Modern Yoruba, London: 1958.
Dictionary of the Hausa Language, London: University of London

Press, 1962.
Alio, Khalil and Herrmann Jungraithmayr Lexique Bidiya, Frankfurt am Main,
Alojaly, Ghoubeid Lexique touareg-fran^ais, Revised by Karl G. Prasse, Copen-
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Amborn, Hermann et al. Das Dullay, Berlin: 1980.
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1928, pp. 92-142.
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Bennett, Patrick "Working Paper 1981: Comparative Berber Vocabulary", unpub-
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aboki friend, companion < aba( ) + ki abuya (fern.) abuta, abokantaka, sabo
"friendship" cf. saba
I. Gwd.(N.) avugyi NBT upo'on 2. Mwl. baygi 3. Lei. buga- Mkl. baka
"compagnon, copain, camarade" Bid. bote "soeur" 3a. Lam. bai, buso 4. Or.
obbol- "brother, sister" abbe "familiar term of address to young man" Afr.

ablno "one's mother's tribe" Brj. abbul- "child of aunt" abuyya "wife of
mother's brother" Gdo. appul- "person of same clan as one's mother"
P.HEC *abbo "maternal uncle" Ma', abu "mother's sibling" Had. abbayo
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(vb.)" 6. ES 'abal "member of a group" Akk. ubarum "friend" 7. Tur. absl
abu, abi- thing cf. bawa, mora
I.Gwd. mbo Plateau Cha. *mbiy BT *m-y BN *b-y NB *v-y- 2. W.Mg. mi
Log.mbi "Gerdt" 3. Jg. man "Sache" Tum. bar 3a. Ban. va'a 4. Afr. abe "do,
make, operate" Irk. mura Or. mi'a "goods, possessions, things, baggage"
Sml. mod "non-animate belongings" Brj. basi 9. P.Jukun-Mbembe *bi Gby.
mo "chose" 6. Ar. 'amr "th., business, subject" Gur. gabar "goods, objects,
baggage, implement, utensil" Soc. bil-, b-hl 8. Kan. ajSi "what?"
acca Digitaria exilis cf. hatsi, intaya
I. Gwd. anca RK 'ac BT *w-tt- "corn, seed" 3. Mkl. 'ettiso "dernier noeud
d'une tige de mil sur lequel s'attache I'epi" 4. Or. anc "sorghum" 4a. Bnc. ag:

"meat" Jnj. asa "meat" 6. Amh. ajja "oats, rye" Akk. uttetu "barley" uttutu
"cereals" 8. ? Kan. kasa < K + asa 3. Lei. kasa "cereals"
adadi numeral < Ar. ^adad
adana preserve with care cf. aza
I. Plateau Cha. den- "put down" 2. Pad. dir)e "poser" 6. Gur. da'ana "put
aside, store" Amh. adara "deposit, care (n.)"
adda cutlass, machete OS *had- "cut"
9. Yor. ada {same tones as H.) Kri. ada i. Bui. adda "sword" 4. Sid. hadan-
"knife, razor" Or. haddu "sword" 6. Ar. hadd "sharp"

addini religion < Ar. ad + din

addu'a prayer < Ar. ad + du^a
adrko kerchief ? < Yor. idiku cf. Ewe duku < Danish dug or Dutch doek
adili just, honest (adalci (n.)) < Ar. ^adil

adire tie-dyed cloth < Yor. adire

adireshi address < Eng.

ado adornment cf. adana
I. NBM adem
Tgl. done "decorate, repair etc." 3a. Lam. ndal "decorer" 4.
adaw- "improve, be better" P.HEC *dan- "good" Had., Kmb. dan + s
aduwa Balanites aegyptica "desert date, soapberry" ? < *adumwa *nD-mw- ,

I. Tgl.ndudek "tree sp. with its edible fruits" 2. Bur. daumwa Gd. jar)wa

(cf. Bgr. jar) a) Msg. muntsum Log. zum 3. Mkl. 'undumu (pi. 'inda) "arhre"
Bid. tondor) "arhre sp." 4.andode "soap nut tr." Or., Sid. oda- "syca-
more" Sml. indod 6. Gur. andod "sp. of tr." Hrr. indod "kind of tr. used for
washing clothes" 8. Ted. olou
afa throw in mouth P.W.Cha. *'aP- "open"
OS *'ap- "mouth, open" i. H. kafa "small hole" BT *af- "open" RF 'ap
"gdhnen" 2. Gd. au "take mouthful" 4. P.Cu. *ap(p)- "mouth"
afarari cream < Tur. afrar see Gouffe (1971-2), p. 156
agade banana cf. 9. Yor. ogede Ga akwadu 1 < an NC language but 6. Gur.
agade "banana sp."
agalami skin mat < Tur. eglem
agana smallpox cf. Tur. eganad "mefait, mal"
agare gazelle "big, male g., G. rufifrons"
OS *gar-, *gawar- "antelope" i. Ngz. agare "gazelle" 8. Kan. rjgari "G. rufi-

frons" {also Bud.) 9. Gby. r)gari "male de certains animaux" Ful. ggari "bull"
1. NBB gari "oryx" NBT gare "reedbuck" 2. Log. gariya "hartebeest" 3. Tum.
garu "antelope sp." 8. Knz. gel 4. Bye. garuwa "male antelope" Sml.
garanug "gazelle" Sid. garran- "antelope, buffalo" 4a. Wei. gara "antelope
agaza help (vb.) also tagaza
2. HG fugaze 6. Ethiopian Sem. agaza 4. Sid. agar- "protect, preserve" Had.
agag "hilfen"
agofata basket also gufata cf. Tam. aggfif

agogo clock, watch < Yor. agogo "bell, clock"


agola stepchild ? < Tur. agyula see Gouffe (1971-2), p. 157 cf. Dgl. golla
aguru donkey "d. gelding" ? < C.Ber. a7yul cf. Dz. agar Kr. agerhe H. uru
"pony" Kan.; Bgr. koro
agushi melon seed stew < Yor. egusi
agwado maize < Yor., Gb. agbado see also Pasch in SUGIA 5 (1983) pp. 177-218
agwagwa duck cf. Np. gbangba, gbamgba
aharaS; aras bay horse ? < Tur. aharas cf. Tam. aras (Tur. ihuwar "red" ayis
aholaki young donkey /young camel
7. Tur. ahulel "poulain, anon" ahulil "ane sauvage" 4. P.SC *h-le "equine sp."
Bye. halkwi "foal of d." P.HEC *harre "donkey" 6. Sem. ^-w-1 "young of
aibi blemish < Ar. ^ayb cf. laifi
aik- work, send ? < *ark-, *ank- cf. raka.
"Work" & "send" also overlap in & BC WN
I. Gwd. (y)ankyi "work" Gwd.(N) hwagko "send" RB ro(h) "work, send" 2.
Glv. lagw- "send" Gd. iake "send" iana "work" Bac. lyen- "send to do
s.thing" 3. Dgl., Bid. riy- "work (n.)" Mkl. 'igi-, 'agi-, 'akki- "envoyer, fondre
le fer, accompagner" 4. P.EC *'erg- "send" Bye langum "send" 8. Knz. "^alga

"Arbeitszeit" 6. Sem. l-'-k "send"

ainihi essence < Ar. ^ayni + hi "it's eye, it's essence"
ainun, ainin very much ? < ainihin
ajali period "fixed p., life span" < Ar. 'ajal

ajami Arabic script "H. written in Ar. script" < Ar. ^ajamiy "foreign, not
Arabic" cf. Spanish aljamiado
ajizi fallible, weak < Ar. ^ajiz "impotent, disabled"
akaifa fingernail, claw P.W.Cha.*q-rb- "fingernail, toenail" ? < K-r + p-( ) cf.

umba OS *aw- "nail, claw"

I. NBP arfun NB *-y- "nail" 2. Log. kwafe Gd. gii "nail" 3. Dgl. kor- Kr.
gel- Lei. gul- 3a. Lam. r)gile "griffe" r)gile a "ongle de la main" 4. Bil. ciffer

"Huf, Nagel, Klaue" P.Cu. *p-r- "finger" EC *k-y- "nail, claw" 6. Endegen,
Ennemor 'afar

akala rope "leading r. for camel" < Tur. akala cf. uU-
akanta accountant < Eng.
akasi opposite, antithesis < Ar. ^aks

akawal black horse ? < Tur. ekawel cf. Tur. ikuwal "be black" Turn, kole "black
(of horse)"
akawu clerk < Yor. akowe "clerk, pen, writing, literacy" cf. Yor. ko "write" Ijo

aku parrot ureal word ? < S.W. cf. Bidyogo (WA) ekayo Ega (Ivory Coast), Twi,
Ga, Ewe-Fon ako Sng. aku Tub. aku Bgr. aku
akushi wooden bowl cf. Tur. aos "recipient (quelconque)" Gwd. akosi
akwai there is, there are cf. kwana
2. Bud. akol "es gibt" kol "vorhanden sein" 4. P.Cu.(E) *'-x- "to be"
akwati box < Np. kpati Gwd. akwati
Yor. apoti cf.

akwiya, akuya goat (female) pi. awaki "goats" ? aw + ki cf. uda

OS *^aw- "goat, bull" i. Ron, NBW *aw- 2. *haw- Gis. 'aw 3. Dgl.
awko "g." ewki "male g." 3a. Mas. hu- Lam. 'uhu'u 4. Ma' ogu "male g."
9. P.WN *-gwu- "sheep" 5. Eg.(Bu) iau "goats" 6. Gur. ona, onna "young

male g. or sheep" 8. Knz. ewre "Ziegenkitz" Dz. wooni "belier" 7. Tur. iwan
"cattle" Siw zaluk "male g." (Cha. *Zal/r "male")
akyara tobacco "poor sort of t., grown for its flowers" ? < Yor. agira "tobacco,
aalla at least also a alla < Ar. aqall "less"

al'ada custom < Ar. al + ^ada

al'amari matter, affair < Ar. al + 'amr
alade pig < Yor. elede
alama sign, indication < Ar. ^alama
alaya skin bottle OS *el- "leather sack"
alayyaho spinach < Yor. eleefo "vegetable seller"
albarkaci beneficent influence < albarka "no, thank-you (in bargaining)" <
Ar. al + barka "blessing"
albarushi gunpowder also albarus, barudu cf. Sng. albaru Tur. albarud "fusil"
< Ar. al + barud
albasa onion < Ar. al + basal cf. Sng. albasan
albashi salary ? < Ar. al + ma^as
albishir good news < Ar. al + busr also bishara
alewa, alawa candy, sweet cf. Kan. alewa Log. ale Bud. alii ? < Ar. halawa
alfadari mule cf. Kan. lafadara Tub. alfadera Glv. elbedir "poney" Bgr. batara
? < Ar. al + batari "unruly (horse)"
alfahari boasting, pride also fahari, fari(ya) < Ar. al + faxar "glory"

algaita oboe cf. Sng. algeita Kan. algaita Tarn, aggyat "o. player" ? < Ar. al +
7ayta (Hause, 1948)
algashi green also alkashi OS *w-ri- "be green" cf. harawa "leaves"
I. Kof. nyiges "leaf used for meat" NBP likwiti "leaf" NBJ aluhu "leaf" Sey.
gwas "leaf" za + gwas "green" Jimi (SB) bgad- "leaf" 2. Ter. I070S "leaf
Njn. g9si "leaf" 4. Bye. I'lg "twig, sprig, branch" Or. marg- "gr., grass" liqiti
"kind of vine, darkness" 8. Knz. ulug "oberstes Blatt von Weizen oder Gerste"
6. S.Ar. r--s- "(good, grazing) grass" Akk. aruq- "gr." Heb. y-r-q- "gr., foli-

age" Ar. riqa "land becoming gr. after rain" ES ara(n)g'^ad- "gr." 7. Tur.
elakat "petite tranche fraiche" 9. Np. aliga "gr."
alhaji pilgrim < Ar. al + hajj cf. haji
alhaki guilt "g., burden of responsibility, sin, just deserts" < Ar. al + haqq "jus-
tice, just deserts"
alhali obviously "o., certainly, as a matter of fact ? < Ar. al + hal "present cir-

cumstances, actuality"
alheri kindness, generosity < Ar. al + xayr "goodness" cf. Tur. alxer "le bien,
du bien, paix"
alhudahuda hoopoe (Upupa epops) < Ar. al + hudhud
alif thousand < Ar. 'alf cf. Dz, Ted. olufu "10,000" H. aru-aru "long long ago"


alilliba Cordia abyssinica cf. Kan. aluwa Ful. lilibahi

aljihu pocket cf. Gwd. rujuhu Sng. ziba Bam. jufa Kan. li/5u Tur. aljib < Ar.

al + jayb
alkaki cake "c. of wheat and honey" ? < Ar. al + qa^q
alkalami pen cf. Kan. alkalam Sng. kalam < Ar. al + qalam < Greek KaXajJiog
"reed; reed pen, stylus"
alkali, alkali judge cf. Mnd. al'kali < Ar. al + qadi

alkama wheat cf. Kan. algama, Isgama Sng. alkama < Ar. al + qamh
alkarya town "principal t. of a district" ? < Ar. al + qarya "borough, village"
alkawari promise also alkawali < Ar. al + qawl
alio writing board cf. Kan. alio < Ar. al + lawh
allura needle < Ar. al + 'ibra cxf. Gwd. alemina, anura etc. Kan. li^^la Dz.
ellifore Bgr. livra
almajiriKoranic student ? < Ar. al + muhajir "emigrant, companion of the
Prophet in the Hijra"
almakashi scissors < Ar. al + miqass cf. Kan. magasa Sng. masu
almara fable {not the common word for "tale", which is tatsianiya) ? < Sng.

almara "spend the evening" cf. H. hira (< Ful.) "spend the evening, con-
almiiru dusk ? < Zar. almari hum "after sunset"
alwala ritual ablutions < Ar. al + wada' "purity"
amai vomiting also meshe, mayarwa < maya "return"
2. Bac. morse "vomit" mun- "return"

amalanke handcart < Yor. omon lanke

amale camel "large, male c." < Tur. amali ''animal entief
amana friendship, peace, trust < Ar. 'amana
amawali mouth-veil < Tur. amawal
ambata mention Mischlich has anbata "anreden" ? < Ar. anba' "announce" +
ta cf. tambaya
ambulan envelope, ambulance < Eng.
ambuli hyena "epithet for a strong h." cf. babba, buru
I. NBS mbali BN *b-l:-m Ron murum Bog. muli NBK mul- "leopard" 2. Ter.

mapulu,, Dab. *m + Bul/r-m (Mg., Klb. add *-la'u for
"leopard") Gv. mbula "leopard" 3. ? Bid. mulki- "camassier sp." 4. Sid.
amboma "h. (name of respect)" P.Cu. *(m-)b-r-(tt-) "large beast or bird of
prey" 9. Ful mbarodi "beast of prey" (w/(m)b-r- "kill")
amfani usefulness ? < Ar. anfa^a + ni "it benefits me" cf. Tur. anfu "be useful
to" Kan. amba- "be useful" Log., Tub. ampa Sng. nafa "be useful" Ful. nafa
"be useful"
amini friend < Ar. 'amln aminci "friendship"
amma but < Ar. 'amma "(but) as for ..." Ful., Sng., Zar., Kan., Bil. all have it.

For its provenance see /. of African Languages VI, 2, pp. 146-152 (1967)
amo noise
I. NBM amay "voice" 3. Bar. emo "schreien" 4. Bil. him "brummen, sum-
amodari disease "blepharitis, eyelid d." amodarin ka (cf. kai "head") "dandruff,
etc." cf. Afr. amoddale "head-sore" (amo "head")
amsa accept, answ^er {also "answer (n.)") < Eng. cf. maya "return" OS *masi'
"take, steal" *'am- "catch, seize"
I. RS, RK mus "accept, receive" RB, RD mat "answer" Bed. masa- "seize" 2. m-s- "seize" 3a. Lam. amsi Ban. huma 7. Tam. amsasa "agree-
ment" Tur. musu "s'equilibrer (2 poids)" 6. ES m-ls "answer" 4. Sid. melse
"answer, reply"

amuku stretcher < Eng. hammock cf. Kri. amok, amaka "hammock" Yor.
amoku "hammock"
amya beehive also amniya, amuniya ? < am + wun + iya cf. P.Cha.(N) *am
"water" *ami "honey, bee" OS *'amam- "honey"
I. RS amwot "honey" RD won "honey" Teshena (BN) iuwan "bee" 2. OS

*'amam- "honey" Msg. ami "bee, honey" Mat. am-m "bee" wom "honey"
Mfg. amam "bee, honey" 3. Jg. im + o "bee" 3a. Lam. 'iem "aheille, mieV
4. Kwa. yamito "honey" (P.SC *hinto "fly") Bye. wiu "bee" 'au "honey" 7.
P.Ber. *tammt "honey"

ango bridegroom cf. unguwa OS *gaw- "man, people"

I. Ang. g(w)o "man, person, boy" Sur. 13 go "husband" RD ngwor) "Ver-

wandschaft" Ngm ngo "person" KK nga "person" 2., *ngw-r-

"man, male" 3. Tum. gon "homme" Lei. go "personnalite sociale, adulte
accompli" 3a. Ban. gona "boy" 4. P.Cu. *gw- "person" 8. Ted., Dz. ar)kar,

agar "male" 9. P.BC *gu- human sing, class marker

anini button (formerly "tenth of a penny") < Yor. onini
aniya zeal, determination, intention < Ar. an + niyya
ankara notice (vb.) "be observant" cf. hanga, hankali, kula, lura OS *^a-
"know, see"
7, Tur. anar "wake up" i. NBS ggulu "see" 2. Mat. arka'a "see" 3. Dgl.
girse "reconnaitre" 4. P.Cu.(E) *'ark'- "see" Afr. ankahise "listen, hear" 6.

Gur. xara "know, recognise"

annabi prophet < Ar. an + nabiy
annoba epidemic also alloba ? < Ar. al + waba' > *allawba
annuri brightness, light < Ar. an + nur
ara borrow, lend (not money) aro (n.)
4. P.HEC *arg + is "borrow (a thing)" Irk. wa'alah 6. Ar. a^ara 3. ? Mkl.
eredi "pret" 8. Kan. saru Tub. arni Sng. garaw
aradu thunder "claps of th." ? < Ar. ar + ra^du "thunder" cf, rawa OS *ra^ad-
8. Kan. rada "forked lightning" i. NBD rada "trembling" 2. Log., Hrz., Mdr.
rade "thunder" 4. Irk. kwara'a "thunderstorm" 6. P.Sem. *ra'^ad- "tremble"
arafiya fine thread (manufactured) ? < Ar. ar + rafi^ "fine, thin"
araha cheapness cf. Ar. arxas "cheaper" Tur. iryas "etre hon marche"
arautaki pincers also hantsaki cf. Amh. warranto
arba'in forty < Ar. arba^in
arewa north ? AA * ^al- "highlands, mountains" relevant cf. haya "climb"

I. Gwd. arewa Cp. arka 2. Log. halaka 3. Mkl. 'alala "dessus (sur la cible)"

Sok. mela ? < m + ela ''Nord" 4. P.HEC *ale "over, above" Der. alalle

"north" Kmb. aluda "north" Sid. aird- "upper, east (north)" Irk. ^oy- "north,
right" Dly. halh- "Norden, links" karo si^'^ile "Norden (Teil + oben)" 6. Hars.
^alwa "north, northwards"
arne pagan also asne ? < Tur. assanam "idol" < Ar. as + sanam "idol" cf.
Shuwa Ar. seyad al asnam "pagans (lit. ones with idols)" Kan. sanam "fet-
ish, superstition"

aru-aru long ago also "very many (years)" cf. alif, ari C.,E. Cha., Dr. aru "100"

7. Tur.araw "anciennement, jadis, etre ancient" 3. Bid. 'ello "jadis, autrefois"

4. Had. erare "former/past times" Sid. ero "times (x)" 8. Kan. yor "100" 3.
E.Cha. *or-(k) "10" i. Ron *hurey "10" 6. P.Sem. *'al-p "1000" Akk. alum
arziki prosperity "p., wealth, God's favor" < Ar. ar + rizq "that which God be-
stows of good" cf. Mnd. arsike Kan. arzagi Sng. alzeka
as! shoo! (said to animals) cf. Gd. as-as (used to call grown dog) Gur. ass Tur.
as Bye. is Eg. is "go!"
asabar Saturday < Ar. as + sabt
asabari curtain "c, mat" also tesabari ? < Tur. esabar "c, mat, carpet"
asali origin "o., lineage, cause" < Ar. asal

asara, acara = akyara q.v. < Yor. asaa "snuff, tobacco"

asawaki tooth stick < Ar. as + siwak cf. shiwaka
asgiri spear "sp. with metal shaft" cf. aska, kansakali, sok- Tur. ezagyaz "poig-
nard de bras" taz7ayt "lame d'epee d'esp. particuliere" Portugese azagaia "small
spear" (said to be < Ar. < Ber. za7aya "spear") Eng. assegai
asibiti hospital < Eng. cf. Yor. osipitu Kri. ospitul
asTri, sirri secret < Ar. as + sirriy
aska knife "small kn., razor" Cha. (E, W, C) *s-(y)-k "knife" H. ask- "shave" cf.

sok- "stab" OS *siq- "knife"

I. Gwd. sik, sek "shave" Tgl. sakam Ang. sak, jwak "shave" Ngz. sak "shave"
4. Or. sukka "dagger" Brj. su(u)ko 5. Eg.(Bu) asekh "reap, sickle" skhaa
"sword, k." 6. Ar., Heb. s-kTn Hars., Mhr. esk- "sword"
asuba morning < Ar. as + subh
ashana matches ? < Yor. isanon
ashe ? really ? cf. wasshe "when?" meye "what?" waye "who?"
5. Eg.(Bu) ashes + t interrog. part. i. Ang., Sur. -ye interrog. suffix 4. P.Cu.
*'ay(y)- interrog. prefix 6. Sem. 'ay interrog. adj.

ashibta net (fishing), snare (bird)

7. Tur. essebbet "net" i. Sur. cip "trap" 4. Afr. sabak, sibik ? < Ar. 6. Ar.

sabaka "net, snare" Amh. yasabo bet "cage" (bet "house")

ashirin twenty also ishirin < Ar. "^asrin

atishawa sneezing cf. hantsirwa OS *otis- "sneeze"

4a. Jnj. atisso 8. Sng. tiseuyan "eternuement" 4. P.HEC * hatt'is
(+ ad') (vb.)
Or. hattisso "sneezing" Ma' -hatisa (vb.) Bil. hetis 6. Sem. ^-t-s- (vb.) i.

Bac. -hadisa- Ngz. watasi 8. Kan. wodissa 2. Bud. wattisi Log. isa, wodisa
Maf. disew 9. Mnd. tiso (vb., n.)
attajiri merchant < Ar. at + tajir, tajirta "enrich"
atuni dysentery
9. Np. atun 2. Gd. tan "diarrhoea" 4. Or. tene "diarrhoea" 7. Siw. utan
"be ill" Ghd. atan "be ill"
auduga cotton also abduga
6. ? Shuwa, Sudanese Ar. abu dagig "kind of white cloth" 7. Tur. tabduk

9. ? Kissi (Sierra Leone) betekei "cotton sp." i. Ang. putuk NB *budug- 2.

Log. mpataki Bud. kamdego 8. Zar. bindigi "carder le coton" ? Sng. habu
auka, abka fall "f., collapse" auku "happen" ? < ab + k- OS *waa^- "fall"

I. wuko, wuge Ngz. vaga 2. Bac. vuk Mat. -vaah- Mfg. wak- "tomber
dessus" 3. Kr. aw- Turn, ab- "fall" pog "faire tomber" ]g. pak 3a. Ban. pugwa
4. P.Cu.(D) *'-bb-, *p-qw- 6. Ar. waqa*^ "fall, happen" Hars. awa "put

aur-, amr-, arm- marry amarya "bride" auratayya "intermarriage" ? < m+ r-(

cf. raka P.Cha.(N) *mai- "brother, friend"

1. Gwd. amere Tgl. amde "love" NBW ley- "love" NBS reya "love" Ang. rot
"love (vb.)" maran "favorite wife" mal- "sister, fiancee" Dr. mura "sister"
2. Mfg. m + iey "epouser" 3. Kr. mar "epouse" Dgl. ale "aimer" Bid. 'ere

"epouse" 4. Or. marar- "be loved" Sml. meri "marry" Afr. mare "family rela-
tionship" mareyta "close friend for whom one would die" P.HEC *marar-
"pity (vb.)" *aro'o 'o "husband" *are "wife" Bye. aray "Liebe, Zuneigung,
lieben" Ma' m'aro "neighbor, associated or related thing" 5. Eg.(Bu)
(a)mer(r) "love (vb.)" mar + t "favor" (F) im3t "favor (vb.)" 6. Gz. mr'^w,
tamar^awa "get married (to a woman)" mar^at "bride, spouse, daughter-in-
law" Amh. marat "female in-law" Gur., Hrr. mar- "friend" Hrr. mirenya
"co-wives" P.Sem. *-r4y- "tend, care for" 7. Tam. ml^ "marry, get married"
(? < Ar. ?) amary "love" Tur. maraw "etre d'accord"

auta youngest son (traditionally spoilt & mischievous)

2. Ter. wua 4. Sid. awiita "take care of child, treat with tenderness" ? 7.

RBer. *awt9m "male"

awa hour < Eng. cf. Kri. awa "hour, time"
awaza rib cf. H. waje Hrr. wazana "chest"
awo measure "measuring, weighing, buying (grain)" ? < *a7w- auna "measure,
weigh" ma'auni "scales" cf. H. gwada SB, Mab. *aw- "sorghum, mil"
7. Tur. a7W9r "mesurer avec une mesure de capacite" i. Bol. kor 2. *gw-r MM
Bur. nkara Gd. gal- Bud. uwi "sell" 3. ? Dgl. awd- "donner d chacun son du"
4. Bil. (g)wan(g)wan "prufen" aqan "messen" 8. Kan. ngal-

awo yes (N.W.Hausa) cf.Ngz. awo Amh. awo Bye. awo

aya grindstone "nether millstone" also ainiya
mountain, climb" see hau, haya
for (h)ay- "stone, rock,
I. Ron 'ai "mountain" 4a. Jnj. wa "grindstone" 5. Eg.(Bu)
*ay- "stone" Grn.
aina "a kind of stone" 3. Kaj. iwo "stone" 4. Bye. awe "stone" Dly.

awrukko "stone" 7. Tur. tawint, tahunt "pierre"

aya period, full stop < Ar. 'aya "verse of Koran" cf. laya
ayaba banana cf. Np. (and various NC languages) (-)yaba Juk.(Kono) ayaba
ayari caravan cf. aholaki, aguru OS *awar-/*ayar- "donkey"
7. Tam. i7yal "donkeys" 6. RW.Sem. *^ayr- "male donkey" S.Ar. *h-yr

"donkey" Amh. ahayya "donkey" 5. Eg.(Bu) a "caravan ... carrying goods

in the desert on asses ..." aa "ass" Eg.(F) ^3 "ass" Cop. eyo "donkey" 4.

RHEC, Or. *harre "donkey"

ayawu locust bean seeds cf. Np. elo "locust bean fruit" Yor. iriigba "locust
bean tree" iru "seed, locust bean seed"
ayu manatee ? < Sng. ayu

aza put down, put aside also aje, ajiye cf. aji "heap (one of several), class
(school), repetition (times)" ma'aji, ajiya "treasurer" C.Cha. *nza "sit" cf.
I. Krf., Gib. j- KK, Bol., Ngm. za- NB *Za(l)- "put on, put down" Gj. zi 2.

Gd. 9ji "pour out, dump" Mfg. y- "mettre has, pondre etc." 3. Lei. je "lancer,

poser, coucher (une chose)" Bid. zag "atterrir" Dgl. zuge "poser a terre" Mkl.
zape "poser" 4. RCu. *z-gy- "leave" 6. Gur. ca'a "leave behind" 7. C.Ber.
*azz- "leave" Siw., Zen. (a)jj Tur. ayy- 5. Eg.(F) dr "lay down flooring"
azaba anguish, torture < Ar. ^a5ab
azahar early afternoon < Ar. az + zuhr

azumi fasting ? < Tur. 9zum cf. Sng. anzum Tub. azzum all < At. as + sawm
cf. Kan. asam Bil. azumat "grofte Mahlzeit"
azurfa silver ? < Tur. azraf "s., money" < Ar. as + sirf "pure (silver)" cf. Sng.
nzorfu Akk. sarpu "refined s." (? the distant source of silver)

azzakari penis (polite) < Ar. a6 + 6akar "male, p."

azzalumi tyrant, oppressor < Ar. ad + dalim

ba- ethnic prefix (pi. -wa wa- pronoun
suffix) cf.

5. Eg. p3 demonstr. and p3y "he of" pa Assur "Assyrian" (earliest

def. article

Eg. ref. to Assyria Naville-Hall, "xi*^ Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari" iii,

p. 18; quoted in Geographical Journal, May 1927, p. 472) Eg. -w suffixed pro-
noun "they, them, their" Tur. aw "originaire de ..." 1. KK ba + kuya "poor
man" ba + kule "barber" 3. Kr. ba- Attribuierungspartikel

ba not negative ban da "without" cf. dabam

I. Gwd., be Kof. ban Ang. man neg. imperative NBJ ...wa NBB

NBD Ngz. bai 2. Ter. ...a Bur. ...wa Mg. ...mai Hrz., Mat., Gid.
3. Lei. gba "absoluement pas" Jg. ba "nein, nicht" 3a. Lam. mi 4. P.Cu.
*b-(y)- "not be, not do, neg. vb." P.Cu.(E) *ba "not have"
P.Om. *ba 4a.
"no" 5. Eg.(F) ...w neg. particle (Bu) ben "not" 6. Our. bay, ba'ay "no" (? <
Cu.) Soc. be "without" Ar. ma "not" 7. Tur. iba "not have" 8. Kan. ba "no,
not" 9. Gby. ban "manquer de"
ba give also baya baiko, baiwa "gift" bashi "debt, loan (of money)" mabarci
"creditor" cf. bar "allow" biya "pay" OS *bar-^- "give" P.Cha.(N) *bar3
"give" P.W.Cha. *p-n "give, pay"
I. Ngz. basa "loan (of money)" 3a. Lam. bal "debt, loan" 4. Sml. bih- Bil.
ben "distribute" ban "debt" Or. balca "present (vb.)" Bye kibera "gift" Kmb.,
Sid. bat- "pay back, give back" 4a. Kef.,Mch., Ham. *imbe 5. Eg. ^b3

"present (vb.)" 6. Gur. aba "g., allow, permit" Ar., Heb., Soc. hab- "give!"
ba'a mockery
I. Ang. bwer "scoff at" 2. Pad. uasa "rire, se moquer" 3. Bid. bo "se moquer
de" 4. Abo., Brj. taba' "play" Or. tapa "game"
baba indigo cf. Np. babari Tur. baba ? < H.
baba father "man of f.'s generation" OS *bab- "father" P.Cha. *baba
4. REG *babb- Bye. baba 4a. Bnc. baba "ancestors" 6. Gz. baba "grand-

father, ancestor" Ar. baba "f., grandfather" 8. Sng. baba Kan. ba/5a 9. P.WN
*-bhabha W.African Pidgin baba
baba aunt, paternal also babani cf. Kan. ba/5a + nyi "my father's sister"

babba big ? < b + mb-r Cha.(E, W, C) *mb-r "big, lion"

OS *n-bir- "increase" 8. Sng. beri "big" bebberi "v. big" i. Gwd, bubure
"wide" Dr. ambaram NBP babsla P.W.Cha. *b-l- "big, strong" 2. Mg., FJ
b-b-1- "wide" 3. Kr. Lam. arim "many" bambiri "aim" 9.
boblo "big" 3a.

P.WN *bul- "be abundant, numerous" 4. Sid. babba "title given to dis-
tinguished woman" Or. bal'a "wide" babbal'a "v. wide" Bye. mar'a "wide,
broad, ample, numerous" Afr. barise "widen" Rnd. abur Had. ebbera "alt"
4a. Kch. bera 5. Eg. wr(r) 6. Gur. bwar "important" Amii. abiyy "import-
ant, capital, grandiose" Sem. 'ab-r, ^ab-r "old" 7. Tur. mar "be wide" 8.
Knz. barij "grofi" Kan. wura (pi.) Dz. bo, bu
babbake scorch P.Cha.(N) *b-k9 "burn, roast"
4. Or. baqa "melt" Brj. bukk'- "burn" 9. P.WN *bhak- "burn"

babe locust sp. cf. Bol. bamba "locust"

babi chapter < bab Ar.

babu there is not < ba abu

babur motor-cycle ? < modern Ar. babur < Ar. wabur "steamer, locomotive"
< Italian vapore
bacucane slave "slave born in captivity" ? < Kan. susana, suzana, zusanna
"slave born in the house" cf. Bgr. cucna (for phonology cf. caca)
baffa uncle, paternal < Ful. bappa, bapanyo
(dan) bagazam breed of fast horse < Bahar Ghazal (place of origin)
baho bathtub < Eng. bath
baiti verse < Ar. bayt
baka bow
I. Sur. buka RS bacen Ngz. abak Bed. aban Tgl. bon "arrow" 2. Dab. bak
Pad. baka "bend (vb.)" 4. P-Cu. *p-(H)y- "bow, arrow" P.EC *b-xn- "bow"
5. Eg.(Bu) petch
bakace winnow (grain) also bece cf. W.Cha. p-k- "blow" cf. H. fifita

I. Tgl. puk Ngz. baktu "winnow" 2. Hg., F. *mp-k-t- "blow" Mfg. m + p-tk
"winnow (grain)" 4. Sid. bakke "blowing into cow's vulva" 8. Kan. ambati
"fan (n.)"
baki mouth baka "in the mouth" ? < *mp- cf. afa, lee Cha.(E, W, C) *b- +
k- "mouth, hole" cf. P.W.Cha. *fun + h-
OS *finax- "opening" i. BN *v-k- "hole" Tgl. pok "m., door, language" 2. F-k- "hole" Pad. vige "hole" 3. Sok. bokti "speech" Mgm. burgo
Lam. vun "m." vuk- "face" 4. P.Cu. *p'-n- "face,
"porte de la concession" 3a.
forehead" *ap(p)- "m." P.SC *box- "hole, pit" Gaw. bego Wer. poko Tsm.

bago 5. Eg.(F) pg3 "entrance of building, m. of valley" b^b^w "hole, one of

the 7 apertures in the head" (Bu) baka "cleft in rock, gorge" 6. RSem. *pu
+ m
7. Tur. abak "be put in m." Siw. ambo 8. Sng. baka "m." (? < H.) Knz.

obog "Loch im Beetwall"

bakwai seven ? < *B-y- "5" + k- + *v-l- "2" cf. H. biyar, biyu
I. Cp., Kof. pogovil (Cp., Kof. V9l "2" pat "5" go also used to construct 8 and
9) RK hondol (har
"5" wul "2" haram "six") 2. Bac. tukolukpe (tuf "5" kpe
"2") Ter., Mg. etc. seem often to have the order "2 + 5" 4. Irk. farjqw

bai black ? < b- + kir- see kirin OS *kuw- "be dark"

I. Ang. (pi) + kwi "darkness" NBT ba + goran Bui. afuxur Gra. makina "bl.,

darkness" Ngm. be'unu "darkness" Bed. palka "bl., darkness" 2. Gd.

bakwabakwa "bl. sp. of fish" Bok. pukin "blue, black" Nkt. vakyen "green" *mungil 3. Mub. bogot 4. Brj. mika "blue, green" Kns., Abo.
*bu'uri Amh. magala "dark-colored (horse)"
4a. Jnj. kara 6.

bako stranger "St., guest" ? < bar + ko OS *mulak-/*mulik- "stranger, chief"

I. H. baya "outside" bare "foreigner" Gwd. bakowe, bakoye NBD murkyu

NBW malki- 2. MM *mblak-, mbark- Mba. mburkoy 3. Bid. bako "voisin"

Lei. bay go kiya (kiya "territoire etranger") 7. Tur. amallagu "member of a

foreign raiding party, enemy"

bakurna duiker "duiker sp." ? < ba-/ma- + Kwar-
I. makwarna "antelope spp." Ang. kwer "reedbuck" Dr. kure
H. kuza,
"reedbuck" 2. Zlg. kwalam "antelope sp." 9. Tv. ikuran "duiker sp." Sw.
kuru "waterbuck" 4. RCu. *gw-r- "antelope"
bal flame "flaming brightly (ideophone)" balbal- "make a bright fire" a-ci-
balbal "lamp with floating wick" ballo "spark" RW.Cha. *b(H)l- "burn"
I. Ang., Sur. Bel- "light (fire)" RF el "be intelligent" Tgl. er "shine" 2. Ter.

bay "fire" Klb. mbala "light (n.)" Gd. bara "shine" baran "light (n.)" Gis. bal
"anblasen (Feuer)" Pad. ala "allumer" palak "eclater (feu)" 3. Bid. 'ebel "se
rallumer" Dgl. belbile "move flaming torch (over ground to kill insects)"
3a. Lam. a "allumer" 4. RCu. *b-l- "fl., be hot" Dhl. bajSa' "shine" 5. Eg.
^b3 "glitter" 6. Amh., Gur. nabalbal (n.) bolbol "flickering, blazing" Akk.,
Ug. nabl- 7. Tur. afa "lumiere, clarte"
balaga adult "become a." < Ar. balaya
bala'i calamity < Ar. bala'
balbela cattle egret "Bubulcus ibis" also belbela, felfela ? < *py-l- "white, new"
see fari cf. zarbe
I. NBW, NBD, NBT "heron + white" 2. Bur. apartawa MM *baDbaD "white"

3. Dgl. paspas "completely white" port- "white" 6. Gur. bula "white horse"
balle much more, much less ? i.e. "let alone" also bare ? < bar- "leave, let"
q.v. cf. Tur. balle "surtout" ? < H.
ballo jackal (title of address in tales) cf. buru ? < Ful. ballowo "helper" (be-
cause he helps the lion, as his chief scribe)
3. Jg. balo "Fuchs" Bid. balaliyo "fennec" Lei. gbala, ala 8. Kanembu ballu
balma salt "s. imported from N.E." < Bilma (place of origin)
bamaguje non-Muslim Hausa ? < Ar. majias "fire- worshipper, Zoroastrian" cf.

E.Ful. majusajo common in Levtzion and Hopkins (1981) for "pagan in

general" see also Greenberg (1946) p. 13, footnote but *g-z- "god, sky" may
be relevant. See Gizo
bambam difference < *bam (cf. dabam
da bam) banda < *bam
"different(ly)" <
da "without" bambanci "difference" bambanta "differentiate" cf. ba negative
I. Gwd. bom "difference" 2. Mg. pam "different" Gd. pama (ideo.) "being

different" 3. Dgl. bam, bambam ideophone for "mix" 4. Sid. bada "dif-
bambus melon Citrullus vulgaris cf. agushi, kabus
8. Kan. bambusu "melon" 2. Bud. bambusu "melon" Mg. mbambusu "paw-

paw" Log. bar)gus "melon tree" Gd. mbuza "pumpkin" bambuza "pumpkin
leaf" 3. Sok. baqgus "melon tree, Carica papaya"
bammi palm-wine
Mnd., Sng. ba "palm sp." Mnd. ba gyi "" (gyi "water") Bam. ban
"palm tree" ban ji "" ()i "water") P.WN *-ba, *-bale "p.tree spp." ?
Yor. ba "ferment" i. Gwd. bam, bammi NB * bama "tree" Kof. mbam
"palm-wine" 5. Eg.(Bu) bena "young palms, date wine, sweetness"
bana year (in age of bovine) "this yr." Cha.(E, W, C) *B-n- "rain" cf. yini/
I. Gwd. beni bano "next y." NBJ dabune "this y." Ngz.
"last y." Bol.
davangu "this Mg. abar) "now" Bur. avana "this y." Gd. bana "age
y." 2.

peer" vana "rain" ven "rainy season" Pad. va "Vannee, passer I'annee" Mdr.
gp., MM, Dab. *(-)viya "y., rainy season" Msg. afar) "rainy season" 3. Dgl.

bur) "sky, season, god" Bid. bur) "Dieu" Mkl. obonyo "an passe" 5. Eg.(Bu)
baa "the sky" (F) bi3 "sky" 4. Bye. hire "sky, rain"
H. bai "next y." ? < bandi
I. Gwd. beri 2. Mg. aata "next y." Klb. pata "next y." Bur. apta "next y."

Mwl. wanti "year" 3. Bid. pude "saison de pluies" 3a. Lam. mbadi "prochaine
(annee)" 7. Tur. awatay "year" 5. Eg. prt "winter, second season of the
H. bara "last y."
6. Jib. berhon "last year" i. Ron *-w-l "year" 2. Mg. avara "this y." Klb.
avara "this year" Bud. bira "last y." Mba. baray ka "this y." (ka "there") 3.

Smr. urni "y." 3a. Mas. wal- "dry season" 4. P.Cu. *b-r(r)- "dry season"
P.EC *bar-r- "time" P.SC *bal- "period of time" Or., Brj. bar- "year" P.HEC
*bere, bero "yesterday" 6. Gur. abar, ajSar "dry season" Ar., Hars. hawl "y.,

come round" P.Sem. *'awr "light" ? < *"sun"

bandeji bandage < Eng. cf. Kri. bandej
bango I. wall cf. Mnd.(Dyola) bago "mud for building" Kan. bongo "hut with
mud walls and grass roof" Gwd. bongo "wall of house" P.Cha.(N) *b9n-
"hut, house, build, granary, grindstone" Ar., Hars., Akk. *b-n- "build" Ang.
made of stones and rocks" cf. fa, pa
par) "wall, terrace etc.
gourd "large g. vessel without neck" cf. buta

OS *ba-/*bu- "gourd bottle" i. Ang. bar) "calabash" ? NB *bangwar

"quiver" 2. Ter. bur) Mg. bar) Log. mboigo. 4. P.Cu. *b-w-
banki bank < Eng.
bante loincloth "I.e., underpants" cf. Gwd., BT, NB *bente Tgl. bende Bur.
bentar) Bac. mbyegtaqe Gd. bantera Ful. bantere Tul. fente ? all < H.
widespread on Atlantic coast cf. Yor. bante Np. bente Kri. panti "w^oman's
knickers" ? < Eng. pant(y) Poular pendel (< Soninke) "petit pagne de dessous"
H. -te rather than -ce suggests loanword
banye, fanye open Cha.(C, E) *b-n(-g) P.Cu. *'p-n(G) OS *ban-, *wan- "open"
3. Lei. wany- "ouvrir en pen"
banza uselessness Mnd. (Dyola) gba + nza "sans importance, sans raison, gratis,
pour rien, en vain etc."
bara i. servant cf. Mnd. bara "work, domestic service"
Eg.b3k "work, servant" wb3 "butler" Gby. bara "esclave"
begging ? < Kan. bara "seek, hunt" cf. Dz. bara "seek, hunt" Tgl. para

"hunting" cf. farauta

bara aiming cf. Kan., Dz., Ngz., Dr. bara "hunting"
baranda trading "buying on credit for resale" cf. Np. baranda "middleman"
barasa spirits "gin, alcohol sp." cf. Np. barasa {same tone pattern as H.) < Brass
(where trade gin was imported in 19th century)

baraya stable cf. Sng. ban "horse" (pi. bariey) cf. H. barga "stable" barde "cav-
alryman" hawan barde "riding bareback" Kan., Dz. bara "hunting" Tub.
baradei "hunter" Kan. barade "without a saddle"
barba- sprinkle, scatter barbai "crumbs" cf. baza, hadi
4. Bil. barbar, bat + s "ausbreiten" Or. barbada "what is left over after a fire"

barci sleep (n.) ? < bad + t- P.Cha.(N) *b9di "night" P.W.Cha. *bardi "night"
1. SB *mb-r "si., lie down" 9. Poular wal-/(m)bal- "passer la nuit" 2. Hg.

*ir- "lie down" *ban "lie down, pass night" 3. E. Cha. *(m)p-yl-
"veiller" Lei. mboyro "soir" 3a. Mas. bura "lie down" Lam. barsi "lie down"

4. P.Bon., Abo. *barj- "spend the night" Sid. bart- "lie down" Afr. bar

"night" baltah "lie down" Kwa. palat "lie down" baliko "night" Bye. b'(a)
"lie down" bad'a "dusk" Or. bula "spend the night" 6. S.Ar. b-^-r "go at
night" 7- ? P.Ber. *B-d- "night"
bare foreigner cf. bao "stranger", baya "outside"
2. FB -bura "outside" 3a. Ban. burwa "outside" 4. P.Cu. *b-r- "external ter-
ritory" 5. Eg.(Bu) ber "outside, exit" benr "outside" 6. Gur. bare "slave"
Amh., Tna. barya "slave" (Leslau says < Barya (ethnic group) possibly
vice-versa ?) Ar. barr "outside, desert" Mhr. abarr "outside" Soc. bar "cote,
barewa gazelle ? w < gw OS *bar- "antelope"
I. NBJ burngu- "antelope spp." 2. *b-rg- "g." Mat. marege "g." Bud.
barga "buffalo" 3. Mkl. orgu "ant. sp." Mgm. merengu "antelope sp."
argu "roan antelope" Smr. felengi "g." 7. ? Tur. abuleg "jeune bouc"
bargi granary cf. Kan. bara Dz. baram see bango
bargo blanket (woollen) (pi. barguna) cf. Kan. borko Tub. borgo Tur. abro7
Kot. borko Mas.borguna Amh., E. Cu., Jnj. bullukko "blanket"
barho knife "one-edged kn." ? < bar + k"^- cf. beli
OS *para'^- "knife, axe" *pila- "knife" *bel- "weapon" 7. Tur. abaraw
"sword of bad quality" 9. Np. borofo ? < H. 2. Bur. pyerku "razor blade"
FK badigu "sword" Dab. padek "razor" 4. Kmb., Sid., Abo., Had.

bill-(w)- "knife" Dly. pillawho "knife" Bye. badad "sword" Afr. balade
"small kn." 6. Amh. baliho "knife" Gz. balx/h- "be sharp" i. Gj. puka RD,
RS bakam 5. Eg.(Bu) bahen "knife" 9. RWN * -bak- CB *-baka, *-poko
"kn." *-panga "bush-knife" Ang. pel "kn. for cutting grass" 3. Mgm. peru

"couteau" 3a. Lam. bara "couteau de jet" 3. Lei. bolom "throwing knife" Kr.
param "sickle" 8. Kan. beli "razor"

bari; bar leave, allow also bura, bira ? < "give (up), grant" see ba "give" cf.

balle, bare "much more, much less"

I. Gwd.(N) buro Dr. ahi "allow, ignore, leave" NBS bi "allow" NBD asa

"leave behind" NBP, NBB (m)bi- Ngz. baru "give" bazu "leave (tr.)" 2. Gd.
mba- "leave behind" Mad., Muy. *mbar- "leave, let" Pad. vara "sauver,
racheter" 3. Mg., Bid. mar- "laisser" 4. Bil. bar "ablassen, aufgehen, auslassen"
P.Cu. *h-b(b)- "leave" Brj. habar "1. behind, forgive" Sml. bal + imperative
"let ..." Ag. bay- "leave, cease, let go" Bye. ba + optative "let ..." Sid., Kmb.
mar- "forgive" 5. Eg.(Bu) uah "leave behind" (F) wsh "permit" 6. Gur. aba
"give, allow, permit" Ar. barih "leave, cease"
bariki barracks, modern suburb < Eng.
barlma corkscrew < Ar. barrima
barka greeting < Ar. baraka "blessing" cf. albarkaci Sng. albarka Kan. barga
Mnd. baraka
barkatai in disorder cf. Ar. barqata "flee in disorder" Gur. balaqqata "run and
jump because of fear or joy, behave without restraint"
barkono pepper also barko
9. Mnd. foro "heat, burning" kani "pepper, spice" foronkani "hot pepper"
Susu, Mlk. bakoro 8. Sng. wakondo "piment noir de Guinee" Amh. qundo

barbarre "black pepper" (barbarre "pepper") i. Gj. balkuna Sey. barkun-

barkwanci joking cf. barkatai, wargi
I. Ang. bark "play" Sur. el "dance" 2. Bur. aila "dance" Gis. urak (vb.)
"dance" Gdu. -arg- (vb.) "dance" 4. P.Cu. *(')-b-l- "play (vb.)" Or. burraq-
"gambol" Irk. bara^ (vb.) "dance (men)"
baru pigeons also bolo "pigeon" bardo "dove sp." cf. tantabara
OS *bul- "dove" i., 2. W/C.Cha. *(m)b-l "dove, pigeon" 3. Bid. balya

"tourterelle sp." Tum. parwun "pigeon" Gbr. belu "Taube" Kr. abagu "p." 8.
Dz. ebere Ted. borko Kan. bolagodu "red-eyed p." bolajSullam "dove" 9.

Balante (WA) mbere Soninke bore Sekiyani (Bnt.) mbeo Mnd. boroboro
Poular pol- (pi.) "oiseau de taille moyenne" polel "pigeon" 5. Eg.(Bu) pat
"dove" 6. Gur., Amh. bullal- "dove, pigeon" Ar. ballala "coo (dove)" Akk.
bulTlu "kind of bird" 4. Bye. belbel "v^ilde Taube" Sid. lembola "dove, pig-
eon" 7. Tam. tmalla "dove"
baru see buru
basasa civil war said to be from the chronogram formed by the Arabic letters giving
the date of the war between Aliyu and Tukur for Kano

basilla large needle also tasubala ? < Latin subula "awl" via Ber. See Gouffe,
1971-2, p. 158 cf. OS *sabil-/*sabul- "iron, weapon"
basTra insight, understanding < Ar. basTra

basukur bicycle < Eng.

basur hemorrhoids < Ar. basur
batir battery (electric) < Eng. cf. Or. batire "flashlight"
batta box "small container for e.g. tobacco" cf. Sng. bata "skin for Tuareg but-
ter, small tobacco box" Prost (1956) also gives Mauritanian Ber. batta Ar.
b-tt- "tabatiere"

batu subject, topic cf. Tur. batu "affair, discussion, subject" Mlk. batu "asso-
ciation, conversation etc." Poular batu "assembly of courtesans or notables,
bature European (pi. tiirawa) Tiarai "Europe" ? < Turi, Ture (common clan
in Mnd.) Ibn Batuta says that tun is the name given by Wanjarata to
white men who are Sunnis of the Maliki school (Levtzion and Hopkins,
1981, pp. 287 & 415)
batse fill to brim OS *ba'uts- "fill"

batsiya oribi ? < ba + tsiya

4. P.SC *tsa'- "large antelope sp." *ts'ak- "small antelope sp." *cek- "reed-
buck" 9. Bnt. -nsya "oribi, duiker sp." Snd. cia "dikdik"
bawa slave pi. bayi ? < *ba'a(l) < *b-^-(l) bauta "slavery, worship, service" cf.

bara "servant" OS *bo'-, *bi'ak- "slave, servant"

Gwd. buwa Gwd.(N) vuwa Bol. baya SB *-y- Ngz. bayi "boy living in

household, but not member of family" 2. ? FJ mugula Mat. bele Msg. bege
"si., captive" bel "slave" Udl. avahe "captive" Dab. babm 3. Dgl., Bid.,
Mub. er- Mkl. ule 3a. Lam. bi'ana 4. Bye. biri "possess, have" P.SC *be^-
"livestock, cattle" Afr. ba^la "owner" boyla "spoils of battle, prisoners of
war" Sml. bahal "thing" 6. Gur. ba^l "wealth, riches" Sem. *b-^-l "own,
dominate" 8. Bgr. el Ted. bore "female si." Dz. here "captive, si." 7. Tur.
taba7ort "fortune, richesse" abaybay a "habitant noir de la cote" 5. Eg.(Bu) bak
bawali urine < Ar. bawl
baya back, outside "b., o., afterwards" baibaya "thatch, cover superficially"
cf. bare OS *bay- "back, hump"
I.Gwd. bay, babay Ang. bar) si "heel" (si "foot") BT *b-y Bed. vayan "o." RS,
RK way 2. Bura gp. Bila/Biya "o." Gd. ba'a 3. Dgl. ba 3a. Ban. burwa "o."

bayawi "north, south" Lam. vo'o "dehors" 4. P.Cu. *b-r- "o." Sid. baira
"carry on back" P.SC *bu- "behind"
bayani explanation < Ar. bayan
bayyana appear < Ar. bayyana; bayyana {different tones) "make apparent, ex-
plain" cf. Sid. bayyana "decide, decree, arbitrate"
baza spread out cf. NBK vaz- "disperse" Ethiopian Sem. b-z-x "be abundant"
Ar. bazx "abundance of wealth"

bazara hot season "time of sowing preparation" ? < ba + zara

for *ba( ) "season, year" see bana
for *zir "child, seed" see jariri OS *bedzar- "corn" *dza'ar- "plant"
I. Gwd. bajara Bed. kazar "hot s." NBJ, NBB vazar "seed" 2. Muy. azaya fat
"hot s." (fat "sun") Hrz. vazeya "cold s." Nkt., Glv. vazaya "dry s." Mba.
biza "annee" 3. Kr. pisir "beginning of rains" 3a. Ban. hazar "year" Mus.
basara "year" 4. Afr., Kmb., Lib., Wei. zer- "seed, sow" 4a. P.Om. *zar-(t)
"seed" 6. P.Sem. *6-r-', *z-r-^ "seed (including human)" Gur. zar "rainy s."
7. Tam. azal "canicule" zW "scatter"
bazawari/a marriageable "widow, divorcee, man without a wife (but pre-
viously married)" also zawara see zaure cf. Kan. zogor, zowor "divorced
woman" (Barth, 1862) kamo zawar "widow fit for contracting another mar-
riage" (kamu "woman, wife") ( > Pad. zawara "prostitution") Mfg. badagwar
"celibataire (sans femme)" Ar. zawag- "be married"
bebe deaf-mute cf. gauu
9. Gby. ee "muet" Mnd. bobo, bubu i. Ngm. bebe Pr. wao 2. FM
bubunu 8. Sng., Zar. bebe Sng. bemba
bege longing, yearning cf. Sid. begg- "feel & show tenderness for one's child-
beguwa porcupine also maaya < aya "spine" ? < b + guwa
7. Tur. ema7ay 3. Tum. mag Dgl. mukuyum
beli bail "going bail (legal)" < Eng. cf. Kri. bel
beli uvula also belu "u., other small organs excised by wanzdmi in childhood"
3. Bid. bele "gorge, voix" 7. Ber. belebele "uvula" 4. P.Cu. *b-l-^ "throat" 8.

? Kan. beli "razor" 3. ? Mgm. belle "couteau-rasoir" (see barho)

bene upper story ? < Sng. bene "en haut" cf. Sng. bena "up, high, sky"
bera girl cf. fure P.W.Cha. *b-r- "child" OS *bar- "child"
I. Ang. par "infant" RF ara "Kind" RD mar "Kind" 8. Knz. buru "Mddchen,
Tochter" 6. Gur. bayy-, bay- "child" Heb. bar "son"

beza salt "s. from Azben and the north" cf. Ngz. beza "white, granular s." Al

Dimashqi "To the west of the town of Abzan is a salt lake 12 miles long"
(Levtzion and Hopkins) ? beza < Abezan (i.e. Asben)
bi, biya follow "f., go along, obey" biyayya "obedience, allegiance" bi da "sub-
due" blko "pursuing runaway wife to get her back" bincike "investigation"
(see ciki) Cha. (E, W, C.) *mb- "come, go out"

OS *ba'-/*baw-/*bay- "walk, go" *bol- "lead, follow" *taba^- "follow" i. Ang.

wul "f." Ank. wul "come" RS, RK bo(l) "come" Brm., Pic. bil- "f." Mgs. bil-

"f." 2. Ter. mbura "f." Pad. aba, tsaba "f." 3. Dgl. hire "passer le long de"
3a. Mus. mbaya "come" Ban.
Sok. *be "come, go" mole- "f." Lei. tab "f."
bawa "come" mwa "f."
RCu.(D) *b-h- "come, go" RCu.(E) *bar-/*bir- "go

to" *boh- "depart" As. bowat "f." 5. Eg.(Bu) peher "traverse" pehrer "f. a
course of action" (F) phr (with following preposition) "f. after, persuade
with flattery" 6. Sem. b-( )-' "come, go, enter, return etc." ES (ta)b-r-y
"follow successively" Ar. b-y^- "acknowledge as chief" tabi^ "follow"
bice extinguish < bit- cf. RCha.(N) *(m)b9t9 "e." *b9tu "ashes" *m9t9 "die"
I. H. ba "not" hadi "ashes" ata "be lost" 4. Sml. baxti "e." bahti "die"

Afr. bade "extinguish"

Mcilmi black ostrich also bincilmi, bitilmi < b- + cilim cf. tilim Shuwa Ar.
hidlim "black ostrich" (Sudanese Ar. "male o.")

bida viper "dark-headed v. said to be two headed" cf. Mnd. bida "large black
snake which caused the downfall of the Ghana empire" W.Cha. *b-t/r-
" snake"

I. Dw. bei "snake" 3a. Lam. budor "snake sp." 4. Or. buti "viper" Sid.
bute "viper" 6. P.Sem. *ba^m "poisonous snake"
bidi roan horse cf. Kan. bidi "spotted horse" Bid. bidi "etalon"
bia seek cf. "hope"
I, Gwd. bira "want" Tgl. pari "look for, search" NBB mbu- Dr. bide "ask"

RS but-, mbut- "suchen" RB wet "gern haben, lieben" 2. Pad. mbaa "cueillir,
choisir" Mfg. -haar- "chercher" Gd. bsia "court, woo" 3. Mkl. peise "cher-
cher des traces" Bid. bay-, aj- "demander en mariage" bey "payer gradu-
ellement le dot" Dgl. bode "reclamer (une dette)" 4. Sml. bad- Had. bu'n
"kosten, versuchen" 6. Heb. b-^- "ask, desire" Ar. baha^a "be in quest of"
bijimi large bull also bajimi
I. Tgl.buzum tar) a "bull" (tar) a "cow") Ang. bajam "big" Gwd., Sey., Gj.,
BoL, Ngm. bijimi "bull" ? < H.

bika baboon cf. gwaggo

9. Tv. ika as H.) ? BC *bi- pi. class i. Gwd. owukyi Pr. ribik
(same tones
NBW, NET FK baki "monkey" FJ waku "monkey" Gis. bagum
yipak- 2.

Mwl. bukumo 3. Kr. kinti bohom (kinti "monkey") 3a. Mas. fi bakr)a (fina
"monkey") Zim. abaka Lam., Pv. bukw-m. 4. Bye habek Irk. poham Kwa.
pakasuko "monkey sp."
biki celebration see bukata
bikili bay horse cf. H. kili Bgr. kilili "alezan"
bindiga gun cf. Kan. bandaga Tur. bendega all < Ar. bunduq cf. Hindi banduq
Persian bunduq "filbert, musket, cannonball, firearm" Greek wovtlkov
"Pontic (hazelnut)"
binne bury also bisne, bishe (in Cha. and Cu. "bury" is often synonymous
with "cover, close") OS *b-i- "dig, bury"
I. Gwd. bisina NB *pas- BN *b(a)hi "dig" RD pis- "Totentuch" 2. Mfg. -pas-
3. Dgl. pese "perform divinatory rite with corpse" 4. Bye. bis Dly. pose
"Grab(platz)" Afr. bukne "burial" 6. Ar. nabas "dig up, exhume (corpse)"
Gur. (a)bosa "perform funeral dance" 5. Eg.(Bu) behen "cover over"
birbiro, bilbilo bat also birbiri, cibirbira, yabirbira, yaburbura Cha. (E, C.)
*(m)b-r- "jump, fly" cf. filfilo

I. H. bilbilo "swallow, butterfly" birabira "quail" Pic. birimbirim 2. Mba.

'abayabay 3. Bid. burburur) "coleoptere sp." Dgl. bobito "bat" burburu "but-
terfly sp." Lei. bebel- 9. Ful. wilwil-, pi. bilwil- "bat" Gby. mbelewele "pa-
pillon" 3a. Mas. baibai- Lam. babai 4. Had. bilbil- "butterfly, moth" Sml.
balanbalis "butterfly" Or. birbir "hovering" 6. Gur. anbarbaya "butterfly"
Amh. birrabirro "butterfly"
biri monkey P.Cha.(N) *badi cf. bika OS *bid-, *fir- "monkey"
3a. Mas. vir- 9. Ful. (Volta) bayl- Makua tubili Sw. tumbili "m. sp." Yao
tilumblri 7. Ber. b-d- 8. Bgr. beti, bulu Knz. ablai "Affe'*
birki brake < Eng.
birkila mason < Eng. bricklayer
birni city Kan. barnyi "large town surrounded by wall" Sng. birni "fortified vil-
lage" Heb. bir- "chief city, fortress"
biro pen "ballpoint p., biro" < Eng.
(Niger) office < Fr. bureau
bisa above "a., up, sky, top" ? P.Cha. *P-ts- "sky, sun"
I. Gwd. bisi, bisi, (N) pitasi 4a. Bnc. has "top, on top of" 4. P.Rft. *pats-

"sky" P.SC *bets- "sunlight" Bye. bire "sky" Or. fit'e "top" Sid. birt'e "top"
5. Eg.(Bu) baa, pe + t "sky"
bisa animal "domestic a."

8. Sng. basi "viande" i. Wid. biya "female a., goat" 4. Sid. busawa "wild a."

Or. binensa "wild a." P.Cu. *b-(y)-n "wild a." 6. P.Sem. *baiar "carne" Gut.
basawa "wild a., beast"
bishiya any tree also bisa OS *bis-r- "plant"
3. Lei. bisi "repiquer une plante" 4. Sml. ber- "tr., plant, vegetable, sow" 6.

Gur. fins- "young plant, seedling" Jib. basirat "date" Soc. bisreh "dwarf
palm" Akk. bi'irt "a tree" ? Sem. b-q-1 "grow, sprout"
bita revision ? < bl ta "go over" see bi, biya
biya pay cf. ba, baya "give" P.W.Cha. *p-n- "give, pay" OS *bay-^- "sell"

8. Kan. biya- Dz. beaye (n.) 7. Tur. baya (n.) 6. Ar. b-y- "trade, buy, sell"
Hrr. bayi "cost, price" i. Kof. piyan "price, cost" (pan "give") Tgl. payi
"trade, buy, sell" BT *b-'- "buy, sell" (various suffixes) SB *ib- "buy, sell" (var-
ious suffixes) 2. Bac. mbwa (vo "give") Hg., R *pa- "buy, sell" (various suf-
fixes) Maf. pal (pa "give") v-1- "give, buy, sell" 3. Dgl. belke, make
"exchange" (here "give") 3a. Lam. po'o 4. P.SC. *bi P.Sam. *bih- "take out,
give out, pay" Sml. ibi "buy, sell" Or., Abo. bit- "buy" Or. bu'a "profit, in-
terest" Bye. b'as "trade, turn over" 5. Eg.(Bu) tebi "payment" (F) tby "pay"
biyar, biyat five ? < *b-( )- "hand" + *(w)-- "one" cf. daya, ai "one"
for *b-( ) "hand, arm, shoulder"
I. balam "shoulder" Sur. pal "arm" RB bal "shoulder" NB *pana
"shoulder" 2. Ter. ban "hand, arm" bembalem "shoulder" FB bur "hand,
arm" HK, HG, F. *-bai- "shoulder" 3. Mkl. bey "main, bras" Lei. bawa "aile,
epaule" (bay "5") 3a. Lam. vai "finger" Msm. ba "shoulder" "arm" Pv. a a
"arm" ambur "wing" timba "feather" 4. P.HEC *balle "feather" P.Cu. *b-l-
"small branch, leaf" Bye. kibalai "finger" beyi "leaf" Or. bar'u "palm of
hand" kaballa "handful" kabal- "slap" bal'e "wing, feather" Sml. bal "wing,
fin, feather" 4a. ? P.Om. *b-r- "finger" 5. Eg.(Bu) bat, bait "palm branch"

pet "paw of animal" Cop. bet "palm leaf" 6. Gz. bar "branch of chan-
delier" Sem. s-b-t- "take handful" 7. Tur. tabbart "poignee" abar "saisir a
pleine main"
for "5"
I. Dr. bat NB *vai'- BN vadi Plateau Cha. *p-yt 3. Dgl. bey Mkl. pa(t) Bid.
be'er) 3a. Pv. vate
for meaning cf. Bye. ei "hand, five"

biyu two for bi- cf. biyar P.W.Cha. *biHa4u

I. Bauchi BT *mb-( )lu Sey. mbutur) Plateau Cha. *vuhul 2. Gd. bara'i, baro'i
"2" hwirana "twins" Bur., Klb. ali "twin" Klb., Hid., Wmd. *m-ylu Mdr.
mbuwa 3. Sok. mom Lei. mo "name for a twin" Tum. mar)ni "twin" 3a.
Ban. mba "2" araw "divide" Mas. ma' 4. Bye. male P.Cu. *m-ll-(q)- "pair"
9. P.WN *-bali "2, twin" 7. ? Tur. ablag "share (halves)" 6. P.Sem. *b-h-n
"finger" Gur. wsr'et "2" malta "twin" Gz. manta "twin"
boka doctor "traditional d. using roots etc. and magic" ? < b + oK-
I. Gwd. boka "idol" Bed. boka ? < H. SB *(w)uKn "medicine" 3a. Lam. bu

wa(za) "one-of medicine" Pv. behwa "diviner" 3. Dgl. olg- "soins de gueris-
seur" 4. P.HEC * og + essa "traditional doctor" 5. Eg.(Bu) pekhar + t "drugs,
m.edicines, remedy" 4. Sml. buks-, boks- "heal, cure"
bokiti bucket "metal b." < Eng. cf. Kri. bokit
boko false "not genuine, non-Arabic writing, non-Muslim education, *book"
? < Eng. book (which was felt to symbolise Western education) not in

Mischlich (1906)
bola incinerator "i., garbage dump" < Eng. boiler
bora disliked wife cf. Kan. bori "forsaken, empty (esp. rooms)" Ted. bore
"female slave" Bid. bor "ne pas reussir (fruit)" Sid. bororansho "insult (n.) (a

husband his wife)"

bori spirit possession bore "rebelliousness" borace "fly into temper" cf. Mnd.
bori, boli, bodi "idol, spirit" Ful.(W) bori "operation de magie" (< Mnd.) Bam.
boli "fetish, idol" Tur. biari "attaque de nerfs" ? Mende bundu "initiation
society for girls" Kri. bondo "do." ? Fon vodu (> Eng. voodoo) ? Yor. ebo
Ori "sacrifice to Ori (god of fate)" Kan. boli "epilepsy, attack of madness"
Np. bori "a dance" boli "epilepsy" ? both < H.
boyi servant "domestic servant, waiter" < Eng. boy
buda haze also buji cf. bururi P.W.Cha. *bawta "fog"
I. Gwd.(N) budo "cloud" SB w-(n)d- "fog, harmattan" NB *ba'ta 2. Ter.

ponda "fog" Mg. piru Mwl. pordi "cloud" purduo "harmattan" 9. P.WN
*-buda "rain" 4. ? P.SC *mant- "mist"

budurwa "unmarried g. of marriagable age" cf. durwa

4.Afr. baduwwa "young, unmarried g." Or. bottolle "small, fat child or

animal" 6. Ar. batul "virgin, maid" Akk. batulu "young man" batultu "ado-
lescent, nubile girl" Ug. btlt "virgin" {and other Sem.) 8. Tub. budir "slave,
slave girl"
see Bargery p. 123, Gouffe (1971-2)

bue open, uncover P.W.Cha. *b-Hd- "open" *b-(w)t- "loosen, untie"

OS *bada'- "begin" *pitah- "open" i. Gwd. butu "take off (clothes)" BT
*b9- "untie, widen" NB *bit- "untie" Sey. mbut-, bait- "untie" Dr. pule
"undress" 2. *mburnT- "open" Klb. mbud- "open" Hg., F. *p-l-Nt-
"untie" Gd. pita "unfasten" pil-, pir- "open" Gv., Nkt. vid- "untie" 3. Mkl.
bete "ouvrir la bouche" Bid. bias "soulever un coiivercle" 9. P.C.Jukunoid
*pod Gby. bur "detacher, denouer" 4. P.Cu. *b-t- "separate" Bil. bid- "offnen"

Ah. boto^- "split open" 5. Eg.(Bu) pet "open out (intr.)" 6. Sem. p-t-h
(Akk. petu, patu) Ar. bada' "begin"
buga beat bugu "be drunk" Cha.(E, W, C) *mb-g- OS *bak- "squeeze, strike"
*hubag-/*hubig- "strike"
9. Bam. bugo i. Ang. bak 4. Bye. bag- Sml. bog-, bug- 7. Tur. bakkatkat
buhu bag "b., burlap sack"
I. Ngz. buhu 2. Mad. buho Muy. boho Hrz. buhwa 3. Kr. bugu Lei. bugu
"sac en toile" uglu "sac en paille tresse pourgarder les champignons" 3a. Mas.
bugu- 9. Tupuri bugu
bukata need also buki, biki "necessity, contribution to feast, feast, celebration"
I. Gwd. i bukata "be necessary" Ngz. buku "lack (vb.)" 3. Dgl. biakum
"empty" 8. ? Kan. fan + kata "needed (participle)" 4. Ethiopian Sem. b-k-r-
"lack, fail"
buke helmet cf. Kan. huge "h." huge kalajSe "skull"
bukka shelter "sh. made of sticks and grass"
for *ban- "build, hut, granary" see bango
I. Ang. puk "hut made of grass or matting and grass" Gra. buhu "house"
Ngz. baka (pi. bakakin) "sh. made of poles and stalks or mats" 2. Mfg.
balak "hangar (reconvert avec des nattes)" Gd. barakwa "small chicken hut"
4. Afr. bukka "wooden type of grass used for construction" Bye. bekkar
"shanty" Sml. bul "hut" bulki "the hut (m.)" 5. Eg.(F) pr "house" ph3
"decking of ship" (Bu) pekh "a part of a ship" 7. Tur. abuk "case miserable,
animal trap"
bulala whip Bol. bilala bilala ? < Bulala people of Lake Fitri, ? the source (cf.

kurfo, also apparently of E. provenance)

bulbula pour through narrow neck OS *bol-, *bulbul-, *bulul- "flow"

4. Or. bulula "flow slowly" Bil. falfal "hervorquellen"

bulo cement block < Eng.
bunu breaking through bunkuso "cause ground to crack (of crops)" bunasa
"become serious, important" cf. banye

2. unkot- "groundnut" 3. Dgl. bunga "hole for sowing" Bid.

bugaro "tubercule (terme generique)" 4. Sid. buqqi "bubbling" buqqisa "clod
of earth"
bunsuru male goat ? < b- + nsur- OS *^anadz-/*^adzan-
I. Ngm buzuru "male g." Ngz. gabuzuru "male g." 8. Knz. buttul "Ziegen-

bock" 2. Wmd. micuru ku "male g." (ku "g.") Mg. minci'u "male g." 4. Or.
busa'e "g." Dly. funca "wild g." 2. Bur. ncuwa "male g." *'us-l-
"male g." i. Ron ('a)ndur "Widder" RK 'nzam "Widdef NBS danzi "male g."
3. Mkl. mou
"bouc, chevre" Lei. tu "cabri" 3a. Lam. musisu "male g." 5.
Eg.(Bu) untu "cow, calf, g. etc." (F) wndw "g.s" 6. P.Sem *anz- "g." 7. Tur.
ess "young male g." ezola7 "male g."
bura penis cf. loa OS *bu'uh-, *bod-, *bur-
I. Gwd(N). mwarl Pr. kpalle NBT ondan "clitoris" RB wel Dr. zumbulum
"foreskin" (P.Cha.(N) *z9m "skin") 2. Pad. uvara "le sexe feminin" (uve "p.")
Bur. zumbulum "foreskin" Bac. vodot- {elsewhere in C.Cha. *kw-l-) 3. Dgl.
pele "penis" dyerbebe "foreskin" 4. Abo. balla Sml. buryo Bye simbili "fore-
skin" Sid. bode, burde "clitoris" 4a. Basketo bulli 5. Eg.(Bu) benn "cop-
b3h "phallus" b33Wt "virility" 6. Heb. 'e/3?r "mem-
ulate, beget, phallus" (F)
ber of body, genitalia" Ethiopian Sem. *abal "member of body, sexual
organ" Gur. ballat "cut of meat, sexual organ" 7. Tam. abllul Tur.
talenbetuk "foreskin" (P.Ber. *ilm "skin") 9. Gby. bor P.WN *-Bun(t)- CB
*-bodoi 8. Sng. boro "homme"
buri wish, ambition also guri cf. Ghd. ajSr "aimer, vouloir"

burki brick < Eng.

burma i. bag "grass b. especially for colanuts" [burma] cf. Gwd. dgburugwa
"sack of raffia leaves used for packing colanuts" Msg. burmi "Tasche, Le-
2. invert (to cover pot etc.) cf. Tgl. wurme
burodi loaf of bread < Eng. cf. Yor. buredi
buroshi brush (n.) < Eng.
burtali cattle track < Ful. burtol, gurtol
buru, baru hyena "epithet for strong h." cf. ambuU, babba, ballo Cha.(E, W,
C) *(m)b-r- "big, leopard, lion, hyena" OS *bawar- "lion, hyena" *bar-
"beast of prey"
I. Bed. abtam- 2. *purum "hyena" 3. Bar., Jg. *bul- "hyena" 5. Eg.
b3 "leopard" 9. Ful. buleru "nickname for h." 8. Kan. bultu "hyena"
buriiji good luck "g.L, auspicious day" < Ar. buruj "signs of the Zodiac"

bururi haze "harmattan wind and h." cf. buda

1. Ngm. bira "harmattan" 2. Pdl. bulus "fog" Bud. bum "Nebel" 3. Bid.
parurur) "brouillard" 4. Bye b'aluk "mist" Afr. baraybarri "haze" ^ubul "haze,
mist, cloud"
busa blow (vb.) bushe "dry up, out" ? < Cha.(E, W, C) *B-r- "blow" + s- OS
*yub-s- "be dry" see hura
2. HF visin- "blow" 6. Sem. y-b-s "become dry" Ar. mibbas "blowing of
bushiya hedgehog ? < bish cf. bish da aya "epithet of hedgehog" see aya
8. Kan. wus- "threaten" wusasa "hedgehog" i. Gwd. gurgujiya, guhyiya NB,
Ngz. *-t-Kw-S- 2. -wis- Hrz. -wusa MM, Mdr., Kot. *'usus
but sudden movement (ideo.) cf. kuut-, suut- "escape, slip out"
3. Dgl. but "ideo. de s'enfuir" 2. Mfg. pat, pet (adverb) "sortir brusquement"
4. P.SC *bed- "appear, emerge"
buta gourd "waterbottle g., kettle" cf. bango 2.

OS *but-, *but-, *bo'-d- "vessel" *bu'- "pot" i. Gwd. buta "kettle" Tgl bate
"gourd" 3. Bid. boda "gourde d huile" bocca "petite calebasse" 4a. Bnc. bot
Jnj. botsa 4. Sid. bacco "vessel for milking" Kmb. bull + ta "small calabash"
Brj. bodo "pumpkin" Dly. pot- "Kiirbis" 2. *6uta "pot" *tia "cala-
bash" Gdu. a "calabash" Msg. gabeto "bottle g." Bud. kapeto "bottle g."
8. Kan. kafeto "calabash g." 9. CB *- binda "calabash"
buwaya exceed "e. the power of, become impossible" ? < "go beyond" cf. bi,

2. Zgv. uraya 3. Dgl. berjire "aller au deld, depasser la capacite de quelqu'un"
4. P.Rft. *ba^- "excel, exceed"
buza, boza beer cf. fito

6. Ar. buza "alcoholic drink" 8. Knz. buza "Bier aus Durra" Berta baca i.

Ngz. bazi "dross from b." Plateau Cha. *mw-s 4a. Jnj. usa "beer (final pro-
duct)" 2. MM *gwuz-, *muz- Mf. bizi Dab. mbaza "Mere de mil lourde"
C.Cha. *mbal 8. Kan. mbal "white beer" 3. Mkl. iliili "Mere de mil" Tum.
bilbil "Mere de mil" 'uzine "petite quantite de b. de mil donne par la mere a ses

enfants" Bid. ma'abus "Mere de sorgho" gusine "b. qui fermente sans levure"
4. Or. busbusi "thick b." Irk bura 6. Ar. n-b-6 "intoxicating drink, make
(intoxicating drink)" Amh. gus "unfiltered beer" barz "honeyed water" 5.

Eg.(Bu) besha "dhurra for making beer"

biazu skin mat cf. baza "leather apron" baza "spread"
I. Ngz. buci "plaited mat" 8. Kan. baji "mat" 2. buci "mat" Gis.,

MM *buje "mat" Mdr. buce "mat" Nkt. mbuca "mat" Bud. buji, boji "Matte"
4. Bye. b'ad "birsh matting" 6. Shuwa Ar. birs, burs "m. for sleeping" Ar.
fars "mat, carpet, mattress"
buzurwa long-haired (goat or sheep) ? < buzu-buzu "very hairy" + *i9w "ani-
mal" cf. Gby. gbizi-gbizi (ideo.) "designe quelque chose d'hirsute"
buziizu dung beetle ? < b- + zuzu "heap, pile, collection of anything" (it

spends its time collecting dung)

algata break off (a piece) cf. arka
2. Mfg. p9ikw- "casser (une partie de qqch.)" Gd. puraka "split, chip off" 3.

Lei. gbalgusu "ebrecher" algusu "emousser" 4. Or. burkut- "shatter" 7. Tur.

bargat "etre detache de, etre rompu (traite, paix)"
ball- tie, untie P.W.Cha. *al- "tie" OS *xabal- "tie, plait"
alle break (something hard) P.Cha.(N) *aia "break" OS *P-L/TL- "break,
split; cut, etc."

2. Pdl. ila "beat, kill" Mfg. ei-, pei-, bai-, "casser (various connotations)"
Gd. ab "kill,4 P.Cu.(E) *bel- "break' Or. bullawa "be pulverised"
fulla'a "be broken" Ag. belle "chop up" Sid. bullesa "crush" 5. Eg.(Bu) ba
"break through, cut up" (F) bs "destroy" 6. Heb. prr "break" Ar. frr "split"

7. P.Ber. *f-ly "fendre, demonter une tente, crack" 8. Knz. be 'Wten" 9. P.WN
*pi-, *put- "beat"
amaroki skin, shell (n.) amara "strip, scrape off, peel off" ? < -r see ara,
6 a wo
1. Bol. bambirosoi "bark" (soiwi "tree") Ngm. bamro "bark" Brm. mbambil
2. Mg. mampiliba "bark" 4. Abo. bofibac "bark"
angale break, chip off cf. algata, alle, arka
antara break off (small piece) *-lt- "break (stick)" Mfg. mbarc- "rompre, casser (une corde)" Maf.,

Gdu. bats- "break" 4. RCu. *p-ll-c- "divide"

ara split (e.g. colanut) ari "one of two halves" cf. alle Ngz. sra "split
remove (bark) cf. Ngz. aaru "peel off Gby. ar "changer de peau, peler"
ararraka boil hard OS *bur- "boil"
I. NBW mbsmbai- "boil" 2. Bur. mban- "boil" Mdr. mburatumbura "boil"
3. Bid. bolol "deborder (liquide)" 4. P.Cu. *b-ll-ll- "be hot, cook, heat" 9.

Mnd. bara-bara "boil"

arawo thief cf. waro
8. Kan. barjSu "thief" bu- "eat, destroy, sack, cheat" Ted., Dz. bor- "eat.

plunder, harm, steal" Bgr. bog- "steal" 2. Bud. bergo, borbu "thief"
ararwa quail cf. Bid. birbiriny "caille"
arashi crumbs, bits (= marmashi) ? < asa q.v.

argo marrow (bone)

I. H.(Sokoto) aka, (Gobir) bobuwa "brain substance" NBJ bakanama
"brain" (NB *7ama "head") Ang. nvel Ank. argo "brains" Gra. argoka
"brains" (ka "head") Dw. wor) "brains" 4. Kmb. bou + t- "head, brain"
Afr. bokka "non-crusty part of bread" 6. Gur. amba Hrr. habu Ar. mux "m.,

brain, pith" 9. Gby. mbp "moelle"

ari miscarriage also "fall, drop" P.W.Cha. *ba/ihr "throw, drop"
1. Sur. balar) "fehlgebdren" er "verschiitten" 4. Sah. bala^ Afr. bad*^- (vb.)
arka rip open also farka cf. algata, alle
OS *paro- "tear, rip" *polik- "split" *pirig- "separate" i. Gj. alka "break
(rope)" Ron *ak "hrechen" 3. Bid. pirgay "separate" 2. Ter. byax "tear" 4.
P.Cu.(D) *p-- "tear in pieces" (E) *parh- "tear apart" Sid. balka "breaking
open, bursting" falka "split" 6. Heb. paraq "tear off" 5. Eg.(Bu) beha "break
in pieces"
arsa, azga tear off (branch of tree)
cf. alle
2. Maf. bar! "arracher (une branche d'arbre)"
arza grind coarsely
cf. alle
2. Mfg. bars- "casser facilement etc." 6. Sem. B-r(r)-s- "demolish (something
asa, yasa break off
cf. alle, arza OS *batla^- "tear off, break off
I. H. arashi "crumbs, bits" 2. Mg. usu "chop up" Gd. atsa, adza
"break off" 4. Sid. bacce "fragment" 8. Knz. bas- "spalten"
ata lost, be also "be missing, err"
cf. ba "not" ata "spoil, ruin" arna "damage, waste, destruction" OS
*'ibad- "lose, be lost"
7. Tur. iba "not have" abatu "it is lost" nubet "be bad" i. Gwd. beta, bata,

boto "lose" bebeta "spoil" RF bubwat "verlieren" Dr. boi "spoil, get lost"
NBP, NBD, Tgl. *bud- "rot" 2. Gd. bat "forgetting completely" Mfg. at- "se
faner, maigrir" Gd. aia "decay, rot" bwoya- "evil" FK bay "evil" Njn.
bumbwuy "evil" 3. Dgl. bonte "pourrir partiellement" Lei. irni "pourri, mau-
vais" 3a. Lam., Msm. *baro "evil" 4. RHEC *ba'- "be lost, spoil, go bad"

P.EC *bad- "get lost" *bel- "lose" Abo. bedda "bad" beddos- "spoil" Or. bada
"spoil (intr.)" Bil. batan "vergeuden, verschwenden" Sid. batt "impure" 5. Eg.
(Bu) beta "evil, wickedness, bad" (F) bint "evil (n.)" 9. P.WN *-bi- "bad"
*bud- "get lost, be lacking" 6. Sem. b-t-1 "become nothing" 8. Kan. banna-
"spoil, ruin, waste (n., vb.)"
auna buffalo "W.African bush-cow" (pi. akane) < ak-
9. Mumuye aka Ful.(E) mbana Sw. mbogo CB *-bogo P.WN *-pok-
"antelope sp." 8. Nuer mok
(P.Cha.(N) *k9b3n P.W.Cha. *abani/*kaani)
aure fig tree "Ficus sp."

3. Jg. bugaye "R sp." Dgl., Bid. bagu-, "R sp." 2. Mba. 'bil "R sp." Mfg.
baiawar "F. sp." 8. Ted. borke "flguief 4. Sml. berde "R vasta" Bil., Sid. b-1-

s- "R sp."
awo bark (of tree) "b., scales, shell, rind" also awa
cf. baya "outside" ara "remove (bark)"
OS *pa-'- "bark, skin" *po- "peel, skin (vb)" i. Cp. u tir) (tir) "tree") DZ
wuuri 2. *w-r- {sometimes + "tree") Bur., Ngw. *wotil- 3. Tum
ogon Kr. alogi 3a. Lam. bile'e 'ugu "ecorce" ('ugu "arbre" bile'e "ecaille")
4. P.Cu.(D) *-p-(r-) Kwa. pa'uko Had. hobara Das. burte P.SC *bu4- "hide,

skin" 4a. Bnc. k'omp'ar 5. Eg.(Bu) peq-, paq- "skin, shell" 6. ? Gz. 'af a
"outside" 7. Tur., Zen. *t-f-rkit "bark" 9. RWN *-puk-, *-puak- "bark"
era rat, mouse OS "mouse" *pa'ir- "mouse, rat"
I. Tgl. bill Pr., Dw. *w-l/r- "rat sp." 2. Hrz. kumbar "r." Bac.
"rat sp." Ang.,
voye +te "mouse" Gd. poyan- "mouse sp." Dgl. more "rat sp." kiilo "small
r. sp." Bid. cebilo "rat rouge" Tum. barar) "mouse" Smr. devere "r." Lei. bolo

"mouse" 3a. Lam., Zim. mere "rat sp." 4. Brj. wera "r." woyra "r., mouse"
Or. fuli'o "shrew" fiitii "rat" 5. Eg. pnw 6. Sem. *fa'r "r., m." *akbar

"mouse" 9. P.WN *-bete, -bente "rat"

illa throw RW.Cha. *ul- "throw" cf. ari
ingira fall and roll
I. H. mirgina "roll over" birgima "rolling on ground" birkia "roll on

ground" Kof. irir) "roll" 2. Log. bedkala "sich wdlzen" 9. Mnd. birinkiri "r.
on the ground" 3. Bid. piinkal-, piinkil- "rouler" 3a. Lam. burku ''faire
rouler (quelque chose de lourd et massif)" 4. P.EC *biy- "ground" Bye. b'inam
"r. in the dust" P.SC *Birik'- "turn over" 7. Tur. bar97wal "turn over (intr.)"

oye, uya hide, conceal cf. biae "uncover"

OS *ba'-, *bu'- "dig" i. Ron *ur "bury" BT *bun(k)- *mb-l- "bury" NB

*B-gw- Ang., Ank. *p-y- "close, cover" 2. *-w-(n)- Mg. mbu R, *wu7- Dab. oho Mfg. -ey Mad. iya "hide (intr.)" 3a. Lam. pe'e
"cacher" 4. Abo. bol- "cover, dress, hide" Der. bu- "cover" Bye. tibik "take
cover" kwibil "cover, hide (tr.)" 5. Eg.(Bu) behen "cover over, veil" 6. Sem.
x-b-'- (Leslau, 1987, p. 256) 7. P.Ber. *ffr 9. P.WN *bik- CB *bumb-
iila, ulle pierce "knock hole in" P.W.Cha. *"l- "pierce"
OS *bi'- "pierce" *ful- "bore a hole" i. Ang. el "p., hole" Bol. tou- "p."
Pr. we "p." Tgl. wa "hole" NB *ul-, *iy- "p." Dw. wur) "p." Gj. mbul-
"p." 2. Hwn., Pdl. *mbil- "p." Log. bulu "hole" 3. Mgm. bule "trou, entree"

Turn, mul, piil "hole" Lei. bulo "window, entrance" Bid. bulla "trou par
lequel on pent voir" 4a. Bnc. pel "hole" 4. P.EC *boi- "h. in ground" P.SC
*pu4- 5. Eg.(Bu) ba, beb "hole in the ground" behen "stab, perforate" (F)
b3b3w "hole" 6. Hars. b-l-r "become holed" 7. Tur. abatol "hole in ground"
ulele (ideo.) enormously fat
cf. Gby. olele "exprime Vaction de soulever une grosse pierre"
ullo appear suddenly ? < ul- "penetrate" see ula
4. Sid. Willi "appear" P.SC *bed- "appear, emerge"
usa pierce ? < ul- + s see bula
I. Kof. fus 2. Klb. budziy- "pierce" 4. Alg. pu'is- "bore (hole)" 6. Ethiopian
Sem. b-s'- "make a hole"
utuk naked (ideo.) also untur
cf. futuk cf. Log. butu Bud. phukka


caO; cai mud also tao ? < T--K- cf. jimu

1. NB, BT taak-, ndaak- Ang. zap "m., swamp" Plateau Cha. *-w-(k)
"mud; dirt" 2. FK nts'au Wmd. tsakwau *tsoo tab- Pad.
taraa 3. Mgm. duba "argile" MkL daiye "terrain argileux" 3a. Lam. doro
"boue" 4. Rud. ubo (pi.) Sml. dohob, dob Or. dob- "plaster (mud)" Or., HEC
caf- "marshland, swampy place" Afr. darba "dirt, mud" 5. Eg.(Bu) tcheb+t
"brick" 6. Hrr. ciba "m. for building" Ar. taba^ "dirt, rust" tub "brick" Gur.
"mud" taba "clay plate" 9. P-WN *-thop- "mud, morass" CB
ta/3a *-tope
"mud" *-doba "clay"
caca gambling H. ca "supposition" < cewa
see ce
cf. H. cTci "guessing" Kan. sasa Ful.(E) caca
cafe, cae, cafke catch (e.g. ball) also "hit (target)" ? < caf, caraf (ideo.) "neat-
ly, smartly"
OS *capah- "catch" *ca'^- "catch, seize" 3. Bid., Mgm. 'acap "attraper qc. au
vol" Dgl. tya(a)p "retirer qc. de (I'eau, un recipient)" obe tyap "prendre ferme"
Lei. cab "vite" i. Ngz. capt- "collect, gather"
caji investigation also "criminal charge, search" < Eng. also caje "search"
caka stab, pierce cf. sok- P.W.Cha. *c-k-
2. Gan., Gab., Bok. *cakw- "pierce" Gd. ciku "pecking" Hid., Wmd., Mg.
*dz9g- "pierce" Gis. cak- with spear" Mfg. cak- "lancer" FG tsaxw-

"pierce" 3. Dgl. dyakdyik- "picoter" 4. P.Bon. *suq- Sid. tin- "peck" 5. ?

Eg.(Bu) teqes "stab, pierce" teks "pierce, penetrate" (F) tks "pierce" 6. Gur.
caq- "peck" cuk "piquer"
7. Siw.
cali-cali clown "buffoonery" < Eng. Charlie (Chaplin)
can there cf. nan
cangami hoe "instrument for digging holes" also cingami Cha.(E, W, C) *s'-k

I. H. sungumi "long-handled hoe" Bui. cug- "dig" 2. Mg., Bur. tsuhw-
"cultivate, hoe" Cb., Ngw. *mitsi7a "hoe" 3. Dgl. tyokom "small hoe" Bid.

cokor "creuser" jakila "houe a long manche" 3a. Mas. jugu- "dig"
canji change (n.) < Eng. canja, canza (vb.)
cara throw (weapon) cf. jefa P.W.Cha. *car-
OS *car- "throw, weapon" i. Ang. car 2. cit-, cad- "shoot"
carabke catch deftly caraf "neatly and quickly"
4. P.Cu. *z-r-p- "take hold of, etc."
carbi, cazbi prayer beads ? < Ar. tasbih

cf. Kan. tajibi, tajiwu

carki Buphagus sp. "bird which pecks ulcers on animals"
4. Or. c'erri "bird like hornbill, sucks blood from cow" Sid. cirre "red-billed

casa'in ninety < Ar. tis^n
ce say also cene, cane, tane
cf. nji, yi

OS *tse-, *cer-, *cer-, *tlin-, *t-n-, *ya- "speak" i. Gwd. nee, nkye Ang. te,
tene RS ton 8. Sng., Zar. tyi Dz. ye Ted. ce Knz. e "sagen" 2. Mg. cu, ci

"speak" Dab. cedu "speak" Bud. ca, ca 3. Lei. ya "parler, dire" Dgl. diye
"dire" 5. Eg.(Bu) tchet "speak, say" Cop. ce introduces a quotation 9. CB *-ti

4. P.Cu. *y- 7. ? P.Ber. *y-n- Tur. tanna "parole" 6. Our. tan/r- "call, invite"

Gz. tar'- "shout"

cediya fig tree "Ficus thonningii"
I. NBW zizid + ai Ang. zar "large tree sp." 2. Gd. cicida "tree sp." Ter. zar

3. Lei. sidi "F. glumosa" Mkl. sedyum "arbre sp" Dgl. tyalo "F. sp." Bid. cela
"arbre sp." 9. Twi, Ashanti jedua "Ficus, shade tree" Tv. kinde, akinde "Fi-

cus" Ago, Ahlo (Togo) kedia "Ficus"

ci eat, consume also "have sexual intercourse with, conquer, etc." < t-y/w-
tuwo "food, mush" cima "staple food" ciwo "pain, sickness, illness" OS
*ta'-, *'et- "eat" *ti'-, *tiw- "bread', flour" *ti'-/*t-y- "dominate" Cha. (E, W,

C) twy
3. Dgl. tiwu "sauce accompagnant la boule" 4. P.Cu. *t-'- "drink, eat" P.HEC
*tibbo "sickness, illness" 4a- Jnj. ta'ra "eat" (language of respect) 5. Eg.(Bu)
t "bread" 6. Ethiopian Sem., Akk. *-twiy- Soc. te "manger" 8. Kan. ci

"mouth" Berta 6ir)a "eat"

cTbiya navel cTbi "enlarged n." cf. tumbi ? < t + B-r- < Cha.(E, W, C) *-t-
"stomach" (Gouffe suggests metathesis) cf. P.WN *-put- "stomach" P.Sem.
*b- "in"
OS *but- "belly" *ti(m)b- "navel" i. Ron *But "navel" NB *bud- "navel" 2.

Gd., *s/z-mbu- "navel" Pad. zimba "n." 3. Mkl. dibino "nombril"
Lei. dimde "nombril" Mgm. ubo "nombril" Dgl. ew- "nombril" 4. P.Cu.
*p-'^- "stomach, inside" Bye. fi "stomach" tefa "navel" P.Bon. *ber "stom-
ach" Bil. eteba, itiba "navel" 6. Ar. batn "stomach" Heb. tibbur "navel"

Ethiopian Sem. -tabt- "navel" 7. Ber. t-m-dt, tabutt "n." Tur. abutu "en-
larged n."
cida thunder
i.Plateau Cha. y-nd- "thunder, lightning" RD taas "make lightning" 2. ? *(k)y-nd- Hwn. kyatta "lightning" Mg. tindila

cika, cikasa fill "f., complete, die"
cf. matua Cha.(E, W, C) *t-k- "finish"
I. Tgl. seeg-, sek- Ang. jok "fill" Krf. jotu "fill" Dw. dzux- "fill" Gj. ci'is "fill"

Ngz. cika- "fill, complete" ? < H. 2. Gd. cikwait "full" FG txay "fill" Njn.
tsikar "fill" 3. Mkl. yerge "remplir" 4. P.Cu. *d-nK^- "complete, fulfil" Bye.
sikin "attain full adulthood" P.SC *tyuka- "end (n.)" 5. Eg.(Bu) tcher- "com-
plete, fill" (F) dk "complete" Cop. jok "complete" 6. Gur. ciraqa "fulfil,

complete" Tna. saraq "finish (n.)" 7. P.Ber. *t-k-r "fill"

ciki inside, stomach also "pregnancy" cf. zuciya n.b. "pregnancy" could also
relate to cika "fill"
I. Gwd.(Gitata) tsikyi Plateau Cha. *Dikin "inside" RK cuk "inside" RD tu(h)
"Bauch" SB *tuk- "stomach" Dw. tu "st." ti "inside" 2. Klb., Hid., Wmd. ta
"St." R, Hg. *(n)tik-(l) "vagina" FB tikin "inside" FK, FG, FJ *ciki "hut" FJ
skiy "St." Gd. saka"stomach" asak(9) "inside" asaka "be pregnant" ("make"
+ "stomach") Gis. tihur "pregnant" Glv. ciki "inside" Mat. ntkwal "heart"
Bud. tugun "pregnant" 3. ? Dgl. tukina "foyer" Tum. tug "heart" Sok.
yedikir) "inside" Kr. tona "heart" 3a. *duk- "liver, heart" 4. P.Cu. *(z)--
"be pregnant" Irk., Alg. tsihay "pregnant, pregnancy" Bye. siwi, suwi "be-
come pregnant" 4a. W.Om. *ci-, *juk- "pregnant" 6. Amh. cagg'^arra
"stomach, tripe" Ar. d-x-1 "enter, inside" Gur. dal "belly, stomach, *interior"
Soc. 'edaq, dinih "be pregnant"
cilakowa hornbill "h., Lophoceros sp." also cikoko, cakuri cf. carki
I. Tgl. tilikgok 3. Dgl. tylkiro "Loph. sp." Bid. calak "oiseau sp." 4. Or. c'irri

"bird sp. (like hornbill)"

cTlTya teal "whistling t., Dendrocygna sp." also cillliga

I. Bol. kilalulu 8. Kan. ciwulwuli, cigulguli 6. Shuwa Ar. kilili

cingam chewing gum < Eng.

ciniki trade "tr., occupation, bargaining" ? < cin- + ki P.W.Cha. *cin- "send"
P.Cha.(N) *ana "work" cf. gina, yi for more on "work/send" see aiki
1. Plateau Cha. *cin "make, do" Ang. cin "send away"NB *c-n "send, work"
2. make" Dab. zin "send" 3. Lei. ce "fabriquer, pondre (oeuf)" *ci "do,
3a. Lam. si(i)n "send, work" Msm., Pv. sin "work" 9. Mnd. kyi, cyi "work,

send" 8. Sng. kyin "construire" 4. Qwr. km Xmt. kin "custom, manners,

way of life" Bye. sanha "work" ? < Ar. 6. Gur. kin "art, craft, handicraft,
workmanship etc." Sem. s-n^- "be skillful, strength, firmness" 7. P.Ber. *azn
cinkal tin alloy "white metal alloy, mainly copper and tin" cf. Kan. cingal
"tin" Bud. cingal "tin" Np. cinka "Britannia metal"
cinkis completely full cf. cusa
2. Gd. tinkis "many (of things close together)"

cinnaka ant sp. (with painful bite) also cirnaka, tsirnaka (-aka pi. suffix) RW.
Cha. *(nc)-r- "ant" cf. tururuwa
9. P.WN Milaku "driver ant" i. NB *at9r "ant sp." 2. Bur. anjir-, andzir-

"ant sp." Gd. ciraga "termite sp." Bud. tei "termite" 3. Mgm. tirr)- "fourmi sp.
tres piquante" Kr. aturmu "fourmi sp" Lei. njir)njir) "termite sp." Dgl., Bid.,

Sok. -ntir/1 "ant spp." 3a. Lam. tara "termite sp."

cinya thigh OS *tsin-, *ki- "leg"
I. Gwd. sir-, tsin-, cin- "th., lap" Plateau Cha. *ci "thigh" SB *cign "thigh"

3a. Msm. jure "th." 4. Afr. di'^- "th." sinku "hip" SmL, Bil. sin "hip,

haunch" ? P.Rft. *dzi^- "calf" 6. Ethiopian Sem. can "th., hip, waist" Tge.
hasan "hip" Heb. hosen "hip" 8. Kan. si "foot plus leg" Dz. co "upper part
of th. bone"
cira, cire lift up, move away cf. tsir- "grow up, escape" tsin- "pick, break" tsira

"pile up" OS *tsir-c- "gather, collect"

I. Kof. t-1 "pick, loosen, free" Montol t'al "find" Dr., Tgl. yil- "raise, lift"

Ngz. 'y^wa "extract" 2. Bur. cara "pick out" Bud. ci "lift" 3a. Lam. tsar "se
lever" 8. Kan. cir)-, cij- "rise, set off" 3. Bid. ci(i)r- "exceller, s'echapper" Mkl.
cere, "depasser, vaincre" Dgl. tyere "manifester" Lei. ter "arracher, enlever" 4.
Or. cir- "pick up" Sid. cira "pluck (hair) Dhl. tsol- "pick up" 5. Eg.(Bu) ten,
then "raise, promote" tun "lift up, extend"
ciroma title (usually for emir's oldest son) < Kan. ciroma "traditional title of
the Maghumi dynasty"
cita guess cTci, tlti, tinte "formulae for guessing game" cf. H. caca "gambling"
cf. Kan. tittimi "riddle" Mnd. tente "riddle"

citta spice "name for various spices" cittar aho "ginger" tsTdahu "pepper sp."
I. KK, BoL, Tgl. Sita Ngm. kwita Pr. anjita Plateau Cha. sita Sur. zita NB
*cat- BN cita 2. C.Cha. cita Cb. nsita FJ, FM, FB wita 3. Dgl. tyete 3a. Mas.
cita 8. Kan. njitta "pepper" Ted. ncotto pi. ncatta Bgr. t'ita 6. Shuwa Ar.
sitta 7. Tur. citta ? < a NC language cf. Yor. ata "pepper" Ga sito
citta four days hence P.W. Cha. *(tl)i/*si "day" cf. hantsi
I.Gwd. cita 2. Gd. cif gat "day after tomorrow" cif gatta "2 days after to-
morrow" (cf. H. gata)
ciyawa, ciyayi grass cf. shar, tsintsiya OS *ciw-/*ciy-, *tsim- "grass, plant"
9. Mnd. ci, ki "gr., esp. for thatching" CB *-cuwa "gr." Ful.(W) sTure (sing.)
cibe (pi.) "gr. sp." 3. Dgl. siya graminee sp." 4. Abo. sayy "grass" Bye.
siyam "vegetation" i. Ang. sit "grass, 'bush'" 5. Eg.(Bu) sben, sem, sen ta
"grass" (F) snw "grass" 6. Sem. i-^-r "grass, barley, hair"
cTza, clje bite "b. with front teeth" maciji "snake" ? < t + z-(

I. Gwd.cwa', tswa' NBW zTmw- "eat (hard food)" Tgl. yise "bite off, break
off" 2. C.Cha. z-m- "eat" Gd. ciia "chop" Muk. tsa Udl. tsal Mfg. -z- "mor-
dre, piquer (serpent)" Maf. j- "mordre, piquer" z- "eat" 3. Dgl. tyir-,

tyer- "dechirer" Mkl. 'oiza "piquer" 4. Brj. cir- "chop, gnaw" cor- "tear
(with teeth)" P.Cu.(E) *za^- "bite" 6. Gur. nacT "take a bite of meat" 8. Knz.
acci "beifien"
cokali spoon Sng. sokol "wooden spoon" Kan. cokkol "imported metal sp." Dz.
cokol "European sp." Lei. congoli "fourchette ou cuilliere" Tm. sokal-, tyokal-
"cuiller" ? Spanish cuchara Portuguese colher relevant ?

cuku cheese also cukumara(n) cf. Ful.(E) cukumaram Ted. cegoma, comogor "milk" P.Nilotic *ca(ko) "milk (n.)"
cura knead curi "ball of food" cf. Kan. (Benton) tsuri "ball of food"
cusa stuff (vb.) cf. toshe ? < cinkisa "stuff" < cinkis (ideo.) "full" cf. H. cika
Or. c'uqal- "stop up"
cuta, ciwuta hurt, illness, harm ? < ci "eat, consume etc."

for the semantic shift cf. Ngz. tau "eat" tata "difficulty, pain" NB *tau "eat"
NBM atatau "ache" Plateau Cha. se/i "eat" suwal "sickness" Gj. co "sick-
ness" ciwi "eat" kuza "sickness" z- "eat" Tum. w5m "be sick, eat

(meat)" Sem. qam- "eat, chew" Gur. qamnat "sickness"

da and, with, than also relative marker
I. Gwd. n "and, with" na, nja "and" Ngz. na NBJ na 2. Gd. da "and" da

"at, from, with" Ter. nda Mg. da Zlg. nda 3. Kr. da 6. Gz. 'anta "by, at, to,

because etc." Ar. 4nda "at, by, near" Akk. itti "along with" Heb., Ug. ^-m
"with" ^-d "up to" 7- Tur. da ''avec, et"

da formerly ? < *Daya cf. jiya

I. Tgl. da, dayi, danu "formerly" RD nde 2. Bur. saka nda (saka "time")
Bud. denda "in alter Zeit" ? 3. Dgl. dayum "autrefois" 3a. Lam. da "deja" 4.
Had. end hunda
"vorige" Sid.
daba durbar < Eng. < Urdu cf. Persian darbar "court"
dabam different < da + bam see bambam
dabara plan also dubara < Ar. dubara "trick, craft" cf. Mnd. dabari "means,
stratagem" Sng. dabari "way (of doing s.thing)" Kan. dawari "plan" da/3ar-
"provide, prepare"
dabaza coarse grinding OS *dabadz- "pound, grind"
dabba animal (mainly domestic) cf. Kan. dabba Sng. adabba < Ar. dabbab
dabi shelter (n.) "thatched roof resting on poles, hunter's covered platform"
I. Ngz. dabu "erect, set up" 3. Lei. dabadaba "hangar, abri" 4. Or. madabi

"raised platform" Sid. dabba "poles placed horizontally" 6. Amh. madab

"stand, bench"
dablno date cf. bammi ? < Kan. dibino, difuno {also Bol., Ngz., Bud., Log.,
Sok., Bgr.) Tub., Dz. dimbi, timbi, timmi, tinni Knz. diffe "einzelne unreife
7. Ghd. tabinawt 6. Ar., Heb. tam-r "date" 9. Ful. dui, "deleb due
palm" 2. Hrz., Mf., Mad. taB- "deleb palm" 3. Dgl. gidibiny "Ficus sp." 6.
Gz. sabar, dabar "palm tree" Akk. bi'irt- "a tree" 4. Had. dimbaba "palm
tree" Bye. bir "male d. palm, dum palm" P.Sam. *bar "river palm" Or., Dly.
m-yt- "palm tree" 5. Eg.(Bu) ban "date palm" benra "fresh dates" (+t "date
palm") (F) bnr(t) "dates" 8. Sng. be "deleb palm" 9. P.WN. *-ba- "oil palm"
*-bale "kind of palm"

dabo magic ? < Ar. tabbu "medicine" cf. H. tsubbu, ibbu "magic" Gwd.
dobo "sorcerer" ? Kan. dajSali "noxious charm"
daa, dae beat hard (usually to smooth floor) OS *dab- "trample"
I. Bol. teu "pound (floor)" 2. Gis., Muy. daba "pound" 4. P.SC *Dif-

"pound" 6. Gur. dabataga "level the floor of a house" Ar. taba^ "imprint,
stamp" 7. Tur. daba (n.) dabat (vb.) "level (ground)"
daa add dade "prolong, last" cf. ara
I. Bol. dad- Pic. dadaw Dw. kardadi Tgl. tunde "be late, delay" NB *dad- ?

< H. 2. Gan. dida- "fill" Bok. naxdada "fill" 3. Dgl. dudye "become serious,
get worse" 4. P.Cu.(E) *dar- "add"
dadi pleasantness cf. dana, dandana, madi
9. Mnd. d'yandi "get pleasure, give pleasure" di, dyi "agreeable, pleasant,
sweet" Bam. di "pleasurable" diya "please (vb.)" 4. Bil. tu^um ''siift" Or.
dad! "mead" Kmb. data "mead" P.HEC *te' "taste good, be sweet" 2. Mfg.
dadak dadak "doux, sucre, frais" 3. Dgl. dyarar) "bon" dyirim "doux, sucree"
Bid.,Sok. dan- "bon, gut, siifi"

dafa cook dafi "poison" cf. toya "burn, bake"

I. P.W.Cha. *da/if-, *dih- 9. Poular def- i. Gwd. depi, doh-, dob- Ang. tup
RD jih 2. Pdl. ndahi Hwn. dif- FJ daf- FM di Gd. dafana "guinea-corn
mush" 3. Kr. defe "prepare (stew)" 3a. Mas., Ban. daf- 4. Der., Or., Abo.
*danf- "boil" Bye. deho "heat (vb.)" Irk. -daham- "boil" Sid. du'p- "bake in
embers" 5. Eg. wdpw (n.) 6. Ar. dafa' "warm (vb.)" ES d-f-n "bake under
ashes" 7. Siw. tab "cuire"
dafa press down (with hand) dafa kai "hurry (press self)" cf. dafa P.W.Cha.
*dap- "push"
OS *dup-, *d-pir-, *tiba^- "push" i. Bol. dara 2. Gd. taba'a "press with
hand" darapa "footprint" 3. ? Dgl. dipe "asphyxiate" 4. Or. dafe "do in a
hurry" 6. Gur. dafadafa "pr. down slightly with hand" Ar., Gz. daf^- "push"
dafara Cissus sp. OS *daparan "tree sp."
daga line of battle cf. Mnd. da7a "army camp"

Poular dak- "etre rassemble (se dit d'une armee etc.)"

dagaci village head ? < Mnd. dugu + tigi "chef territorial d'lin village"
dagara limp cf. dungu, dingishi P.W.Cha. *daHar-
dai particle (used enclitically to soften abruptness, contradict mildly, precede
summing up) Mnd., Bam., Sng., Zar. have de/dey with similar function
daidai correct, exact daidaita "make/be exact, correct, symmetrical" cf. dace
? < day + t- "be correct, appropriate, suit" data "reach age of 8 or 10 (child).

reach height of 4 feet" Cha. (W., E.), E. Cu. Dan- "good"

8. Sng., Zar. de(y) "justement" i. Gwd. dede Bol. dede 2. Mfg. dar dar
"normal" 3. Mkl. deddet "directement, tout droit" Le\. degedege "exacternent"

Dgl. dak dak "d'habitude" 4. Sid. daddo "exact, straightforward" dar-

"equal" 9. Mnd. tente, tete
daina cease
I. Dr. de (deye tr.; deni intr.) "finish" ? Ngz. dam- "finish" 2. Gd. iidsna
"finish" ndaga "stop raining" FB di "finish" 3. Dgl. de "achever" 4. Bil. duii
"beendigen" P.SC *Del- "finish, be through with"
daje, daza edge "strengthen e. of" also darje

4. P.Cu.(E) *dar- "edge" 5. Eg. drw "end, limit, boundary" 6. Ethiopian

Sem. dar "frontier, border, limit"
daji bush "uninhabited, uncultivated country" (pi. daz-) also dauji, jeji < d +
w-z- cf. ciyawa "grass" dawa "bush" (in Cha. "bush" and "grass" often
overlap, e.g. Bui. jir "grass" gijir "bush")
I. Ngz. azam "grass" dus "densely wooded area of bush" Dr. lusu "bush,
high grass" NB wuzin "bush" wuzindi "grass" HB
*(a)was "grass" 2. Pdl.
dawtsi/u "grass" 3. Lam. 'aza,
Bid. 'awso "herbe" Dgl. ezirme "tall grass" 3a.
za "grass" duza "bush" 4. P.EC *^aws- "grass" RCu. *^-nwis- "grass" 5. Eg.
(Bu) antch "pasture, field, lake" 6. Gur. a(n)zwawar "grassy place where
cattle graze" 7. Tur. izi "pdturage assez abondant"
daka pound cf. duka, tia P.Cha.(N) *d- "kill" OS *dak-/*duk- "beat, pound"
I. H. dandaa "p. on log or stone" Bol. dak- 2. Bur. diga, daki, dakamta

Mfg. d9gey Gis. dugo 3a. Lam dzoko "piler d petits coups" 3. Kr. ceke, cak-
"piler une deuxieme fois" Dgl. dasiye "piler pour la deuxieme fois" 4. Or., Sid.
dak- "grind" daku "flour" Sml. daqi "grind" Afr. dagdag " (grain)" Bil.

dagah "stofien, schlagen" 4a. Bnc. dekn "hit" 5. Eg.(Bu) ta "smite" ta aka
"destroy" (ak "destruction") tekh (?) "beat, strike, overthrow" (F) d "flour"
8. Knz. dr + kir "tbten" (df "sterben" gir, kir "machen") 6. Sem. *d-qq- "grind,
reduce to powder" 7. Tur. dagdag "ecraser"
dakali platform cf. danga, dangi, danki
i.Bol. dikili "bed made of stalks" 8. Kan. dagal "bed made of sticks"
(Benton, 1912) dagali "bed made of clay" (Lukas) Tub. degeli "bed" 2. Ter.

dar)kal "lookout" Mg. dagal "bed" 3. Dgl. daqal "bed" dagilo "bed post" 9.
Ful. dank + el "small shelter" 6. Gz. dag^a "make up bed" dag^ "pillow,

dakare infantryman cf. Ful. dakare "bachelor, rough type" Tur. dakare "group
of foot soldiers"
dakata wait, await also dakanta, tsakirta, tsaika "w." jinkiri "delay (n.)"
I. Gwd, dakata "stop" 8. Kan. daga- "remain, live" 2. Log. daka "warten"
dakal "warten, erwarten" HF, FG *Daxut- "w. for" Zgv. x-tsugin- "w. for" 3.

Dgl. yok- "w. for" tarjkil "tarder" Turn, tag "attendre, garder" Bid. tak "garder
a vue" Mkl. toge "refuser de rendre une chose pretee" 4. P.Cu. *'-g(g)- "wait,
guard" Bil. takau "bewachen, behiiten" Dly. ta^ad'- "wait for" 5. ? Eg.
^h^ "stand, w., attend (on)" 6. Sem '-xr "delay" Gz. dahara "delay" Gur.
daxara "delay" 7. ? P.Ber. *-yy\ "w. for" Ghd. ataqqal "attendre"
dakusa blunt (vb.)
1. Ang. duk (adj.) NBJ dusa (n.) 2. Bur. dagdakari "bl." gudukumta "become
bl." Gd. dugwas- "bl., make bl." Maf. ndos- (vb.) 3. Dgl. dor)(i)le (vb.) 3a.
Zim. diklim (adj.) 4. Or. doma domsa (vb.) P.Cu.(E) *d-k-
(adj.) "old, weak"
6. Gur. duma (vb.) Hars. dekim (adj.) dekom (vb.) Jib. dukum (vb.)
daia second (of time) < Ar. daqlqa "minute"
daii stupid, dull ? < Ar. daqiq "paltry, trifling"
dako clay soil OS *da- "clay, sand"
dawalwa ripe, nubile also "laying hen"
2.Pad. jigwera "plante qui est prete a porter des fruits"
dala florin "2 shilling piece, 5 franc piece, Maria Theresa dollar" cf. dalma Kri.

dala < Eng. dollar "money" Ga, Twi dare "dollar"

dalili reason, cause < Ar. dalil "proof, indication" cf. Mnd. dairiu "proof, indi-
cation" Kan. dalil "reason, ground" Sng. dalTlu "sense, significance"
dallaro light, kindle P.W.Cha. *d-l- "light (vb.)"

dallasa blunt (edge) (vb.)

3. Sok. dolidoli "stumpf" 6. Amh. dannaz- "bl. (edge)" Gur. darazaza,
daramaza "bl. (edge)"
dalma lead "1., smelted tin" also darma cf. dala cf. Kan. dalma, darinna "lead"
dala, dara "silver" daraku "lead, bad silver" ? darama (adj.) "silver"
Bam. dorome "5 franc piece" ? RS dalmwec "smithy"
dama mix "m. into paste, stir up, confuse" also damutsa "m. (food with one
I. Bol. dam- "mix" ? < H. 8. Kan. dam- "be crowded, flow together in one
place" Bur. dapti "m. (dry substances)" 3. Dgl. dimse "confondre, melan-

ger" Kwa. dam- "knead" Or. d'amasa "trouble, disturb" 6. Ethiopian


Sem. *damar/d- "add, join, mix"


dama right (hand) also "r. moment, opportunity, r. amount, modicum" E.

Cu., Cha. *dan- "good" HEC *dan- "be able"

8. Sng. dama "chose bonne'' Kan. dama "free time, chance" 9. Bam. dama
number, only" 2.
"limit, Gd. dama "health (only in greetings)" 4. Bye.
dum "good condition, substance, profit, advantage" Ag. dall- "suffice" Bil.
dalam "bereit sein" 7. Tur. dama yossibilite"
damana spider sp. OS *dim-, *deman- "insect sp."
dambe boxing (uses both hands and feet) cf. Gwd. dembe
9. Mnd. dampu "strike with foot or elbow" Poular dampu- "frapper d'un
coup de pied (se dit des personnes)" 8. Kan. dambe "kicking"
dambu steamed food (various kinds) cf, dafa, imama Der., Or., Abo. danf-
"boil" CB -damb= "cook, boil"
damina rainy season also damuna, damana OS *deman- "cloud, rain" ? < d-
+ aman- cf. AA *am-n "water (pi.)"
I. Ngz. daman "r. season" aman "year" am "water" Bed. damanan "r. sea-

son" amanan "year" aman "water" ? RK dam "Wasserstelle" 2. Log. am

"water" deman "r. season" 4. P.Cu. *d-m-n- "clouds, cloudy weather" Bye.
daman "weather, season, climate" 6. Sem. zaman "time, period, year" 7.
? Tur. iziman "eau saumdtre a fleur de sol" (which could occur after a period
of rain)
damisa leopard OS Miim- "feline"
7. Tur. damasa < H. i. Gwd. tamusu "hyena" NBW dansa + na Ngz.
gadamuzai "large, male hyena" 4. Afr. dimmatto, dimbatto, dummu(ta)
"cat" Sid. dobbicco "lion" Bye. dibeda, sebada "Moschuskatze" Bil. dummu
"Katze" P.Rft. *du'um- 3. Sok. damde 6. Amh. dammat "cat" 9. Tv.
adambusu "cat" P.WN *-thimb- "1., wild cat" CB Mjmba "cat" *-cimba "cat,
lion, leopard, genet" Buta, Kagoma, Pai (Plateau) d-m Kwanka (Plateau) tam
Tv., Bute, Buti (n)jam i.Sur. ndumu "hyena"
jem "Caracal" 4a. Bnc.
3. Lei.

gidnba "leopard" 2. E, Hg. dugwav- "leopard" Mfg. dava "leopard" Dab.

nduva "wild cat" Bur. turjuwa "leopard" 7. Siw. ssiba "lion" Tam. izm
"lion" 5. Eg.(Bu) tu, thamr "lion" teba "panther" 6. Gz. sa^b "rapacious
animal, hyena" Heb. safSu^ "hyena, 1."
damo monitor lizard ? < d + mb-
I. NBD zimu "water monitor" ? Plateau Cha. tiBil "lizard" Ang. cim "mon-

itor" 2. Muy. dzumdzum "iguana" Gd. dampwapwaza "lizard sp." Bud.

gabober "big lizard" 3. Kr. dababar "varan sp." 4. Bye. damba "lizard" Bor.

dubli; doffoca 6. S.Ar. lob "monitor lizard" 8. Sng. mbau "Nile monitor"
9.CB *-bambi "monitor lizard"
damtse, dantse arm "a. near elbow, forearm" ? < d-m + S-r dimtsa, dintsa
"take out handful" cf. dana Cha., W,E. *s-r "arm, hand"
1.Gwd. demece "arm" NBW damasai "forearm" 7. Tur. amasur "avant-hras"
2. Mg. tsi "arm, hand" 4. P.Cu. *(t)-t-m- "forearm" 6. Gur. ta(b)bata
"*take handful and close hand" Ar. dabat "hold, grip" db^ "arm, upper
danda piebald horse cf. Sng. danda "cheval balzane" Ful. r/dan- "white"
dandaa pound, castrate cf. daka Ngz. dadgu "castrate (by pounding cords)"
OS *da-/*du- "break, pound"
dandali open space (in village or town) ? < Kan. dandal
dandan firm and solid P.W.Cha. *d-(H)-N "heavy"
dandi roaming "r. about leading a carefree life" cf. Sng. dendi "go down-
stream, go to the S."
danga, dangal(i) fence (of cornstalks) cf. darni
8. Kan. danga Sng. der)gele "paille tressee" i. ? Bol. dakka "f. made from
zana mats" 2. Msg. dar) "mud wall" Mfg. dangwar "canne" Pad. daga "canne"
3. Lei., Bid., Kr. dangay- "prison" 6. Shuwa
dangaya "prison" 3. Lei.

diga "cloison de paille pour la peche" Dgl. dyegruwa "stone wall" 3a. Mas. dar)
"terrain qui entoure un groupe de cases" darjgayna "prisoner" Lam. dan "do-

turer" daqgai "prison" 4. Afr. dange "balustrade, railing" Or., Sid. danqara
"bar (gate or door)" 6. Gz. daqwan Gur. dang "frontier, border"
dangi family dangana, jingina "lean on, depend on" dangantaka "relation-
ship" cf. dogara, tokara OS *dan- "family"
I. Gwd. dengyi Sur. der), dar) "family, household" 2. Gis. d9r)g9 "support
oneself" Bud. jogeni- "lean on, support oneself" Pad. daga "support principal
du toit" Gd. ndanwa, ndiija "lean against, prop, support" 3. Dgl. der)le "s'ap-
puyercontre quelque chose dans le dos" 9. CB *-dongo- "brother" *-dugu- "in-
law" P.WN *-dem- "in-law" 4. Or. deggera "support" Bye. dungwi "servant"
Sid. daga "race, tribe" 6. Gur, dang'a "boys"
danja danger "red danger light" < Eng.
dankali potato "Ipomea batatas" Cu., ES dinnic-
OS *dankal-/*dankul- "bean" 4. Brj. dane "p." Sid. dinn- "potatoes" i. H.

kali "fenced cassava farm" 8. Kan. dangali "p." galisa "cassava" Kanembu
gali "cassava" 3. Tum. r)gali "cassava" i. RK ndumwisi "p." ? Bol. zumoki
"p." 3. Jg. joge

danki display of calabashes (on shelves in bride's room) cf. dakaU

9. Ful. danki "abri, etagere, lit" Poular danki "abri, verandah" (dan- "sleep")

1. Dr. danki "bed"

dana, dama grasp "g. with the hand, hand over" danki, jimki "fistful"
damuka "clutch with both hands" cf. damtse
4. RCu.(E) *tik(k)- "forearm"
danko gum "g., stickiness, rubber" damka, danka "stick, cling"
2. Pad. darjguwa 3a. Lam. der)le "gum" 4. Bil. takan "ankleben" 8. Kan.
danko "rubber tree, rubber"
danna press down
1. Gwd. done "hold down" NBD dlna NBJ jan Ang. ten 3. ? Dgl. dar)e
danshi, damshi moisture dansasa "moisten" cf. dausayi
dara checkers "12 hole ch.-like game" also wasan d. ? < Mnd. dara, dila "jeu d
12 trous" Dara "Morocco" Tur. dara "espece de jeu"
dara fez also hular dara ? < Mnd. Dara "Morocco" (cf. Eng. fez < Fez)
2. Ter. dera "cap" Mg., Gd. dara "cap" ? both < H.
daraja value, worth < Ar. daraja "rank, dignity"
darasi lesson < Ar. dars

dare night cf. lumshe, tilim OS *xad-r- "darkness, sleep (vb.)" Cha. *(d)-l-m
"dark, black, night"
I. NB *-nd9l9m "darkness" 3. Mkl. dirno "obscurite" Turn, digbm "obscurite"
Lei. alar) "night" Dgl. duluk "ombrage" Bid. 'erer) "nuit" 4. Afr. dulma Sid.
dimma "darkness" Bye. hadal "darkness" P.EC *h-d-r- "sleep" 5. Eg.(F) d3W
"night" 6. Amh. addara "spend night" Akk. ? 'adrum "dark" 7. Tur. erdel
"etre dans Vobscurite de la nuit"
dare scatter OS *dahar-, *dar- "drive away"
dari hartebeest "Damaliscus korrigum, tiang, topi"
7. Tur. ederi "oryx" i. Ger. jweri "h." NBP ndalhya "h." 2. Msg. uderi
"gazelle" Log. uteli "gazelle" 3. Mgm. idilim "antelope" Lei. danw "Bubale"
Dgl. daro "gazelle sp." 3a. Lam. dei "duiker
4. Kwa. dala + dziko "h."
Dhl. dadiri "lesser kudu" Sml. dero "gazelle" derki "male gazelle" Brj. hide
"dikdik" Bil. antaula "gazelle, bohor, redunca" 9. Bnt. -ndala "kudu"
Dinka, Nuer, N.Luo *Tar) "h." 6. Shuwa Ar. teital "h." 3. Jg. tetir) "an-
dariya laughter dara "laugh"
I. Tgl. dele (vb.) 4. Bil. da'al "spielen, lachen" Sid. dira "ridicule (vb.)" Rnd.

reo, reid- (vb.) 6. Gur. da'a < *d-h-q 9. Mnd. yele "laughter" da + yele
"cause laughter" Dyl. yere, ylre
darni fence ? < dar + n cf. daje OS *dar- "dwelling place"
I. Ngz. dardar Dr. danda 2. Vm. dalaha "wall, fence" Gis. dalam "Wand,
Hutte mit Strohdach" 3. Turn, dalaw "cloture en paille" Dgl. darne "village"
4. P.Cu.(E) *dar- "edge" Or., Der. dalla "corral, animal pen, fence" 6. Gur.
dar "frontier, limit" Ar. dar "province, house, district, etc."

dasa I. plant "pi. out, transplant, inoculate"

I. Ngz. das- "fill hole" 2. Mwl. dazo "seed" Bac. as(i)to, dase "seed" 3. Kr.

dose "remplir" Tum. dew "repiquer" Bid. 'is "enfoncer, faire entrer" Dgl. diwse
"se plonger" Dgl., Mkl. (t)ate "repiquer, planter" 4. REG *dis- "make hole and

put s.thing in it" Bye. da(i) "enter" dasa "put down, ? put in" P.SC *tat-,

*tat- "plant, stick in the ground" 5. Eg.(Bu) tega "to plant" tchas "plants,
flowers, vegetables" (F) d(w) "implant, put (on ground), put in (to shore)"
4a. Bnc. tok "plant" 6. Ar. tassa "penetrate, plunge into (water)" Amh.,
Gur. tasa "break through" 7. Tur. taytay "enfoncer a coups de marteau"
2. gourd sp. OS *das- "vessel"
dasashi gums also dadashi, dasori ? < (da)dar) + "tooth" cf. P.Cha.(N) *an(-)
"tooth" H. hakori, haure "tooth"
I. Gwd. adosori Tgl. diz wudo, tizuk wudo (wudo "tooth") Bol. dingo 2.

Mfg. dadar) nga ier "g., wall of tooth" Log. ndagade "g." 3. Dgl. dolnyo
"g." Bid. dorr)o Mkl. dilr)ise 3a. Lam. didik se'e (se'e "tooth") Zim. diklim
"gencive sans dent" 4a. Bnc. dine 4. Kmb. dondanna 6. Amh. dad Gur.
dandara Hars. didih 7. Tur. tayna
dashi tip "t., small gift, pourboire" < W. African Pidgin dash cf. Kri. dash <
Eng. dash "splash"
datti dirt ? < Eng. dirty cf. W.African Pidgin doti Kri. doti

dattijo gentleman "g., respectable, mature man" dattako "quality of being dat-
trjo" < Ful. ndottijo, ndottaku cf. Ful. dott- "be adult, be important"
datsa cut, chop (wood, grass) datsa "intercept, block, dam" datsi "chopped
grass for building, sp. of thatching grass" OS *dats- "cut, chop"
I. Ngz. azu "thatch" Zeem (SB) dutsa "kill" 2. Gdu. madatsu "axe" 4. P.

Cu.(E) *ts'at- "cut up" 6. P.Sem. *da^' "fresh grass" 8. Sng. dasi "axe"
dau redness of sun at rising or setting
I. Tgl. tus "very red" Gd. diaz "glowing red (of setting sun)"

daudawa locust-bean cakes also daddawa, raddawa cf. Kan. daudawa H.

dorawa "locust-bean"

daudu title of Galadima an daudu "bori spirit who dresses like a woman (al-

so dan galadima); homosexual" cf. Np. dawudu "title of siaba (prince)"

daua dirt ? < d + b-- cf. RCha.(N) *b9tu "ashes" P.Cu. *b-d- "dust" Sem.
^-p-r "dust"
I. H. hadi "ashes" Gwd. dora "dirt" Dr. dua "ashes" bubut "dirt" KK
bubau "dirt" RF pwer "Dunkelheit, Schmutz" 2. Bok. puta "dirt" Gan. pata
"dirt" *d-y- "dirt" HN waiwae "dirt" Mf. luwe "dirt" Maf.
dara "d." 3. Bid., Mkl. ortokol "boue" 4. Kmb. tabaro "ashes" Or., HEC
tur- "be dirty"
daugi ant bear, aardvaark also dabgi, dabugi cf. dagi "digging tool" Dhl.
n6age Bor. doke-
daula power "p., wealth, empire, rule" < Ar. dawla cf. dole
daura da next to also dabra da, dab da ? < dab, daf (ideo.) "very close"
daure endure also jure see jima cf. Ful. dur- "last" H. dauri q.v.
dauri formerly cf. daure, da wuri (see wuri)
I. NBT dauriye "early" 4. Or. dur, durl "old, previous, former" Bye. dor
"turn (order of succession), time" dai dor "early, in good time" 5. Eg.(Bu)
tuai(t) "dawn, early" (F) dw3(w) "v. early" 6. RSem. *dawr- "continuity,
generation" Akk. dar- "cycle, period, eternity" Amh. daro, duro "f., previ-
ously, long ago" 7. Tam.
? < Cu.
tizwuri "formerly"
dauro millet sp. also damro, darmo cf. Mnd. doro "millet sp. susceptible to
disease of same name" for *daw see dawa
I. DZ, Dw. dswro "m." 2. Log. dorio "sorghum sp." 3a. Lam. 'uru "m." 4.

Afr. daro "grain, sorghum" Brj. wor- "cereals" 6. Ar. 6ura, dura "sorghum,

m., maize"
dausayi well-watered pastureland cf. dansasa "moisten" danshi, damshi
dauye Parinari sp. OS *daw-h- "tree sp." Mende ndawe "Parinari spp."
dawa bush (uninhabited country) cf. Ar. dawwa "desert" Or., HEC duw-
" empty"

dawa sorghum (guinea-corn) ? < da + wa

I. Gwd. da' SB *'aw- Sey. wa 2. Mat. dawn Gis. daw Zlg. daw "millet" Mfg.

daw "s., millet" Wmd. uwatu "millet" 3. Tum. day "millet" 5. Eg.(F) ddw
"sp. of grain" 4a. Jnj. du'iyya "black millet" 4. Kmb. du'ita "sp. of cereal"
Or. da- prefixes several words for "millet, sorghum, grain" ? RCu.(E)
*dankaws- "finger millet" 3a. Mas., Ban. wana "s., millet" 8. Bgr. wa Mab.
aw "mil" 9. Tv. wua

dawaya return dawayo, dawo "return here" cf. dauri, juya, tafi, waiwaya OS
*d-w-r-; *tuwur- "turn"
2. Bur. -tawara "turn" Gd. tawura "go repeatedly" Mfg. dahwrey "se toumer"
3. Turn, udwar "transformation, devenir" Mk\. dole "entourer, repeter" Dg\. dele
"repeter" 4. Sid. dawara "come back, answer" Afr. udur "r., come back"
madara (n.) odore "revolve" P.Cu.(D) *d-g-y- "return, etc." P.Cu.(E) *dur-
"turn round" P.SC *dokwar- "turn around, revolve" 6. Akk. tuar- "return"
Sem. d-w-r "go around" 7. Siw. dul, duwal "revenir" 9. Poular tar- "entourer"
dawwama endure, last < Ar. ? dawama "persevere"
diddige heel (pi. dugadugai) also dunduniya

I.Gwd. kudidigye Tgl. tindor) (+ yo "foot") 2. Maf. dodukw "rounded

extremity of a member" dodukw ray "elbow" dodukw sak "h." Mfg.
madakw salay "h., end of foot" {also madadakw "end, extremity" Mdr.
adgedga Gv. degdega (pi.) Mbo. dakadak 3. Kr. gidir)gidir)gad9 (pi.) Dgl.
dudu Bid. dudur 8. Kan. gudugudu "heel" gadi "bottom, base" Dz.
diddire dysentery
3. Sok. diridiri Lei. digrir) Bid., Mkl. ir- "avoir la diarrhee" Dgl. ere "avoir
la diarrhee" 4. Sid. de'a "defecate"
diga pick, pickaxe ? < Eng. digger cf. Lei. diga "pioche" 2. Mdr. dega "hache"
digiri degree < Eng.
dila jackal cf. Cha.(E, W, C) *d-r/l- "hyena, leopard" ? < "dog of bush" w/Y/7

localization in second word cf. H. karamiki "jackal" Gwd. kare bikyiya "j.,

dog of bush"
for *d-r/l- "bush, wilderness"
I. Sur. tiler) "bush" ? Tgl., Pr. t-1- "far" 2. Gab. talaya "bush" Zlg. dala

"forest" *t-7-l "bush, forest" FG turjgwulu "outside" Mfg. darl-

"endroit inculte, desert" 3. Kr. dol "endroit aride, desert" 3a. ? Lam. 'idi "foret-

galerie" 4. Abo. del "forest" Bye., Sid. dal- "bush, thicket" Afr. del- "isolate"

Or. dirre "plain" P.SC *dyar- "plains" Kmb. etero, etaro "outside" 6. Amh.
dirre "hill" dur "woods, forest" 8. Kan. dali "open space" (Lukas); dili

"brousse" (Le Coeur) dari "bush" (Benton) Dz. dili, dull "brousse" Bgr. nduru,
dzuru "forest"
for "jackal"
I. RS fatandyel "jackal" (P.Cha. *patu "cat") BN *dala KK dila Bol. dilla 2.

Bud. dala 8. Kan. dala "j." Knz. jeleg "Wolf Schakal" 2. Hrz. kardala "j."
(P.Cha. *k-r- "dog") Pad. yindala "hyena" (W, C. Cha. yin/yir "dog") 3.

yedala "j." Brj. gedala "j."

Dgl. dyorol "j." (yer "bush") Sok. tarlo "j." 4- Sid.

Bor. gedala "j." (REC *yeyy- "wild dog" Sml. dulmadow "j., fox" (madow
"be empty" cf. Mhr. ye^ayl "fox" (other Sem. ^-4 "fox")
H. dawa) 6. 7. ?

Tur. adal, ahedal "wild cat" 9. Gby. dila "lion" bdo dila "vieux male du lion"

dillali salesman, middleman < Ar. dallal "broker, auctioneer" cf. Tur. dallal
"offer for sale" Kan. dilal "trade, brokerage" Amh. dallala "cajole, flatter,
dina dinner party < Eng. dinner cf. W.African Pidgin dina "feast, celebration"

dinga keep on (doing) cf. dana "grasp" (ria "hold" has the same connotation
as dinga) Sid. diqa "spend much time in something"
dinya, dumya goose
I. dam 8. ? Np.
Bol. dinci
di'o district officer < Eng. D.O.
dira jump down "j. down, fly down" cf. tsall- "jump" Cha.(W,E.) *dur-
"jump" OS *di'ay- "fly (vb.)" *der- "bird" 4. P.HEC *dirr- "descend, go
down" 7. Tur. andar "sauter de sa place"
direba driver < Eng. cf duroba .

dirtsa press down ? < dir + S see dira

OS *diraTS- "press, beat" 3. Mkl. dirse "(s')appuyer" Bid. dirady "presser sur
quelque chose" 7. Tur. adar, adsd "presser tres fortement ... de haut en has"
aderih, idrah "empreinte de pied" 2. Pad. dice, kudice "presser" 6. Ar. d-r-s

"be effaced (footprints)" 4. P.HEC *dirr + is "unload" Sml. dis "press,

squeeze, push hard" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) tegas "tread in the footsteps of another"
disfensa dispensary attendant < Eng. dispenser
dodo ogre "o., monster, evil spirit, masked dancer" cf. juju
3. Dgl. duldule "female spirit inhabiting certain trees"
dogara lean on, rely on cf. dangi, tokara H. dogari "emir's bodyguard, secur-
ity" cf. Kan. dogoli "policeman" ? < H.
3. Dgl. der)le "s'appuyer contre quelque chose dans le dos" 4. Or. deggera "sup-
port, shore up" Kmb. dikka'- "lean on" dikk + is- "support"
dogo long, tall

8. Tub., Dz. dogo "loin" i. RF ndak "weit" RB, RD ndok "genug" NBD na
daku NBJ nana jiga "long" 2. Bat. nduko "grand" Maf. dzak "long,
full" jike'e "long and narrow" Pad. dagwa "costaud" 3. Bid. dok "loin" dokki

"loin, haut" 4. RCu. *d-g(g)- "height" Sid. dogga "big, tall" 9. Gby. duka


doki horse dawaki cf. godiya, duushi cf. jaki


OS *dam-, *dawak- "equid" i. Gwd. dokyi, daci, digyi KK, Dr. dok- Ngm.
do NB *d-wk- NBS dukulo muci "mare" (muci "woman") Brm. dok Ngz.
duka Bed. duwun Bol., Bauchi BT, Tgl., Pr. *d-ws- 2. Ter. dox "stallion"
Hin. ndok "poney" Bac. duwe "h." dut "mare" FJ, FB juxw- Gd. tahwa 3.
Dgl. dewki "antilope-cheval (roan antelope)" Bid. "antilope-cheval" awaw
Kr. daga "mare" i. Ang. da "h." dawlyer) "pony" (yem "child") 3a. Lam.,

Pv., Msm. nda'- 9. Sewe do Birom -dwa Gby., Mbum nday "bull" 8. Knz.

tr ''Kuh, Rind" 4. Bye. hatay 5. Eg.(Bu) heta, heter Cop. hto 6. ? ES 'adg

dole perforce Ful. dole "power" Sng. dole "forcer, contraindre" Kan. dole "force"
also Ngz., Kr. etc. all < Ar. dawla "government, state" see also daula
domin, don because Gwd. dum, dumu
dorina hippopotamus ? < *d-w- "horse" {see doki) + ? "river" as Ar. faras al
I. Gwd.(Gitata) doya ? < daw + yam 2. Mfg. gari yam "bull of water" 3.
Tum. garam 3a. Mas. nina "water, river" 5. Eg.(Bu)nem "lake" 6. Ar. nil
"Nile, Indus"
for nil > lin > rin cf. rini "dyeing"
doro hump cf. duka, tozo
4. P.HEC *dallo Brj. dollo 8. Kan. dogoro "h. of animal" 2. Bud. dogoro
"h." Maf. bodogwa "h. of zebu"
doya yam "Dioscorea spp." cf. dankali, dawa
I. Gwd. duwa, duwo i, 2, 3. W.Cha., Pdl. W.Mg., Smr. *d-wya "cassava,

yam, small potato" 3. Kr. adaw "tuber" 3a. Mas. daw "tuber" Ban. dawra
"y." Mus. daw + "cassava, y., potato" Lam. dau "y." 8. Sng. dauri "Ipornea

reptans" 9. Fante edwiw "yam" Basaal dunore "yam"

duba, diba look at, look for also "draw omens, tell fortunes" madubi "glass,
I.Gwd. dumba "1. at, 1. for" Bol. diwu- "look at" NBT duw- "see" NBM,
NBK, NBT *dom- "look for" 2. Gdu. dua "see" Muy. daba "1. for" Mol. dab
"1. for" Mfg. aambar "examiner avec attention" Maf. ep- "epier, guetter,

surprendre" Mba. du "regarder, voir" 3. Dgl. aipe "surveiller" Lei. dob "cher-

cher" 4. P.SC *dab- "look" Bye. dibi "guard, watch, keep safe" Or. dow'add'-
"look at" 6. Sem. t-bb- "be wise, skilled in magic" Amh. tabaqa "look after,

watch" 7. ? Tur. dubat "be able, capable"


dubu thousand common in Cha. either < H. or Kan. davu

OS *tab- "tribe" 8. Bgr. dubu "th." ? dibbu "two hundred" Ted., Dz. dubu
Sara gp. dub- i. NB *d9 "lo" 4. Afr. taban "10" Abo., Or. dibba "hundred"
P.HEC *tibbe "hundred" Had., Kmb. (EDG) taBa "tribe" Bye. diwa, dawa
"tribe, family, people" 5. Cop. tba "10,000, myriad" Eg.(Bu) tcheba "10,000,
thousands, hundreds, tens" (F) dbS tb^ "10,000" 6. Gur. tab "tribe, clan"
Hars. tayf- "tribe" 7. Tur. attabu "groupe d'hommes"
dubura anus < Ar. dubur OS *di(m)bur- "back"
duhu darkness also dufu *d- + hw-( ) duhuwa "forest, thicket" cf. duna
I. RB fwo' "night" RS mafo' "night" RF pwer "darkness" NBB, NBK d-v-N

"d." Brm., Gj., Bui. *duwun- "black, d." Ngz. aduwan "late afternoon" 2.
FB uwur "evening" Gd. kuduwan "evening" Msg. dufo "night" Gd.
davsda, vadavada "at night" 3. Bar. dafeji "night" Mkl. diwlar) "noirdtre"
3a. *Dufun- "d., night" 4. RCu. *(7)-w-d- "late evening" REG

*hawen "night" RSC *x'^ed- "evening" Bye. hawad "Nacht, spate Abend"
Kmb., Sid. *hawar "evening" 5. Eg.(F) wh "night" wht "d." 6. Heb., S.Ar.
(-)h-w-r "black" Ar. sawwad (? < s + w-d) "blacken" 7. Tur. ehod "nuit"
Ghd. ived "night" 9. Ful. hurma "be very black" 8. Knz. tiir "Abend, Nacht"
Berta habula "night" Kan. bune "night"
duji owl ? < d + w-z- also mujiya q.v.
8. Kan. duji "nickname of the owl" ? < H. i. Ngz. duzi Kof. dayi, vet 9. E.

Ful. duji + re "large eagle- owl" 2. Log. dulu 8. Bgr. dulu 7. Tam. twuyt
duk(a), aukaci all also dukkani
I. Gwd. dudu(k) Cp., Ang. dukduk Pr. dwe Dr. day NBD dukum Bui. dok

Bed. dakka 2. W.Mg. dugum Klb. duhu Maf. akakka'a "numerous" Zgv.,
Gv. D-7-n 3. Dgl. titok 3a. Lam. dukuku "en grand nombre" 4. Sid. tuqa,
ducc- Rnd. daxan
duka, doka beat, strike cf. daka, tika ? < dzu + k- RW.Cha. *duk^- "kill" R
Cha.(N) *d- "kill" OS *dak-/*duk-, *dog-, *tuk- "beat" *tug- "strike"
I. Dw., Pic. dzuw "beat, kill" NBP juwa "pound" (da "beat, kill" ta "beat
(drum)") 2. Bur. tsa "beat" tsi "kill" FG duwuti "beat" FM, FB, Gd. dig-
"beat" Mfg. dakw-, dagw- "taper amicalement" Pad. daga "taper, battre" taha
"battre" 3. Mub., Bid. *d-(y) "kill" Bid. dok- "battre, frapper" 8.
Dgl., Sok.,
Knz. dl "sterben" di kir "tot machen, toten" 9. Gby., Mbum duk "mortier" 5.
Eg.(Bu) ta "beat, break, smash" (F) d(w) "strike (blow)" 6. RSem. *dwuk-
"crush, pound" 4. RSC *tu^- "pound (grain)" 7. Tur. addu "piler" Siw.
doq(q), duq "frapper"

dukanci leather work < duka because of the beating done to soften the leather

dukiya wealth ? cf. NBP tangir "wealth" NBK tangar "domestic

< doki "horse"
animal" Bac. segurto "domestic animal, ? wealth" Eng. chattel/cattle
dukuma potato cf. H. kudaku Np. duku Yor. odokun Kof. daku
dua bend cf. durusa "kneel", tanwasa "bend" Sid. dugununa "bow, bend"
dui eagle "Aquila wahlbergi"
1. 9. Mnd. duga
Ang. dugasi "vulture" "e., vulture" i. Ngz. disaw "vulture"
Muk. madagwala "hawk"
2. ?

dukushi colt cf. doki ? < d-wk + us

for -s- diminutive see under kare
I. Gwd. dukushi Krf. dukkusirji "horses" 8. Kan, Bgr. kusta Knz. dahas
"Esels fallen"
duma gourd (various spp.) OS *dimb-, *diim- "gourd, vessel" Cha.(E, C) *t--,
*t-mb- "calabash"
I. Ang. tam, damok Krf. dimbi 2. Ter. daa Pdl. dirbi 8. Kan. damba "large
g." 9. Ful. tumbu-, tumu- "calabash" CB *-cupa "calabash" 4. P.Cu. *c-pp-
"g." Bil. dubba "Cucurbita maxima" Bor. dibbe- "container for milk, drum"
5. Eg.(Bu) tebu "vessels for beer or wine" 6. Amh. dubba "pumpkin,
squash" Shuwa Ar. dumbaya "calabash" Soc. dibbeh "g." ? Gur. tarmus
duma (vb.) insert OS *dum- "split, pierce"
dumba glass bracelet OS *dumb- "ring"
dumiya snake "eel, water sn." OS *dum- "worm, snake"
I. KK 'adumaw "sn." Krf. duma "sn." 2. Gd. damburam "coiled (sn.)" Dab.

0) -m-1 "snake" 4. Brj. duma "roundworm" Sid. dum'ulo "worm" 3. Bid.

dopolko "ver de terre" Lei. ndubu, tondubo "python spp." Dgl. dolo "sp. of
large, non-venemous sn." 6. Gz. taman "sn., dragon" {other Sem. t-nn~)
duna black ? < duhuna see duhu
I. NBP nduna "darkness" BT *dir), jur) "b., (dirty)" SB *duwun- "b., dark" 2.

Gd. dadanwu "b., dark blue" takuna "darkness" Pad. daqwa "dark"
dundufa drum (long and narrow, standing on ground) ? < Mnd. dundu ba
"bass dr." dundu fo "beat drum" cf. Np. dundufa Yor. dundun "type of
drum" Sng. dondon "little drum" Limba, Landoma dundu Ful. dundu + ru
Dgl. unukuny "dr. held by knees"
dungu stump "st. of maimed arm" also dungurmi, dungulmi, gundu cf.

ingishi, guntu
3. Dgl. dur)guro "tronc (sur pied)" dur)gum "fondement" Mkl. duqkilnye

"moignon" i. Bed. duqgw- "leprosy" KK tugum "tree st." 2. Kot. dungu "lep-
er" Msg. duggum "lahm" Bud. digim "lahm" Mfg. dagwal- "court" darqgwa^-
"st. of tree" Maf. gwondangwal "st. of tree" 8. Kan. duggu "become lame"
9. Np. dukun "lameness" 8. E.Sng. dungura "be short" 6. ES dank- "be
short; dwarf" 4. Sid. dinke "dwarf" Afr. e^enga "deformity" 5. Eg.(Bu) tirga
duniya world < Ar. dunya
duri vagina buduri "girl's first husband"
I. Gwd. (not N.) duri Tgl. tuli KK tsele 2. Zgv. ndule Gd. unts- "penis, have
sexual intercourse" Tum. jaw "v." Mkl. dur)se, diise 3a. Mas., Ban. d-yl-

4. P.SC dur "intestines" Or. doddo "vagina (small)" Sml. sTl "v." Kmb., Sid.
cil- 5. Eg. d3 "copulate"
durkusa kneel cf. duka, tankwasa
3. Dgl. derse
duro I. drum (for kerosene, etc.) < Eng. cf. Kri. drom
2. draw (drawn game) < Eng.
duroba prison warder < H. ganduroba "p. warder" ? < Eng. [gang] driver
durumi fig "Ficus polita" cf. *lub/m- "shady, overcast (true of ficus spp. in H.
I. NB *d-l-m, *g-l-m 2. Gd. kurambana "H. durumi" Gis. 'urof "fig tree" 3a.
Lam. turum "R sp." 8. Kan. tarmu "F. sp." 6. ? Akk. nurmu, lurmu "pom-
egranate" 5. Eg.(F) d(3)b "fig tree" d3bw "figs" 4. Bye. minda'ro "f. vasta"
Sml. darai "large fig tree" Xmt. diruna "sycamore" Bil. darguna "F. sp." 6.

ES da^ro "sycamore"
durwa i. loincloth "tucking the ends of a I.e. into its waistband after drawing
it between the legs (done by marriageable girls)" cf. H. budurwa Or. durba
"young girl" 5. Eg.(F) d3iw "loincloth"
2. quail OS *dur-, *der- "bird sp." cf. dira
dusa bran "b., metal filings" cf. Dgl. dosiya "dregs (of millet beer)"
duskure blunt (vb.) daskare "thicken" cf. dakusa
dutse, diici rock "r., stone, mountain" cf. tsakuwa "gravel"
I.Gwd. dunci Sur. dusu "hoher Vulkanhiigel" 2. Mfg. das, adas "caillou de di-
vination" 3. Tum. daay "pierre, rocher, colline" 5. Eg.(Bu) tes "kind of stone,
flint" (F) ds "flint"
a child "ch., son, fruit, freeborn, noble, a little" pi. 'ya'ya, iya f. 'ya, iya ?

< *-y-l (for the semantics cf. Latin ITber "free" ITberl "children" Knz. id
"Mann" idi "Leute" idin tod "ein Freier" (tod "Sohn, Junge")) cf. kadan "little"

iri "seed"
OS tal- "give birth, young animal" *da'- "child, man, chief" i. Gwd.(N) riya
"son, daughter" Ang. diyem "son" Sur. iyem "son, daughter" Bol. dole
"small" Krf. badele "small" Gra. yeli "small" NBK, W *diyu- "boy" Ngz. diyi
"offspring" 2. Hwn. wan diya "son, boy" (P.Cha. *wun "child") Mg. bzir da
"son" (C.Cha. *z-r- "child") Maf. biy dalay "jeune fille en age de se marier"
(b-y "grand, chef") dala hay "fille, jeune fille, petite" 3. Turn, daw "fruit" dayar
"jeune fille" Kr. tar- "girl, daughter" Lei. tere "fille" Mkl. (t)e'e "accoucher" 3a.
Lam. nde pi. dire "petit" 4. P.HEC *il "give birth, beget" P.Cu. *t-y-l- "be-
get, give birth to" Or. dala "boy, give birth" daya "give birth" 6. Gur. ca'l-,

cul- caql- "baby" Gz. hatan "infant, young child, page" Syriac, Heb., Ug.
y-l-d "progenie, partorire" Ar. ^ayyil "dependent family" 7. Tur. iyell "daugh-
ter" 5. Eg.(F) iri "beget (human beings)"
da'a good manners < Ar. ta^a "obedience"
ab'i printing < Ar. tab^

dabl'a habit "h., character, trait, custom" < Ar. tabl^a

daci, dwaci bitterness cf. danye, tsami ? < *dwal + t- cf. H. madaci "mahog-
any tree" madaciya, datanniya "gall-bladder" data, wata "Solanum sp."
I. Gwd.(N) ruwashi Plateau Cha. *d-yt Ngm dadatu Bol. duttuk SB das- 2.

C.Cha. *d-l-k Mfg. dadalak, dutatak Ter. 'jot Cb. duwatu Gd. madota
"gall-bladder" 3. Dgl. dyutu 3a. Lam. dileoleo "vert" 4. P.SC *tal- "bitter-
ness" ? *del- "immature" P.Cu. *(h) -t(t)- "bitter, sour" 5. Eg.(Bu) m'ti "bit-
terness" tehera + t "bitter (in mind)" (F) dhr "bitter" 6. S.Sem. t-y-f "bitter-
ness, aloes" ES t-l/n- "hate, dislike" 7. Tur. dalat "be green"
aori Cissus sp. "desirable ornamental vine" (Dalziel)
4. Bil. tor'^a 6. Amh. tar'^o "plante grimpante"

afa- stick to, cling cf. dafa, tufa afa, amfara "cause to adhere" damfara
"compress, collect, plaster, daub" ? Cha.(W, E, C) *ap-( ) "follow, close"
P.Cu.(E) *ta'b- "stuff, cram" OS *da'ap, *dab- *taba^- "follow"
4. Or. doba "plaster, smear" Brj. dabb- "plaster" Bye. d'(a) "patch, plaster
(mud wall, garment, wound etc.)" Abo. teb "spoor, follow" 6. Gur. tabba'a
"be firm, be tight" tatabba'a "stick together" ? Gz. tab^a "be steadfast, be
persevering" Ar. tb^ "imprint, impress" ? tab^ "follow" 7. Tur. adfar "mettre
un tapis sur" adab "fermer"
aga lift ? < -g-r- cf. igirgire "raising load off head, balancing load without
holding" auka "carry" ora "put on top" Cha. (W, E.) *-g-r- "carry (on
9. Gby. dak "enlever" ekeri "porter une charge sur la tete sans la tenir des

mains" NBP ugusu "stack (vb.)" Gwd. dega, tega "stand up" Kof. egen

"pick out" 2. Mba. ige "se tenir debout" Gd. agana "carry load on head
without holding with hands" 3. Bid. dag "puiser de Veau" 3a. Lam. ijier
"porter en equilibre sur la tete", ijier wa "marcher la tete haute" (wa "head")
4. P.SC *da(a)- "keep lifted up" Brj. dink'- "pick up" Bil. adag "wegnehmen"
5. Eg.(Bu) takr (tikr) "set away, carry off (?)" 6. Amh. adgat "raising"
addaga "grow up" 7. Tur. etkel "porter, enlever"
aki hut, room aka locative cf. jinka P.W.Cha. *-k- "hut, roof, build" *ik-
"build, dig"
OS *da'- "place, house" *di- "build" KK ako Dr. ahi i. Gwd. rakyi
"build" Tgl. nduk + am BN *a- "town" Bed.
"rain shelter" RS a- "Ort"
agayitan "towns" 2. Pad. daka "dans la maison" Muk. kuik Msg. dugwa
"HUtte aus Matten oderRohr" 3. Sok. da "house" Mgm., Bid. *ako "dedans"
3a. Lam. za "case (ronde, en torchis et toit de paille)" 9. Poular dan + ki "abri,
verandah" 4. Bye. dim up house, new house with furniture" Brn. da
"place" Alg., Irk. di "place(s)" 4a. Bnc. dad "place" 5. Eg.(Bu) ta + t, tai +
"room, chamber" tche + t "place, abode, house" at "house, abode" 8.

Knz. uda "Zimmer" 6. Gz. daxs "cottage" 7. Tur. edagg "endroit, place"
alangashi bat < ? ( ) + gashi "hair" cf. ? H. dare "jump quickly on to" Bol.
yawi gasilwa "bat" Soc. gelemenoh "bat" (lit. "entangler", because of it gets
caught in the hair)
alibi student < Ar. talib
damara belt "b,, act of tying" aur-, amr-, arm- "tie" ame, "tighten" dami

"bundle of corn" cf. dinka "sew" P.W.Cha. *-dum- "gather"

I. Gwd. dembira "tie" 4. Bil. debla "Gurtel" cammar "verbinden" Or. timbira

"weave (basket)" Bye. dibib "wrap" Sid. dur- "bind fast" 5. Eg.(Bu) thami
"bind, wind around etc." tema "bind, tie together" (F) dms "bind togetiier"
dmi "be joined" 6. Ar. damma "unite, join" Gz. damada "yoke (vb.)" 7.
Tur. azm-(m) "squeeze, tighten"
ana adjust "a., set, improve, fix (arrow to bowstring), cock (gun)" Cha.(W, E)
*-n- "good"
I. NBP dan "bend (bow)" Ngz. danmu, dalmu "repair" 2. Gd. ndandar]

"well, healthy" 4. E.Cu. *dan- "good, healthy" Bye. da(i) "good, be good"
daib (adv.) dainai "goodness" 5. Eg.(Bu) tun "string a bow" 6. Ar. t-y-b
"good" Gur. taya "of good quality" 7. ? Tur. adan "conserver"
dan a borrow
3. Bid., Dgl. dana "dette" ? 6. Ar. dana "lend, borrow" dayn "debt, loan"
anana taste (vb.) cf. dadi OS ta^am- "taste, eat"

I. Gwd. dendena, tamina Ank. tiyam "taste" Bol. anuno' "taste" ano'
"touch" Gra. andil- 2. Gan. emem "sweet" Hwn. iem "sweet" Hrz.
tatam- "touch, taste" Maf. dedin- "prendre un petit peu, gouter" F, Hg. dam-
"taste" Mwl. uca'an dam, dam Bud. tam 3. Mgm. dandimo
"taste" Log.
"tdter" 4. Or. damdama "taste lightly" cami (n.) Sid. da'dama "piece of
meat given to the chief" Bil. tamtam "sehr gefallen finden" RCu. *(t)-^-m-
"taste" P.Sam. *daddami "taste" Bye d'am "taste" tami "schmackhaft" tam
"kosten" Rnd. camcam 5. Eg.(Bu) tema, teken "touch, approach" thehon
"touch" (F) dmi "touch" 6. P.Sem. *t-^-m "taste (intr.)"
dango grasshopper, locust "newly hatched 1., g.-hopper"
I. Gerka dor) Tgl. adoko "1." NBD daku "jump (n.)" RF der) "springen" 4. Bil.

dangwabe "kleine Heuschreckensorte" 6. Amh. dagobe "wingless 1." ? < Bil.

3. Dgl. derirjel "sauterelle sp." Lei. danji "sorte de grillon"

dangwama hoe (short-handled) cf. cangami
3. Jg. dokumo "grof^e Hacke" 3a. Mas. dukum "hoe"
dankadafi crab louse ? < dafa "cling" q.v. cf. P.Rft. *xidif "small tick" Mas.
terjkedefna '? pou"
anye unripe "u., raw, fresh" cf. daci, ganye
I. Kof. tagyim "green" Gra. dadyeni "bitterness" Pr. den "bitterness" NBK

ndindina "unripe" 2. Gd. nidinida "green" Log. ndan "be fresh, green,
damp" dindan "fresh, green, damp" ? Mfg. darnanah "amer, aigre" 3. Lei.
dany- "be bitter" Bid. meder) "cru, pas Men cuit" 4. Sml. ^edin P.SC *del-
"immature" Or. dedi "raw" 6. Sem. t-r-y "raw, fresh" 7. Tur. adar "moist-
en" dalat "be green"

ara exceed slightly < Cha.(E, W, C) *-l- "go, pass by" cf. daa, zara

I. Ang. del "surpass, cross" 2. Mfg. -dal- "depasser" 3. Lei. del "depasser" Bid.

del "croitre, devenir adulte" 4. P.EC *djal- "exceed" P.Cu.(E) *dar- "add" P.SC
*Dir- "surpass, pass by"
dari hundred "h., halfpenny" (old currency < "100 cowries") cf. aru-aru
I. BoL, Ngm. *d9lm-k NBW, NBK dal- Ngz. danamak 2. *d-r(-)m-k-

8. Bgr. drimka Ted., Dz. kidri 3a. Lam. sak + dao "1000" (? sak < Fr. sac cf.

H. jaka "bag, 100 shillings") 4. Irk. tsiru 4a. Jnj. tiya

for *m-k- cf. Kan. megu "10" P.Sem. *m-'- "100"
dari cold (due to wind) cf. hadari "storm", hunturu "harmattan", jaura"frost"
I. BT *dw-l- "cold" Ngm. edo "cold" Gra. ndey "harmattan, cold" SB *it9r
"wind, cold" NBJ, NBS turi "wind, harmattan" 2. Mwl. te'ersr) Pad. mataia
"froid (n.)" W.Mg. ndala "cold" Mof., Mol. '-tei- "cold" 3a. Lam. dari

"wind" ndor "rainy season" 4. P.Cu. *d-^- "wind, c." P.EC *da' "rain, over-
flow" Brj. turi "fog" Gdo. tura "dust which is blown by the wind" Bye.
darak "Regenzeit" Sml. durai "cold (disease)" Or., Sid., Der. *Dallo "cold,
wind" Bon. (Kill) adoresa "wind" 8. Knz. turug "Wind, Luft" 5. Eg.(Bu) tu(a),
tat "wind, air, breath" (F) t3w "wind" 6. P.Sem. matar "rain" Our. amadar
"c, c. weather" 3. Tum. da 7. P.Ber. *adu "wind" i. Gal. rna "wind" 2.
Gd. 'ira 4. P.Cu.(E) *4r- "rain" 4a. Jnj. iro "rain" 8. Knz. od "Kdlte" 3.
Dgl., Bid. *'ol-
aska grasshopper, locust also asku, askalaye
I. Cp. sikal NBD atsagada 3. Dgl. serkety 4. Or. siqo "1. sp." 5. Eg. snhm
"1." 6. Hrr. siqo 7. Tur. wa izzegen "grillon"
data Solanum incanum < "bitter" see daci cf. Gwd. ngonta raci "H. gauta (=
dau, dauka carry (on head), take, pick up cf. daga "lift" dauke "wean, dry
up" daukaka "exalt, honor, promote"
I. Gwd. (Gitata) raxa "take" Gwd.(N) ra'a "take" Tgl. doke "take care of"
NBP duma "take, carry (load)" Pr. diko "fetch" ? RB, RD d-w "aufsteigen" ?
Dw. dzox "mount" 2. Mg. du "move to another place" Bur. duwa "change
residence" Gd. dawu "move (residence)" Dab. da "fetch (water)" Maf. dawar
"enlever (un morceau pourri)" dawak "coussinette de tete" < "lifter" (cf. H.
matashin kai) Log. da, di, du "hringen" Bud. re, ri "hinbringen, hinschaffen,
wegtragen" 3. Dgl. dokinye "puiser" Kr. dum "enlever" 4. P.Cu.(E) *tox'=-
"pick up" Brj. dink'- "pick up" Or. to'a "draw (water from well)" P.HEC *to'
"dry up" Sid. to' "be weaned, run out (water in a well)" duqq- "carry on

shoulders" Bil. dau + s "aufrichten" 5. Eg.(Bu) tua "bear, carry, support" 6.

Sem. t-w-r, s-w-r "carry" 7. Tur. endu "transporter rapidement" 9. P.WN

*thu- "c. on head" Gby. u "puiser"
aur- tie < damr- see amara
ori "bone-setting" Sid. dur- "bind fast"

aya one aiaita "scatter, disperse one by one" diga "pour out by drops"

kaai "alone" kiaya "count" cf. tak

I. Gwd. da Ang. dani Kof. dat "alone, only" RD aggat Tgl. do- "one, alone,

solitary, single" Pr. ite "pick out o. by o." NB *w-ti KK wai 2. Ter. da
Hid. tayu "un" ow e
"seulement" Pad. diya, tar) a "un" tagwa "compter"
Gd. dyar) "alone" tyana, tona "one" Log. S97dia (sigo "knuckle") 8. Knz.
detti "einzeln abpfliicken" 3. Mkl. ey
"seulement" 3a. *aw- Lam. ut "arra-
cher un a un" Ban. tiyaw Mas. e "seulement" dow "un seul" 4. Bye. di, da'i
"alone" Brj. de + kki/tti (m./f.) P.SC *tac "finger" P.Cu.(E) *tigah- "fingers"
4a. Mrs., Trm. done 5. Eg.(Bu) te + t "hand" teni, thenu "count, reckon"
6. S.Ar. *t-y Amh. tat "finger" Gur. matt(i) "alone, separately" ca "only"
7. Tur. -ddan "etre compte".
for w- inNB, KK (cf. Sem. w-h-d) see wani, wata
diba, eba take out (from others, from a mass) cf. zaa
OS *dib- "take" dape "pick from ground (e.g. chicken with beak)"
i. Tgl.
Dr. ebe "dip out" (? < H.) ibare "buy" Gj. doi "seize" NB *damb- "carry"
RB dif "buy" 2. Mg. dam "pick" Klb. embiya "pick out, choose" Mfg.
-deb- "arracher (arachides)" Hg. *tsiv/*tsuv "hold" 3. Lei. dib "remuer" Bid.
tep "deterrer" Dgl. tyepe "arracher quelque chose d'enfonce" 3a. Lam. tsobo
"buy" 4. P.EC *djUb- "dip in" P.SC *tub- "extract" 6. Gur. tabata "seize,
grasp, *take a handful and close the hand" Ar. dabat "hold fast" Gz. dabata
"take hold of, lay hands on" Akk. sabatu "seize" etc. 7. ? P.Ber. *ddf
diga pour out (by drops) digo "drop, drip, dot, point" cf. H. daya "one"
3. Lei. dol "couler goutte d goutte" Bid. dordor "s'infiltrer" 4. Bye. takw "let
fall drops" Kmb. takki- (n.) Brj. tokk- "leak" Bil. tibb "tropfenweise fallen"
Sid. tu"e "drop of water" 6. Gur. tak(k) (n.) 7. Tur. setekket, etteb "laisser
tomber goutte a goutte"
dima, duma beat "thrash, hit, strike" also dama, tlma cf. duka, taa H. dim
(ideo.) "sound of beating"
i.P.W.Cha. *d-H-m "beat, destroy" 2. Mg. nduu Njn. ndie Mfg. dam- "ta-
per, fouler" Gd. tsama "pound" 3. Dgl. dime "casser (un recipient)" Bid. dim-

"briser" 4. Bil. ta^amb "schlagen" P.EC *daw- "hit, strike" Bye. ta', ta', tb'

"beat" tiw "bang, click, pop, crack" 5. Eg.(Bu) tema "strike (lyre, harp)" 6.

ES tabtaba "flagellate" Soc. 'etab "frapper, battre" 7. Tur. tabtab "taper a

main ouverte"
coups repetes" tubbet "taper avec la

imama warm up umi "warmth" cf. dafa, dambu, toya

I. Gwd. dimi Tgl. dombe Ngz. dam- "heat up" 2. Ter. ama Maf. uf-
"chauffer (de I'eau)" 3. Lei. umasa "soufflet de forgeron" 4. REG *dub-
"bake" 6. Ethiopian Sem. *t-b-s- "roast, bake, fry" 8. CB *-damb- "cook,
boil" 7. Siw. tab "boil"
imi sound of voice OS *dim- "voice"
ingisa limp (vb.) cf. dungu
1. H. ingirisa (n.) Bol. engiu- BN *d9gad- "lameness" 8. Kan. tarjgaras-
2. Bud. degimde (n.) 3. Dgl. odyik- "hotter temporairement" tyekie "boiteux"

4. P.HEC *din- Sml. dukis- (+ ki) (n.) (duti "go lame, 1.") Bil. tankay (n.)

inka sew Cha.(E, W, C) *d-m-(k) "sew" cf. amara "tying" cf. tufka "plait"
OS *tana'-, tlim- "sew"
I. NB *ikan "tie" 2. Pad. aha 4. P.Cu. *t-(')w- "make thread, material for
clothes, etc." 5. Eg.(Bu) tenh "bind, tie, fetter" 6. Sem. t-w-y "twist, fold,
? spin" 7. Ber. zmi Ghd. ezmak
inya Vitex sp.
I. NB *din- "tree (generic)" 3. Dgl. sinya "Ficus sp. etc." 6. P.N.Sem. *tin'
+ at "fico" Ar. tlna "fig"
oki longing cf. Bye dok + i "eagerly expectant"
ora put on top of ? < + ra see au, auka aw
I. Ang zwal "put on" 3. Lei. ogl- "empiler" Dgl. zorre "surplomber"
orawa locust-bean tree {Parkia fllicoidea) (its bean flour is yellow) orawa-
orawa "yellow" cf. ayawu, kalwa, rawaya
I. Gwd.(N) ruruwa "l.-b. tree" tarawada "yellow" Tgl. twali Dr. muryo Ngz.

ruwanu 8. Kan. runo 9. Yor. iru Gb. ullo Np. elo Tv. nuno 2. Gd. umfu
ran ('umpun "flour" ranran "yellow") 3. Tum. darar) "yellow" 3a. Ban.
doliya "yellow"
oyi stink (n.) cf. ji "smell, feel"
I. dawu, dawi "feces" Gwd.(N) rywer) RD mandoh "Duft, Geruch" RS
dway zoh "urinieren" dway pyar) "Excremente ausscheiden" Bol. aw- (vb.)
ur)i (n.) NBM aha NBJ da'a NBS ta'a NBT 'cawa- (vb.) 2. Log. davi
"schlechter Geruch" MM *tah- "expel (feces, urine)" 3. Dgl. e "stink" Bid.
eyew (pi.) "pi/er" 5. Eg.(Bu) tu (tchu) "stinking" tuaut "scented oil or po-
made" 4. As. di' "stink" Sid. de'o "human excrement" Bye. dimi "stink"

Abo. 'ar daw "smell (intr.)" Afr. danay- "bad smell from feces or urine" 6.

Soc. zrn "sender mauvais" ]ib. dehen "have a bad smell" Gur. caya Gz. se'a
"smell bad" Heb. se'a "excrement" 7. Tur., Ghd. adu "odeur, vent" Tur. eder
"excrement (d'homme)"
dura pour (through narrow opening) cf. Cha.(E, W, C) *-r-s/g "pour" P.W.
Cha. *d-r- "pour, river" OS *dur- "flow"
uwawu buttocks sg. duwai cf. Cha.(E, W, C) *ugw- "sit" P.W.Cha. *d-g'^-
"sit" *d(a)w/y "sit, put" cf. H. tsuguna

I. Gr. diwi 2. Gan. ukwe- FJ ubaku Hg. *Z-bw- Dab. duwun "dos" 4. Afr.

da^oy- "buttock muscle" Bye. duk "crupper" P.SC *dzink- "buttocks" Ma'
-zoko "sit" 6. Gur. zangw- 7. Tur. -zuk-
edita editor < Eng.
eho see ihu
eka acre < Eng. cf. Kri. eka
el'e Local Authority < Eng. L.A.
emti empty container < Eng.

fa, pa rock (large & flat) also falali, falami P.Cha.(N) *b9na "grinding stone"
Cha.(E; W, C) *p9r- "stone, mountain" RWN *-bui "stone" *-pi "stone,
rock" CB *-pidi "hill" *-pedo "stone" P.Plateau *fan "stone, mountain"
PJuk.- Mbembe *per) "stone, boulder" OS ^upel- "hill, stone"
I. Sur. kaper "Stein, Kiesel" RF balar) "mountain" 2. Gd. fara "rock, stone"
paia "large, flat, exposed rock" Mfg. palay "pierre creuse utilisee comme
cuvette" para "rocher plat" 3. Kr. parki "stone, mountain" Dgl. mariya "flat
rock" Bid. pera "roche lisse; terrasse" 9. Ningi gwam Longuda gubala 3a.
Lam. gwoi', gwei' "stone, mountain" 4. P.Cu. *'-b- "r., cliff, mountain" (E)
*g-p- "peak,prominence" P.SC *gipe "hill" *mar- "rock" REG *gub- "moun-
tain" Sml. bur- "mountain" gumbur- "rock, mound" 4a. Jnj. ama "moun-
tain" 5. Eg.(Bu) fua "stone, mountain" benu + t "kind of stone, pebbles,
flints" aba "slab of stone on which offerings are made" ama "kind of stone"

men "mountain, stony hill" 8. Berta bele "stone, mountain" 6. RSem.

*'abn "stone" Hars. 'abel "flint" Ar. gabal "mountain" balat "even ground,
paving stone" Gur. aman, amar, awan 7. Tur. ablalan "hard stone"
faci patch(ing) (flat tyre) < Eng. cf. Kri. pach

fada palace, court also faduwa bafade "courtier" fadanci "attendance at court,
sycophancy" fagaci "sitting in the audience of a king, place of audience,
official title"

8. Zar. fada 9. Mnd. fa, fanga "power" fa + dua "place of power" 6. ? Ar.

fada "court, enclosure"

fada priest (Catholic) < Eng. father cf. Kri. fada
fadama marshland ? < Mlk. fada + ma (adject, suffix)
fada I. tell, say ? < hwa- also furta "utter, mention"
OS *fa'-l- "foretell, magic word, omen" *ped- "call- "call" *wat- "call, speak"
I. Gwd. fala, para Ang., Sur. p-t "calling, shouting, conversation" BoL, Pr.,

Mh. *p-r- say, tell, word" RB fundel "Reden, Angelegenheit" ? Tgl. pondawi
"information" 2. Bur. pila Hwn. para Mfg. -papad- "parler beaucoup"

-babad- "parler, discuter" 3. Kr. wate "sagen" 4. RGu. *y-w-nt- "speak, tell"

(*y- "say") RSC *hod- P.Cu.(E) *war- "news, report" Had. woe- "sagen, er-

zdhlen" 4a. Jnj. fadu "prophesy" Koy. hod- 5. Eg.(Bu) petr, petra "explain,
say, declare" 6. S.Ar. hyd^ "inform" Akk wadu "inform" Ar. 'ayda^ "inform"
Gur. ewada 7. Tur. tafert "mot, quelques paroles, vers de poesie" 8. Ted., Dz.
fad-, fat- "dire"

2. fight "f., angry words, quarrel" i. and 2. seem to be connected. The

parallels between H. and Had. are remarkable. Jaw-jaw often leads to war-
war. Cf. alle
I. Gwd. biri Tgl. pule "be angry" pule "shout at, rebuke" Dr. papare
"punish, scold" NBW fatal "war" Bol. fada "war" Pr. ure "fighting" 2. Msg.
fada "schlagen, tbten" Bur. uji Mfg. vsram "war" 3. Dgl. pate "frapper" 4.

Or. fadda "rebuke" facce "fight with weapon" Had. wocam- "zanken,
streiten, kdmpfen" 8. Knz. facci "schlagen, zuchtigen etc." 5. Eg.(Bu) betsh "be
angry" 6. Gur. fancar "fight with weapons" 7. Tur. afud pi. ifaddan

faaka wake up (intr.) < fad- + ka cf. farka farfao "recover from uncon-
sciousness" OS *pudag-, *p-ro- "break, split, cut"
I. BN *p--k "morning" Tgl. pigde "wake, rouse" 2. *p-D- "morn-

ing" Gis. puduk "wake" Maf. puoekw "se reveiller"

fai broadness ? < paid- cf. babba
I. Gwd. padi Ang. param "far" Ngz. padam "far" 2. *pidim "far"

Mdr. parakke Bac. pile "widen" Gd. badawu "long, tall (inanimate things)"
3. Dgl. pataraty "large, epate" Lei. eler) "de loin" Kr. pamparar) "large" 3a.

Mas., Ban. bedi- 4. P.EC *bald- RSC *'ud- Ma' uda "far" 5. Eg.(Bu) pet "be
wide, spacious" (F) pd "stretch, extend" 6. Gur. fetata "be wide, be broad"
batat "wide, broad, large" Heb. p-t-y "make spacious" 7. Tur. faltag "be
broad and flat" 9. Mlk. para, pata "largeur"
fadi fall also hwadi fada "f. into, f. upon, jump into" farfadiya "epilepsy" cf.

auka OS *paxid- "fall, throw"

I. Gwd. pwar, Cha. pal "fall" Ron fur, fuh
fwar, hwari Cp., Ank. p-t- Plateau
"fallen" 2. Bur. pwa
from height" Gdu. wudii Mfg. -part- "laisser tomber"

Hrz., Mol. fat(d)ay "descend" 3. Dgl., Bid. pay- "descendre" 3a. Lam. putu
"f. from height" 4a. Bnc. wortn "descend, come down" wot' "fall" 4. Sid.

fottoqa "fall down" Dly. pur^- "fallen" Afr. wada^ "fall" RRft. *hu- "fall"
RSC *buw- "go down" Or. bu'a "f., go down, alight, dismount" Ag. atti- "f."
6. S.Ar. h-w-y "fall (upon)" 5. Eg.(Bu) betek "fall, drop, fail" petekh "fall,

cast down" 7. Tur. udu "tomber, se coucher (astre)" Ghd. uda Siw. uta

fafaranda porch also faranda ? < Eng. verandah < Hindi

fage space, furlong OS cf. Gwd. pegye "field, open space" Ted.
*pax- "field"
"open space"
fage "camp, village" Sid. fajje
fahinta understand also fahimta < Ar. fahim + ta or At. fahimta "you have
understood" Sng. fahamenta "compris"
fa'ida advantage, benefit < Ar. fa'ida
faifa paper money < Eng. paper cf. Kri. pepa kobo, pepa moni

faifai plaited cover (for e.g. calabash) "circular cover, disc, gramophone record"

filafili "canoe paddle"

I. Gwd. pepe Dr. pila 2. Mg. pali Pad. palaya 9. Np. fefe "mat cover" 8.

Kan. falai "sole of foot, plaited cover" falaifalai "platelike, traylike" Ted. fefe
"natte a croisement oblique, sac fait de deux nattes"
fakara francolin cf. kadafkara
I. Ngz. dafkarak Bed. dakfarak NB *avilak 2. Ter. dakalak
fake shelter, avoid cf. bage "conceal oneself for a particular purpose", oye
I. Gwd. pakye "wait for" 6. Gur. faka "escape" Ar. fakk "resolve a difficulty"
falala abundance, prosperity ? < Ar. fadala (vb.)

falala leg bone of animal OS *far-, *fal- "bone, leg"

falau, balau flutteringly cf. P.Cu. *b-l(l)- "leaf, blade, sheet, feather"
fale-fale flimsy ? < Yor. fele, fele-fele cf. faifai

fallasa squander, treat badly < Ar. falasa "reduce to poverty"

falle, falan single (esp. sheet of paper) cf. H. war- "separate" Kan. falai "one of
a pair, one (sheet of paper)" fal "one" Ang. fil "thin as a sheet of paper"
falmaran waistcoat (vest) cf. Kan., Shuwa Ar. farmala "traditional embroidered
vest of Libyan origin" ? < Ar. (Ar. farmala "brake (of wheel)" ? < Fr. frein

a main hardly relevant) Bid., Dgl. parma(a)la

fam pound (old currency) also "2 naira" < Eng.
famfami trumpet "royal tr. made of wood" cf. Yor. fami-fami "obsolete type
of wind instrument" Kan. famfam Np. pampami
famfo pumping ruwan famfo "piped water supply" < Eng.
fanca puncture, flat tyre < Eng.
fangali bed Sng fangal "beds (garden)" Kan. fagali "bank of
(irrigated) cf.

house etc.)"
river" fangal "section, subdivision (of a field,
fanka fan (electric) "*punkah" < Anglo-Indian < Hindi pankha
fanke fried cake < Eng. pancake cf. Kan. fanke Kri. pankek
fanko empty container cf. kango
8. Sng. folko "grains de riz vides, avortes" 9. Ful. (Futa J.) honku- "vider, etre

epidse" Gby. hakap "ideo. designe quelque chose de vide" i. Gwd. honkoro
"light" Kof. fogop "empty" 2. Mfg. hukw- "decortiquer, enlever le tegument"
3. Dgl. bukum "fruit sans noyau" 4. Kwa. fanko "few" 5. Eg.(Bu) penq

"empty (vb.)" (F) fk "be empty" 6. Gz. bakk "empty, useless"

for fo-, ho- cf. I. H. wofi "emptiness" NBJ, NBM fowa- "light" NET oho
"empty" 3a. Lam. ho "vide" 4. Dhl. -fone "lightweight" E.Cu. ona "empty,
abandoned" Afr. hoha "empty spaces" 6. Amh. ona, wana "empty house"
7. Tur. fufat "etre vide" 9. P.WN *phu- "be light in weight"
fanni branch of knowledge < Ar. fann
fansa ransom "r., redeem, repaying a kindness" cf. banye

I. NET bin pose "ransom" (bry "pay") 6. Tge faza Akk. padu, pedu "set free"
Sem. b-z- "ransom, rescue, save" 7. Tur. af "liberer" afsu "etre sauve" 4. Sid.
fa'na "become free" fansisa "make free"
fantsara proliferate cf. Eil. fantar "zerstreuen" Sid. fantar- "split, break into
fara grasshopper, locust ? < p-r- "fly, jump" see fira OS *fir + ut- "insect"
I. H. burdu "locust sp." Eed. pardon Ngz. parda "large flying termite" 2.

Mfg. babatar- "gr. sp." aiy- "voleter, sautiller" 3. Dgl. baga "sauterelle" bage
"bondir sur, sauter sur" 3a. Mas., Ean. bara "locust" pir "fly, jump" 4. Kwa.
pa'aluko "locust" Ma' padu "grasshopper" Kmb. fe'na 4a. Jnj. biliga "locust"
6. Gur., Amh. fenta "grasshopper" 7. Tur. afertakum "sauterelle voyageuse"

Tam. burxs "small gr." burjij "cricket"

fara begin, do first farko, fari "beginning" mafari "origin" faru "happen" P.
W.Cha. *pa(w)r- "begin" OS *pur- "untie" cf. bue
I. RD furay RS fwa'^ay 2. Gd., Njn. *f-w- "begin" Gd. p-r- "open" Mfg.

wur- "ouvrir, inaugurer" Mdr., Glv. wur- "open" Gv. farsana "begin" 3. Dgl.
ipire "denouer" pile "ouvrir" Lei. par "ouvrir" 4. RCu.(E) *fur- (D) *p-r-
"open" 5. Eg.(Eu) pa + t "the first beginning" (F) tpw3t "beginning" 6.

Sem. p-r-s- "open" 7. Tur. afar "commencer, debuter"

fara'a cheerful disposition < Ar. farha "joy, cheerfulness"
farabiti private (army, police) < Eng. cf. Krio prayvet
faraga opportunity, leisure < Ar. fara7
farashi price (usually the official, fixed pr.) < Eng. cf. Kri. prayz
farati parade < Eng.
farauta hunt Cha.(E, W, C) *P-r-(k) "hunt" *p-r- "look for" cf. bara
I. Gwd.(N) parete 3. ? Eid. 'araw "chasser" 8. Sng. faraw "make dam to
catch fish"

farce fingernail, finger < *p-r + t OS *par-, *bir- "finger" *cupar- "fingernail"
I. Gwd. pirsi "finger" 3. Dgl. perne "doigt" 4. P.Cu. *p-r- "finger" Sml. farti
"finger, toe" 4a. Koy. parta ? "finger" 5. Eg.(Bu) bun, ben- "claw, nail" (F)

P3h "scratch" 6. Heb. parsa "hoof, claw" Gur. fracca "scratch with nails"
7. Tarn, baccr "fingernail" 9. Ful. fee-, pee "fingernail"
fara, fura hoe up (esp. underground crops) "scrape up soil, split open" cf.

fartanya, hiia OS *pirat- "break, split" *fir-t- "tear off, pluck"

I.BoL peta "harvesting hoe" NBJ bara "hoeing" Gra. fea "hoe" 3. MkL,
Bid. *p-y- "recolter des arachides" Dgl. peta "champ prepare de nouveau pour
culture" 2. Gd. kada byaa "digging stick" (kada "stick") 4. P.Cu.(E) *fal-/
*fil- "scrape" (D) *p-R-ts- "uproot" P.SC *fat- "clear ground" Afr. faaris-,

fetfet- "scrape the earth" P.HEC *fil + d "comb" (Sid. also "clean (grains)")
5. Eg.(Bu) fet "dig up, tear out" 6. Sem. p-r-t/s/d "break through, split
open" 7. Tur. furat "frotter (avec quelque chose de dur)"
farfela propeller "pr., fan of car" < Eng.
farga realise cf. farka "wake up"
fargaba dread, fear (n.) < fauwar gaba "falling of front"
fari drought Cha. (E, W, C) *p-t- "sun, burn, roast, grill" cf. fatsar-fatsar
8. Kan. faram i. Gra. fel- "dry up" Dr. pori "sun" Plateau Cha. f-y- "dry up"
NB f-y "sun" 2. Muy. pile "dry out" Bac. furey "sun" Bur. pri "sun" 3. ?

Dgl., Bid., Mgm. bor- "secher" 4. P.Cu.(E) *purC- "be burnt, be hot" Kmb.
faru "heat" Bye. fur "get warm (from sun or fire)" 5. Eg.(Bu) pe + t "the
sky" 6. Heb., Gz., S.Ar. '-f-y "bake" ? Ar. fasa^ "be dried at the top (maize)"
fari white fat (ideo.) "pure (white)" farfara "sorghum sp." fara "anaemia"
faranta "whiten" farar hula "wh. cap, civilian" farar kaya "wh. thorn. Acacia
spp." farin ciki "happiness" cf. ful "very new" see sabo P.W.Cha. *p(w)al-

Cha.(E, W, C) *py-l "wh., new" P.WN *-phwai- "new" CB -pe, -pia "new"
OS *fir- "be good" 4. P.Cu. *p-r-t- "beautiful, white" *Pw-ntl- "wh." 4a.
Jnj. poro "white" Bnc. foro "white" 5. Eg.(Bu) nefer "good, beautiful, hap-
py" 6. Akk. pis- Ar. b-y-d 7. Tur. afa "light, clearness" nafibl "be clear" 3a.
Lam. u, fel "blanc" 9. Gby. fer) "etre blanc" fotee (ideo.) "completement et
uniformement blanc"
farji vagina < Ar. farj

farka wake up, tear open cf. faaka mafarki "dream" P.W.Cha. *f-r- cf. fara

"begin, *open"
I. Ang. fuk "wake" Dr. pire (Tgl. pigde "wake" pigundum "dream") 2. Mf.
parey "wake" prek "morning" Maf., Pad. pirek- "morning" 3. Dgl. pele

"veiller" 4. P.Cu. *b-r- "morning, morrow" Sml. bararug "wake" Bye. ar

"wake up" belal, bilal "dream (erotic)" Dhl. fala^e "morning star" P.HEC
*bakk'i "waking" Sid. baraga "wake suddenly" Or. bar! "dawn" Kwa. fa'im
"tomorrow" 6. Ar. falaq "dawn" Gur. bsraKaga "wake with start, talk in
sleep" 7. Tam. warig "dream" Tur. tahargit, tihurga "dream"
farke trader (itinerant) pi. fatake fatauci "itinerant trade" ? < Kan. fatke
"itinerant trade" cf. Dyl. fetigi "rich man" fe "chose materielle, Mens" -tigi

agential, possessive suffix

fartanya hoe (small, with triangular blade) also fantarya ? < farT + nya see
fas passing (exam) < Eng. pass
fasa, fashe break in pieces, disperse faso "cracked skin of foot" fashi "highway
robbery" mafashi "robber" faska "rip, tear, dig" faskara "split with ax" fasa
"postpone" P.Cha.(N) *faa "break" OS *pats- "destroy, break"
I. H. asa "break off" 2. Gd. patsa "chop through with one blow" fwasa
"highway robbery" 3. Dgl. pesse "casser avec la main" Lei. pasini "disperser"
4. Sid. fac- "cut" face- "stop doing something" 5. Eg. psn "split, separate,
fracture" 6. Sem. f-s-h- "break in pieces" Ar. fa'as "strike with axe" 7. Tur.
afsak "se desagreger, se fondre"
fasa arrow "broad a. with long barbs" OS *pasuq- "arrow" *pa'us- "axe"
1. Ang., Sur., Cp. pas SB pis Ngm. po'oso Bol. posso, pwaco 2. Gis. petew,
petu ? Nkt., Glv. macaka 5. ? Eg.(Bu) pesh + t "bite, sting (of insect or
reptile)" 6. ? Gz. fazuq "3-pronged spear" ?P.Sem. *pa's "axe"
fasaha skill, artistry < Ar. fasaha "eloquence, skill with language"
fasali good arrangement also "section, season" < Ar. fasl "division, section,
fasiki immoral person < Ar. fasiq
fasinja passenger < Eng. cf. Kri. pasenja
fassara translate, explain < Ar. fassara "explain or comment (on text)
fata I. skin (n.) cf. fita "go out" baya "outside" OS *pat- "skin"

9. Mlk. fata "skin, bark, wrap, put on" i. Gwd. pata, pato Ang. putol

"outside" Gra. patuwa "outside" 2. Hg. pta "skin" 4a. Om. *pa(a)t-
2. hope, wish well Cha. (E, W, C.) *p-r- "look for" cf. bida, farauta OS

*fat- "wish, desire"

4.P.SC *fid- "pray, ask for" Sml. fad- "seek" Or. abdl "hope (n.)" barbad-
"want, look for" 6. Gur. faci "seek" 7. Tur. as wad "esperer"

fatala headcloth cf. fatari Sng. fatala "band of cloth" Mnd. fatara "woman's
headband, foulard en general" Ful.(W) fatarere "morceau d'etoffe de petite di-
mension" ? Portuguese peda^o "piece (of cloth)"
fatalwa goblin, ghost cf. Pad. fatab patsa "rain god" (patsa "sun, day, *sky)"
fatari underskirt "u., woman's loincloth" cf. fatala Kan. fatale "woman's body

cloth" > patile

fatattaka tear (vb.) OS *fata- "tear"
fatta tear (vb.) OS *fat- "tear"

fatawa request for information ? < Ar. fatwa "decision on legal point" (H.
also has this
fatoma landlord (who lodges Kanuri traders) < Kan. fatoma "landlord" (Kan.
fato "house")
fatsar-fatsar heat of the sun P.W.Cha. *p-ts- "sun" P.Cha.(N) *fati "sun, day"
cf. fari "drought"
I. Plateau Cha. *pas "sun" Gra., Tgl. pis "sun" 2. E.Bura gp. pici "sun" Bok.
afsi "sky" f-ts-y- "sun" Pad. patsa "soleil, jour" Dab. pic "sun" farta "sun, god" 4. P.Rft. *pats- "sky"
fatu, fatuma cat cf. mussa
8. Kan. fatu Kof. batu Tgl. mbudu "wild cat" 2. patu widespread for

"domestic Gan. piktuta "wild c." ufwa "wild c." Hid. ufwatika

"wild c." Njn. waeki "domestic c." 3. Smr., Kr. badu 3a. Msm. batau Mas.
fatu 8. Bgr. batu 9. Tupuri baadu 5. Eg.(Bu) Ba "Leopard god" (F) b3
fawa butchering mahauci, mafauci "butcher" cf. Mnd., Bam. *faRa/faGa "kill,

slaughter" Mnd., Sng. wa- "butchery"

feda pedal (bicycle) < Eng. cf. Kri. pedal
fee, fra flay, skin fere, fira "pare, skin" fia "surgical operation" fiiye "cas-
trate" cf. H. bare, fata i, fee Cha.(E, W, C) *p-- "skin, eplucher, ecorcer,
sharpen, (carve)" OS *fed- "tear (vb.)" *fer- "peel, scratch"
I. RB suet "skin (vb.)" 2. Gis. sewta "skin (vb.)" 3a. Lam. pile' "shell

(groundnuts)" bile'e "bark" 4. P.SC *por-, *pot-, *pod-, *puru^- "strip off,

lay bare" ? Bye. hut "flay" 5. Eg.(Bu) petch "sharpen(?)" (F) pdi "sharpen
(knife)" 6. Soc. f-t-^ "depouiller" Gur. falafala "shell, hatch out" Amh. falfala

"shell, pierce, gush out" 7. Tur. fuday "etre ecorche"


fee, fia sharpen (to a point) cf. fee, fige OS *f-h-- "scrape, scratch":
1. H. fia "fang; canine tooth" Ang. pok "peel, skin (vb.) 2. Maf. hukw- "de-

cortiquer, enlever le tegument" 3. Turn, poke "peel (vb.) 4. Sml. fiq "sharpen

to point" Irk. fiqit "slice yams" P.HEC *fenk- "shell (peas, beans)"
fensir pencil < Eng. cf. Kri. pensul
fensho pension < Eng. cf. Kri. penshon
fenti paint (n.) < Eng. also fenta "painter" cf. Kri. pent, penta
fesa, fisa spray also fitsa P.Cha.(N) *pas9 "spew, spray"
OS *pehas- "wet, sprinkle" *pic- "spit" *fec- "blow" *fic- "be wet" 2. Mfg.
-p9S- "cracker dans une calebasse pour la benir" 4. P.SC *pa'a- "spit (n.)"
*but'u^- "spit (vb.)" ? Bye. fis'- "deride, poke fun at" 5. Eg. psg "spit on, spit
at" 7. Tarn, ssufs "spit" Tur. afsu "vomir"
fetur petrol, gas < Eng. cf. Kri. petrol
ft, fifita exceed, surpass fifiko "excellence" cf. fita "go out" Cha.(W,C.) *p-n-
"surpass" *p-t- "pass by" OS *pay- "go"
2. Gd. pita "go past" 3. Turn, pal, paaw
pa "surpass, go "depasser" 3a. Pv.

out" 4. Bil. fi "ausgehen, etc." Ag. "go out" Bye.

fir) "go out" Had. fira

faranai "excess, surplus" 5. Eg.(Bu) per "pass a limit, be prominent etc.

etc." (F) pri "go, go up" prw "excess" 6. Gur. efa "go away, pass" 7. Tam.
if, fi "exceed" Tur. ufu "exceed" afal "go, come from" Ghd. effa' "go out"

Siw. fal "passer"

fii blowing strongly (wind) cf. H. hura "blow"
OS *fi'- "blow" I. P.W.Cha. *fi/aH- "blow, dry" RS fyah "blow (flute)" NBT
fefeyun "whistle" 2. Mfg. fey "souffler, siffler, jouer (d'un instrument a vent)"
Gd. 9pi "cool by blowing" Gis. pali "winnow" Bac. filo "whistle" 3a. Mus.
fe'er- "blow" 4. P.Cu.(: '-ff- "blow" Bye. nifi "blow, fan" 6. Sem. n-f(f)-H

"blow, fan" 5. Eg.(Bu) nifa "blow, breathe" 4a. Bnc. pel "blow" 8. Knz. uffi
fidaburdi public works department < Eng. P.W.D.
fidda, fid da, fiddau < fitar da see fita
fiffike wing pi. fikafikai cf. fira "fly"
P.Cha.(N) *p-k- P.W.Cha. *pak(k)a "wing, shoulder", *(ba) + baka "wing"
OS *pakuh- "hand, arm"
I.Gwd. pikapikyi Pr. skak Tgl. bokbok 2. Gab., Hwn., Bok. *p-kp-k- Bur.
gp. *B9B9k- Gv. pepe (s.) pepexa (pi.) "shoulder" 3. Turn. *p-r- "shoulder,
wing" 3a. Ban. pelpik "shoulder" Lam. bike "epaule (animal)" 4. Rnd.
barbar- "wing, shoulder" 6. S.Ar. f-rf-r "wing, feather" 7. Tur. tafakfak

"wing, half of bird's breast" 8. Kan. fefeto "wing"

fifita fan (vb.) Cha.(W, C) *p-t- "blow" cf. H. fii H. fTto "whistling" huta "rest"
I. BT *f-yt "wind" 2. Mfg. fat- "eventer (en soufflant)" Pad. ufada "jouer (de
la flute)" Gd. pawutana (n.) 3. Mkl. *pete "eventer" 4. P.SC *hefid- "fan
(vb.)" 5. Eg.(Bu) nefut "cook's fans for blowing fire" (F) nfyt "fan (n.)" 6.

Soc. frfr "eventer" 7. Tur. hefefet "siffler"

fig-, fizg- strip, pluck out cf. fee, fee OS *pig- "stretch"
3. DgL pirge "decoller, ecorcher"
fil pin < Eng.
filafili paddle (of boat) Kan. falaifalai cf. faifai

filaya pliers < Eng. cf. Kri. playa

fil azal long long ago < Ar. fi + 1 + asal "in the beginning"
filfilo butterfly, kite cf. birbiro < *p-r/l- "fly, flutter" see fira
8. Knz. firfire "flattem" i. NBM atlipepir "butterfly" NBK iifirfira "butter-
fly" 2. Hwn. papirra "bat" *p-lp-l "bat" Gd. pariparina "butterfly,
moth" 3. Dgl. pompimporom "butterfly sp." 4. P.Cu.(E) *pal-, *pil- "flut-
ter" 5. Eg. sp3w "birds made to fly, flushed from cover" 6. Heb. parpar
"butterfly" P.Sem. *-spir- "flutter"
fili; fell open space
9. Mnd. fere, fele "etre large, largeur, 1. Ang. fur "o.s."
com, place publique"
Plateau Cha. *p-y- "place" Cp. "doorway" Pr., Tgl. *piDi "place" 2.

Laam. vli "place" Mfg. palah, papalah "plaine, endroit plat" 6. Ar. fala "o.s.,
plain" 8. Ted. fili "pdturage"
fille, falla cut off (head) filla-filla "item by item"
OS *pal- "cut, divide" *f-l- "divide, pierce" 8. Sng. falya, felya "couper en
deux" 2. Mfg. pare- "couper (au couteau, a la faucille)" Log., Bud., Kot. *p-y-
"cut" 3. Lei. por "couper, moissoner (eleusine)" 3a. Zim. fal "cut" Lam. fal

"egorger, couper en morceaux" 4. Sid. fil- "cut in small pieces" Brj. firt- "cut
branches" Dhl. ir- "c. grass, mow" Kwa. -pwilija "circumcise" 5. Eg. pns
"c. off (joint)" 2. Sem. f-l-y "separate, c." Ar. falla "notch (sword)" 7. Tur.
afras "couper, decouper, moissoner"
fim film (camera, movie) < Eng. cf. Kri. fim
fira fly, soar also ira, ura cf. fir (ideo.) "describes whirring of bird's wings"
fara "grasshopper" P.Cha.(N) *para "fly, jump" P.W.Cha. *paw/yr- "jump"
OS *P-R- "fly, jump, bird, (insect)" i. Ank. p'ar 2. Gd. par, far (ideo.)

"flying of birds" 9. Gby. firr (ideo.) "designe le vol rapide d'un petit oiseau"

4. P.Cu. *p-r(r)- "fly" 4a. Jnj. fillo "jump" 5- Eg. p3 "fly" 6. P.Sem. *-prur-

"fuggire (come in volo)" 7. Siw. amfar "fly" Tur. afrw "wing" Tarn afrw "fly"
8. Kan. far- "fly, jump" Knz. firr, firri "fliegen"
firgita frighten cf. H. firgigit "sudden jumping, e.g. from fright" fira "fly, soar"
2. Pad. varagat "s'envoler" 3. Mkl. 'orgie "craindre" akiyta "etre distrait

(pi.)" Bid. ak "avoir peur" 4. Bil. faggad "sich fUrchten, sich dngstigen" 6. ES
f-rh- "be afraid"
firlji refrigerator < Eng. fridge
firo Digitaria exilis also iburo q.v. cf. Ron *fot P.WN *-phila "kind of millet"
fita go out fito "come out" fice "pass by" fitas da, fitar da "take out, dismiss"
fito "ferrying" mafici "passing, temporary" ? fata "skin (< outside)" cf. fi

"exceed" wuce "pass" P.Cha.(N) *pata "go out" P.W.Cha. *put- "go out"
*f-t- "go in, go out" P.WN *phit- "pass" OS *fat-/*fit- "move" *f-t- "take
out" *hupet- "go"
3. ? Tum. 65d "sortir" 4. P.Cu.(E) *fi- "go out" Bil. fi + d "hinausgehen lassen"
P.SC *fad- "go out, go away" Bye. fidig "set off" 5. Eg. pri "come out" 6.

Hars. fetok "come out" Gz. f-w-t "err, stray" Ar. f-w-t "pass, elapse, die" 7.

P.Ber. (Rossler) *p-t( ) "hinausgehen" Tur. afal "quitter, partir de" Ghd. effa'
"go out" 8. Sng. fatta, farta "sortir"

fitiki cutting grass < Eng. fatigue (duty)

fitila lamp cf. Sng. fitilla Bam. fitine "oil 1."
Tur. taftalt Siw. taftllt "meche de la petite lampe a huile" Ar. fatlla "wick"
Eg.(Bu) petr "cord, thread, wick"
fitina troublesomeness < Ar. fitna "discord, riot, disturbance" cf. Kan. fitana
"intrigue" Mnd. "emeute, sedition"
fito, futo beer (local, from sorghum) cf. buza
I. H. betso Kof. pito 2. Mg. pe Bac. fito, vwe Pad. pihe 3. Dgl. potpoto
"Mere de mil (langage des anciens combattants)" Bar. boto 5. Eg.(Bu) pa + t

"liquor, drink"
fito whistling see fii, fifita

1. NB *fi- 2. Gd. fet "blowing whistle" 4. P-HEC *fi-(s-) "whistle (vb.)"

7. Tur. hefefet "siffler"
fitsari urine fitsare "urinate" P.W.Cha. *picari ? < p-s- (vb.) + S-r- (n.) cf. fesa

"spray" sai, sanyi "urine"

OS *puc- "urine" i. Gwd. bicari Gwd.(N) bitsaro Dw. buzari Pr. cirin (n.)

2. Pad. sill- Mba. salay "feces" 3. Tum. bajar (n.) Sok. sori (n.) sorsori
(vb.) Dgl. piy- (vb., n.) Lei. coro (n.) 8. Kan. coUo (n.) 6. Hars. d-h-1

(n.,vb.) 4a. Jnj., Bnc. *ses- (n.) 7. Siw. sars (vb.) isarsin (n., pi.) Tur.
tafazzawen (n.^pl.)

fuka lung disease also huka cf. haki, huhu

ful very new
2. Gd. pul "very new"

fulawa wheat flour < Eng. cf. Kri. flawa

flower, blossom < Eng. cf. Kri. flawa
fumfuna mildew
I. Ang. vum, vun

fura dumpling (made of millet) cf. Mnd. bura "houillie, se mettre en bouillie, re-

duire en bouillie"
fure flower (esp. tobacco fl.) Cha.(E, W, C) *p-l-(t) "flower" cf. huda OS *pur-
"flower, grass" *pir- "fruit, corn" *pirax- "sprout, flower"
9. Mnd. firi, fyere (esp. tobacco fl.) 4. P.Cu.(E) *fir- "flower (vb,), bear fruit"
4a. Jnj. fu'ra "flower" 5. Eg. prt "fruit, seed, offspring" 6. P.Sem. *pary-
"fruit" Hars. f-r-7 "bloom, ripen" Gur. frata "flower, blossom (vb.)"
furfura grey hair Ful. fur- "be grey" cf. hurde
I. Gwd. huhurugwa 2. Gd. hwTra'uda
furfura barter, exchange ? < "*turn over" cf. Bud. furfuri "roll on ground"
furta utter, mention furuci (n.) see faa "tell, say"
furu, hiaru shells of groundnuts OS *fuwar- "skin, bark"
furza spit out cf. Gur. frat- "spray water, sprinkle" H. fesa q.v.
fuska face ? < *pu + k + *san ("mouth" + "nose") other AA langs. have "mouth"
+ pL; "eye"; "mouth" + "eye"
1. Gwd. puska NEW pusk- Bed. puksan Ngz. faska 8. Kan. faska ? < > H.
2. kwu (< *pu) + cir FB bagi + jin (jin "nose") Gv. vaku diya (diya
"nose") 4. "mouth" P.Cu.(E) *'isr)^- "nose" 6. P.Sem. *p-
P.Cu.(E) *'af-
"mouth" Akk. pu "mouth" putum "forehead" Syriac pa'^- "face" Gur. fanca
"forehead" Gz. fasm "forehead" Amh. afanca "nose" 5. Eg.(Bu) fent "nose"
fushi, hushi anger bad temper, vexation, ? sexual arousement (there is a

passage in a version of the Daura legend in Edgar's collection where this

meaning seems to be demanded)" also fishi cf. haushi OS *fus- "be
I. BT, Grn. (w)isi "fire" 4. Bye. hasi "be sharp, get angry, sexually excited"
5. Eg.(Bu) hushi "danger" user + t "fire, flame" 6. P.Sem. *'is- "fire"

futuk primitive (ideo.) cf. utuk

I. Ngz. puduk "black (ideo.)" 8. Kan. futku "naked"

fyace blow out (mucus) cf. fesa, furza

fyaa beat "b., whip, flog, knock down" fyae "rape (n.)" cf. fee "flay", faa

I. RK fwad "schlagen" Dr, wata "whip (n.)" Zri. fwat "kill" 2. Hrz. veda
"beat" 3. Dg. Pate, Pete "donner un coup" 4. P.Cu. *w-c- "beat strongly" Or.
watala "hit strongly with rope or wire" 4a. Kf., Mch., Shn. *wud- 7. P.Ber.

ga, gare at, in, to, with cf. gari, guri
I. Gwd. ga object marker Bol. ga "with, to, in" 2. Log. age "wegen" ga "zu"
Bud. g9 "zu, nach, wegen" Gd. ga "at the place of" 3. Dgl. ger "maison
(home)" ger tyo "chez eux" 4. Brj. -ga benefactive, directive suffix Or. gara "to,
toward" 6. ES ? -ge locative suffix 7. Tur. 7ur "chez, aupres de, a"
gaba front, future Cha.(C., E) *g-b- "near" gabata "lead, precede" cf. gefe
OS *gab- "front, side, bank, beach" i. P.W.Cha. *gaba "front, chest" 4. P.EC
*gab- "direction" Bil. gaba "neben, Seite des Korpers, Ufer" Had. gob "nahen"
P.Cu. *g-p- "side, near" 5. Eg. gbs "side (of room)" 6. ES gab- "flank, side"
Ar. q-bl "front, before" Hars. mexabbet "front (of chest)"
gaba enmity, war
I. Ngz. gaba ? < H. NBK gabu "war" 4. P.EC *gib(b)- "hate, avoid" 6. Sem.
*g-b-r "force, subdue" Ar. 7iyba "backbiting, slander" 7aba "spear" 8. Sng.
gabi "force"
gabaruwa acacia "A. arabica" also bagaruwa ? < g- + bar-
I. BN *g-varu NB *baru NBJ varan "A. Senegal" 2. Gd. vuran Log. 70val 3.

Bid. gabara "arbresp." Dgl. garpa "A. macrostachya" Lei. bore "A. sieberiana"
8. Tub. gobor 4. P.Sam *gumar "A. nubica" Bil. gamaro "A. sanguinea" Sid.
burra "A. sp." 5. Eg. b3 "A. moringa" 9. Mnd. barana 8. Sng. bani
gabas east ? < gaba q.v. cf. Sey. gabar ? < H.
gaa joint (of limb)section between joints"

OS arm" 4. Afr. gaba "hand, arm" Bye. gibb- "span"

*gaba'- "hand, Or.
qaba tokko "something that can be held in one hand" (tokko "one") 5. Eg.
gb3 "arm" 7. Tur. a79bber "hanche"
gaa bank (of river) "b., vicinity" cf. gaba, gefe
H gaggafa "bank" q.v. Dr. galba "beside, edge"
I. 4. P.Cu. *g-'p- "side, near"
Sml. heb "sea-shore, coast" 5. Eg. gb3 "side (of room)" 6. P.Sem. *qurb
"near" Sem. *g-nb "side"

gauu fool also gao

bebe cf.

2. Njn. gbaggbame Gd. gapa Bud. abubu "diimm" 6. At. 7abiy

gaci bank (of river) OS *gats- "face, bank, side"
2. Gd. gandzama "crumbling edge of river bank" (ma "mouth, edge, rim")
4. Had., Kmb. gita P.Cu. *g-s- "side" 5. Eg. gs "side, border" 6. Amh. gass
"face, surface, side"
gada antelope "duiker sp." P.W.Cha. *gada "ant. sp."
I. Ngz. gaduwa Bed. kaduwan NB *gudam- "kob" Sig., Zks. kidu 4. Brj., Or.
gadam- "greater kudu" Der. gadansa "antelope" Sid. goda "deer, gazelle"
6. Shuwa Ar. umm tigdim "duiker"
gada bridge (modern) < Eng. girder cf. Yor. gada
gada inherit gado "heritage, tradition"
4. Sid. gade "descent (origin), lineage" Bil. gada' "herrschen, machtig sein"

Afr. nagare "inherit" gar + le "have rights" (le "have") 6. Ethiopian Sem.

gwalt "legacy, patrimony etc." Gz. ga'/^z "custom, ways, mode of life" Gur.
gaza "own, possess" 7. Tur. agaz "heriter"
gadi guarding < Eng.
gado bed cf. gwado "blanket" ? < g- + d-(g)w-
I. Gwd.(N) gado Bol. dawu "mat" 2. Mfg. gegade "natte" 9. CB *-gada

"mat" 3. Tum. ge "mat (gen.)" Kr. gadagaw "mats"

gadu warthog "w.hog, wild pig" cf. gursunu Kan. godu Tub. gadu CB *-gudu
"pig" *-gidi "warthog"
I. Bed. gadan KK gadu 2. Bur. gadu 3. Mkl. godige "phacochere" 4. Mch.

gudino P.SC *gu'^at'- "bushpig" 4a. Wei., Kef. gudin- 6. Gur. gutma
(for K-D-r in languages of Sudan, see Spaulding, J.L. and Jay in SUGIA 9

(1988), pp. 247-268)

gafaka bag "b., scholar's satchel" cf. Mnd. gafa, gafaya "horse's feed bag" W.
Ful. gafakke "feed bag" E.Ful. ngafakka "satchel" Sng. gafaga "shoulder bag"
gafara pardon "p., excuse me" < Ar. yafir "forgiving" 7afar "forgive" H. gafarta
gagara exceed "e., be too much for"
I. BT *g9r- "e." 2. FK r)gyar- "e." 3. Lei. gar "passer a cote" 4. Sid. gara "win
a cause in a trial" gargara "restrain" Bye. gwil "e." 6. Gur. jagara "embar-
rass, Amh. aggara "impede,
upset" stop" 7. Tur. agar "exceed"
gaggafa bank OS *haf- "bank"
gaggawa haste also gaggauta ? < gargar + wa see gara
6. Amh. gwaggwa'a "hurry" 4. Sid. gaggawa "stagger" Had. gaggab- "hurry"

gaibi unseen < Ar.yayb

gaira lacking "1., minus" < Ar. 7ayr
gajeba kidneys OS *gadeb- "stomach"
gajere short cf. H. gutsura "break off piece" gaza "fall short" see gaji
8. Sng. gazere "sh. person" 7. Gra guja Ngam. gajere
Ber. g-z-1 "short" i.

NB *g-(n)j-l- Tgl. kwandal 2. Pad. gejele "petit (en stature)" 3. Tum. goji
"court" 3a. Lam. gwadzi "court" 4. Sid. gica "grow stunted" 6. Ar., Heb. q-
s-r "short"
gaji tire cf. H. gaza, kasa "fall short, fail" gajiya "fatigue" P.W.Cha. *gatt- OS
*^-gaj- "be weak"
I. Gra. gwadi, gwaz- Brm. gaje 2. Gis. gar, girvo "fatigue" (vu, vo "body")
Mfg. garey "se fatiguer" 4. Bye. gwoi "fail, be unable, be tired" 5. Eg.(Bu)
khasi "suffer, be tired" (F) Eg. gth "be tired" 6. Amh. aqata "be unable"
Gur. q'ata "be tired" q'acna "fatigue" Gz. gwa^taya "fatigue" Ar. qasr "ina-
gajimare clouds "white, fleecy clouds" ? < g-d/z-m + are
for *g-d-m "big" see girma OS *ar- "cloud"
I. H. gajimmari "rainbow, spirit living in wells and emerging as rainbow"
RS 'are "Himmel, Wolken" 2. Pad. hule "nuage" 4. P.Cu.(E) *g-d- "big" (D)
*^-r- "cl., white cL, fog, rain, sky" 5. Eg.(Bu) herit-, hai + t "sky, heaven"
galadima title of official < Kan. galtima
galan gallon "g.,g. sized can" < Eng.

galibimajority galiban "usually" < Ar. 7alib "predominant" 7aliban "usually"

galma, garma hoe "broad-bladed h." cf. kalme, korame
I. Gj. gili Tgl. kalambi "axe (for men)" Bol. galabi "ax" 3a. Lam. galmai "pi-

oche" 2. Mfg. gabma Klb. gilu'u Hg., F. *r)gur- Log. gera "jaten" gam "Haue"
Mad. ggalar) "hoe, weed" 3. Kr. gal "creuser" Bid. karbawi "houe sp." (? < Ar.)

7. Tur. agelhim "houe"

gam locust sp.
I. NB *-gwam "1." Ngz. aqgwam "1." 3. Mkl. gambir- "sauterelle sp."

gama finish, collect game "together" gamo "encounter" cf. goma P.Cha.(N)
*g-ma "meet" P.W.Cha. *g/xam- "finish" *g(w)am- "meet" *(n) + gam- "fill"
OS *gam- "be full" *goma^- "gather, meet" *qom- "gather, join"
I. NB g-m- "join" 2. Gd. gwama "herd of cattle" gunwu, ganwu "come to-

gether, meet" 3. Mgm. gamo "/in/r" Bid. gamar) "troupeau" ]g. gam "(zusam-
men) treffen" 3a. ? Lam. gumo'o "fermer (main, oeil, bouche)" 9. Gby. gam
"melanger" 4. Or. gum- "finish, complete" gum! "meeting" gamta "togeth-

erness" Sid. gamba, guma "gather" gamo "company" P.HEC *gum'a "all"
Afr. gamaddis- "make final" 5. khem "bring to an end" (F) hm^
"collect (of people)" 6. P.Sem. *gamil- "maturo" Ar., Hars. g-m-^- "collect"
7. Tur. agmar "collectionnef
gamba grass sp. "Andropogon guyanus"
2. Hg. gamba "bush (brousse)" Mdr. kamba "bush {broussey Pad. varakamba
"brousse" (vara "tribu, clan")
for grass /"bush" connection see daji
gambu (NW H.) door covering
8. Sng. gambu "porte" i. Ngz. gwamper "door closure made of bamboo" 4.

Abo. korbo "d. made of interwoven lathes" 6. Hrr. garbari, gambari "d. of
house" (gar "house" bari "door")
gamji, ganji fig tree "Ficus platyphylla" (source of gum)
9.Np. gbanci "R spp." i. Ang. gur) "F. platyphylla" Dr. gomso "Detarium sp."
NBT gar) "gum-arabic tr." NBJ auji "gum-arabic tr." Tgl. kwanam "rubber,
gum" 4. Sid. ganco "tree sp. (big, gives shade)"
gammo, ganwo headpad (for load) P.W.Cha. *hama "head"
OS *xam- "senior male relative" i. NB *7am- "head" SB *gam- "head" 4.

P.Cu. *g-m(m)-n "mane, tuft of hair, headdress" Bye. gir'ma "head, corner"
amo "head, top, hair" Sid., Der. umo "head, self" 2. Bac, Mwl. *h3m-

HB 7u(m) "head" 5. Eg.(Bu) hen "skull, brain pan" 6. Soc.

gemgemoh "head" Ar. gamgama "skull" 9. P.WN *-7iu "head"
gamshea cobra "black-hooded c." ? < gam- "meet with" + shea "run away
gamzaki morning star ? < g-m + 1 + k-

5. Eg.(Bu)khemiu seku, akhmiu seku "stars that are always above the
horizon" akhmiu "stars" 2. Njn. gamleki "st." Mwl. gumla "st." Pad. gamala
"St." I. ? Dw. zagizak "st." 4. P.Cu.(E) *h-zk- "st." P.HEC *beddzeko "st."

6. ? Ar., n-g-m "st."

gandiroba see duroba
gandu farm "f. of the head of the house or area" gandu, kudin gandu "tribute"
? < Sng. gando "earth, land" cf. Np. gandu "drummer's fee"

ganda palate "hard p." also hana

I. Ngz. ganad "gum" 2. Mfg. gardar) "p." Maf. ngardak "p." C.Cha. gan-

"tongue" Ter. yen + nda "tongue" 3. Sok. kerred 4. P.EC (Ehret) *^andab-
"tongue" P.SC *^anda "tongue" Sml. hardad Afr. ri4d "gums" Sid. gangana
"palate, gum" 5. Eg.(Bu) gann "tongue (?)" 6. Gur. anad "tongue" Hrr.

arrat "tongue" S.Arg. arada "tongue" 7. Tur. an7a, an7atan "palate"

ganoki overeager "person who does foolish things through overeagerness" <
oki q.v. ? *gam- "head, chief" {see gammo)
ganga, gangami drum (general) also "dr.-shaped container" cf. gwangwani ?

< gangan ureal word e.g. Yor. gangan Sisala gengan- Gurma ganga- Kan.,
Bgr., Tur., Cha. (E, C.) ganga
gangama bank (of stream) cf. gaba, gaa
2. Ter. guma "front" Bur. gagam "steep b. of river" 3. Kr. koqkor) "bank"
Turn, gar) "bank"
gangara roll down, descend ? < gara "roll" q.v.

4. P.HEC *gonkol- "roll" Sml. giringiri "roll" 6. ES q^-lq^-1- "go down hill"
gani, gan, ga see gane "understand, recognize" gana "have private meeting"
P.W.Cha. *^ayan cf. ankara, hanga
I. Gwd. gar), gani Gwd.(N) gye Ang. gor) "look" Bol. gan "understand ? < H.

NBP, NBD *h-yn "see" 2. Zgv. nu7ene FJ 7a FB r)gun Njn. nahan 3. Sok.
gen- Mkl. geN- "voila, void" Lei. gangri "regarder" 4. P.Cu.(E) *7ahn- "know,
understand" Bye. gin'a "heart, mind" gin'i "verstdndig", Sid. qane "rendez-
vous, appointement" 5. Eg.(Bu) ga "see, look" gamh "see, look upon, per-
ceive" 7. Tur. ihannay "voir" 9. CB -gan- "think"
gamma booty < Ar. 7anTma
gan jar bushbuck "Tragelaphus sp." cf. katsauri
8. Kan. nganjar "b." i. NBD, NBJ ganjar "b." 2. Bur. kajal "antelope sp." FB
kajaran "gazelle" Mfg. maggazaw ''Redunca (reedbuck)" i. Tgl. kadur
"bushbuck" 3a. Zim. zar "reedbuck" 8. Ted. agazo "antelope" Dz. gazabsi
"antelope" 4. Awg. agazeni "antelope sp." Kimant agazen "antelope sp."
6. Ar. 7azal "gazelle"
ganuwa town wall, rampart ? < *g-n- "build, make" see gina cf. garu
ganye leaf cf. anye
I. Gwd. gar)ya Gwd.(N) gyer) NBB gyan din (din "tree") 2. Mdr. ganye Log.
'7one "vegetation" 3. Dgl. ganyo "herbe" ganyir "paille" Kuj. kanya "grass"
9. Biafada (WA) ganyari (s.) wanyari (pi.) Eregba anyi (Dalby, 1964) 8. Kan.

ganya "tree with green leaves" ? gar)- "produce new leaves (tree)"
gara ant "white a., termite" cf. gina, gwano P.Cha.(N) *gaia "termite" OS
*gotlal- "ant" *gu^al- "insect"
9. Ful. galgal "male termite" Gby. gaya "termite sp." 4. P.Rbt. *har- P.EC
*kuy- "termite hill" 4a. Jnj ora ,

gara roll, speed along garaje, gargara "haste" gare "hoop" cf. gaggawa,
gangara, gudu, hari
OS *gir-/*gur- "go, run" i. RS ('a)gal, "run" 2. Nkt. y^ala "run" Gd. 79rava
"ride horse quickly, attack quickly" Mfg. garay garay "marcher rapidement"
3. Gbr., Nan., Lei. g-r "run" 3a. Lam. fiar- "hater" 4. P.SC *giri "hurry" Had.
ger- "davonlaufen" Bye. garabo "canter" 4a. Bnc. gar- "roll" 5. Eg.(Bu)
kherem "hasten" (F) h3h "hurry" 6. Hars. gero "run" Gz. (ta)'agrata,
hagrata "hurry" Ar. gara "flow, run" ^agal "hurry" 'a7ar "gallop, run swiftly"
7. Tur. Yarafraf "se hater trop"
gam better that "it is better that"
3. Dgl. gala "bon, agreable" 4. Or. gari "good" garoma "be better" 8. Kan.
rjgala "good"
garali pursuit of one's own ends < Ar. 7ard
garatute payment (to retiring official) < Eng. gratuity
garaya lute (2 stringed) also giraya

4. Or. kirara "1." 6. Amh. krar "6 stringed 1." Gur. karar "stringed musical
instr." Heb. kinnor "zither" Ar. kinnara, ? kiran "kind of guitar" Akk.
kinnaru Eg.(Bu) kenanaur Greek kinnura
gara grind coarsely
I. Tgl. keebe "grind imperfectly" 2. Log. muxbi "flour" Mfg. ggarw- "moudre
a moitie" karp- "ecraser" harp- "ecraser lourdement" K-p-y- "flour" 3.

Dgl. karpe "piler quelque chose deja imbibe" Mgm. kampis- "piler pour enlever
le son" Lei. kubra "farine" 4. Or. garafa "gr. coarsely" 5. Eg.(Bu) kenfa
"crush, squeeze"
gardama dispute, quarrel cf. Kan. gar + ta "attacking, assailing" garetema "at-
gardi obstinate, tough, brave also gardaye
3. Dgl., Bid. gardy- "elephant" i. Dr. gandar- "huge"
gareji garage < Eng.
gargadi warning, admonition ? < Kan. garga + ta "being angry" cf. Bud.
girgade "being angry"
gari town, inhabited environment cf. ga/gare, guri
OS *ger- "town" *er- "dwelling" *xa^ay- "house" 9. Gby. gari "endroit oil
Von se tient" Tv. gar "village, fence" i. Gwd.(N) giri Krf. giri Tgl. hili, kalau
"soil, earth" 2. Bok. xura'a "town" hanyi "ground" C.Cha. *7ay-

"home, earth, land" 4. P.Cu. *7-rr- "land, earth, soil" Afr. gari "adjacent
area, environs" Sid. gare "tribe, people, village" 3. Dgl. ger "enclos familial"

game "clan" Mkl., Bid. h-11- "village, quartier, ville" Turn, haji "terre, sol" 3a.
Mas. gali "voisin" 6. Ar. qarya "borough, village" Gz. hagar "town, country,
inhabited region etc." S.Ar. hgr "city" Tge., Tna. hagar "land, country"
Amh., Gur. agar 7. Tur. a7ram "ville" P.Ber. *9k9l- "earth"
gari flour cf. gara, gurori
9. Yor., Np. gari "cassava fl." Tv. gera "grind coarsely" i. NBM hara "grind

into liquid" 2. Bur. hat- "grind" Klb., Gis. h-'- "grind" Gd. aggyi, a4-
"grind" Log., Bud. *7e "grind" Mba. har "grind roughly" 5. Eg.(Bu) kha
"crush, pound" 3. Dgl, Bid. kurgal "millet fl." Mkl. gerriye "ecraser" 3a.
Lam. hala "ecraser" 4. Kwa. xa'it "grind" Irk. qet- "be broken in pieces" 6.
ES ankuro "fl. of maize etc." Gur. garadafa "grind coarsely" art "fl." Arg.
hart "fl." Gz. harada "grind" harid, haris "fl." 7. Tur. egel "fl." Tarn, arn

garji heat "what a hot day!" cf. P.Cu.(D) *g-r- "fire" P.Cu.(E) *7war- "heat" Lei.
wirji, wurji "burn completely"

gark- shield, fence garka, garga "fenced plot" garke, garge "corral, herd, flock"
garkuwa "shield" cf. kange, kara, kunkuru, wangwara OS *or-^- "shield"
I. Dr. garwa "shield" Tgl. karge "enclose (with wall or fence)" kwagam
"shield" Bed. garakun, ggarakun "shield" Ang. kak "ward off, protect" 2.

Mdr. guUakwa "shield" Pad. galaka "shield" Udl. guloko "shield" Bud.
r)galag9 "shield" Log. galaka "shield" Mdr. gargare "fenced place" Pad.
gargare "fenced place" 8. Kan. gargara, gargari "fenced place" 3. Sok.
kokere "shield" Dgl. gur)gar "delimitation entre champs" gengire "se pro-

teger, mettre devant soi" 4. Bil. gargara "Ringzaun um ein Gehofte" Had. agira
"shield" Alb. garero "shield" Or. kerkara "protect" Sid. gargar- "corral ani-
mals" 5. Eg.(Bu) qera, ger "shield" hurh "protect, keep watch over" (F) h3
"herd" 6. Gur. ago, garangar "shield" Amh. garangare "shield" 7. Tur.
agror "enclos a chevreaux" 8. Sng. korey (pi.) "shield" Ted. korey, agor
"corral" Knz. karu "Schild"
garmaho gramophone, record-player < Eng.
garu wall (round town or compound) cf. ganuwa
OS *ga'ur- "waU, yard" *gor- "wafl, house, dweUing" 8. Kan. gar- "build"
garu "wall" Sng. garu "case en terre" Dz. gouru "mm en pierres ou terre" garu
Ngm., Ngz., Ang., Gby. (? borrowed either from Kan. or H.)
also in Dr., Bol.,
I. H. gargari "low wall"
garura dye "imported dye, green or magenta" cf. Sng. garura "red dye" Mnd.
gara "indigo" cf. karofi

garwa tin "4 gallon kerosene t. (much used by water carriers)" ? < ga ruwa!
(which was the cry they used)
gas diesel oil, cooking gas < Eng.
gasa grill, broil (cook over hot ashes) cf. girki, kawa
OS has- "roast" i. H. easa "dry up" 4. Awg. kwi + s- "simmer" Ag. ges-
"roast" Bye. gas "boil" Afr. gasa "iron griddle" Kmb. qunse 4a. Jnj. kassu
"cook" Bnc. kes' "burn (intr.)" 5. Eg.(Bu) hess "heat, flame, fire" 6. Gur.
qwaqwasa "be roasted (on griddle), *become burnt, *become dry" Gz.
takkwasa, tarkwasa "burn, set on fire"

gaskiya truth also gaske (n.) gaskata (vb.) < gas + k-

I. Gwd.(Gitata) gace 2. Msg. gazi "wahr" Gid. gisirj Maf. kuza'a "droit, direct"

3. Mkl. kuc "vrai, intime" 3a. Ban. gasagira, gaziya Mas. gasi(ta) 4. Or., Brj.
ajel- "right, honest, straight" Sid. gut- "equal right, share" P.SC *ui- "be
straight" 6. Tge kazra "recht" Gur. qatt "straight"
gashi hair, feather P.Cha.(N) *gasi "hair" P.W.Cha. *g(a)z- ? < g-N "head" +
s-( ) "hair" gammo, lahuru

1. H. geza "mane" Gwd. gasa (N) ga' NB *r)g9zi NBT ga'siye 9. E.Ful gasa
2. Ter. 70s Gis. r)gwic Zlg. ngwuz "feather" Mfg. arjgwec "cheveux, poil" Pad.

r)gutsa 3. Tum. gura "h., feather" 3a. Lam. rjgasa "poil, cheveux" 5. Eg.(Bu)
gemsh "hair, lock, tress" shu + t "hair, feather" shen "hair" 4. Sid. gaze
"long hair" Der. gucce "feather" Or. koco "feather" Gaw. geso Tsm. gazo
Gollango kaso 4a. Wei., Kef., Mch. *Kw-s- "feather" Jnj. koso "feather,
wing" 9. P.WN *-ghwili "h."
gata three days hence cf. citta, hantsi
I. Gwd. gata 2. Mg. azugu "tomorrow" azagata "day after tomorrow" Gd.

cif gat "day after tomorrow" cif gat ta "2 days after tomorrow" 8. Ted.
agudi, agude "apres-demain"
gatari ax cf. gitta
I. Gwd. gante, gantere 7. Tur. a7tas "cut with axe or sword" 2. Glv.
'uyudara "chop, cut" 4. Or., Kmb. kalt- 6. ? Sem. q-t-1 "kill" (Akk. has the
same root for "kill" and "battle-ax") 5. Eg.(F) rdn (Bu) qartchan
gato vagina, bottom cf. gindi, gutsu, kuturi OS *kud- "genitals"
I. Gwd.(N) goto "v." 9. Gby. goo 2. *kand- "v." Dab. megien

"vagina" 4. P.Cu.(E) *end- "vulva" Bil. qit 5. Eg.(F) k3t (Bu) ka + t 6. ES,
S.Ar. qantar 7. Tur. akedil
gatsa bite gatse "sarcasm" gatsine "sneering grimace" P.W.Cha. *qas- "bite"
*hatsw- "tooth" *^atl(tl)- "eat (hard food)" OS ^atl- "bite"

2. Dab. ngats "mordre" 4. P.Cu.(E) *r)ed'-, *r)ed^- (D) *g'^-S('^)- "tooth" Bil.

gatat "nagen, knuppem an Gegemtand" nakat "beifien, stechen"

einen harten
Sid. hant- "canine t." Brj. gacco "molar t." Or. gade "canine t. of animals"
4a. P.Om. *ats- "tooth" 5. Eg.(F) nhdt (Bu) neht + t "tooth" 6. Ethiopian
Sem. gat- "nibble, gnaw" S.Sem -rt- Syriac n^kat "bite" 7. P.Ber. *9c(c)-
"eat" 8. Knz. acci "beiften"
gaua, gaba beat also gabza P.W.Cha. *g/xab-
gaue Gardenia erubescens
I. Dr. gut Ngz. gwagu 6. Amh. g'^abbil "G. spp."
gauraka crested crane (Balearica pavonina) also gamraka, garmaka, gubori
I. Ngz. gavarak, varak Bed. davarak NBM mbul- NBJ abur- 3. Dgl. garko
Bid., Mgm. qarak- 8. Kan. gavari 9. Ful. kumare
gauraya mix together garwaya cf. gwalitsa, hautsina
also kauraya,
I. Ang. gwer "mix, mixing up" RF go "mischen" 2. Bur. gwarta "mix" Bac.

gba "knead" Mfg. gawal- "tourner qqch. dans la bouche" 3a. Lam. gai "tour-
ner, melanger" 4. P.SC *xwar- "stir, mix" P.Cu.(E) *7ur- "join" 5. Eg.(Bu)

khaa "mix" kharb "m. by crushing" 6. Gz. x-wia "mix, mingle, confuse"
7. Tam. xrwd, rrwy "stir" Tur. aray "mix, stir"

gauta bitter tomato {Solanum incanum) cf. ata P.W.Cha. *kut/nti

I. Gwd. ngonta raci NB *Kwi(n)t- Tgl. kudo Bol. kwita Ngz. kwitawa 9.

E.Ful. huitare pi. kuitaje

gautsi, gamtsi disrespectful speech ? P.W.Cha. *hamts- "laugh" cf. gatsa,
gawa corpse OS *gaway- "body"
I. Ngz. guvu Bed. avgan NBT vune NBW viw- 2. HK, *guv- "body"
Bud. gau "bury" Mfg., Gis. vagay "c, burial" Bac, Gd. w- "c, death" 3.

Mkl. gobe Sok. goy 4. As. gawa "death" P.SC *gwa "die" 6. Jib., Mhr. m-g-f
Gur., Soc. g-f- "stuffed skin of calf used to stimulate cow's lactation" 8.

Kan. kavin Tub. agafor 9. P.Plateau *kwar) "c." *ku "die" P.WN *khwu "die"
Tv. -kom 5. Eg.(Bu) kha + t

gawayi charcoal cf. gobara OS *xab- "charcoal"

I. H. gawaro "anything burnt black" Ang. gyerep Gib. r)gurna Tgl. kuro 2.

Cb., W.Mg., HG -r)gw-r- Mwl. r)goli *-gv-r- Dab. gguvan 3. Tum.
gulam Dgl. kulmo 3a. Msm. ggur- 4. Irk. xawo Brn., Alg. xabo Bil ge'a
"Glutkohle, brennende Kohle" P.Cu.(D) *g-r- "fire, burn" (E) *guf- "burn" 6.
ES gaHar "coal" 7. Tur. a7u ''bruler, s'enflammer"

gawo acacia (A. albida) cf. aya "thorn"

I. Bol. gako Dr. gahai Ngz. gwayu 2. Pad. gaha "A. albida" Gd. kaya Mfg.
gwalam "A. polyacantha" 3. Dgl. garo "A. nilotica" Bid. golo "A. sclerocarpa"
3a. Lam. r)a'i "A. sieberiana" 4. Sml. galol "A. bussei" Kmb. grar Bil. gwara
"A. sp." Had. grara P.Cu. *-r-c- "A. sp." 6. Amh., Gur. garar "A." ? < Cu.
gaya extreme situation < Ar. yaya
gaya tell gayar da, gai da gaisa "greet" cf. kira "call", ara "cry out" OS *gay-
"say" *xay- "voice" *al- "speak"
I. Tgl. ka, ga, r)a "say, speak, tell" Gra. kiri "speak" Gwd. gye' Ang. yirr "tell
from beginning to end" Dr. ngwa "it is said that" NBP fiwuley "greet" 2. *r)ga "call" Cb. 7a "speak" Mad. giwusa "greet" Hrz. gesa "greet"
Log. ggul "greet" Pad. 139 "dire" Mfg. ggal- "inviter, demander, entonner (un
chant)" 3. Bid. garaw "parler" Dgl. gare "montrer, expliquer" gaia "divination"
Tum. ka "dire" 4. P.Cu.(D) *(g)-r(r)-y- "speech, word" Afr. garay "meeting,
discussion, making welcome" Or. sagale "voice, sound, word" Bil. gawr "seg-
nen, griiften" Kmb. ga" "call" 4a. Bnc. gars "let speak" gartn "discuss" 5.

Eg.(Bu) kai "speak, say, think, tell out" kher "speak, say" 6. Gur. qal, qar,
qay "word, voice" ES, Akk., Ug. n-g-r "speak, word, inform" 7. Tur. a7ru
"appeler, mentionner, invoquer"

gaya lump, round object cf. guda Ngz. gayi "one"

gayai, gayitsi feces < Ar. ya'it
gaye Western dress ? < Eng. guy cf . boko
gayya communal labor
3. Dgl. gayo "aide" Ngm. gayo "aider" 7. ? Tur. gayya "travail mal fait"
gaza fail, fall short see gaji
gazgayi granary
I. Ang. gyer KK, Ngz. gatai "plaited gr." 3. Lei. golu "poterie pour conserver
les grains" 4. Or., Kmb. gayy- "gr. made from bamboo"
gebe stream OS *xab- "water flow"
gefe side, edge cf. gaba, gaa
I. Gwd. gyepe Ang. kwop tur "ribs" (tur "chest") Dw., Sey. gup "chest" 2.
Ter. kai Mfg., Gis. gwe "near" 3a. Ban gaftika "chest" (Cha. *tik- "body")

4. P.Cu.(E) *gaf-, *guf- "side, edge" P.Cu.(D) *g-> "side, near" 6. Soc. gehe

+ t "shore, bank"
"poitrine" 5. Eg.(Bu) khefi
gejigauge (especially "tyre g.") < Eng.
gemu beard Cha.(E, W, C) *g-r-m "beard" cf. gashi Cha. *G-S- "hair" Cha.,
P.Ber. *m- "mouth"

2. Bok. xwasa "hair" miya "mouth" xwasimiya "beard" FG gwuzam "beard"

mmi "mouth" Gd. (m)buzemina "beard" ma "mouth" (Wmd. sisi "hair"
nya "mouth" cicir nya "beard") 4a. Jnj. kemsa "chin" 3. Dgl. getyimo
"beard" gemo "individu mascuUn" Bid. gecima "barbe, menton" 3a. Lam.
ggasaa vun "moustache (poil bouche)"
gero millet also (Bauchi) gyauro ? < g-y + wur- cf. waya "grain" gyauro "ra-
toon, growth from old stump" dauro "millet sp." lawur "millet sp."
OS *gir-/*gi'ur- "corn" i. P.W.Cha. *giw/yro Gwd.(N) gyoro Sur. gyewuro
NBD, NBP; NBS *gyura Sey. gyoro Ngz. gavarka "sorghum" varda "first ripe

heads of m." Dr. kure "sorghum" Tgl. kporok "mixed grains" 8. Kan.
r)gav9ri"sorghum" 9. Poular gauri "mil" 2. *xw-rm "sorghum" Bur.
gp., R *'yar "m." HF garwa "m." Dab. viyi Zgv. wira 3. Dgl. yorwa "sor-
ghum" Smr. gel "sorghum sp." Mkl. *g-y/wl- "grain, millet" 3a. Lam. garar)
"m." Msm. gwirany "sorghum" Mas. togoro "sorghum" 4. Brj. wor- "cere-
als" 5. Eg.(Bu) hi "grain, wheat, barley etc."
geza mane Cha. *G-S- "hair" cf. gashi
2. Gd. gaza "tail" Mfg. arjgwec "criniere, poil" Dab. mugadzagadza 3a. Lam.
dzega 4. Sid. gaze "long hair" Sml. gud "m." sayn "hair of m." 9. P.WN
gii gap (esp. in teeth) cf. gurbi "indentation, place where something or some-
one is usually found, nest"
I. Kof. kop "place of which something is gone" Pr. kwoi "hole" 2. Mfg.
gu- "couver" 3. Dgl. gurbibe "fondriere" Bid. kuurka "couvee" Smr. gubu
"hole" Amh. qaliba "mold, casting"
6. Ar.,

gida, giji house, home, household OS *gud- "house"

I. Grn. gidi "hut" Bog. kundi "hut" 2. *kanda "hut, house"

*guda "hut" Bud. gandu "house, hut" Pad. kayda "hut" 3. ? Dgl., Bid.,
Mgm. kida "terre" ? Kr. gida "inside, stomach" 3a. Lam. gi- "enclos" 4a.
Bnc. ket "house" 4. P.Cu.(D) *R-t(t)- "hom" P.HEC *giddo "inside, interior"
Or. ganda "village, community" Sid. gate "space behind the house" 6. Hrr.
gidagad "wall" (etc. see Leslau, 1963, p.68) ganda "village" Hars. gedor "build
up with stones" Gz. gedar, qedar "tent of a nomad" 7. Tam. tigedrin
"houses" P.Ber. *agadir "wall" 9. CB - ganda "chiefs enclosure" 8. Dz.
kendira "enclos" 5. Eg.(Bu) qarta "city, town" (F) irti "city, town, envi-
gifta, gibta, gitt-, gicc- move across ? < gef- "side" see gefe cf. Gby. giti "poser

en trovers"

giginya deleb palm (Borassus aethiopum)

I. Dr. gangiyo Bol. ganga Gib. kanga 8. Kan. ganga "Hyphaene thebaica"
gigita fluster, upset also "lose presence of mind" cf. girgije, giya
I. Ang. gyit "intoxicating" 5. ? Eg. thi "be drunk"
gimbiya princess, chief woman of town < Cha.(E, W, C) *g-m- "chief, head"
gina build "b., make pottery, (Sokoto, Katsina) dig" P.W.Cha. *h'^an- "build,
work" Cha.(W, E, C) *gy-n- "b., make" cf. gona "farm" OS *xon- "do,
I. Gwd. gyina gun "build" gi( )- "dig, bury, hole" 2. Bur. xanta "build
Sey. 13

with mud" Gd. yin, ydn "build with mud" FM 7unyi "build" 3. Dgl., Bid.
gine "faire" magine "tombe" Tum. gan 3a. Lam. ganai "poterie" Mas. ini-
"build" 4. Afr. gin- "plait, twist (rope), construct" Sid. qinacca "do some-
thing actively" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) qet "build, mould, construct" 6. ? ES hans

"building, construction" 7. Tur. anu "faire, fabriquer" 8. Sng. kyin "con-

struire" 9. Mnd. kene "work, field, cultivate"

gina flying termite (Bargery says the word derives from the method of catch-
I. Gwd. gana, gana, ggana "termite" 4. Bye. hang'ane "ant"
gindi bottom, lowest part cf. gato, kudu, kutiri
8. Kan. gadi (same tones as H.) "base, bottom, east etc." Sng. ganda "down"
9. Mnd. gyun "fond" -ndi diminutive Gby. gun "commencement, debut,
origine" gun te "tronc d'un arbre a la base" (te "arbre") 3, Lei. hida gindi
"stump" (hida "tree") 4. P.Cu. *g-d- "rear, back, hind" P.HEC *ginde "log,
stump" (Sid. "heel") REG *gund- "trunk" Bye gande "fundament" Or. gad(i)
"down" 6. Gur. gaday "down, below, south" Amh., Gz. *gand "trunk, stem,
gira eyelash, eyebrow
I. Gwd. gyira ndani "eyebrow" (ndani "eye") 2. Pad. guguma de "eyebrow"

(de "eye" gege "poil des joues") Lam. ggasa wa 'ir "eyebrow" ("hair +

head + eye") 4. Or., Brj., Bon. gar- "eyebrow" Sid. gara "eyelashes, fore-
head" Brj. ilanga gari "eyelash" ("eyebrow of eye") Sml. hirib "eyelash,
eyelid" 6. Gur. qarb "eyebrow, eyelash"
girbe reap Cha.(E, W, C) g-rb- "cut" OS *hib-r- "harvest"
4. P.Cu. *q-rm "gleanings" P.Cu.(E) *gw-rp "cut off" 6. Gur. q-r-m "glean,
harvest" 7. ? P.Ber. *mgr "harvest (vb.)"
girgije cloud "raincloud" pi. gizagizai cf. gajimare

I. RD marjgirgii "rainbow" 3. Dgl. gotyi "nuages" guzguzu "brouillard noir

charge de pluie" Bid. 'uje "nuage"
girgije shake also girgiza, girgia cf. giglta
I. Ngz. guguyu 2. Pad. gada "secouer, essuyer" gagara "trembler" Mfg.
r)gar)gwac- "secouer violemment" 9. Mnd. gidyi-gidyi, gudyu 4. Afr. gilgile

Bye. gid "throw, shoot, shake (head)" Sml. garir "shiver, tremble" 6. ES
q-tq-t 7. ? Tur. gallad "etre en extase, danser frenetiquement"
girki cooking "putting pot on fire" ? < gir + ki cf. gasa, kawa Cha.(W, E) *g-t-
"roast, grill" OS *gir- "fire, be hot"
1. P.W.Cha. *gai- "burn, make fire" Tgl. kare "cook" Ngz. gatu "build fire"

2. Gd. gura "hearth" Wmd., Mg. aggiri "burn" 3a. Mas., Ban. r)gal "burn"
4. P.Cu.(D) *g-r- "fire" P.SC *a'l- "dry by fire" Bye. gwir "cook by stewing"
5. Eg. rr "burn, bake (pottery)" 6. Gz. qrh "burn, be hot" 9. P.WN *-gik-
girma bigness "b., be older than, high status, respect" gagarumi "very big"
girmama "show respect to" Cha.(E, W, C) *g-r-m "big, old" OS *gid-/*gud-
"be big, numerous" *gidol- "big" *gad- "be old, elder"
I. H. gawurta "grow big, important" 4. P.Cu.(E) *gad-, *gud- "big" Sid.
girm-, gurm- "big, many" 4a. Jnj. gayma "adult, mature" 5. Eg. k3i "tall,
exalted" 6. Gz., Amh. garma "majesty, glory, dignity, awe, magnificence"
Hrr. gadara "become great" Heb. gadol "big" Ar., Soc. g-d-1 "strong" 7.

P.Ber. *g-t- (Rossler) Tur. im7ar "etre grand (de dimension on d'dge), etre

important" igat "etre nomhreux, etre long (temps)"

gishiri salt also girsilli ? < gir + S-r-

I. Gwd. gyiri "salt" Gra., NBP gisira (? < H.) Sey. gilur "ash" Pic. gii "ash"
Bed. duguiin "ash" 2. Cb. kagila "salt" Gdu. r)gir- "salt" qgiir- "ash" HG
manda sare "salt (Kan. manda "salt") Gv., Zgv., MM *iugw-l- "salt" 9. Tv.
ishar "salt lick" 8. Tub., Dz. geren "salt" Bgr. r)gal "natron" kas Sarwa
"Sarwa (? = Sara) salt" Kan. ki7ir "type of salt" Sng. kyiri "salt"

gitta ax "battle a." cf. gatari P.W.Cha. *gitt/tt-

I.Gwd. gyita, gante NB *g-yti Bol. gaii "chop" 2. Bac, Njn. gyeta,
(n)gyee "hoe" 4. Sid. otto Or.(Foot) koto 9. Mnd. gyenda "ax" kpiti
"battle ax" 8. Sng. kyendi "knife, sickle"
giwa elephant P.Cha.(N) *gyawan
I.Gwd.(N) gyuwo Tgl. yokune 2.,, Hg., R, Mwl., Gd. *c-w-
n/r 8. Bgr.(K) gewa Ted. kuwun 4. P.Cu. *z-kw-n/r P.Cu.(E) *zo7- 4a. Jnj.
zakno 6. Gur. zaxwana, dahan- Amh. zahon 9. CB *-jogu P.Plateau *zwam

giya beer "b., alcoholic drink" cf. gigita ? < Ar. ji^a, gi^a

giya gear (of engine) < Eng.

Gizo trickster-hero (of H. tales) gizogizo "spider" bakan Gizo "rainbow"
gizami "epithet applied to Gizo" (Especially in W. Africa, the spider seems
to have a relationship with God) cf. hantsi
I. Tgl. kitor) "sky, heaven" Dr. guruwu "rain" (puro "sky" puro guruwu
"god") Gib. ggsla "sky" Pr. gurer) "sky" 2. xyel "god" Klb. zirka hyel
"spider" (C.Cha. *zir "child") Log. zuwexii "spider" Gan. ngirngirya "spi-
der" Mg. iju "god" ada giju "sky" Mwl., Bac. kurakura- "spider" Mfg. gszw-
"tisser (une toile d'araignee)" galavay "del, Dieu" vay "calebasse" Maf. zigula
"god, sky" Mad. dudu gizuwe "spider" (Cha.(E, W, C) *d-d- "in-law (male)")
Zgv. 7W9la7W9la "spider" Maf., Dab., Gis. *kwalay "rainbow" 3. Tum.
kojikoji "spider" Lei. gunye "spider, tale, hero of tales" (? < Zim.) Mkl.
lor)gusu "dieu(x) des Hadjerai" 4. P.HEC *issan- "spider" Der. "spider" =
"God's friend" P.Cu. *z-r- "god, sky" Bye. kwas- "god, create" hasim
"spider" Afr. goyta "Lord, Seigneuf Brj. wanto "God" 5. Eg. ntr "god" 6. ES
agzar "God, Lord" 9. Gby. wanto "spider, trickster-hero" CB *-gudu "sky"
P.WN *-gulu "sky"
/ "god" relationship cf. also:
for "spider"
Ang. nen "god, spider" Sur. nan "god, spider" (Ank. "spider" = ? "wife of

god"; Cp. "spider" = "child of god") 3a. Lam. bur)or "arc-en-ciel" -buwo
collocates /or "storm, thunder, lightning" (cf. Dgl., Bid., Mgm. bun "god, sky
etc.") maibar)bur)o, ma bi buwo "spider" (ma "woman")
goba guava gwaiba < Eng. cf. Yor. guafa, guroba, gurofa Kri. gweva
gobara fire, conflagration cf. gawayi, kawa OS *gub- "burn"
I. NBP hwuu "burn" 2. *xuB- "boil" *kumbw- "boil" FM
xibw(u) "boil" Njn. -hibi- "boil" Bac. -hubwa "boil" Gv. kubufa "boil"
Laam. yuvaya ''brunnen" 3. Dgl. kobire "burn (tr.) with large flame" 4. P.
EC *gub- "burn" 6. Soc. qeb(b) "roast" Aramaic kabbeb "roast" N.Assyrian
gabbubu "roasted"
gobe tomorrow ? < g-( ) + b-r
4. P.EC *ber- "dawn, morning, tomorrow" Bayso bari "morning" gebari "to-

morrow" Bil. gwarab "dawn" Kmb. gareba "the morrow" P.Cu.(E) *gwarb-
"daylight" Sid., Kmb. ga'- "tomorrow" i. Dw. go "morning" gurur) "tomor-
row" Tgl. kumbunu "morning" RF huhwon "morgen" Plateau Cha. *B-yt-
"morning" 2. Nkt. 7alaberta "tomorrow" Msg. ggorof "morning" Bud. hoba

"tomorrow" 6. Sem. g-w-h "dawn, daybreak, burst forth" 5. Eg.(Bu) kheper

"the rising sun" 7. Tur. gaway "remonter, aller en amont, aller a Vest"
goce swerve, move aside < gota "pass beyond, exceed" cf. Cha.(W, C.) *gw-r-
I. H. kauce "move aside" Ngz. gwafu 4. ? P.Cu.(E) *-'gwar- "turn" *gwe'd-
"side of body" Bye. kijd "irregehen" 5. gws "become askew, bent,
twisted, turn away" 6. Gur., Amh. gw-n, gw-d-n "side of body" 7. ? Tur.
gattu "etre penche, incline, oblique"
gode thank cf. Kan., KK, Ngz. god- "thank"
1. Montol kwedde Bol. kunnu 4. P.HEC, Or. galat- "thank, praise" ? Bye.
gidil "do s. thing well, in proper fashion" 6. Amh. galata "good action that
deserves a reward" ES galata "gratitude" Gz. 'a'kwata "praise, thank" 7. Tur.
guday "remercier, etre en bonne sante, aller Men"
goiya mare cf. doki Cha. *d-(w)- "horse"
2. Hg. *G-d-w- "horse" Mat. kidex "donkey"3. Kr. gadamo "horse" 6.

Amh. ganeta "mare" 5. Eg.(Bu) ka + t "female animal" SB gut, gud "wo-

man" Kan. kurkuri "female of animals" Knz. karri "weiblich" CB *-kadi
"female" P.WN *-khal-, -khand- "woman"
goji pumpkin, marrow OS *ga'uj-/*gawuj- "calabash, basket"
goga, guga rub "r., file, polish, plane" gogagge "experienced" P.W.Cha. *gwag-
I. Gwd. *gw-(n)gye "rub" Ang. gwak, gwok "rub, grind, old, useless, spoilt"
KK gogus- Bol. gogo- Dr. gar) gar) ga "worn out" 2. W.Mg. giginda Mfg.
gwaguh- "frotter qqch. pour nettoyer" 3. Kr. horke "frotter" Dgl. korge "racier,

se gratter" koygu- "ef/riter, petrir" Lei. kogli "lisser, polir" 4. P.Cu. *x-hK-
"comb, scrape" Bye. hug "chafe, grind" 7. Tur. egg "petrir" Siw. ogg "petrir"

Tam gg "knead"
goge fiddle "one-stringed fiddle that is bowed" ? < goga from the way it is

played cf. H. guga Np. gboge "fiddle"

gola goalkeeper cf. Kri. gola ? < Eng. "goaler"
golo testicle cf. gululu, gwaiwa, wai Cha.(E, W, C) *gO-r-(l-) OS *gural-
4. As., Kwa. gulala (pi.) Kef. qura Bil. quia Bye. ula, wula "testicles" galo
"scrotum" 8. Kan. r)gur 9. Wolof nguli 6. Gz. q'^alh Gur. anqulu Amh.
quia Hars. ke4- "swollen testicles" Shuwa Ar. gulun "swollen testicles" Akk.
gallu, qallu "sexual organ" 7. Tur. tekeyuryut
goma ten Cha.(W, E, C) *gwam- "ten" cf. gama, ungiya
4. P.Cu.(D) *kw-m- "large number, heap, 1000" P.HEC *gum'a "all" 9. Gby.

goqma "loo" 4a. Jn). kuma "1000" 6. Ar. qawm "tribe, nation, party of

men, some people" 7. Tur. gim "1000"

gona farm gayauna, gawaina, gayamma, gamana "small f." cf. gina OS *gan-
I. Gwd.(N) gwana RF ggon "cultivate" RD, RS gor) "farm" Grn. go "farm"
9. Mumuye gon 2. Gis. gava "Farm" Mfg. gavay "quartier, 'village'" ?
*gw-k- "farm" 3. Dgl.,Bid., Mgm. gaw(a)n- "cultivate, fields" Mgm. gan
"champ" Jg. gawit "bauen" 9. CB *-gunda "garden" 4. Bye. gaw "Gehoft,
Haus, Familie" Ah. gawra "cultivated land" 5. Eg.(Bu) qema, gema, kam(u)
"garden etc." 4a. Bnc. kam "farm-land" 6. Sem. g-nn "garden" Gur.
gwafifia "back of house where the asat is planted" 8. ? Knz. gunna "Wuste,
gora I. gourd (also called guraka q.v.) goran ruwa "water-
(masc.) calabash,
bottle, aluminum" kwarya cf.

OS *gar- "container, vessel" i. Gwd. gwara "small gourd used as water jar"

NBT gwaromi "large calabash" BoL, Tgl. kw-1- 2. Mfg. guta "courge" Gd.
kara "c. sp." 3. Nan. kolum "Trinkgefdfi" 3a. Lam. gul-, gur- 4. P.SC *xora-,
xoda- "large, hard shell of something (gourd?)" *'^ad- "calabash" Or. qorse
"fragment of broken gourd" Or., Afr. Kor- "wooden bowl" Sid. gerere "dec-
orated gourd vessel" 6. Gur. quia "gourd, bowl" Ar. quUa "jug, pitcher" ES
kora "cup, bowl, jar" RSem *gull- "ciotola" 5. Eg.(Bu) qerr "water pot" khau
"pot, altar vessel, milk bowl" (F) h3W "bowl" 7. Tam., Tur. ayW- "kettle,
biberon, vase, auge" 8. Berta ago "calabash" agu "gourd sp." Knz., Dz. *^-w-r
"Koloquinte, calebasse" 9. Ful. hor-, kor- Twi, Jarawan Bantu -kor- Busa
(Boko), Tv. gber- Sobo ogwara
2. bamboo, cane Cha. (E, W, C.) *g^ad- "stick, spear" cf. RCu.(D) *k-ll-,

*cui(l)- "stick, club" REG *kor- "wood, tree" RSC *or- "stick, tree, wood"
OS *go^ad- "stick"
I. H. g/kwangwala "stem of palm branch" tukurwa"bamboo palm" gwalm-.
gwam- "stick, cudgel, club" dead on one side" kulki,
gwadara "tree which is

kulka "club" Ang. gwal "stick covered with red earth set up in farms" Sey.
gwar "spear" Pr. gbaram "stick" gbarindam "hunting weapon" RD gaat
"Stock" 2. FG 7wole7wole "wood" Pad. gubve "bamboo" Gd. gangawala
"purlin of roof frame" 9. Gby. gangala "grande perche servant de charpente
aux toits des cases" 3. Lei. gol "gourdin de peche" ]g. 'orra "Stock" Kr. golom
"javelot" 3a. ? Lam. gol "fleau, baguette" 4. Abo. goliy "bamboo" 6. ? Gz.

qwatt "butt end of spear, slender spear" 7. Tur. gewal "javelot" agula
goriba, goruba dum palm "Hyphaene thebaica" OS *xuray- "palm tree" cf. Sng.
gori "edible p. leaves"
I. NBW gwalabai 2. Bur. gwarva 3. Sok. sogor, soger "dum p., dum p. leaf"
saune "tree"
for *ba "p. tree" see bammi
goro colanut cf. Sng., Kan. goro Mnd., Bam. woro Ful. wor- (s.) gor- (pi.) Yor.

kola Kri. kola (the Kano Chronicle says that Queen Amina, c. 1425, was the
first to receive colanuts from Nupe)
goshi forehead ? < gab- "front" + *-ci "nose" see hanci
I. H. gabashi "region to the E." Gwd.
gan "forehead, front" BT
ga' Dr.
(w)-c/sin "nose" 2. Gd. kuqwacin- "forehead" kunwa- "face, front" sina
"nose" 3. Lei. gin Kr. kunja "devant, vor"]g., 'ont- Dgl. undi "front, devant"
4. P.Cu. *g-t(ts)- "face, forehead" Dhl. awa^i "middle of f." Ma' nkumbiti

"eyebrow" P.SC *awa- "brow ridge" 6. Gur., Hrr. q-fat

goya carry on back, support cf. agola "stepchild" Cha.(E, W, C) *g-r- "carry"
OS *go'-y- "carry" *gor- "back"
I. NBP gey- "lift" Ang. kol "support (n.)" Ngz. gudv- "carry on back" 2.

Maf. gar- "elever (des enfants)" Mat. gwa' "load (n.)" Log. 7'oi "Zeug" 3. Dgl.
goro "epaule, fardeau" gogire "porter sur le dos" gogo "partie superieure du dos"
gogiyo "couchee sur le dos" Lei. germi "mettre un support" gura "offrande,
nourriture" 3a. Lam. ku'u "porter sur le dos" 4. P.HEC *gur- "carry away" Brj.

goro "back" goy- "take away, marry (of man)" P.Cu. *gw-r-b "back (n.)"
*gw-t(t)- "pull, carry (load)" Sml. kor "lift, adopt" 4a. Jnj. wora, wo'ra
"carry" 6. Gz. kawala "back part, rearguard" Tge. kawal "rearguard" Amh.
hwala "behind" g^aro "backyard"
gu place also guri, wuri q.v. cf. unguwa
I. Gra. gawa "hut" Dr. gaw- "room" Ang. we "home" Sur. wa "Heim, nach
Hause" 2. Njn. kwo "house" 3. Kr. ko "endroit, nature, temps" Mkl. kuwa
"etendue de terre, plaine, endroit aride, espace" 4. Bye. gau "Gehbft, Haus,
Familie" Bil. kau "Volk, Stamm, Tribus" 5. Eg.(Bu) hu "place, district, in time
of, over against" 8. Knz. gu "Stelle, Feld, Teil, Acker, Erde etc." 6. Hars. w*^
"land, place, down"
guba poison
I. Katsina H. guba "name of tree from which a poison is obtained" Gd.
nguma "medicine, magic, poison" 3. Dgl. kope "venom, tree sp. with very

bitter, poisonous bark"kopa "venin" 4. Afr. gubun

Bid. "v., poisonous black
snake" Sml. wab- "poison, poisonous plant"
guda unit, lump
8. Sng. gura "unite, grain" kondu "unite de" 4. Or. guro "lump" Bye. kwo,
k(w)ot "unit" Had. gud- "gleichartig, ebenmdssig sein" 6. Tge. gudu^ "einzeln"

gudu run "r., avoid, fear" gudana, gudada "flow (water)" gudanar da "run, ad-
minister" gudawa "diarrhoea" cf. gara "speed along" OS *xudad- "stream,
I. Gwd.(N) guru NBW, NBD gud- "hurry" NBM had- "hurry" Pr. 7orana
"run" SB kutur- "run" Cp. gwe "run" 2. MM *h(u)wa- "run" 3. Dgl. gae
"courir, couler, derouler" Sok. gadigadi "fliehen" gadgari "laufen" 4. P.Cu.
away" P.Cu.(E) *7we'- "be
*kw-t- "run, run away, hurry" P.SC *kwa'^- "run
afraid" Afr.kude "run away" Sml. kud- Bye. kwid "stray, be missing, be
lost" 5. Eg.(F) hwi "avoid" 6. Gur. tagwada "run off (water)" Gz. gwayyat
"flight" (ES gw-y- "flee, run away") 7. Tam. gwd "be afraid"
guduma hammer "smith's h., hunter's throwing stick" Cha.(E, W, C) *gw-d-m
"spear" cf. gora 2. OS *gadum-, *gudin- "axe, hoe"
I. Gwd. guduma NBW di79m 2. MM
*gud-m "arrow, quiver" Pad.
gwadama "arrow" gaddumne "adze" Kr. -r)udi *r)geD- "hoe" 3. Dgl.
"axe" 3a. Lam. gada "travail de la forge" 4. Bye. gaddom "hammer" gid
"throw, shoot down" P.Cu. *gw-d-m- "Axt, Beil, Hacke" 6. Tge. gaddom
"pickaxe" Ar. qadum "carpenter's axe" 8. Knz. kadub "hacken"
gua cry of joy (ululation of women) cf. kuwwa
1. Gwd.(N) aguro 2. Gis. wud- "schreien" 3. Dgl. gurdya "cri d'encourage-
ment" 4. Bil. guda^ "aufbrausen, zanken" Kmb., Sid. wad- "shout, scream"
P.SC *wala' "shout" Irk. qwala' "be joyful, glad" Bye. kwalTt "intone (song
of praise, dirge)" 6. Ar. zayrad, zayiat "sing wedding songs, quaver" 7.

Tur. seeret "pousser le cri d'appel"

gujiya internal organ in a bird OS *guj- "stomach"
guga bucket (to draw from well) ? < gug- "rub" (? < constant rubbing against
the side of the well) see goga cf. Kan., Gwd., Sur.guga "bucket" Gd., R
guga "well"
guguwa whirlwind "wh., dust-devil" ? < g-w-y- "go round" see kewaya
2. Log. koawa Maf. ggwai- "be turbulent" Mfg. gwagus- "disposer en desordre

(paille d'un toit)" Gd. gugugwa "sound of many large animals moving

around" 3. Dgl. gulbiyoyo


gujiya groundnuts (N.W. Hausa) elsewhere ''Bambaia groundnuts (Voandzeia)"

also gujjiya, gurjiya cf. gyaa, ulu

9. Gurma gudia Ful. -gulte- "pois de terre" Senufo kuru tiga "? bean of earth"
I. DZ, Gj. g(w)uja Ngz. gwadanu Pic. gwati Tgl. kwono RB gwamtar) 2. (h)-w-d- 8. Kan. kolji Dz. kolce 7. Tur. gojaya < H.
Forms close to the H. occur in Np., Ebe (?), Kamuku, Kambari
gulbi river ? < gu- + mbi cf. Cha.(W, E) *gwud- "place" (H. gun-, gur-) Cha.(E,
W, C) *mbi "water" cf. gurbi
I. Ngz. gumbak "watercourse filled by the rains" 4. P.Cu.(E) *mi' "be wet"
5. Eg. nbi "swim" 6. Sem. nb^ "flow" Hrr. ebi' "tear (lacrima)"
gulob electric bulb < Eng. globe
gululu ball "b. of earth fixed to end of spindle" cf. golo, wallo OS *gulul-
"ball" *gol- "be round"
7. Tur. galallat "etre rond" 4. Bye, kwilil, kulel "umgehen, Umkreis, Fuftring,
Armband" As., Kwa. gulala "testicles" i. Tgl. kprol "exactly round" 6. Gur.
kurure "ball made of wood"
guma tire, bother OS *xom- "be sick, be ill"
1. Dw., Pic. *kum- "tire" NBW, NBD gwan- "sickness" 2. Pdl. ngum- "tire"
Mfg. gum- ''deformer, se ratatiner" 3. Bid., Dgl. gum- "couver" 4. P.HEC
*gam- "pains of labor" Or. gama "tire" Bye. gwoi "fail, weak" P.Cu.(D)
*om- "chew, bite" (for
*7^-n- "bite" P.EC "eat" > "pain" see ci, ciwo) 6.
? 7amma "grieve, afflict" 7. Tur. amu
Al "faire mal a, faire de la peine a"

tama "mal (physique ou moral)"

gumi sweat, heat (n.), hot weather cf. guma cf. Sid. gammut "heat" OS
*hum-, *um- "be hot"
guna melon (Citrullus vulgaris) cf. gwanda "papaya"
2. Gd. gunaya "tree sp. with edible white fruit" *-gwini "papaya" 8. MM
Kan. gunoguno "white melon"
gunaguni grumbling also gunguni cf. gurnani
7. Tur. genugenu "grogner" 2. Mfg. ggwagguz- "grogner, se plaindre, gemir"

3. Dgl. gangine "gemir" 4. Or., Sid. gunguma SmL gunus- P.SC *u(u)m-
gundu Pennisetum sp. OS *xund- "cereal sp."
gunduma break off (piece) also "piece broken off" gunduwa "slice, section"
cf. guduma ? *"tool for cutting, breaking"

3. Dgl. guumo "stump of tree cut down to ca. i meter" 6. Amh.


gwarammama gurma "stump of tree" Ar.

"cut the top off something" Gur.
g-5-m "cut gi6ma "fragment cut off"
gungu island cf. Sng. gungu "protrude, island etc." (Argungu was once under
the domination of Songhai) Mnd. gungu "island, central part"
guni sound of voices OS *xun- "voice, speech"
gunji roaring cf. iigi
gunki idol see gwani
guntu short (piece of anything) cf. dungu, unci
3a. Msm. guti "short" 4. Had. gund- "kurz sein" Sid. gurde "stub (e.g. of

ticket") P.Cu. *w-tty- "small, few" *(w)-(n)t- "cut" Afr. gundubite "short-
tailed" 6. Sem. q-t-n "be small" 7. Tur. 97ew9d "morceau taille"
guntule cut short ? < guntu
guraka gourd (large) cf. gora, warya
1. Tgl. kuluk "large gourd" NBP galka "calabash" Zks. kwolkin "calabash"

2. Gd. kwalaka "small calabash" Log. gerlaka "Cucurbita maxima" Mfg.

galar)ga "grande calebasse sp." Pad., Laam. kulaga "calebasse en forme de
bouteille" 3. Mgm. kuraka "petite calebasse pour la boisson" Bid. kurukidya "la
plus grosse calebasse" 3a. Lam. guraka "large water pot" 5. Eg.(Bu)
garagantesi "gourd, pumpkin" (Greek KoXoKwdrj, -tk])

gurasa cake, wheaten cf. Ar. qiras"round cake of bread"

gurbi hole (indentation) ? < gur- "place" + bi (P.Cha. *mbi "water") cf. gfi,
gulbi, guri OS *gur, *xub- "hole" P.Cu.(D) *g'^-l(-p)- "hole"
gurata mix "m., stir up (sediment)" cf. kwae
3. Dgl. Bid. guril- "troubler (eau)" ? Cha. *mbi "water" relevant
gur-, gus- twist "t., cause sprain or dislocation" cf. murde, murgude
I. H. targade "sprain, dislocation" 2. Mfg. rjgadw- "tordre, arquer"
*gur(9)d- "twist" Mat. ar)gwed- "twist" 3. Lei. gurada "tordre" Bid. gul "tresser
(cheveux)" Dgl., Bid. *'ar- "tresser, tordre" Mgm. riiny- "tordre" 4. Brj.

gurd- "dress (vb.)" Sml. gunt- "gird with loincloth" Or. gurd- "belt, girdle"
Afr. girda "bracelets" P.Cu.(E) *'gwar- "turn" 7. Tur. adran "tordre"
gurfana kneel cf. gwiwa Cha.(E, W, C) gw-rp- "knee, kneel" P.W.Cha. *g'^al-

"elbow" OS *gup-/*gump-, *il-b-, *gul (+ ib) "knee"

4. P.Cu. *gw-lb- "knee, kneel, bend" 4a. Om. *gunB- 5. Eg.(Bu) qenb "cor-
ner, angle" (F) h3m "bow down" nb "bow oneself" 6. P.Sem. *kapp-
"mano incurvata" *-kpup- "incurvare" Gur. (ta)grapa "bow down, bend
down" Amh. gwabb- "be bent" 7. Tur. garaffat "kneel"

gurgu lame, cripple gurgunta (vb.) OS *^urag- "be lame"

3. Bid. gurko "souche" mugila "boiteux" 6. ? Gur. jarr- "be lame, bent, crip-

pled" 4. P.HEC *ho(n)kol~ "lame, limp" 9. Mnd. kuku "boiteux, boiter" 8.

Sng. gurkom "homme blesse"
guri, wuri place ? < *7w-ri unguwa OS *gur-, *or- "house, place"
cf. gari, gu,
I. Bol. kule "place found" KK kwaraw "compound" Tgl. la +
where one is

korok "town, village" (la(w) "child" lakey "small") Bog., Mgs. kwal "com-
pound" RD, RB wu(u)r "Gehoft, Haus, Heimstatt" 9. Ful. wur-, pi. gur-
"compound, village" wiir-, (r))gur- "live (vb.)" 8. Kan. gguro "quarter of
town, forsaken village" 2. Gan., Gab. *w9r- "town, compound" R, Hg.
*r)Kwul- "place, house" Gd. gara "place" varans "village" Bok. xura'a "town"
Gan., Gab., Hwn. wir-, wur- "town, compound" FM vur- "house" 3. Kr. kuli
"case, concession, village" Lei. kur "place" Dgl. wer "lieu, temps, circonstance"
3a. *ri/*li "place, time" 4. Sml. guri "hut, house, large enclosure in
which huts are built" Abo. 'ur "time" Brj., Or. place, hut, shelter, cottage"
Bye. gwad "by, near, with" P.SC *gud- "land, country" *gad- "reside, dwell"
6. Gz. gor "neighbor, neighborhood, vicinity" g-w-r "dwell together, live in
vicinity" 7. Tur. gawar "s'asseoir, rester" yui "chez, aupres de, a"
gurjiya silk-cotton tree (Bombax buonopezense) cf. kurya Tur. gojaya, gorjaya
Ful.(Gambia) gwijeri Ful. joyi, johi Mende kinjoi, kinguwe Twi akonkore
Tv. genger Kan. gelta
gurmi lute (2 stringed) cf. Kan. gulum "guitar"
gurnani growling, purring also gurgurtu cf. gunaguni
I. Ang. gwer "groan (vb.)" 2. Gd. ngira "growl" Maf. gurts "gronder" Log.
r)ger "bellen" 3. Lei. ngorngili "ronfler (purr)" Mkl. gurgire "grogner" 4. Bil.

guramram "murren" Or. gururi'a "growl (vb.)" Afr. gurmu^to "grumbling"

Bye. gwil- "complain" 6. Gur. garggara "grumble" gurgur "thunder,
guro okra, gumbo {Hibiscus esculentus) cf. kaewa ? < NC, as is okra cf. Kri.

okro Igbo okuro

I. kwa "okra" Dr. garak 2. Mfg. guta "courge sp" Njn.,
Sur. kul "Eierfruchte"
Mwl. ngila'o3. Tum. garmag "gombo sp." 6. Shuwa Ar. daraba umm gurum
9. Np. kpanmi, kpanmi ena guru
gurori flour "sittings of flour, coarsest grains" cf gara, gari E.Ful kurori "flour,

gursunu pig ? < gur + Sun- cf. gadu OS *xundz (+ir) "pig"
I. H. gunzu "wild boar" Gwd. burusunu, gurusunu Ang. gwas 8. Berta

burdale "hog" (/br*d-l- "bush" see dila) 2. Dab. guldom "pore" 3. Jg. goror)
"Wildschwein" Mub. gerwa "Wildschwein" Bid. gorinya "phacochere" 3a. *zTr)-

"cochon, phacochere" 4. P.Cu.(D) *g'^-L-ntl- "KaaH" P.SC *gu^at'- "bushpig"

Bye., Afr. H-r- 4a. Anf. gurico, saggo Kef. sugo Wei. sego Bnc. ob 5. Eg.
S3 Cop. se "pig" eso "sow" 6. P.Sem. *x-z(z)-r 7. Tur. azubara "sanglier" (for
*bar- "outside, *wild" see baya)
gurya cotton seed also angurya cf. Mnd. koro nde nkulu "c.s." (koro "cotton")
gurza, gurje scrape esp. "gin cotton" cf. Sng. gursu "egrener" Mnd. wuru "bourre
de coton" wurusi "egrener (specialement bourre de coton)" Ful.(W) burs- "egre-
ner" Ar. garad "strip, peel, abstract, (?) gin (cotton)" igtarad "comb (wool)"
Tarn, qrsl "card (wool)"
gusa move a little gushe "pass on, die" OS *gas-/*gus- "move"
I. Sur. gyes 4. P.Cu.(E) *gus- "take away" Bye. gwis-s "move"
gusum (N.W H.) south cf. Tur. agos
gutsu bottom, sexual organ cf. gato, gindi, kuturi P.W.Cha. *Kwisi "buttocks"
I. Gwd.(N) goto "vagina" Sey. gus "vagina" gud "woman" Dw. gut "wo-
man" NBS gasi "vagina" NBM kuti "vagina" 2. Gab, Can. werta "vagina"
Cb. kwodar) "vagina" Gd. untsa "penis" Nkt. xwusa "woman" Mfg. wuam
"vagina" 9. Ful. kuttu, kottu "vagina" 3. Bid., Dgl. guruN "sexe de femme,
vagin" 4. P.Cu. *w-t(t)- "sexual organs, anus" 6. Gz. kwahs-, kwahi-
" women's genitalia" Ar. kus 8. Knz. usud "Gesdfi, After, Vulva"
guza monitor "water m., Nile m." cf. gwada
1. Gwd. gunja NB (r))guz- Ang. rjgwojo "male lizard" jo "female lizard" Ngz.
gazan 2. Ter. kwaza "monitor" katax "lizard" 8. Kan. gujen "Nile monitor"
2. Hg. kaja, kaca "lizard" Mat. kozok Muy. dzumdzum "iguana" 3.
Dgl., Bid. girzibo "varan" Lei. gulo "lezard" 3a. Lam. 'izin "lezard sp., aquat-
ique et comestible" 4. ? P.HEC, Or. oca "tortoise, turtle" 5. Eg. S3 "lizard"
guzuma old (cow, woman) cf. ungozoma, gyatuma
I. H. warso "old person" Ang. gadjet "old man" Ngz. gudugum "widow

too old to remarry" BuL, Brm., DZ (r))gwus- "old" 2. W.Mg. kuduxum "old
woman" Muk. mukwaz "old" 9. CB *-kudu "old person" 4. P.Cu. *q-d(-)d-
"be old" P.SC kidz- "old person" As. kijumo "old person" Sid. ge'dimma
"old age" Or. gadamoji "someone very old" 6. Gur. gurz "old, worn out"
gurz mast "old woman"
for "big, old" see girma

guzuri provisions (for a journey)

6. Amh. guzo "journey, caravan" gwaz "baggage, luggage" tagwaza "go on
gwaa, kwaa insert, copulate cf. Dr. gwae "copulate"
gwada try, test also "compare, show, do once, measure" cf. awo
I. NBM, NBK gudza "measure" DZ gwade "show" (? < H.) 2. Pad. nagwada
"tasse pour mesurer" Maf. gwada "tasse servant de mesure" (said to be < Ful. ?

agoda) 3. Dgl. getyime "essayer, soupeser un poids" Lei. agodo, agode "tasse
pour mesurer" (said to be < Ar.) 4. Afr. egese "measure, put into sacks" ? P.

EC *gat- "sell" 6. Gur. qat "measure" ? Gz. qata "kind of weight" 7. Tur.
asaywad "mesure (quelconque)" ^yw^d "tailler (en leur donnant la forme vou-
lue)(etoffe, peau, cuir)"
gwadabe main road see gwangwa
gwado blanket (cotton) cf. Ful., CB, Lam. *(-)dag^o "mat"
I. H. gado "bed" Gwd. gwodo, gbodo "bed" Ngz. gwadam Sur. gwan "wood-

en bed" 2. Gd. gwada Maf. gwadaray "grande pagne tisse en coton" 4. Or.
qodo "furniture" qoddiro "mat" Afr. godari "mattress, mat" 6. Ethiopian
Sem. *gwazgwaz "bed, covering, carpet, mat, mattress" 7. Tur. tagadanfust
"couverture epaisse"
gwafa, gofe forked stick cf. goce
I. Gwd. gopa Ngz. gwafu "turn off to the side" 4. Or. qorbi "kind of pitch-
gwaggo I. aunt (paternal) < Ful. goggo, gorgol, goggol ? < wor-/gor- "male"
2. baboon also goggo, gauji OS *goh-goh- "monkey"
I. Gwd.(N) agbam "baboon" Ron, NBW aggo "monkey" RS qguggwa
"monkey sp." NBS yago "baboon" NBD galgan "baboon" Dr. gom "baboon"
Gj. hwor) "baboon" DZ gwomi "baboon" Sur. kwom "baboon" 2. Hrz. agula
3. Tum. gargam "monkey" gaw "large monkey" 4. Bil. j-ggu ''Mantelpavian"

gwaiduwa egg yolk also gwanduwa, waiduwa cf. wai "egg"

I. BT *d(w)-y "red" 4. RCu.(E) *dum- "red" Sml. "yolk" = "egg" + "red" 6.
Gur. "yolk" = "egg" + "red"
gwaiwa testicle(s) cf. wai see golo
gwal goal (football etc.) < Eng.
gold < Eng.
gwale-gwale fatigue duties (soldier, student) < Yor. gbale-gbale "sweeper-up"

gwalitsa mix cf. gauraya, hautsuna OS *xalat-/*xalit- "mix"

I. Gwd.(N) kirite 2. Bur. gwart- "mix" r)gurt- "stir" 4. Bye. kwil'as "shake
(e.g. bottle)" Sml. xalad ? < Ar. 6. Ar. xalat- "mix" 7-l-t "mistake"
gwambaza antelope "Western waterbuck (Kobus defassa)" also yakumba q.v.
? < *kumba "antelope sp." cf. gwanki

I. NBM; NBK gumbaz8ha "roan antelope" NBW hwambaz + ai "waterbuck"

NBP zakumba "female waterbuck" NBM zakwambai "waterbuck" NBK

zakumba "waterbuck" 2. Bud. komoseno "Haimaran-Antilope" kamasano
"Kob-Antilope" 8. Kan. kamasano "cob antelope" 3. Lei. mbur "Kobus de-
fassa" Bid.; Dgl. kerp- "antelope spp." 3a. Lam. qurbu "Kobus defassa" Zim
gor) "Kobus defassa" 4. ? Dly. kumacce "antelope sp." Kmb. gummicu

"antelope sp." 4a. Jnj. gimuwa "antelope sp." 9. Snd. kumpa "reedbuck
{Redunca sp.)"
gwamma better that also gwanda cf. gwani
I, ? BT *gwon "good" 2. Mfg. rjgama "// vaut mieux que"
gwamna governor < Eng. cf. Yor. gominon Kri. govna
gwamnati government < Eng. cf. Kri. goment Ijo go(v)meti
gwanda papaya (pawpaw) gwandar Masar "p., Carica papaya" gwandar daji
"Anona senegalensis"
I. H. guna "melon" Tgl. kuduk 9. Gb. gwanda ? < H. Tv. agbadu Dagomba
gondele "p." 8. Kan. gwonogo "An. sen." gunda Masar "p." i. Ngz. agunaku
"An. sen." 2. Mfg. gwanakay "An. sen." Maf. gwonokwa "pap oyer sauvage"
gwonokud bay "papayer cultive" (bay "chef") Pad. gwarjusa "p."
gwangiri rail, sleeper (rail tie) also kwangiri cf. Yor. ogba irin tabi ti igi "? rail

of metal or wood"
gwangwa road "broad highway" cf. gwadabe "main road" (dae "pound
smooth") HN, Mdr., W.Om., Our., Hrr. *ung(w)- "road" ES *gwadana "main
gwangwala see gora 2.
gwangwani tin (small) ganga "drum", kwano "metal bowl"

I. Tgl. koggor) 2. 4. Sid. gonga "dish, plate" 8.

Maf. gorjgor) "bottle gourd"
Kan. gor)gor) "tin box" Sng. gangani tu "mesure de grains" (tu "plat, ecuelle")
9. ? Bam. gongon "t." Igbo gbamgbam "tin roofing" ? Pidgin ngor) 6. ? ES

gwani expert cf. gunki "idol" gunkin malami "celebrated scholar"
8. Kan. gonyi "learned scholar, skilful worker" i. BT *gw-n "good" 2. Mfg.

gwaw, gwam "pouvoir, etre puissant, valide" 3. Lei. go "adulte accompli" (cf.

gwanjo auction < Yor. gbanjo
gwanki, gwamki antelope "roan antelope" cf. gwambaza Snd.(? Khoisan) xonxe
"roan antelope"
I. BT *gwam- "r.a." 2. Ter. gomox "bush-cow" 3. Turn gun "buffle" Kr. gor)

"antelope sp." 3a. Lam. gor) "bubale sp." 4. P.SC *gum- "small antelope"
Or. qorke "hartebeest"
gwanO; gwarno ant "stink ant" cf. gara "termite" OS *god-n- "ant"
I. gunda "large, black a." RD gandif "small, red a." NBM,NBB -r)gwan
"stink ant" NBJ guru "stink ant" 2. Gd. gwajafa "termite sp." Pad. rjgurataya
"ant sp." Log. ma7'oda "large, black ant" 3. Dgl. gudyina, gondyirko
"termite" Bid. giinto "petit fourmi rouge" Kr. gonoy "ant sp." 4. P.Cu.
*gw-t-(n)- "termite, maggot" P.HEC *gota "big ant" Or. gonda "ant sp." 6.
Amh., Gur. gw-nda(n) "ant sp." 7. Ghd. tagitfit "ant" Sokna tagadfit "ant"
Nefusa tagataft "ant"
gwargwado proportion ? < gwada "measure"

gwara beer "type of b."

I. NBD gwarana 4. Or. qarari "stage of b."

gwari grasshopper sp. cf. waro "insect"

I. Ngz. gwara "grasshopper sp." NBM gwal "locust sp." Ang. r)g(w)ok "lo-
cust" 2. ? Mg., Wmd., Hid. *(a)7a'i "locust" 4. P-SC *'u(u)ri "grasshopper"
Sml. koronkor "locust" 6. Gur. angwarabanna "locust" (bana "eat" banara
"destroy") 7. Tur. tahuwalt "sauterelle voyageuse"
gwari shunting engine (locomotive) ? < Gwari (ethnic group proverbial for
hard work)
gwarzo energetic man P.W.Cha.*g'^ar- "man"? < P.Cha. *(n)gw-(-) "person,
male, husband" + *z-l "male" see ango, miji OS *gabar- "male"
I. gwarzo "man" 8. Sng. gorzo "geant" 2. Glv., Nkt. *gw-rv- "man"
gwauro, gwabro bachelor gwauron gida "house detached from others"
gwagwarci "having no spouse"
9. Mnd. gbara "celibataire" gba, gwa "privation" i. Gwd. goro Ang. gwTr "the

odd one over, of a pair, bachelor, spinster" 2. Glv., Nkt. *gw-rv- "man" 4.
Or. qerro "bachelor"
gwaza coco yam (Colocasia esculentum) cf. Gwd. gbaja, gwaja
gwiwa knee ? < *gurwa for *gw-rp "knee, kneel" see gurfana

gyaa groundnuts cf. < g + y-nd-

gujiya ?

I. Sey. gyei ? < H. 9. Wolof ngerte Vai

"cassava" Tgl. kond- 8. Bgr. gedaji
gyende W.Ful. yert- (s.) gert- (pl.) Temne, Bulom, Kissi (WA) -kantr Kabre
(Gur) ketu Kalong (Bnt.) kendiu (s.) bendiu (pl.) 2. *nd-r Gis. hindir MM
Pad. ndara
gyale shawl (woman's) ? < Yor. gele
gyambo ulcer ? < g( ) + mbo
5. Eg.(Bu) uben "wound, sore" ubt + t "wound, sore" i. KK 'abab- "pimple"
NBS bambi Sur. e "pimple" Sey. pui "pimple" Tgl. (h)ambik "pimple" 2.

Pdl. mbiri "ulcer, pimple" Hg., FG *mbulu- "pimple, ulcer" Bac. oke 3a.

*mb-r "ulcer, pimple" 3. ? Mkl. bundu "plaie" 4. Sid. gurumbo "corn (on
foot)" Bye. 'ibab "sore, chafed wound" 'ib "gall, chafe (vb.)" Abo. be-
"wound, sore" Had. bu- "rot" Sml. bog "ulcer, sore" ? P.SC *p'o'- "rot
(vb.)" 6. Gur. ajSa' "furuncle" Gz. 'anpappe, 'anpanpe "ulcers, pustules" 7.

abuwis yiaie"
? Tur.

gyandama calabash "gourd waterbottle" cf. duma cf. Or. guccuma "narrow-
necked gourd" Amh. gucuma "milk recipient"
gyangyai nodding head < gyada "nod (vb.)" cf. girgije
gyara, gyarta repair, improve also "extra bit added free by seller, lagniappe"
gyartai "calabash-mender" cf. gara "better that", kyau 3. Lei. karna "cadeau
donne en surplus de ce qui est achete" 3a. Lam. galari "reparer, arranger" 4. Or.
qajel- "be straight, well, prosperous" ijara "build" P.HEC *haro "new" 8.

Sng. gyere "faire attention a" Mnd. gyara "lier" 6. Sem. x-y-r "good, choose"
I. ? Tgl. togor "generosity, gift"

gyatsa belch, burp also gyashi ? < gi + Cha. *'a'l- "cough" OS *-l-ts-
"spit" *ay- "spit"
I. Ngz. gadlu "belch" ata "cough, chest" NB *G^'\- "belch" 2. Mfg. 'at-

"eructer" Gis. gi 'irtle "cough make") Pad. garawa "renvoi"

(vb.)" (gi, ge "do,

3. Lei. gar "roter" Dgl. getye "roter" Bid. gee "roter" 3a. Lam. giii' "eructer"

'oio "tousser" 4. Kmb. gott' + am- "vomit" Bye. g'(a) "belch" s'is "cough
(vb.)" 5- Eg-(F) S
k3S 3S, is "vomit" (Bu) gesu "flatulence" 6. P.Sem.
*-gsa^ "belch" *-qyi'- "vomit" 7. Tur. agry "roter"
gyatuma old woman cf. guzuma for ma < mat- "woman" for g-r- "old" see
1. Gra. garu mundu "old woman" (mundu "woman") Pic. gyatima ? < H.

2. Gd. ge "so-and-so (older female)" Pdl. garti "old man" 3a. Lam kituoma

"old woman" 4. Sid. gerco "old person" Or. jarsa "old person" ? P.Cu.

*q-d(-)d- "be old"

gyauro ratoon, growth from old stump ? < g-r- "old" + w-r- "cereal" see
girma, gero
habra, harba dust cf. hadi, ura OS *gabur- "dust" *^afur- "dust, sand"
2. Bac. bubare "dust" Gd. barabara "dust" 3. Turn, dabar "cendres, poussiere"
bar "farine" Dgl., Bid. ub-1 "braise" Lei. tibre "cendre" 3a. *'-b-r 4. P.Cu.
*'^-B-r "dust" 6. Heb. ^afar 'efer "dust, soil" Amh. ab'^ara, awwara "dust" 7.

Tarn, ibrayn "rough flour" Ghd. afaran "farine" 8. Knz. ^abes "Staub"
haa chin
8. Sng. kaba "barbe" 5. Eg.(Bu) khabs "beard" khabsit "chin (?)" i. Sur.
kapak "Gesichtseite" Gj., DZ g-s + K-a "chin" (Cha. *g-z- "hair, beard") 2.

Pdl.6oxm- "chin beard" Gan. ax- "chin" Gab. -mbax- "chin" Bok. -aur-
"chin" HF gui "chin, beard" Njn. mburme "chin" (P.Cha. *m- "mouth")
Bac. mwokum- "chin" (kwame "mouth") 3. Lei. mbili "barbe, menton" 7.
? P.Ber. *-mar- "beard, chin" ? < mb-r
hadi ashes cf. habra, ribidi P.Cha.(N) *batu "ashes"
OS *buwut- "burn; ash" i. RB 'afut SB *'apti "flour" Bol. bidiki "flour" Ngz.
apta "flour" 8. Knz. uburti "Asche" 2. Gis. 'aftso "Asche" Bac. 'umboto
"flour" biimate "fine sand" Msg. afdi "flour" 3. Kr. abadasga "sable" 9.

Gby. gbutu "endroit de terre fine, de poussiere ou de sable" 4. Cu. *b-d-(n-)

dust, ashes" Bil. bita "Staub, feiner Sand" 5. Eg.(F) hmw "dust" *^b "meal"
6. ES Hamad "a., dust"
hae Hausa person with no Fulani ancestry < Ful. hae (pi.) < ? "those
fought against" or "those captured"
hao nose bleed P.Cha.(N) *bar "blood"
I. Ang. mbolm "bleeding nose" 8. Kan. kan + jambu "bleeding from the
nose (bu "blood")" 4. Bye. ba' "bleed" P.Cu. *b-l- "blood"
hadari, hadiri storm see dari
hadda, harda learning by heart also "incessant cooing" ? < Ar. 'ardad "repeat
haddasa cause (vb.) ? < Ar. ahda^a
haddi Islamic punishment < Ar. haddi
hadTsi Tradition of the Prophet < Ar. hadi^

haa join hau "meet (intr.)" cf. aya, udura

OS *x-wit-/*x-yit- "sew, tie" i. H. haaka "something shared by many"
yanta "prepare grass for thatching" KK yen- "tie" Tgl. hauk "tie" 2. Ngw.
eta "arrange" *Ha-, Gdu. mahaa "tie" Njn. haan "tie" Gd. 'yint-
"tie" haa "fix, repair, dress" hwaa "knead, mix with water, do together" *r)gwu- "tie" Hg. *xit- "arrange" FM xai "arrange" Log. rde
"befesdgen" 3. Bid. 'atam "preparer (bagages)" 'ude "noeud"Dg\. ate "coller" Kr.
anti "attacker" Mgm. 'ado "coller" Mkl. kette "ligoter" 3a. Lam. te'e "joindre,
ajuster" 4. Afr. oe (vb.) aaw (n.) "tie" P.EC *hid- "tie" Bye. hatik "mix"
8. Knz. handa "Befestigung" 6. Soc. 'eti "rassembler, reunir" ES gatam- "join"
Our. (h)at, (h)ad "one" 7. Tarn, hattr- "meet" Tur. idaw compagnie

(avec), se reunir" adraw "mettre en association"

haama greed ? < had- "swallow" or had- "collect"
hadari danger also hatsari < Ar. xatar
hai fortune-telling < Ar. xatt "geomancy"
haiye, hae swallow cf. haama OS *nada^- "swallow"
I. P.W.Cha. *-l "swallow" Ngz. ntu "swallow" 2. *ndas- Bok., Gab.,

Hwn. m-(x)-( ) "swallow" Pad., Glv., Mfg. nd- 3. Dgl. side "avaler" 4.
P.Cu. *n-t-'(') Afr. anda*^-, undu^- "swallow" Brj. dem- "gulp, swallow" Bye.
kwit'- "swallow" 6. Ethiopian Sem. waHata "swallow" 7. ? Tarn, smnd-
" swallow, chew"

hafsa officer < Eng.

hagu, hagun, hauni left (side) also "left-handed, eccentric" ? < ha(n) + gun- cf.

8. Dz. anege "gauche" Kan. anege "S.E." (Le Coeur) (Lukas has anam gadi)
Knz. ungo "SUden" Gwd. guni, gur) NBD aguwe KK aguwa NBM aga'ay

Ang. gun "dirt" Ank. gurum- "evil" 2. Mol., Mfg. har gula "main gauche"
HK gwula Mat. gula' Gd. gulaga "odd, odd one out" Laam. kutaku "faire
mal" 3. Dgl. gulay "salete, malheur" gele "gauche" Kr. gula Mkl. gelo "gauche"
3a. *gul/r- 4. P.Cu. *(h)-ggw- "unlucky, unhappy" Afr. Rnd. gur(r)- Sid., Brj.
hogol- "north" Dly. "left" = "north" Bye kelim "unlucky" Or. golom'-
"clumsy" 6. ES *gur- ? Ar. gawr "wrong-doing" 7. Tur. tehalge, tehalgyun
"gauche (cote)" tehelt "direction"
haiba charisma "appearance that inspires respect" < Ar. hayba "awe, reveren-
tial fear, countenance, bearing"

haifa, haihu procreate "give birth to, beget" ? < *ayw- mahaifi "parent"
mahaifa "womb" OS *hayaw- "animal, family, people" *hay- "give birth"
hawar-/*hayar- "breed, multiply"
I. Ngz. 'yawu 2. Mfg. mayawa "naissance" 3. Mkl. e'iyo (inaccompli) "mettre
au monde" 4. P.Cu. *h-y(-)w- "live (vb.)" P.Cu.(E) *-xwayl- "child, bear
child" 5. Eg.(Bu) haut "descendant, progeny" (F) hsw "length of life, kind-
red" 6. P.Sem. *h-yw- "life, living, animal" 7. Tur. ayyaw, ahaya "grand-
child, descendant" sahhayaw "have grandchildren"
haila menstruation < Ar. hayda "menstruate"
ha'inci fraud, deceit also alha'ini "dishonest" < Ar. xa'in "treacherous, de-

hairan good deed < Ar. xayr, xayran cf. alheri
haja merchandise, goods (esp. cloth) < Ar. haja "want, need, clothes, things"
haji, hajji pilgrimage < Ar. hajj cf. alhaji
haka thus cf. kama, ungo

I. Ang. ar)ha, aha "thus" 2. Gd. ha'(a) "thus, indeed" Maf. aka "ga y est"

Pad. heka "la" Mfg. ka "ce, la, maintenant" 3. Dgl. ar)ka "celui ci" (anta f.
ar)ku pi.) Kaj. aka "this" Smr. ka "dieser" 4a. Jnj. aka "how?" 4. P.Cu. *k-
"masculine suffix, deictic, determiner" Or. akka "as, like, thus" akkas "thus"
Bil. inka "also" REG *ka, ku "this" Bay. hikina "this" atina "this (fem.)" Afr.
akah, kah "that for which {relative pronoun^ 6. Gur. akka "thus" Hrr. ukku

"thus" 7. ? Tam. akya "ainsi" 8. Knz. ikke "so"

haki grass cf. ciyawa P.W.Cha. *gaki
I. NBP hyea "straw (stalks) RK 'akyen "Busch, Wildnis" Ang. gak "sp. of
long grass" 2. Gd. hankina "grass sp." Bac. kakay "grass, bush" 3. ? Tum.
hegal "paille" 7. ? Tur. aasa "herbe fraiche"
haki panting also huka, huci cf. fuka, she-
I. haghag 2. Mfg. hagaf hagaf "haletant" 6. Gz. 'kw-r, ta'akwra "pant"
7. Tur. mehekket "etre tres haletant"

hakika certainly, undoubtedly < Ar. haqiqa "truth, reality"

hakimi district head (minor official) < Ar. hakim "governor"
hakkan = hakika < Ar. haqqan "really, truly"
hakki due, right < Ar. haqq cf. alhaki
haa dig also "build, make pots" hako "pit, trap" cf. gina "build, dig, make
pots", kogo RW.Cha. *gak^a "trap" *ha- "dig" OS *^og- "dig, cut"
I. Ank., Cp. (h)ok Ang. gwak, gwok "trap" NB *s'-- "dig" *r)g-r "hole" RS
nga "trap (vb.)" 'anga "trap (n.)" 2. Gd. ngaa "bury" Mfg. -hakw-

"decoller (une pierre du sol), arracher" 9. Gby. ar) "gratter le sol, creuser, deterrer"

3. Lei. hangi "tailler, sculpter, ouvrir" Turn, yag "travailler la terre avec une
houe" Dgl. ko(gi)nye "creuser" 4. P.Cu. *^-gw- "dig in, bury" *(h)-g- "build"
P.Cu.(E) *h-w- gaqa + d "aufgraben" Rnd. angey "trap" Bye.
"scratch" Bil.

angas "Pflug, dibble 7. Tur. ^y^z "creuser, excaver, deterrer"

holes for seed"
Tarn, tayzut "fertile field" 6. Gz. hsnqart "pit in which blacksmiths melt
iron" Amh. anqart "shaft from which minerals or ores are taken"
haarari ribs ? < "bone of chest" cf. ashi, irji
I. Gwd.(N) ar)gar)g9m DZ ggyeie "chest, bone" NBJ gaigai Gj. ngeii "chest"
isngeii "ribs" "bone") Bui. gulngei "ribs" (gul "bone") RK kukoh

"Brustkorb" 2. Pdl. "ribs" = "bone of chest" Mg., Hid., Wmd. *kaiu "chest"
*ixir kaiu "ribs" (*ixi "bone") Gd. "ribs" = "bone of chest" Bac. giyengay
(pi.) uley giyengay (s.) (uley "bone") Gdu. = "bone of chest" gire
"bone" Dab. gengirril "bone" 3. Dgl. korkio "poitrine" Tum. gogar "poi-
trine" 3a. Lam. uso garhei' "cdte" (uso "os") 4. Sid. gagaso "chest" Afr.

hakale "flesh around ribs"

haori tooth also haure < *hare OS *qor- "tooth" *'-gor- "chew"
I. Gwd. akuri Ron. *a(r))gur 3. Lei. kan- "dent" Kuj. kiya "tooth" 4. Bye.
kure, kure Bil. eruuk "Zahn" hinko RCu.(D) *'-l-kkw- "tooth, canine

tooth" Afr. maqiyo "canine tooth" Rnd. hir- "tusk" 5. Eg.(Bu) khenr
"tooth, tusk (?)" 6. Amh. kranca "canine tooth" 7. Kab., Ghd., Zen. *ugl
"canine tooth" Tur. tahalat "canine"
hauri patience haura, hanura (vb.) cf. hankali cf. Gwd. ankuri Tub. ar)kuri
"manliness" Kan arjgar "denial" Bid. kangar, kangir "resistance, endurance"
Tur. unkar "renier" Ar. inkar "denial"

hala possibly ? < Ar. hal la? "why not?" cf. halama
halaka perish [halaka] also [halaka] "destroy" < Ar. halaka "perish, be des-
halal lawful (according to shari'a) also halak, halas, halalta (vb.) < Ar. halal

halama probably ? < Ar. '^alama abbreviated for da halama "there are sign(s)"
cf. alama

hali ? < Ar. hal see hali

character, disposition
hali condition, circumstances < Ar. hal
halitta create, creation ? < Kan. alakta (vb. n.) < Ar. xalaq mahalicci "Crea-
tor" cf. taliki "creature"
hallara arrive on scene halarta "attend (e.g. meeting)" cf. Ar. hadara "be pres-

halwa religious solitude, retreat < Ar. xalwa

ham horn (auto) < Eng. cf. Kri. on
hama hammer < Eng. cf Kri. ama .

hamada desert (especially Sahara) cf. Ar. hamad "be barren (ground)"
hamata, hammata armpit cf. hannu "hand, arm"
I. Gwd. amuta, maminta SB *am- "arm" Ngz. amai "hand, arm" 2. Zlg.
himbi Mg. humbu Bac. mwamwa + te Mfg. mbuwa "aisselle" 3. Kr.

alabai "(creux de) Vaisselle" 4. P.Cu.(E) *bob- "armpit" *'anb- "upper arm,
outer shoulder" Dhl. hajSe "armpit" 5. Eg.(Bu) khab + t "neck, shoulder"
8. Knz. abir togo "Achselhbhle (Achsel Unterseite)" *'amm + at 6. P.Sem.
"avambracchio" Ar. Amh. babbat
'ibt Hars. ebat
hamayya rivalry, opposition ? < Ar. humayya "excitement, vehemence"
hambua throw in mouth (powder, dust, flour) also hamfua ? < AA *mpu
"mouth" cf. afa Eg. hpd "open (mouth)"
hamdala giving thanks < Ar. hamdu + li +llah cf. madalla
hamlla sword sling < Ar. hamila
hamma yawning ham
ideo. "widely gaping" cf. hamniya
I.Gwd. amwa NB *ham- Ang. em RF 'ap (vb.) 2. MM *ham- (vb.) Gis.
haham (vb.) Msg. hima (vb.) Gd. haak- (vb.) 8. Sng. hahaba Ted., Dz.
ham- (vb.) 3. Tum hawul (vb.) 3a. Lam. halam 4. Or., Abo., Der. hamum-
Bye. ham "neigh" 6. Ar. hamham "neigh"
hamsin fifty < Ar. xamsTn an hamsin "transvestite" ? < hunsa q.v.
hana prevent, forbid cf. i
I. RF hen "ablehnen" RS ^and- "ablehnen" Ang. kwin "prevent" NBT han- ?

< H. 2. Mg., Bur. r)ka(n)- 3. Lei. kano "refuser" 3a. Lam. hon "interdire, de-
fendre" 4. ? P.SC *hink- "push away" Kmb. ka'm-, kam- "forbid, defend"
5. Eg.(Bu) khena "restrain" (F) hwi "prevent" 6. Gur. xan(n)a "prohibit,

forbid, deprive" 7. Tur. ekken "defendre, interdire"

hanci nose ? < m + ci( ) cf. ji, sansan- RW.Cha. *h- + tsini OS *tsin- "nose"
*xat-m- "face, nose"
I. Gwd. antsi, anci Tgl. wisin KK, Bel. (')unti(n) DZ icine RB 'atin 2. Gd.
sin- "n.,blow n." Mg. mcir Dab. micir) Msg. hancig "Schnabel" Log. xsani
Mfg. heter 3. Dgl. ete Lei. hinda 3a. Lam. tsTn 9. Mumuye sun 4. P.Cu.(E)
*'isr)w- Bye. sin'(a) "nostril" 4a. Bnc. sint' 5. Eg.(Bu) khent(+ i) "nose, face"
8. Knz. sorin Ted., Dz. ca Kan. ssran- "sniff (vb.)" kantsa, kanza, kanja
"nose" 6. Tge. ns^ "introduce medicine through nose" Ar. 'ansa^ "inject

medicine through nose or mouth" Hars., Mhr. se + ni^ "sniff, snuffle,

snuff" 7. P.Ber. *-nzr-

hanga see in distance also "foresee" < *anga cf. ankara, gani, hankali OS
*'^are- "see, understand"
I. Dr. yiijge "look at" Bol. ngi'y "look at" NBB na7- "see" 2. Log. ijgwa "see"
Muk. nir)ai] "see" FM nur)ga "see" Pad. narja, naka "voir"Gd. nsnga "watch,
look after, take care of" 3. Mkl. ange "remarquer, observer" 4. P.Cu.(D)
*(^)-k(k)- "see, know, notice, pay attention" P.Cu.(E) *'ark- "see" P.HEC *ag-
"understand" Dhl. '^enaD- "see from afar" 5. Eg.(F) ^rk, rh "know" 6. Arg.
hanja "see" Gz., Ar. hanaka "understand, perceive" 7. Tur. anay "voir"
hangum mumps cf. Sng. hungum "rhume de cerveau, grippe, suffoquer" Ang.
hanlniya neighing cf. Dgl. innyinye Tur. henenet
hanji intestines (pi. hanz-) cf. hanta, irji
OS *hadzin-, *waj-N- "heart, intestines" i. Gwd. a(ya)nji BN *and9 RS, RK
'anji "Bauch" RF 'adden "Bauch" BT *w9zi SB *njim "heart" 2. MM *-9nday
Mwl. Dab wanji Bud. andei Gis., Mfg. tanday 3. *a(d)d-y "stomach, in-

testines" 4. Kmb. azi "inside" P.Cu. *w-j-n "intestines, inside, heart" 5. Eg.
ht "belly" mhtw "intestines" 6. Gur. anzat Amh. anjat Shr. m^ayzok 7.
P.Ber. *adan (s.) *adann (pi.)

hankaka crow OS *ga- "crow"

8. Kan. r)gaga Sng. gaga Mnd. kaka, kaka Gwd. akwakwa, ggarjkaa Ang.

ngak NBP gaga Bol. kaki 2. Gd. 7aka, 7ak MM *r)ga'ak 3. Lei. hanga Mkl.
gagu 4. Sid. haraq- "raven" P.Cu.(E) *xwar- 4a. Jnj. kura 6. Gz. qaqer Gur.
hequra 7. Kab. aqaq "pie"
hankali intelligence, care cf. ankara, hanga, kai
OS *^al-/*^il- "be clever" 2. Pad. nakala *'ar)gar "brains" Mat.
-rjgar- "brains" Mfg. leggei "cerveau" 4. P.Cu.(D) *h-nKw-l "head, brain,
top" RSC *^ar) "head, up, above" RCu.(E) *'^an7w- "top" 6. RSem. *gw-l
"skull, bowl" Gur. anat, arat "top of head" 8. Kan., Tub. ar)gal Bgr. aggala
Sng. lakal 9. Ful. hakkilo Mnd. hakili Sw. akili (? all < Ar. 'aql)

hankici handkerchief < Eng. cf. Kri. ankachif

hannu hand, arm ? < har + n OS *har- "arm"
I. Ron hara "5" Tgl. hara, yara "arm" Dr. arik 2. Gis. har) "arm, hand"
C.Cha. *x-r/n- 3. Kr. garar) "aile" Turn, geji "main" 4. P.Cu.(D) *x-rk- "arm,
lower arm" *g-n-^- "hand, arm" P.Cu.(E) *hark- "arm" Bye. ayi "hand,
forearm" P.HEC *anga "hand, arm" Bil. nan "Hand" 4a. Ari., Dim., Ham.

*'an- 5. Eg.(F) ^ 6. Ethiopian Sem. *x-rn- "arm below elbow" 7. P.Ber. *a7il

hansari snore cf. minshari
8. Sng.(B) hanzuru 2. Mfg. hendar- 4. Bye. kantur P.HEC *kontor-
hanta liver cf. hanji
1. Gwd. anta 2. Log. xsanten Msg. eteltel 3. Jg. 'atko 3a. Lam. manti
"heart" 4. ? P.Cu.(D) *ty-r- 5. Eg.(Bu) hati, het(i) "heart" (F) h3ty "heart"
6. Soc. hant- "stomach" Gur. xart "liver"
hantsa udder, large breasts cf. hanji
6. Tge. hante "Busen, Schoft" Gz. ga*^t "breast, udder" 4. Sid. hanta "dug,
teat, nipple" Dly. g'ante "Enter" 7. Tur. teze "globe de mamelle"
hantsaki pincers "p., tongs, tweezers" also hansaki, ansaki cf. arautaki
hantsi mid-morning cf. gizo, haske P.W.Cha. *"^amsi "sky" *(t!)i/*si "day" OS
*^aj- "sun" *^-n-jaw- "day, sunshine"
4a. Jnj. e'so"morning" 8. Knz. asal "der morgige Tag, das Morgen" i. BT
*-ci "tomorrow" Dr. sar) "morning" Bol. nso "day" Gj. cir) "sun" (cilti
"light") 2. Gd. ansina "today" Ngw. cici "sun" Cb. tsitsi "sun" HG mase
"morning" FG maksi "morning" Njn. haceme "light" Gdu. cad "light" Log.
sa "sun" 3. Krb. ati "heat of the day" Jg. 'etir) "day" 3a. Lam. has "chaleur"

4. PSC *7^ats- "sun" (*pats "sky") RCu.(D) *n-zO- "sun, day" 5. ? Eg.(Bu)

shu "sun god" shu + t "sky" 6. Soc. 'Ttin, 'e'eten "sky" Shr. sutum "sky"
Mhr., Hars. h-yt-m "sky" 7. RBer. *ass "day"
hantsirwa sneeze cf. atishawa, hanci
4. Abo. hettir- i. Gwd.(N) ancuwa Bol. hasita NBJ hasa NBK atsa 4. Kmb.
hantis- Dhl. hadiD- 2. Bud. osTsa 7. Siw. anzu Tam. tinzi
hanya road, way ? < *ang-la cf. gwangwa
I. Gwd. hanrjya RS hagil 2. Mdr. 'ugwule 3a. Mas. hagat 4a. W.Om. *ung-y
6. Amh. ma + ngad Gz. mangad

hanza, anza Boscia sp. cf. Bil. zinza "B. reticulata"

hanzari i. excuse, pretext ? < Ar. a^6ar "excuses"
2. speed, good health ? < Ar. ^ajal "haste, hurry, readiness" cf. Gwd.
anjari "good health" anjeri "speed"
har until, even cf. Kan. har Sng. hala Tur. har Sw. hata ? all < Ar. hatta
haraba enclosure (esp. of mosque) ? Ar. h-r-b "escape, take refuge" relevant cf.

Ar. mahrab "refuge, retreat, sanctuary"

harafi letter of alphabet < Ar. harf

haraji tax < Ar. xaraj


haram forbidden act < Ar. haram

harara glare at OS *'ur- "burn, be hot" *gar- "be angry"
I. Ngz. aru "malicious conduct" 3a. Lam. 'ir "injurier" 3. Dgl. era "bruler,
chaud" tale era "regarder d'un regard courrouce" 2. Gd. ngara'wa "being angry"
4. Or. ara "smoke, steam, anger" P.EC *'^ar- "smoke, steam" P.HEC *ar- "be
angry" As, 'aririt "quarrel" Ma' -xaro "annoy" Bye. 'arik "become wild,
excited (from joy or rage)" 6. Sem. h-rr- "be hot, glowing"
harawa leaves "stalks and l.s of non-cereal food plants" ? < *aragw- cf. algashi
"green" OS *^al- "leaf
I. Pr. alaw "leaf" Tgl. ala "grass sp. (for animals)" NBJ aluhu "leaf" 2. Hg.,
Gd., Laam. *L-K'^- "leaf" Gis. 'alar'alar "vegetation" Mfg. alar "partie en hois
d'un manche de pipe, arbre (?)" 3. Dgl. aro "stalk (of millet)" Lei. harme
"feuilles, plantes herbacees" 4a. Dim. ergo "leaf" 4. P.Cu. *^-l(l)- "leaf, veg-
etation" Sml., Or., Sah. *ala "cane (of corn)" Brj. alo "millet" 6. Heb. ^ale
"leaf" Akk. alu "sprout" 7. Tur. el "fresh grass" ela "sp. of leaf" 8. Dz. elle,

erre (pi. alia, arra) "grass" Knz. ulug "oberstes Blatt von Weizen oder Gerste"
harba shoot, sting, kick (by animal) also halba, habra cf. maharbi "hunter"
OS *mi + ^-bal "arrow, spear"

I. H. hamara "kick" Gwd. ribi "shoot, throw and hit, sting" NB *i:-p-

"shoot" 3. Bid., Mgm. 'ar(a)p "donner un coup de pied, piquer (abeille, scor-
pion), tirer (fleche, fusil)" Mk\. rapid- "jeter" 4. Brj. korburo, kobro "scorpion"
4. P.Cu.(E) *reb- "strike" Rnd. tarb- "throw spear" 5. Eg.(Bu) abb "fight,
hurl spear or weapon" 6. Sem. H-r-b "sword, spear, fight" '^-qr-b "scorpion"
(but Soc. qa^ninhin "curved + feet") Ar., Gz. 'abar "prick(le)" Ar. hariba "be
angry, have rabies" Gz. h-yp "strike, shoot, hit target with stone or arrow"
7. Tur. dyb^T "ruer, frapper avec le pied"
hargi harpoon ? < Sng. hargyi "spear" cf. Tur. aleggi, alla7 "spear" Eg.(F) h3h
or h-f "spear (fish)" Bar., Mkl. ark- "spear" P.SC *har- "spear"
hari raid (n.)mahari "raider" cf. gara, kora
OS *gar- "army, raid" *mahor- "slave, soldier" i. Tgl. kayi "chase, per-
secute, compete in horse-racing" 2. Mf. herey "drive away" Gd. 79r9V9 "at-
tack quickly, ride horse quickly, confiscate property" 3. Bid. 'araw "chasser"
Mkl. 'er- "chasser" 4. Or. ari'a "pursue, chase" Bye. haru "seek" Sml. eri "de-
feat, drive away" 5. Eg.(F) 3r "drive away" (Bu) ann "drive back" 6. Amh.
warrara "r., pillage, invade, swarm over (ants)" Ar. 7awar "make a r." 7.

Tur. (h)97- "razzier"

harka business, movement < Ar. haraka

harsashi i. foundation < Ar. 'asas

2. bullet, cartridge, shell cf. Kan. arsasa Tub. arsas "lead" Ar. ar +
rasas "lead, bullet"
harshe, halshe tongue cf. lasa, reshe P.Cha.(N) *aiasi
OS *les- "tongue" i. Gwd. arisiya 8. Sng. halassa "lick" Berta hala "tongue"
P.Koman *let' "tongue" Dz. telesi "langue" 7. P.Ber. *ils 6. P.Sem. *lisan
5. Eg.(Bu) res, nes (F) ns Cop. las 2. Log., Kot. nil 4a. Kef. eritso, ec'io

hasala become angry ? < Ar. 'az^ala "vex, annoy"
hasali summing up < Ar. hasil

hasara loss < Ar. xasara cf. Sng. hasara

haske light ? < aS + k- cf. hantsi
9. Np. asike "glitter" (? < H.) i. Gwd. asikye BT esi, usi "fire" 5. Eg.(Bu)
ashep "day, light" 6. P.Sem. *'is + at "fire" 2. Mdr. 'atsakece "lightning"
Njn. haceme "light" 3. Dgl. ose "set fire to" 4. P.Cu. *(^)-z(^)- "sun, light
of sun" Brj. haski "fire burnt for dead person" 7. Tur. essam "lightning"
hassada envy < Ar. hasada
hasu, asu moth cf. susuwa
6. Ar. u^^a Amh. yaasat arat "m., dinner of fire" Gz. 'asatarmu

hasumiya minaret also sumi'a ? < Ar. 'as + s-m-^ "sharp-pointed, conical,
monk's cell"
hatimi seal < Ar. xatim cf. Mnd. hatuma
hatta even < Ar. hatta cf. har
hattara alertness ? < Ar. xatar "come to mind"
hatsabibi magician < Ar. at + tablb "doctor" cf. dabo
hatsi, hac'i corn, cereal crop cf. acca, intaya P.W.Cha. *haci "millet" *^as-

"flour" *'-s- "grind" OS *xats- "leaf, plant" *hasek- "cereal sp."

8. Sng. ansi "Digitaria exilis" i. Gwd. atuwa "sorghum flour" Sur. as "Samen,
Saatkorn" Plateau Cha. (h)as "flour" RS 'asi "das Bebauen, Feldbestellung" RK
'ase "abgeemtetes Feld" NBP aci "sorghum" Dr. asi "flour" 5. Eg.(Bu) at
"corn, grist" (F) it "corn in general, barley" 2. W.Mg. kwisi "sorghum" 4.

Sid. haite "barley" Kmb. oze "grain, cereal, crop" Bye. asida "flour, esp. mil-
let" (cf. dawa) 6. Hrr. asTta "young grain" Gur. aset "young grain" Gz.
xatt-, hatt- "grain, seed"
hau mount, climb "m., cl., possess, be possessed by {bori spirits)" also haur-
"climb over" cf. haya
I. Gwd. huwa, yuwa NBP hwun RS hau "Felsen" RF ho "Berg" Mon. oho

"rock, cliff" 3. Mkl. 'awwa "haut" 'awwika "hauteur, altitude" Bid. kaw, kaw-
"monter" 3a. Lam. 'ur "monter, grimper" 4. Bil. aw- "oben" P.Cu.(D) *k'^-r(r)-

"climb; mount" 5. Eg.(Bu) kau "be high" khu "high" 7. Tur. awn Siw. un,
hauka madness haukata "increase greatly, foment, stir up" ? < hau "possess
(by spirit)" + ka cf. Bil. hauk "Aufruhr"
hauni executioner also "left (side)" see hagu ? < "side of ill omen" did he
stand on the left of the sarki?
Hausa Hausa language hausa "language, meaning"
2. Msg. awus "Iwmme, vir" 6. Heb. 'is "man" Ar. '^-ys "live (vb.)" Akk. na'as-

"live (vb.)" usu "Kraft" 4. P.EC *'is- "self" 4a. P.Om. *Ets "person" 5. Eg.
(Bu) hau "persons" s/sa "man, person" cf. Sng. hausa "left bank, east, bush"
haushi annoyance, irritation cf. fushi
I. Ngz. gazi "anger" BT usi "fire" 7. Tur. awus "be v. angry" 4. Bye. hasi

"be sharp, get angry, sexually excited" 6. ? Gur. ma'aca "be angry"
haushi, habshi barking cf. Bid. bos "aboyer"
hautsuna mix (esp. powder or grain) cf. gwalitsa, haa
9. Ful. hautana "join to" 2. Gd. hwaa "knead, mix with water" 3. Dgl.

awtiye "mix (oily paste)" awde "mix (millet paste)" Bid. 'awal "melanger,
remuer" 5. Eg.(F) hwsi "pound, stir, build up (bricks)" 4. Sid., Der. kar + s
6. Gz. x-w-i "mix, confuse" Tna. h-w-s- "mix" Amh. hawwasa "mix" Soc.
^A-x, ^otier "mix" 7. Tur. srtay "se meler, se melanger"
hauya i. hoe ? < *Harwa
I. Ang. er (vb.) Dw. 'ir 2. Mwl. ura "dig" Bac. hawe *h9v- (vb.) "culti- MM
vate, hoe, weed" 3. Kr. erwi "sarcler" Mkl. 'anni "sarcler" 'elr)e "houe" 3a.
Lam. karva ''houe" 4. Sid. hawura "plough, till" hellakko "hoe" Brj. har'
"plough, cultivate" Or. arama "weed (vb.)" Ag. ares- "till" P.SC *haw-, *haw-
"axe" 5. Eg.(Bu) hennui + t (n.) "plough, hoe" (F) hnn "hoe" 6. P.Sem.
*-hru^- "plough (vb.)" Ethiopian Sem. arram- "weed (vb.)" 7. Tur. heryuwet
"creuser legerement avec les mains"
2. twenty ? < h-r + w-y cf. aru-aru for *Har- "hand" see hannu
I. BoL, Bui. h-w-ya Gj. hawya a component of 40 thru 90 Ron *hur-, *kut

"10" (? < "hands") hur, kut + 2 "20" 2. Bud. hakan "10" hagoi "20" 3. Jg.,
Sok. 'or- prefixes "10" & "20" Bid. 'orro "10" Kr. hor "10" horhor asi "20"
(asi "2") 6. Gur. xwaya "20" w-r'et "2" 8. Knz. ari "20" owwi "2"
The relationship between i. and 2. is involved. The equivalent of 20
cowries in early iron money was a small hoe. Similarly for bano in Ka-

nuri. Iron hoes were used as currency ? replacing cowries in some places.
(Source: Peter Rogers.)
hawainiya chameleon hanwawa, hawalaini ?<*ar)gwal + ? cf. adangare
I. Gwd. ayagya Gwd.(N) r)kpar) "lizard" Ang. rjgarap NB *-r)gw-l- "lizard"

Tgl. agkilir] "lizard" Pr. aggada "lizard" Ngz. aggwarzo "male lizard" H.
gwada "male lizard" 2. Mdr. mokpwalala "lizard" 3. Lei. gulo "lizard" Jg.
golgolo "lizard" Kr. amagali "chameleon" asugguli "gecko" Tum. awaway
3a. Mas. r)alair)alai- 4. Or., Kmb. gar-r- "lizard, chameleon" Ma' giritet
"lizard" 6. Gur. angraya "lizard"
hawa'i irresponsible ? < Ar. hawa'i
hawaye tears (sing, hawanya) ? < am+il- "water eye" cf. amya, iri OS *himal-
"tear (n.)"
I. Gwd. awoyi, ar)uwe Tgl am widi Bol. elum ? < il- + am 2. Udl. yamira
3. Tum. mulal 4. Bye. mile Cu. il + ma 5. Eg.(Bu) mu nu ar + t, rem +t
("water eye, eye water")
haya cross over, climb onto also haike "mount" hayi "thatched roof, bank (of
river), side" cf. aya, hau P.W.Cha. *^aly- "stand up" *gayk- "mount"

OS *^al-, *'^ilay- "rise" *^ar- "stone, rock" i. RS wahay 'erg" hay ''Stein"
Ank. han "mount" 3. Kr. arna "have sexual intercourse with" Lei. kal
"monter" Tum. ag "monter" hag "se lever" 3a. Ban. ir)wa "mount" 4. P.Cu.
*^-l- "mountain, highland" Or. olana "be up" Bye. hay "appear (only of

heavenly body)" 'am "ride" P.HEC *ale "over, above" 5. Eg.(Bu) heri, ara,
arar "go up" har, her "mountain" ar "stone of mountain, mount up" (F)
^r "mount up" k3i "high" 6. Ar. ^ala "become high, go up" Akk. alu Gur.

'an'a "ascend, go up, climb, mount (male on female)" araga "have inter-
course < ascend, go up" 'ajia "hill" 7. Tam aly "climb"
haya rent, hire < Eng.
hayaki smoke cf. harara ? < 'yar + ki P.W.Cha. *h'^alaki
I. Gwd. ayagkyi Bol. olo, oloki Tgl. or Sey yar), yaki 2. Hrz. hiyer)
*'y-r- 3. ? Tum. haw 3a. Lam. 'ieo 4. Or., Bon. ar- P.HEC *willle Af. *^er,

4r "smoke, steam" Bye. kwarar "emit smoke" 5. Eg.(Bu) ar + t, uaa, ur

6. Soc. ^eto Mhr. manhayn, manhun 7. Tur.
"flame, fire" het "smoke"
ahu "smoke" aho- "steam"
hazbiya pigeon "ring-eyed p., Columba guinea, stye" also habjiya, habsiya,
hasbiya cf. Gwd. acipiya ndani "stye" (ndani "eye") Ngz. bagla
haziki intelligent < Ar. ha6iq

hazo haze, mist

I. KK 'azantar "fog, harmattan" {for nt-r see hunturu) Bol. uzur "dust" 2. uz- "fog" FK gazi "harmattan" 3a. Lam. hazombusi {for busi cf.

buda) 4. Sid. gun jo "haze, mist" P.EC *^azz- "white" P.Cu. "white"
5. Eg.(Bu) aat "mist" hetch "white" (F) hd "white" 6. ? Gz. ^-z-r "brighten
up" Sem. 'awl "mist" y.Tam. tajut Tur. azyare "little, isolated cloud" {for
-are see gajimare)
hedkwata headquarters < Eng.
heluma foreman < heluman < Eng. headman
hidima task, duty < Ar. xidma
hijira Muslim date < Ar. hijra "emigration of the Prophet"
hikaya tale, story < Ar. hikaya
hikima wisdom < Ar. hikma
himma zeal, determination < Ar. himma
hinji hinge < hinjis < Eng. hinges
hira conversation < "c. in the evening" ? < Ful. hlr- "pass the evening" cf.

Sng. hira "evening" hire "pass the evening"

hisabi soothsaying, fortune-telling also "weighing a person's good and bad
at the Judgement" < Ar. hisab cf. lissafi Kan. isavu Mnd. kasabi
ho greeting hoho "greeting to a mourner" cf. hole
8. Sng. fo "saluer" 9. Mnd. fo "salutation" i. Kof. hog "w^elcome, hello"

3. Lei. o "grace, faveur"

hoda powder (cosmetic) < Eng.

hole enjoy life also "relax, be at ease" cf. ho, wala
4. Sml. holo "property, riches, wealth" Rnd. hola "wealth" Or. hori, hoda
"riches, possessions" 6. Heb. hon "wealth, riches"
holi queue, getting in line < Eng. "fall in !"

holoo dust storm (without rain) also "lacking kernel or grain" cf. fanko
Mnd. forongyo "tornade, tempete"
homa fishing net also foma, koma cf. Np. foma
boasting "b., aspiring to do what is beyond one's powers" ? < hau q.v.

homan foreman < Eng.

hora discipline, train "d., t., break in (horse)" cf. haura "climb over, mount"
koy- "teach" OS *gor- "punish"
4. Brj. hor + "breed"
As. har- "punish" Afr. hore "keep ( out or in"
kobre "control" 6. Gz. mahara "teach, instruct, train, discipline" Sem.
m-h-r "be trained, skilful"

hotel bar, hotel, restaurant < Eng.

hoto picture, photograph < Eng. photo
hubbare tomb of saint < Ful. hubbare ? < Ar. qubba "dome"
huda, fuda i. pierce huji "inoculation" cf. ula OS *fut- "hole" *hur- "pierce"
I. Gwd. hurur)-; parir)- Sey. fuji ? < H. huji (n.) 2. Bac. hulo Gd. huaks
"cut hole in" huryagi "bore out" Mfg. patkw-, pskw- 4. P.Cu.(E) *forx-
"make hole" Sid., Or. hura, ura "make hole, pierce" 5. Eg.(Bu) uten
"bore, penetrate" 7. abad "trouer, percer"
2. flower (n., vb.) ? < above "pierce, burst out" cf. fure
3. Tum. hiij (n.) 4. Or. hud'a "grow (flower, fruit)"
hua bank up, ridge up (crops) cf. fara OS *guwut-, *xut-, *xat-, *hut-,
*udah- "dig"
I. Tgl. wudi "hoe (vb.)" 2. Ter. 7wui "weed, hoe" HK 'uu "hoe (n.)" r)ge- "hoe (n.)" Mfg. hwahut- "evider, creuser, ronger" 3. Kr. kee
"cultivate" Tum hiid- "creuser" Lei. ngodi "fouiller, explorer" Mkl. 'otti
"creuser" 5. Eg.(Bu) uteb "furrow" khent "to plough" 4. P.Cu. *h/x-t-
"scrape the ground" P.SC *kut- "dig, plough" REG *kot- "dig" P.HEG
*huj- "work (vb.)" Or. gindo "plow (n.)" Abo. ged- "plow (vb.)"
huu, fuu four P.Cha.(N) *fwaa P.W.Gha. *firadu cf. farce, kafaa
4. Bye. fadig ? P.SC *fad- "count" P.Cu. *'-p-r(H)- "4" *p-r- "finger(s)" 4a.
Kef., Ari., Gimira *awud 5. Eg.(Bu) ftu 6. Akk. pudu "shoulder" 7. Tur.
afad "multiply (intr.), large number" Siw. fus "5" P.Ber. afus "hand"
huduba sermon < Ar. xutba
huhu I. lung cf. fuka "1. disease" kunfu "1." OS *fuf- "lung, breast" *puwad-
8. Kan. fufu 9. Tv. huhu (? < H.) 9. P.WN *-phul-, *-phuk-, *-phulphul-
1. Dr. pupuk Pr. pok Dw. fukfuk NBP, NBD kuf- NBT kif- RK gugufi 2.,, Hg. *xw-xw-f Muy., Mol. *hwohov 3. Tum. podpod 3a.

Pv. pap Lam. paf 5. Eg. wf3

2. package for cola nut cf. Mnd. huhu "sac en fibres" Np. fufu "grass
hujja excuse < Ar. hujja "argument, plea, excuse"
hukiima board "b., governing body" < Ar. hukuma
hukunta give judgement, pass sentence < Ar. hukm + denominative -ta > H.
hukunci (n.)
hula cap cf. Sng. fula Mnd. fugula Bam. banfula, fugula Gurma foalera (K) cf.

hula dealings, relationship < Ar. xulta "partnership, company"

huluri religious ecstasy ? < Ar. hudur "spirit possession"

humusi fifth part < Ar. xums

huntu insufficiently clothed cf. H. futuk "primitive" Mnd. fu + nta "without
hunturu harmattan (itself < Ga hun + nt-r- see ari
harabata) ? <
9. Mnd. hun, fun "cold, dry wind, harmattan" P.WN *-phun "wind"
hura, fura i. blow on cf. biasa, fifita, huta
I. Ron fuD SB *fw-d/r/l- BN w/had- "dry up" 2. Bac, Mwl. fud-

pur- "wind" 3. Kr. full Mkl. piike "respirer" puto "soufflet de forgeron" 3a.
Zim. fol Lam. fo'o "souffler" 4. P.Cu.(E) *fur- "puff, blow" P.HEC *f61-
"breathe" 4a. Jnj. fuga "blow" 6. Gur. afwat "breath"
2. grass sp. (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Kan. far a
hurde, furde grey horse cf. Ful. furd- "be grey, dust-colored"
hure scrape, hollow out also gure cf. huda, hOa OS *xur- "dig, hole, pit"
I. Bol. gur "dig" NB *G-r "hole, grave" 2. Gd. hurar)9 "scrape out (wood
or calabash)" Mfg. hur- "creuser (pour avoir de I'eau)" 6. Sem. x-r-, h-r- "dig
out, chisel"
hurumi land preserved for a particular purpose ? < Ar. hurum "inviolable
husufi eclipse < Ar. xusuf "lunar eclipse" cf. Ar. kusuf "solar eclipse"
husuma quarrel (someness) < Ar. xusuma
huta rest, relax hijce "cool down" cf. fifita, hura

I. Ngm. futin Bed. futan "rest" futan "blow" 2. Maf. fat "rafraichir" fit

"souffler sur" W.Mg. xud- Gd. xunt- "blow" fin "rest" fuf "blow" 4. Der.
hafura "breathe, breath, resting" Ag. fur- "rest" 5. Eg.(Bu) urt, her + t 6.

Gur. foye (vb.) fwayat (n.)

hutu fart (n.) ? < *urtu cf. wardi, wari

I. NBM aredi Bol. wordo Dr. wodo Tgl. widi 2. Bur. hidi *purdu
"wind, harmattan" Gd. purats "breaking wind" 3. Mkl. 'odd-, 'i- Dgl.,
Bid. wed 4. Brj. ridi- Or. tarr "loud fart" P.HEC *fut- (vb.) 6. Ar. darat
Hars. tert- Syriac ^arret Akk. saraDu 7. Mzb., Wrg. rd 8. Berta dee
hutsu bad-tempered cf. haushi, hushi
1, e yes
Ang. e Sok. e Or. T Sid. e Ar. 'iy Tarn. Th Zar. ihin
ibada piety < Ar. ^ibada
ibhami thumb < Ar. 'ibham
iburo Digitaria exilis
I. Ang. balwo "maize" 9. Asante, Akan aburo "maize" 7. Tur. abora "mil-
let" 2. Mfg. mbaram ''Sorghum sp." 4. Dhl. buru "maize" Brn. baru
"grain" Alg. balu "grain" Bye. balti "millet" Or. omborT "oats" 5. Eg.(Bu)
per + t "grain, corn, wheat etc." 6. P.W.Sem. *burr- "wheat" Gur. bara
"food, *crop that is edible" Sem. b-1-' "eat, swallow" 8. Mab. belile "mil-

let prepared like rice"

ic(c)e tree, wood pi. itace, itatuwa P.Cha.(N) *it-

OS *'=utl- "tree" 9. P.BC *-ti "stick, whip" *-titi "tree" P.WN *-ti i. SB
*-y-(n)tsi Dr. yindi "section of split tree used for roofing" 4a. Bnc. inc P.

Om. *m + ints 4. Bye. hindi Or. iccima "small sticks for rubbing to make
fire" incinni "bush" Afr. ha(Ja "t., medicine" 5. Eg.(Bu) atutu "a kind of
wood" 6. Gur. aca Heb. *^es Akk. isu Gz. ^ad Amh. ancat Ar. 4dah "any
trees having thorns" 7. Tur. acak
Ida finish, complete
I. Tgl. ido "the whole of, complete" 2. Gd. uda 4. Or. ida (Foot) "add"
Bor. idaha "aggiungere" (for the semantics, cf. H ara/are)
idan if also kadan cf. kan
Gwd. nda "when" nde "if" RS 'ada "wenn" 6. Ar. 'i6an

idda period between marriages (for woman) < Ar. 4dda

Tdi Muslim festival < Ar. *^Td

ido, ijiya eye cf. iri idon sawu "ankle" P.Cha.(N) *ida OS *'i(n)d- "eye"
I. Gwd. ndan(i), ndar Pr. ando NBD ado NBJ ida BN *da(n) RS 'adiri 3.

Mgm. 'ide Dgl. odo 4. RCu.(D) *cint- 5. Eg.(Bu) netr "eye" menti "the
2 eyes" mar + ti "2 eyes" nuit "eyes" 6. Sem. n-5-r, n-z-r, n-s-r "see, ob-
serve" 7. RBer. *t + id + t

igiya, yagiya rope cf. akala, ulla OS *hakam-/*hakum- "rope"

I. Gwd.(N) arjgywe NBD agyama NBJ gwama RD mangil 2. Hrz. hugumay
"thread" Gis. gugumay "thread" Mfg. gagamay "coton" 3. Lei. gagu
"corde" Bid. kango ''corde robuste pour descendre dans le puits" 4. P.Cu. *h-
Kw-m P.SC *hagw- 5. Eg.(Bu) aq, aqau (F) ^k^ 6. Ar. ^uqla, 4qal "shackle,
igwa, agwa cannon ? < Yor. agba "cask, barrel, cannon"
ihu, eho, uhu yelling cf. kuka, kuwwa, sowa OS *^iw-/*4y- "cry"
I. Bol. 'es (vb.), 'und- (vb.) Tgl. 'uze "cry, weep" 2. Gdu. iya "call" Mwl.
u'at- "call" Gd., F. *'w- "call" Hin. 'ay "voice" 3. Lei. en (vb.) Sok. oti "ru-

fen" ]g. 'ic "singen" 3a. Mas., Ban. y- "call" 8. Knz. liwe "rufen" 4. Sid.

u'u "shouting" Bye. u(w) "call" REG *'oy- "cry, weep" P.SC 'uw- "call"

5. Eg.(Bu) au, uh(uh), "cry out" (F) iw "cry out" 7. Tur. uhu "crier contre"

ijaba fulfilment of a wish < Ar. 'ijaba

ijara wages, commission < Ar. 'ijara "rent, hire"

ikirari confession < Ar. 'iqrar

ikwaita equator < Eng.

ilahiri entirety < Ar. 'ila 'axiri

ilhami inspiration < Ar. 'ilham

ilia blemish, weakness ? < Ar. ilia "except ..."

ilmi, ilimi knowledge < Ar. 41m

Tmani faith < Ar. Tman
imbeci waterbuck cf. Afr., Sml., Sah. be^id "oryx" Shr. nbe*^et "oryx"
imma either ... or < Ar. 'imma
in if, when cf. Ar. 'in Syriac 'en Heb. 'im
ina ? [inaa] where ? how also inda ?
8. Kan. nda [nda] 3. Lei. na "comment ?" 3a. Ban. nana "how ?" 4. P.Cu.

*'-y(y)u + da "where ?" (*'-y(y)u interrog. prefix) Bye. na- interrog. prefix 6.

Ar., Akk. *'ayn- "where?" Akk. ina "in" ana "to" Gur. ayne "where?" ayna
"how much" (aynako "how?") 7. Tur. annar "which?"
inabi grape < Ar. ^inab
inatu inner tube (of tire) < Eng. cf. Kri. ina tyub
inci inch < Eng.
inda where (relative) ? < yanda {see yadda) or abbrev. for wurin da
indararo drain spout on roof ? < Sng. ndorro, ndororo
inganta strengthen "s., make more reliable" cf. Kan. ggala "good" ggalata
(vb.n.) "get better"

ingarma large stallion ? < Kan. (far) ggarma "beautiful, big and fast horse" cf.

Kan. rjgaram- "gallop" Bgr. ngirma "very fine horse"

ingirici hay cf. Dz. ogorse "straw" Tur. a7ar "herbe sechee prematurement" Tarn.
171 "straw" P.Ber. *77ur "dry" ? for -ci cf. ciyawa
ingwallo hip joint
I. Tgl. kwarja "hip bone" 2. Mfg. rjgwalar) "hanche" 3a. Lam. gor "hanche,
bassin" 8. Sng. nkoro "hanche"
ingwayya (N.W H.) greeting {reply to ho) cf. Zar. ingwayya
inji engine < Eng. cf. Kri. injin

inji, nji say (suffixed subject) OS *di^-/*du^- "speak, call"

I. NB *nd- 2. Mg. nda (suffixed subject) Gd. anki (suffixed subject) 3. Kr.

anti, ayti "on dit que" Dgl. iye 4. Bye. di "say, mean"
injiniya engineer < Eng.
inkari denial < Ar. inkar cf. hauri
inna mother "m., title of address for woman of older generation" ? < 'iy + na
"mother my" cf. iya
7. Tur. inna "ma mere" Sng. anna "maman (appellation, vocatift" Zar. ay

nya "ist p. + mother" Amh., Tna. '9nna(t) "mother" Soc. 'enneh "sis-

ter" 4. Sid. ennate "title for religious sister" i. Tgl. una "mother-in-law"
Gj. ana 2. Hrz., Kot. eny- 3. Lei. ina Smr. ina Gbr. ena 4. Afr. ina ? Sml.
inan "daughter, girl, lady"
innanaha furthest limit also innanahaya ? < Ar. ila nnihaya
inshuwara insurance < Eng.
intaha extreme limit < Ar. intaha "it is finished"
intaya Digitaria exilis cf. acca, hatsi RW.Cha. *w-nt- "corn, seed" OS *hint-
I. Gwd. atuwa "sorghum flour" 4. P.Cu. *h-y-(n)t- "corn in general" 5.

Eg.(Bu) uahit "spelt, grain" W3hyt "corn" 6. P.Sem. hint + at "wheat"


7. Tur. timzin "or^e" Tam. imndi "wheat" Nefusa, Ghd. (a)m9ndi "grain"
inuwa shade, shadow cf. kurwa, rai
I. Gwd. -uniy- Ngz. nanuwa 2. Gd. ma'yana "spirit, soul, human shad-

ow" 3. Mkl. 'unde "ombre d'une personne, dme" Dgl. untye "s'assombrir"
Bid. ninta "dme" Lei. tuno "esprit, ombre" 8. Knz. ennenu, nii "Schatten"
6. Gur. tararwat, tabl "shadow, shade" arwa "soul"
inyamiri Ibo (impolite term) ? < Igbo nya miri "? bring water ? here is water"
cf. Dgl. nyamiri "anthropophage" Lam. jiemri "anthropophage" also said to
be in Sango

inyawara genet "W.African g." also alwara

3. ? Dgl. nyara "bush rat sp." 4. Or. iyya "wild cat" 9. NC nyaw- "cat"
Mnd. kongo nyari (kongo "brousse")
inzali orgasm < Ar. 'inzal
iri seed, sort, kind cf. yaro OS *'ir- "eye" *'iru'- "caviar"
1. Bol. are "seed" Tgl. ai "millet" Dr. yila "nut, grain, pupil" BN *'ay-
"grain, pupil" Ang. e RF 'e "Saatkom, Samen, Sprofi" 2. MM *hay "grain"
3. Dgl. era "pit of dum-palm fruit" Kr. arway "graines poussant vite" Mkl.
'ulo "enfant, grain" Bid. 'arankida "graine d'arachide en formation" (kida
''terre") 3a. Mus. ira "seed" (irano "eye") Lam. 'urii "m/7" 4. Brj. 'il- "eye,
fruit" Afr. arma "pip, seed" Bye. 'ara "Same, Frucht" Bor. irti "piccoli grani"
Bil. idin "Nachkommenschaft, Stamm, Geschlecht" Sid. ila "offspring" 5. ?

Eg.(Bu) ar + ti "kind of seed or grain" 7. Tam., Tur. ara "child, fruit,

product etc." Tam., Tur., Siw. ir(8)d- "grain of wheat" Tur. allun "seed"
6. ? Akk. eresu "seminare con Varatro" 8. Knz. er "die Palme befruchten" er
+ ar "Befruchtung" 9. Yor. iru "seed, sort, kind" Np. yiri, liri, riri "sort,

irili dignity, self-respect < Ar. ^ird
isa arrive, suffice, reach ishe "overtake" cf. iske, riske P.Cha.(N) *( )s9 "come"
OS "come"

, 8. Kan. isa "he came" 7. P.Ber. *as- "come" i. Gwd. ris- RF 'es "finden, be-

kommen" 'yes "finden" RB wisi "finden, bekommen" yes "kommen" 2. Mwl.

usi "come" Log. sa "steigen, treten" 3. Dgl, Bid. as- "venir, arriver" Jg. 'as
"ankommen, erreichen" Mkl. 'esie "suffire" 4. Dly. ass- "gehen" Or. aseta
"become ripe" 5. Eg.(Bu) asa "fill full, satisfy" reshaa "suffice" 6. Ar., S.
Ar. (w)-s-l "arrive, help" Soc. sele "faire parvenir" Gur. salla "arrive, reach,
be ready"
isga, yizga tail used as fly-switch cf. tsagiya "tail"
2. Hg., F. si7- "tail" 4. Or., Der. ege "tail" 7. Tur. azag "criniere"
iska wind, spirit ? < us + ka OS *hos- "cold"
I. Gwd. kusuka Sur. sugum "cold" ? BN -ask- "sky" 2. Gan., Gab. *xasx9s
"cold" 3. Dgl., Mgm. 'u(s)su "wind" Jg. 'os "wind, cold" Minjile kosuk
"cold" 3a. Lam. 'asa "esprit benefique des morts" 4. RCu.(D) *ts-k(H)- "cold,
rainy weather" Bye. ese "gust of wind" Brj. Had., Kmb. sig(g)- "cold
(weather)" Brj. keskel- "spirit" Gaw. o'sengu "cold (of air)" Gob. oson +
ko "cold (of air)" 4a. Kch. os'- "cold (of air)" 5. Eg.(Bu) as "air, wind,

breath" hutchai "cold, god of the west wind" (F) hs "be cold" 6. Gz.

hasaka "be cold, make shiver (cold or rain)" Shr. 'os "cold, catarrh" Mhr.,
Hars. zek "cold, catarrh" Jib. ^ys "cold in head" sek "cold, numbness" 7.
Tam. azyu "vent, brise" Siw. sqi "le froid"

iske find, come upon also riske, ishe cf. H. isa Syriac eskah "find" Mkl. reke
"trouver par hasard"
iya mother "female relative of preceding generation, esp. maternal aunt" *pl.

iyaye "parents" cf. inna

I. NBJ aya "grandmother" 8. Kan. ya 2. Muk. iya Udl. iya 3.
Tgl. iya
Dgl. iya Mgm. ya- Tum. yo
3a. Lam. ya Msm., Pv. ya 4. P.EC, P.SC *'ay-

"mother" Or. ayyo "mother, mother-in-law" Sid. aidde "family" Bye.

ayyay "relative" 6. Gur. ay "mother" ayyo "mother!" ayya "form of ad-
dress to grandmother" 7. ? Ber. ayt "family" 5. Eg.(Bu) aut "family"
iya can (vb.) T ma "master" iyo "swimming" iko "power, control" iyaka "limit
of power, boundary" iya "as far as" cf. yi "make, do"
I. NB iy(-) "can" ? < H. Gj., Sey. yis-"know" 2. Bac, Mwl. ley "know"
Bud. yu "overcome" 3. Minjile ya "know" Mkl. mala "savoir (n.), savant"
3a. ? Lam. yi "voir, savoir, connaitre" 4. P.SC *'iley "know" Bye. iray "w/5-
sen, erfahren" P.Cu.(D, E) *'ar- "know, understand" 6. Gur. hara "know"

iyali family, dependents < Ar. ^iyal cf. Kan. yal Np. yalizi
izga see isga
izgili presumptuousness ? < Ar. 'az7al "adulterate"

izni permission < Ar. 'i6n

ja, janye pull, draw jayayya "dispute" ? < *dz-ya-
I. H. zame "draw out, deduct from, rein in (horse)" tsame "withdraw

from (tr.)" Gwd. ja, ji "drag, pull" tswa, cwa' "draw (water)" BN *z9m"
"draw out (water, etc.)" Grn. ji Pr. jola 8. Kan. je- "rope (n.), pull, draw"
9. Mnd. dya "allonger" i. Ngm., KK, Gra. (n)z-( ) 2. FM, FJ -(n)lya "pull"

FB dzi 3a. Lam. lam- "tirer" 3. Dgl. anye "tirer vers soi" Mgm., Bid. jot-
"tirer, retirer" yaw "traire" Kr. i "puiser" Mkl. linye "tirer, (s)'etirer" 4.

P.SC *ts'i^- "be drawn out, extracted" REG *zit- (Sml., Rnd. *jit-) ? Bye.
le'ab "draw (sword)" 4a. Jnj. zata 5. Eg.(Bu) teha "extend, draw out"
tcha + t "resistance, opposition" 6. Gur. zamada "pull, drag" Hars. athor
"draw water" 7. Tur. azzal "tendre" zazzagrat "allonger" Siw. nzag "draw
(water)" Tam. zzu7r "drag"
ja red cf. jini jan arfe "red metal, copper"
I. Ang. jan "red, yellow" jam "red sp. of corn" jelar) "red, rust" NBJ jiyu

RB juwi NBP jarjal "yellow" Gib. jonga Sey. zol-, zel- 2. Gd. ndza "paint
red" andzsna "red metal, brass" Log., Kot. zey -za Mad. zuzek
Mdr., Pad. (Mouchet) *zagana 3. Dgl. zer- "fauve fonce (of animal)" zele
"murir, noircir" Tum. jaj "be ripe" Gbr., Nan. jile Mkl. teze "rouge, rouge-
dtre, roux" zere "noircir" Lei. njunway "rouge simple" 3a. Lam. dzer) "etre

mur" 4. RCu.(E) *ts'ed- "red" RSC *ts'ed- "red, blood" RRft. *ts'e "yel-
low" EC c'eg-, d'Tg- "blood" 4a. ROm. *zok'- 5. Eg.(Bu) tesher "red,
blood" 7. RBer. *azwwa7 Tur. azgay "color with red ochre" 6. Ethiopian
Sem. *c-rq- "begin to ripen" Ar. s-rq- "be bloodshot (eye), become ripe
(date)" Akk. samn- "red" Gur. basa "red" Amh. baca "yellow" Jib. sir "be-
come yellow"
jabba gown "type of sleeveless g." < Ar. jubba
jabu counterfeit ? < Ijebu Ode (where c. money was said to be made)
jadawali multiplication table < Ar. jadwal "schedule, list etc."

jaddada reform, renew < Ar. jaddada

jafa'i slander, abusive language < Ar. jafa'i

jagale itinerant trading cf. Mnd. dyago "commerce, echange" see also jaura

jagati; jagari duiker (male) cf. gada

I. H. zanke "male duiker" Gra. jwangere 2. *zigil "duiker" Mdr.

*zi7ara "gazelle" Hrz. adigare "gazelle" Mfg. hadakar "Oreotragus oreotra-

gus^Mt. hadagar "antelope" Muk. zihar "antelope" Pad. hsdagala "biche"
I. Ger. dugay "duiker" NBW dakay- "duiker" 3. Mgm. dagayam "biche-
cochon" Turn, jarga "antelope sp." 6. Amh. dak'^la "antelope" 4. Asa
sigaro "dikdik" Kwa. sikwato "dikdik" sigare "dikdik" Sml. sagaro "dikdik"
Sid. daggatto "antelope sp." 9. Sw., Nyambu -suguya "dikdik"
jahili ignorant, illiterate < Ar. jahil
ja'iri shameless, disrespectful person < Ar. ja'ir "deviant, unjust"
jaka bag cf. jema, jiki P.Cha. *Zi- "body, skin" OS *masak- "skin"
also jika
8. Kan. "bag made of cloth" i. Kof. jikau "shoulder bag" 2. Bur.
dakal "hide bag" Bud. jike "Sack" suka "Beutel" Msg. zetaba "tobacco
pouch" (taba "tobacco") 3a. Lam., Msm. Dike "skin" 5. Eg.(Bu) sak "bag,
sack" ameska, mesq "skin, hide" 6. Gz. zaq "skin bottle, leather bag"
Akk. zikku "wineskin" Heb. mesek "skin bag" Soc. mezingua "sac, panier"
Ar. siq-, ziqq- "waterskin" Jib. sikt, sek, kist "bag" 7. Tur. assakwa "skin
bag" 8. Sng. sikara "sac en peau"
jakada messenger of chief also jekada and je ka fada (presumably, the source)
jaki donkey "d., stupid person" cf. doki, dukushi
I. Gwd., jar)kyi, njasi Gib. ja "horse" NBW zyata- NBT za- RB njake 7.

Siw. iziyat "male donkey" tiziyat "female donkey" Tur. ejak, ajad Zen.
azzaj Ghd. 5. Eg.(Bu) shu "she-ass" sakut "young asses" 2. Dab. njen
Kot. seneki "donkey mare" MM,, Pad. -zagwa Gdf. tiggwa 6.
Shuwa Ar. janga "mare" Tna. 'adgi "donkey" Gz. 'adg 4. P.Cu.(E) *dik'^'-
(D) M-nk^'-r 3. Mgm., Dgl. urkul
jallo waterbottle gourd
I. Bol. jewi "gourd bottle" 4. Or. jaFo "water container" ? Afr. dala
"gourde" Bon. dule "long gourd" 2. Mg. ncala "calabash" Klb. sala "cala-
bash" 3. ? Mkl. culso "petite calebasse" Dgl. duluwa "calebasse a boire"
Dgl., Bid., Mgm. *ewwo "calebasse a col" 6. Ar. dalu "leather bucket"
Sem. dlw, dly "draw water from well" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) ten "vase, vessel,
bucket" tehra "water skins" 7. Siw. Iwa^ "seau pour arroser" Sened zau
"seau pour arroser"
jama'a public gathering, community ? < Ar. jama^a
jamfa jumper, sweater < Eng.

jamhuriya republic < Ar. jumhuriya

jamhuru intrigue, conspiracy ? < Ar. jumhuru "multitude, throng"
jam'i plural < Ar. jam'^

jami'a university < Ar. jami^a

jami'i executive official ? < Ar. jami' "general (adj.)"
jam'iyya club, union, party < Ar. jam^yya
janaba impurity < Ar. janaba
jana'iza funeral < Ar. jana'iz

janar general (military) < Eng.

janareto generator < Eng.
jan baki lipstick < "red mouth"
jangali cattle tax ? < Ful. jahangal "caravan" < yah- "go, travel"
jante feverish cold cf. Sng. gyante "sickness, be sick" gyonto "fever" E.Ful.
yontere pi. jonte "fever"
jaraba craving ? < Ar. jaraba "itch"

jarfa facial markings cf. zana

8. Sng. zeri "tatouages etc., marquer le betail" 2. ? Mfg. njeh- "inciser, rayer"

Gd. maja "instrument for making scars or scratches" 3. Dgl. der- "tracer
un trait, graver des calebasses" etye "dessiner, rayer" Lei. kamje "cicatrice
corporelle, gravure" 3a. Lam. dzii ''scarification" 5. Eg.(Bu) senp "cut,

jari capital ? < Kan. zar "root, capital" cf. Manga Kan. jar Ful. jar Bol. jari

jarida newspaper < Ar. jarTda

jariri infant also jinjiri cf. siriri OS *dza'- "son" *jan-/*jin- "child"
I. Gwd. ja, NBW jin + na "son" RS, Sur, Ang.
janja, zaza "small (of child)"
jan "twins" NBB zanwi "twins" Ang. zar) "youth" 2. *zir "boy,
small (child)" Gis. ziri "children" Gd. uzin "boy" Gv, Glv., Nkt. *zir-
"boy" Nkt. zirzira "baby" FG za "daughter" 9. Mumuye za "child" 3a.
Lam. dza "petits-enfants" 4. Bye. jina "newly born infant" ? Or. ija "fruit"
ijolle "children" Brj. cin'- "very small" Awg. tsilli "small" Had., Kmb. cTla

"baby" 5. Eg.(Bu) shi "infant, child" sher "little boy, child" si + t "infant
(female)" Cop. s-r- "small, child, baby" 6. P.Sem. *zarzir- "minuscolo,
stomello" Ar. 6arr "atoms" 6urriyya "offspring" 7. Siw. zir "enfant" ? Tur.
madry "etre Tam. isirran "children"
jarraba test, try, examine < Ar. jarraba

jarumi warrior also zarumi cf. jarmai, zarmai "head of army" ? < Ar. sarim
"brave, courageux" cf. Kan. Zerma, Zarma, Jerma "title of royal slave in
charge of ... the personal safety of the king"
jauje drum "double membrane hour-glass d." cf. Ngz. kanjau "large d. like

hour-glass d., but held between legs" Ang. jiji "a long-shaped drum"
jaura itinerant peddling also jula cf. jagale, jiiya, kewaya
6. Ar. dawwar "peddler" ES zora "go around, turn around" Heb., S.Ar.
z-w-r "turn" 3. Lei. jarwi "voyager beaucoup" Bid. yirawo "marchand am-
bulant" (yTr "exhiber, mettre en vente") Dgl. dyore "aller a I'aventure" 4.

"wander" Bil. ajau "ohne Ziel unci Zv^eck herumziehen" Sid. janjura
Or. jora
"roam, go around"
jawabi speech, statement, message < Ar. jawab
je go cf. dawaya, dawo, za P.Cha.(N) *d-/j-, P.W.Cha. *(n)da' OS *ju'- a
"go" *da'(aw)- "move"
4. P.Cu.(E) *dah- "travel (toward or from)" 3a. Lam. ze "entrer" 3. Mkl.
'ette "aller, venir" Mgm. a- "aller" Bid. 'ad- "aller, passer" Lei. eje "venir"

6. Sem. 'ata "come" 7. Tur. ejjer "sortir" 9. P.WN *ji- "come from" 8.

Knz. ju "gehen"
jefa, jifa throw (at) cf. cafe OS *jef- "throw"
I. NBD NBT 'caf- "shoot" 3. Mkl. zapi-, zipi- "jeter" Dgl. tirpe
jifal "jeter

en paquet" Mgm. daww- "lancer" 3a. Lam. do'o "lancer (lance)" a'a "jeter

au loin (pierres)" 4. Bye. tifil "cast out, throw" Dly. c'ep- "throw a spear"
Sid. jifa "throw, push" As. jahat "shoot with arrow" Brn. cahiya "arrow
head" Afr. dufe "throw, push away" REG *d-rb- "throw (esp. spear)" 5.

Eg.(Bu) tcheb "pierce, stab, spear, harpoon" 6. Gz. darbaya "throw

(weapon), hurl, shoot" daf^- "push, cast away" nadafa "throw, hurl
(spear, arrow), shoot (with bow and arrow)" Gur. camata "shoot without
missing, hit target with spear or stone" 7. Tur. ndaw "jeter, lancer" Siw.
^adaf "jeter" Ghd. andar "jeter"

jeji bush = daji q.v.

jela tail cf. tsele, tsiiliya, wutsiya OS *cil-, *tsilam- "tail"
I. NB *'s-wl- "tail" Gj., Dw., Pic. *tsir/l "tail" Gj. zila "buttocks" 2.
*siw- "tail" Hg. *z-w Log. zue Bud. njui Pad. zewe "chasse-mouches" Msg.
yir, untul 3. Mkl. silme "queue" Bid. seledya "chasse mouches" 3a. Ban.,
Lam., Msm. *cawr- Lam. (Sachnine) tseo 4. Or. c'ira "fly swatter" {also
Amh., Sid.) Kmb, Had. serima 4a. Kef., Mch., Mj. *c-yr- 6. ES *c-wr- Ar.
6ayl ? Soc. tal "queue blanche d'un mouton" 7. Tam. ajlal Snh. aswal

jema, jima tan P.Cha.(N) *z9m "skin"

I. Plateau Cha. *sim "skin" Ngz. zamta "strip off" adim "tanning"
4. Af.

? Sml. san "hide" idin "leather" ? Bye. dif 5. ? Eg.(Bu) shesm "animal
skin, leather" 6. Ar. 'adlm "hide, skin, leather" 7. Zen. ajam "skin (n.)"

Tarn, azy "skin (vb.)" Tur. azu "skin (n.)" 8. Knz. ajin "Haut, Leder"
jemage bat sp.
I. Ang. 'jim Ngm dimown 9. CB *-dim-, *-dem- i. NBP timba- NB *Z-m-
"bird" 2. Ter. lorn Mfg. meter) Mbo. jamjam Mol., Gis. *mil:eler) Msg.
simasim- 3. Mkl. sambu (sg.) sambuyagi (pi.) 4. Abo. daymaye (pi.) Or.
simbiro (h)alkani "bat < small bird of night"
jera align cf. gyara, shirya
I. Ngz. sar- "put in line, string beads" zarn- "prepare for journey" 2. Gd.
ndala "line up, string (beads for necklace)" Mfg. iy- "arranger, ranger, re-

tablir" 3. Dgl. dyerke "go in Indian file" soye "put oneself in line" ere
"stretch out (intr.)" Lei. njar "rester en rangs" Mkl. jars- "defiler" yirwe
"ligne, frontiere" 3a. Lam. ndza'a "aligner" 4. Af. dore "move in line" Brj.,

Sid. dira "align, row, line" Sml. dilin (n., ? vb.) 5. Eg.(Bu) ser "arrange,
order" Sem. darg- "rank" Ar. taraq "line (clothes)" Jib. tarruk "file,
6. line
of animals or people" 7. Tur. zarurag "defiler, marcher en file" 8. Dz. jey-
"ranger, arranger"
ji smell, feel, hear ji da "cause (pleasure, pain)" cf. oyi, hanci, sansana
for in ji see inji
I. Pr. zin- "sm." Sey. zogn "sm." Tgl. yine "sm." 2. Ter. zi(ra) "sm." Klb.
ci'un "sm." MM *tsin "hear" *zin "sm." Hg., F. *zun- "sm." Gd., Njn.
*zin- "sm., perceive" *-cin- "sm., hear" Mat. atsana "hear" z(9)k-
"sm." Dab. ji (n.) "sm." 3. Mub. jige "hear" Kuj. ajigala "hear" Kr. ca

"pauvrete" 3a. Lam. tsa "qui souffre, pauvre" 4. P.Cu. *c-n(gw)- "sm." P.SC
*tsi' "sm. (intr.)" Bye. sin'(a) "absorb through nostrils" Or. c'inTna "suffer-
ing" Brj. c'Ts- "suffer stomach pain" 4a. Kef. cm- "sm." 5. Eg.(Bu) shnem
"sm." (F) sn "sm." snnw "suffer" 6. Soc. si4 "ecouter" Ar. s-^r "perceive,
feel" ES s-^-r "feel pain" 7. P.Ber. *z9r "see" Tur. uzar "souffrir, gener phys-
iquement" *s-l( ) "horen" (Rossler)
jibga heap up juji, jibji "rubbish heap" cf. ibga "do a lot of", zuba "pour"
zubo "pile (n.)"
I. H. tsiba "heap up" NBB cuu "rubbish heap" 2. Gd. tsauk "collected
into a pile" 3. Bid. jomo "amasser, entasser"

jibi day after tomorrow for *ci "day" see hantsi

9. Gby. bin "demain" i. Gwd. jibi Mba. durboy "demain" 2. Gd. cif- be-

gins 3 "day" words 3. Kr. diblnim "tomorrow" 3a. Mas. jifina "tomorrow"
Ban. vini "tomorrow"
jia ant hill ? D + 6-( ) P.W.Cha. *d-p- "termite"
I. NB *d9- "termite" *9n "ant hill" Ang. tapTp "winged termites" Gj.
dimbi "termite" Sey. dibm "termite" Dr. ot "termite" 2. Pdl. zaa "ter-

mite" Bac. mbtjre "termite" mbtJte "ant hill" Mwl mburo "ant hill" Bok.,
Gab. *f-reta "ant hill" 3. Mkl., Mgm. dib- "termite, termitiere" Bid., Dgl.
*tumpul- "termitiere" Tum. amarraw "ant. sp." 3a. Lam. dazuwa "termi-
tiere" 4. Bil. zazaba "weiften Termiten" P.SC *'par- "termite" Bye. birat,

embira "termite" debba, dibba "mound of earth" Sml. abor "termites"

dundumo "termite hill"
jii sweat cf. zazzai "fever" zafi "heat" Cha. (W, C, E) *-n "heat" OS *'ib-

I. H. ji cuwe' "sweat" Tgl. wai "sweat" 2. Gd. cia "trouble"
"feel" Pr. *(w)e(w)e "sweat" 3. Kr. hai "sweat" 3a. Lam. sumbur Mas.
hibi- 4. Sid. cawabbi "drenched with sweat" P.Cu. *d-p(p)- "sweat" Bye.
niba "heat" Had. ibba "Wdrme, Hitze" binca "Schweifi" 9. P.WN *bwil- "be
jidali struggle < Ar. jidal
jiga jigger flea ? < Eng. but common in W. Africa e.g. Kri. jiga Wolof jiga
jigawa light soil (usually upland) cf. tsakuwa P.W.Cha. *zig^a "hill, rock"

I. Ngz. jigwai "small hill formed by hoeing" 2. Mg. jiga "hill" Pad.
dzagala "rocher" 3. Lei. jegli "etre impropre d la culture" njegle "terre infer-

tile" 4. Bil. jaga "Tal, Ebene, Grasreiches Tiefland" 8. Sng. zigi "monter du
fleuve dans les terres, grande brousse, desert" 6. Soc. jij(y)e'^eh "rocher" Amh.
dangay "stone, rock"
jiha state (of federation) < Ar. jiha "side, region"
jihadi holy war < Ar. jihad
jljiya vein, nerve cf. jini, saiwa, zare
1. Gwd.(N) ajijiya Sur. cijyay "v." NB *z-( ) + "blood" NBW *zyan- "root"
Ngz. dazi "v., n." Sey. dazaye "v." Pic. irjzi "v." Bol. teje "vein, tendon"
2. Dab. zem "v., n." zem pay "root" (pay "tree") Muk. adir)iz "v." 3. Sok.
giria "v., n." 3a. Lam. zeo "corde" zeo + "blood" "veine, artere" 4. P.Cu.
*j-(^)-r- "root, artery, v., tendon" Brj. ceji "blood" 6. Jib., Soc. zid "v., n..

sinew, root" Heb. gid "sinew, muscle" 7. Tarn, azur "v., root" Tur. azar,
asur "nerf" 8. Kan. zar bube "vein ("root + blood")
jijjifi early morning (just before sunrise)
2. Ngw. aapa "morning" 4. P.SC *dTdama "dawn, sunrise"

jlka grandchild ? < zir + ka for *zir "child" see jariri cf. kaka "grandparent"
I. Kof. cik Ngm. dika "g.mother" Sur. tikam "g.father" Gj. jikagini "g.
parent" 2. Ter. jikanki "g.child, g.parent" i. Sey. jikadr) "g.father" 9. CB
*-jikudu "g.child" (*-kodo "g.parent") i. NBT cin "g.father" ci wun "g.

son" (Cha., W, C wun "child") 2. Klb. aji "g.parent, g.child" Gd.

dzadzana "g.father, g.child" Bud., Log. dl "g.child" Bud. jokay "g.father"
Dab. didi(gi) "g.parent, g.child" 8. Kan., Dz., Ted. d-go "g.child" 6.
Shuwa Ar. diko "g.child"
jiki body jika locative jikin "close against" P.Cha.(N) *zi + k- "body" *z9m
"skin" P.W.Cha. *zi + k'^i cf. jema "tan" tsoka "piece of flesh" OS *dza-/
*dzi-, *dzik- "body, meat"
4. P.Cu. *j-q- "body, corpse, meat" 8. Kan. tiga 5. Eg.(Bu) tche + t, sha
+ t (F) dt "body" ds "self 8. Berta b-S-K- "body skin" 6. Gz. iaga "flesh,
meat, body, corpse" ? < Cu. P.Sem. *^i'r- "carne" 7. Zen. ajam "skin (n.)"
jia soak, moisten cf. tsima
1. Ang. S9k "wet" Plateau Cha. sigir "dew" Tgl. yege Dr. yeke "moisten"

2. Wmd. dzugwuri "moisten" Hg., F.(n)jik- "moisten" Pad. njie "humide"

3. Lei., Mkl. Zer- "humide" Dg\., Bid. zod- "pourrir, moisir" 4. P.Cu. *c-k(k)-
"moisture, become wet" *^-kk'^- "water" Bye. yid'(a) "be damp, moist" Or.
dukkud'- "become wet" Or., Brj. *jTd- "become wet" 5. Eg.(Bu) tekh-(b)
"drink, soak, flood, moisten, get drunk" 6. Sem. S-q-y- "give to drink,
irrigate" 7. Ber. abzak "etre mouille"
jima wait a while cf. jira, zama
I. H. jia "alight, lodge, subside" Gwd. jijima "sit, stay, live" Ang. yem
"be prolonged" Sey. tsan "sit" Ngz. amiy- "wait on, guard" 2. Gd. jima
"alight" Mg. yin "sit" Mfg. am- "garder (argent), economised 3. Lei. jen
"rester, habiter" 3a. Lam. dzi "garder (un troupeau)" dzi wa "attendre" 4.

Dhl. jem- "stay in place" P.Cu. *Sj-mb- "abide, dwell, live, stay, exist, be"
Sid. sima "remain in one's place" Bye. dib-, damb "guard" 4a. Jnj. di,
duwu "sit & rest" 5. Eg.(Bu) ti "wait, remain" 6. Ar. d-w-m- "last" 7. ?

Tur. zama "peu apres que"

jima'i sexual intercourse < Ar. jima4
jimu, yumu clay ? < j
+ mbu cf. cao, tao

I. Gwd. yumbu Plateau Cha. iy, 65- "mud" Pr. okje "clay" NB, Dr.
1-u/o "mud, clay" 2. Bur. Ngw. m-u "mud" 3. Mkl., Mgm. m-r- "ar-
gile" Nan. bul "Lehm" 3a. Lam. ruu "argile" 9. CB *-pembe "white clay"
4. Bye. but "earth" P.SC *bok-, *bek- "mud" P.EC *biy- "earth, soil" P.

Cu.(E) *bu "ground"

jimina ostrich
BN zaman- NB *z9m- "bird" 2. Pdl. zimnox Bur. zimnaku Mg. zinagu

Gd. jinaka MM, Mdr., Pad. zirwe 4. Afr. dlmo "male ostrich" 7. Tur.
ajjaman (pi.) "peau d'autruche entiere avec toutes ses plumes"
jimla, jimilla sum total < Ar. jumla
jimre, jure endure = daure q.v. jimiri (n.) cf. jima "wait, stay" Tur. azmar
"supporter, endurer sans faiblir"

jinga wages, bank of earth ? < *"support" see dangi "family", jingina
jingina support, pledge see dangana sub dangi
jini blood cf. ja "red" P.W.Cha. *zayam (also *daHam, *dama) OS *dzin-
"blood" *di'im- "be red"
I. Gwd.(Toni) zini 9. Mumuye zin "clot of blood" 7. Tur. az(e)ni (also
azni, asni) 2. FM, FB, Gd. 'idan- 3. Bid. jit "saigner" Dgl. dinda "red" 3a.

Lam. ndi, ndindi (ideo.) "rouge vif" 4. Sid. tinni "bleeding" Sid., Der.
munde "blood" P.Cu.(E) *di(i)m "red" Or. bildima "bright red" (P.Cu.
*b-l/r- "blood") 5- Eg. snf "blood" 2. Bac. zambey (P.Cha./Cu. *b-r/l-)

4a. S.Om. *zump- 6. Gz. 'adim "red" Amh. adim "red leather" Ar. 'adim
"be brown" P.Sem. *dam- "blood"
jlniya siren "steam hooter, cotton ginnery, engineer" < Eng. engineer cf.
jinjima salute by shaking weapon or fist also "test weight of" cf. Kan. zazar)-
(Form V of zag-) "shake, salute etc." E. Ful. jinja "shake"
jinka thatch, thatching
3. Dgl. zuga "toit de case" Mkl. sar)e "chaume, toit" Bid. jokoo "toit de
case" 4.dinqa "part of house reserved for sleeping"
jinya, jiyya nursing, tending (sick person)

7. Tur., Tam. jjy "heal" i. Ang. zum "health, peace" 2. Mfg. zay "sante,
paix" I. Tgl. tau "healing" 6. ES t-^-y "be healthy, regain health" 4. Bye.
dehan "live, revive" 3. Dgl. tyole "heal" 3a. Lam. tsa'a "heal (wound)"
jira weaver bird (Ploceus sp.)
3. Bid. jaya "oiseau mange-mil" Dgl. dyaray "martinet" 4. Af. daro kimbiro
''Ploceus sp. (grain bird)"

jira wait for, guard cf. jima, jimre OS *gir- "live"

I. Tgl. diye "sit, abide, stay" Dr. de pori "spend day" (pori "sun, day")
Ngz. dsra, cirand- 2. Bud. jei "bleihen, sitzen", F. nz-y "sit" FM, FB
*njayn "sit" 3. Mkl. delle "attendre" ? dele "s'habituer" Sid. tura "be late"
4. Or. jira, tura "be, exist, wait, stay, delay" P.EC *gir- "live, exist" 5. Eg.
(Bu) ti "wait, remain" (F) S3i "linger, await" 6. Gur. dalasa "last long,
wait" 7. Tur. azray "tester, survivre" adal "garde
jirgi boat "trough, canoe" in collocation "train, airplane" cf. Sng. zirigo "rail-
way" OS *dzir- "vessel"
I. Ngz. daragai "boat" 8. Kan. zsrga "valley, (B) cavity" 2. Bud. jirge

"sides of a plain" 6. Gur. girgim "trough" Amh. g9rg9m "trough" 2.

Hid., HF, FK, FJ girgi 5. Eg.(Bu) tchart "boat" tchai "valley" Cop. joy
"boat" jote, cot "trough" i. Plateau Cha. ci Dr. ki(yi) Bol. gere H. gure
"hollow out"
jlta-jlta rumor ? < ji ta "listen to this!"

jitu be on good terms with cf. Bid. jit (pi. jitaw) "raccorder, saigner" cf. jini
jiya yesterday ? < nd-r- cf. da "formerly"
for *nSi "day" see hantsi
I. RD nd(y)e "friiher" ndiya "vorgestem" Ank. diyen diyen Kof. dendsden
"yesterday" -den "ago, previous" Gra. njoni Gwd. dereni "day before
yesterday" (ni "that") dedere "formerly" 9. Tula dare "yesterday" dadere
"day before yesterday" 3. Dgl. undira "avant-hier" (ur)o "front, devant")
Bid. diair) "avant-hier, hier soir" 4. Bil. anjay "gestern abend" Or.
d'engadda "day before yesterday" Dly. and'era "vorgestem" P.Sam *celei
6. Gur. tarama, tarajia 7. Tur. and- (prefixed adverb) "hier", -nad "d'au-
trefois, de jadis" Siw. it-lli(n), id-lli(n) "hier (dans la nuit)"

joji judge (non-Muslim) < Eng. cf. Kri. joj

juda, jibda musk cf. Kan. jibda Ar. zabad "civet" zubda "choicest part, extract,

essence, butter"
juhurma eagle sp. {Polemaetus bellicosus) ? < Z-g'^-r + ma cf. shaho, shirwa
I. Tgl. sugurgup NB *j-(n)gur "hawk" 2. Gis. janigu "kite" Gd. zira "eagle

sp." Maf. dzola "Aquila rapax" 3. Bid. jugultum "oiseau sp." 4. Or. jobira
"large bird of prey (like eagle)" Der. jole "hawk" Kmb. zobira "bird of
prey, vulture" 6. Ar. saqr "hawk sp." Shuwa Ar. sugur "eagle, bird of

juju, gyugyu fetish, spirit also "crazy, wild" cf. dodo Weskos juju "witchcraft"
Kri. juju "magic, witchcraft" Yor. ju(a)ju(a) "wildly confused" Np. giagia
jumla sentence (gramm.) < Ar. jumla cf. jimla
juya turn, translate cf. dawaya, kewaya, jaura, sauya, waiwaya
I. H. jewaya "go around" jewa "hovering, going to and fro, hanging a-

round" Gwd. juy- Ger. jaw- "buy < *exchange" Ang. cir Bol. dilu- 2. Gd.
zu'un, zu, zaw- Mg. julia "surround" Bac. ndulo "turn away" 3. Dgl.
ziwiye "incliner" Dgl., Turn, uw- "turn, return" Kr. co'e "retourner" 4. Afr.
idu, midu "turn (n.), changing "buy"
(wife)" Ag. zur- "return (intr.)" jew-
zugu "return" 5. Eg.(Bu) su "trade (vb.), unload ship" ? Cop. seye
4a. Jnj.
"go to and fro < go-come" 7. Tur. anzu "etre vendu, etre achete"
kaba palm fronds, millet shoots cf. bammi, goriba
8. Sng. kaba "tranche d'arbre ou rejets, pousses" Knz. kabai "Palmzweig" 3.

Lei. huba "palm" Dgl. kupkupa "palm sp." Kr. kapar) "tree"
kabari grave, tomb cf. Kan. kabar < Ar. qabr
kabat cupboard < Eng.
kabdo locust sp.
I. Pic. kaban "grasshopper" Gj. kaa "grasshopper" 2. Bud. kabi "Heu-
schrecke" 8. Kan. kafi "locust" 4. Sml. koboja "grasshopper" Elmolo kopat
"locust" Brj. kapayya "grasshopper" P.SC *pa^- "locust" 6. ES 'anb-ta
"grasshopper, locust"
kabeji cabbage < Eng. cf. Kri. kabej
kabewa, kubewa pumpkin "Cucurbita sp." see kuewa
kabldo matting head cover (to ward off rain) also kabudo kube "sheath"

I. Ang. kipto "raincoat" kup "cover" kip "sheath" 5. Eg.(Bu) hap "covering"
hap + t "covering"
kabo calabash sp. OS *kap-/*kib- "(gourd) vessel"
kaboyi cowboy "c, c. dress" < Eng.
kabus marrow sp. "Cucurbita sp." cf. bambus "melon"
kaciya circumcision cf. sha "circumcise"
Kan. kaja (n. & vb.) Log., Sok., Bgr. kasia "foreskin" 4. Bye. kwisib- (vb.)
6. P.Sem. -ksip- "cut, circumcise" 5. Cop. sbbe < Eg. sby (vb.) (Cerny)
kada (do) not prohibitive, negative command
1. Bol. kad(d)a KK kada Gwd. kede Ang. ka(t) sentence-final prohibitive kadak
emphatic negative "not thus" Ngz. kadak "here's a warning...."
kada, kado crocodile P.W.Cha. *kadam P.Cha.(N) *kadam "crocodile" *kar-
"dog" *am "water"
2. Mfg. karam "crocodile sp." 5. Eg.(Bu) Kherm'u "a mythical crocodile"
(ma (mi, mu), mui "water") 8. Kan. karam 9. CB -gandu P.WN *-koti 7.

Tur. ahuter

kadafkara lesser bustard {Eupodotis senegalensis)

I. Ngz. dafkarak "francolin" {see fakara) 3. Bid. gatapga "outarde" 8. Kan.
kagara 4. Afr. kakkaroni Or. kerkarume
kadai greeting reply (to "sannu" or "barka") ? < ka dai "you too"
kadara property, goods ? < Ar. qadara "opulence"
kadari value, price < Ar. qadr or qadar
kadarko bridge ? < kadar + ko cf. ketare "cross"
I. Kof. dorko Sur. kutar 2. Msg. kiftara "Fdhre aus Kalebassen" 3. Dgl.
kantyiro "bois applique contre un arbre en guise d'echelle" Mkl. zorke "echelle"
4. Had. gudera "Briicke, gefdllter Baum" Brj. tora "ladder" 6. Gur. qatapa
"bridge" Amh. qatana "passage between two precipices" Ar. qantara
kaa beat (drum), spin, churn kii "drumming" kade "knock down" cf.
girgije, kankare, tankade Cha. (E, W, C.) k-- "beat, kill, knead" OS
*ad-/*kawad- "strike"
I. Gwd. kyira, cira "beat (drum)" 9. Gby. gada resonance obtenue ...en
frappant le tam-tam" 2. Ter. 7wai "beat (once, with s. thing)" 3. Dgl.
kokie "donner un coup sec, marteler avec pierre" 3a. Mus. watta "hit" cira
"kill" 4. Bye. kadaw "stofien, schlagen, klopfen, pochen" Afr. kad- "pulsate,

twitch, rock, shake" Kmb. kocc'- "hit (on head)" P.SC *kir- "hammer, strike
with stone hammer" 5. Eg.(Bu) hu, hui "beat, hammer, strike (harp)" huit
"beating, striking, bastinado" 6. Sem. q-t- "beat, crush" Gz. qtqt "shake,

quiver, tremble, twitch" 7. Tam. kkat "frapper (forme d'habitude de wet)"

Tur. 9W9t "frapper, jouer de (instrument de musique)" iggat (imparfait intensif)
kaai alone, only < k- + day- kaaita (vb.) cf. day a, kidaya
1. Ngz. kaden "one (only in counting)" 2. Njn. hide "one" Bac, Mwl. hido
"one" Bud. katte ''eins" Mba. kitay "one" Pad. kutara "un" 3. Bid. kati "seule-
ment" ]g. kec "allein" Sok. kati, keti "one" 4. Rnd. kaldai As. kede "one,
alone" Bil. guduS gidu^ "allein, solus" ? 4a. Ham. ko'la "one" 8. Knz. agude
"allein, nur"
kadan small quantity OS *kutun-, *otir-, *kat- "be small"
2. Ter. kodomma "small" Cb. gkidu "small" Mfg. nekadey "un peu" 3. Dgl.

kode "diminuer" 3a. Lam. kadak "etre insuffisant" 6. Sem. q-t-n "be small,
kadanya, kadai shea butter tree "Butyrospermum parkii" man kadai "shea but-
ter" (mai "oil")
2. Gd. kadana "shea nut" ( kada "tree") 3. Mkl. megkede "arbre sp.
(donne des fruits du sommet jusqu'au pied)" i. Dr. dor) gat

kao non-Fulani < Ful. kao sg. ofhabe q.v.

kaf; kap completely, tightly kafta "do/take/give a lot of"
I. Gra. kap "all" NB G,B,T) kap "all" Ron kaf "satt werden" 2. Ter. kap "all"

Mfg. kaf "plein (poterie)" Gd. ya' kap "drink all up" (ya' "drink") 3a. Mas.
kaf "all" 9. Gby. kap "avec beaucoup de force (saisir)" 6. ? Sem. k-f-y "suffice"
7. Tarn, qqah "all"

kafa fix, erect, establish kafe "fasten, become stuck" kafi "charm (buried or
attached)" P.W.Cha. *k(a)p- "plant, dig" OS *kap- "house"
I. H. kafe "hut made of wood" Gwd. kapa "plant (seedling), drive (nail)"
Dr. kape "sow" Tgl. kabe "sow, carve" Bol., Krf. kappu "plant, sow" 2. Gd.
kiha "prop up, plant" ? Bur. kukw- "establish" 3a.Lam. kap "perforer, coudre
d la machine" kap zara "semer en creusant d'abord" (zara "trou") 4. Bil. kaf y

"sich setzen, sitzen" (y "do, make") 8. Knz. ebir "pflanzen, aufrichten, anset-
zen" 6. Gur. qapara "plant" Sem. q-b-r "bury" 7. ? Tur. anbal "enterrer, com-
bler de terre, semer"
kafa small hole cf. afa, ofa OS *kah-p- "hole"
kafaa shoulder karfata "shoulder of animal" ? < *k-r "head" + *p-t- "arm,
hand" cf. farce, kai OS *qaputl- "arm, shoulder" hapat- "arm, wing"
I. Gwd. kerebeta, kapada Ngz. gapta "shoulder" shi gapta "armpit" (shi
"bottom, below") 2. Gis. kerpei "armpit" Mat. krapai "wing" Msg. karpei
"shoulder" 4. P.Cu. *k-np- "wing" *p-r- "finger(s), hand" *Sy-k-p-l "armpit"

5. Eg.(Bu) khab + t "neck, shoulder" 6. P.Sem. kat-p-(t) "shoulder" Akk.

pud- "shoulder"
kafin before cf. gaba, kamin
I. Gwd. kapi Ang. kapi-kapi "early" Ngz. kabi, kaban Pr. kapin ? < H. 2. Mg.
kabi Dab. kibik "devant" 8. Kan. kavu "point of time, when" 4. Or. gafa
"time, when"
kafinta carpenter < Eng.
kafireto carburettor < Eng.
kafiri infidel < Ar. kafir
kafur camphor < Ar. kafur
kai, ka head also "self" (pi. kawuna) cf. kaya "(head) load" kan (kai + n) "on"
cf. hankali, wawalwa, eya P.W.Cha. *ka(y)- 9. P.WN *-7iu "head" *-ka,
*-kata "headpad"
I.Gwd. kyiya Plateau Cha. *ka Ang. key BT ka'u, ka'i Dr. kara "headpad"
Ron h-y 2. kur, kar Njn. kire Gis. hurar) Log. ka'a 3. Dgl. ka "head"
kaye "blesser a la tete"]g. kata 8. Knz. koi "Gesicht, Oberfldche" Kan. kala 9.

Ful. hore (pi. ko'e) 4. P.Cu. *k-'l- "cranium, head, self" P.Cu.(E) *ker-/kir-

"top" 4a. Dch.; Drz. hu'e 5. Eg.(Bu) her "face, on, upon" (F) hr "face" hrw
"upper part, top" 6. Gz. kwar^-, qar^- "hit on head" (cf. H. rots-, Ar. ra's)

7. cranium"
Tur. takayya "skull,
kai reach, take (there), suffice < kw-y/r- kawo "bring here, be in flood, have
orgasm" RCha.(N) *k9r9 "carry"
I. Dr. koi "ripen, be done" Pr. kero "suffice" Gra. kwam- "be sated" Bol.

kawa "be sated" NBM kwiy "catch" kiy "take" RB hya "voU werden" 2. Pad.
kura "sufftre, etre capable" Gd. k9r8 "carry, take away, bring (tr. & intr.)" ka'

"take, lift, carry" Mg. ka'u "catch" Dab. kaw "attraper" Mfg. kaw, kew "saisir

brusquement" Log. ka "nehmen, ergreifen" 3. Lei. kay "finir, terminer" 3a.

Lam. kao "attraper, arriver, etc." 4. REG *gay- "arrive" P.Cu. *g-y-H- "reach,
get, be sufficient, etc." 6. ES 'akala "be sufficient" Soc. goihe "etre mur"
geham "acquerir, pouvoir, gagner" 7. Tur. ugar "devenir finalement, survivre"
kaidi limit < Ar. qaid
kaifi sharpness (of edge) kaifafa "sharpen, turn on side to pass through nar-
row opening" cf. fanko
I. NB *kw-f-f- "light" Ang. kwopkwop "thin" RF fifyo "diinn, leicht" 2. Gd.
kafakaf "of light weight" Bur. kikafu "light" Gis. kefek "light" Muy.
kafkafane "light" Mfg. kef-, kafaf-, kekef- "leger" 3. Kr. kafar) "leger" Mkl.
kopukopu "leger" 4. RSC *fa "light, lightweight" Dly. hafa- "leicht, diinn"

6. Sem. k-ff- "light" Amh. kaffafa "edge, trim with leather" 7. ? Tur. fakfak
"etre trop leger par rapport a son volume"
kaka i. grandparent, ancestor *k-K- "grandparent" extends from Sng. to S.Cu.
(in Cha. "grandparent, grandchild") cf. jika

1. Dr. ka (sg.) kaggin (pi.) 3. Tum. ka (sg.) kagag (pi.) 4. Abo. kako "great
grandfather" RHEC *akako "grandparent" ? 6. Gur. akak- "grandparent,
grandchild" ? Soc. qaqa "sibling" Hrr. kaka "maternal uncle" 9. RWN
*-kaka "grandfather" CB *-kaka 8. Kan., Tub. *kaKa "grandmother"
2. harvest time ? < *karkar kakace "harvest (vb.)" cf. girbe, kala
2. Klb. gaga "harvest (vb.)" 3. Dgl. kargile, gerkide "couper"
kakaki royal trumpet cf. Yor. kakaki "Hausa trumpet" Np. kakaki Gby. gagazi

Hause (1948) quoting Tarikh al Fattash "about 1500 the cavalry of Songhai
adopted a large horn called kakaki''
kakanda salt from Europe ? < Kakanda (people who brought it up the river)
cf. KK kakanda "salt"

kakari snoring also kyakyari

1. Ang. kangor, ganger RF gongor (vb.) RB, RD, RS *hangor NB *r)gwar Tgl.
koorok 4a. Bnc. karkar 8. Dz. kagar, rjarjar Knz. xorri (vb.) 9. P.WN *-kwal
(? vb.) Mnd. koro, kere 2. Bud. hirga Bur. n7ali 3. Turn, kor (vb.) Lei.
horngil-; ngorngil- 4. Or. koqa (vb.) ? E.Cu. *xw-r- Afr. kar 6. Gur. ankwar-
Ar. xarxara (vb.) Sem. n-H/x-r "snort, snore" 7. Tur. sunker (vb.) taxarret

kaki I. phlegm kake "spit out mucus"

9. Mnd. kaki "glaire, crachat" 3. Dgl. kake "cracker (ungros crachatde morve)"
Bid. kak "s'eclaircir la gorge" 4. Bil., Bye., Sid., Afr. (H)ak- "clearing throat,
phlegm, spittle" 6. Gur. ak "clearing throat and spitting" Tna. ^a/c Tge. hak
"clearing one's throat" 7. Tur. zan7az "cracker (de la muqueuse)"
2. wax 4. REG *gag- Kns. kak- Gid. kok- Kmb. kaku- 9. Mnd. ka "cire a
modeler" Mende ka "waste matter"
3. khaki cloth < Eng. (< Urdu "dusty") cf. Dgl. kaki "vaiiete de tissu euro-
peen" Kri. kaki
kala gleaning kalata "glean" cf. girbe, kaka
8. Kan. kalau i. RB, RD karat "harvest (vb.)" Ang. karm "cut" Ngz. karmu
"harvest by cutting" Bed. kar(a)m "chop" Bol. kara-, sikaraw "cut" Pr. kar-,

7ar- "cut" Dr. kaye "cut down" Tgl. kae "cut" Sey. r)gyar "cut, break, tear"
NBJ ka'i- "chop, cut" 2. Hwn. kyal- "chop" Muy. kele "cut, chop" Mfg.
karw- "debroussailler, couper I'kerbe avec une faucille" 3a. Lam. kao "couper

(kerhe)" Mas. kam "cut" 4a. Jnj. ka'ra "cut" 4. Or. makara "harvest (n.)"
6. Amh. makar "harvest (n.)"
kalaci eating a meal OS *'-kul- "eat"

kalami words, speech ? < Ar. kalam

kalanda calendar < Eng. cf. Kri. kalenda
kalangu drum "hour-glass shaped d. used in company with dundufa" cf. Yor.
konongo "d. played in company of dundun" Np. kanangun "drum" Gur gp.,
Mossi, Dyula lunga "drum" kalambura
4. Bil. "kleine Trommel"
kallabi headcloth (woman's) cf. luUua, rufe
I. Ang. g/kirp "covering, protection" 8. Kan. kala "head, kale- "tie round"
Ted. ebi "tout morceau d'etoffe dont une femme s'enveloppe" 9. E.Ful sallabi
"mouchoir parure feminine" 2. Mfg. kul- "se couvrir de quelque ckose" 5. Eg.
(Bu) qerf, gerp "be wrapped up" 4. Or. golboba "cover head" P.Cu. *k-ll-p-

"encircle, surround, enclose" 6. Gur. (ta)xrapaba "cover one's head with

cloth" Amh. (ta)kannanaba "cover one's head with cloth"

kallafa impose (s. thing on ? < Ar. xallafa "appoint as successor"
kallo watching, looking kallata "look at" cf. kula
I. Tgl. kuror) "standing and gazing at" 4. P.Cu. *kw-ll- "look, look at, look

about" Af. garrise "wait for expectantly, watch from a distance"

kalma word < Ar. kalma
kalme, kalmi hoe "small h., having handle fitted in the same way as an adze"
cf. galma, korame
I. KK kala "hoe"
kaltibeta agricultural tractor < Eng. cultivator
kalwa locust bean seeds also kula, kuri cf. ayawu, orawa
I. Bol. kalwa Gwd.(N) korowa "locust bean cake" 2. Bac. kulte "locust bean
tree" 9. Np. kula "locust bean cake" elo "locust bean fruit"
kam see ko
kama [kama] like, as < ka + ma kamanni "likeness" kamanta "describe, illus-
trate" kamata "suit, ought" cf. haka
I. Gwd. kama "like" kamu "like this" Sur. ka "Art unci Weise, wie" Ngz. ka
"like" Dr. kr "like, as" Ang. ko' "like" ko def. marker, rel. marker 5. Eg.(Bu)
gi "form, like, manner" kama "compare" (F) ki "form, shape" kma "form,
appearance" 2. Gd. ka "to, for, as" Mfg. kaa "comme (comparaison)" Gis.
ka, kaba, kaa "w/e" 3. Mkl. 'a "comme, semblable a" 4. Brj. kamu "here"
Bye. gab "Gleichheit" 6. P.Sem. *k- + m-( ) "like, as" 7. Tam. am, ammani
"like, as" ammu "like this" Tur. urnrnan "paraitre, apparaitre" 8. Sng.
himandi (Zar. hima) "ressembler a, etre comme, egal a"
kama take hold of, seize, arrest kamu (v.n.) kamuna "my turn" kamunka
"your turn" etc. kama baki "be silent" makami "weapon" OS *qam- "pos-
sess" *'am- "catch, sieze"
I. Gwd. ka' Gj., Bui. *kam- "lift" Dr. ksme "pick (one by one)" 2. Bur.
kimta "wegnehmen" ? Mfg. gam- "accepter" Gd. mba "take by force" 3. Dgl.
game "arracher par force" kamine "tour de garde, cycle de sejours du polygame"
Mkl. 'ame "prendre, ramasser" ? Jg. 'any- "fangen (Fische, mit Korb)" Sok.
gamnur) "Waffen" 3a. Lam. 'am "prendre, prendre par rapt" 5. Eg.(Bu) khema
"grasp, seize" 4. P.Cu. *k-m(m)- "seize, take possession of, possess" 6.

Amh. qamma "take by force" Gz. gam*^a, gam'a "pluck out, remove" Hars.
kemoh "reduce to silence" 7. Tur. kammat "ramasser"
kamasho commission, mark-up < Eng.
kamaaed see kama
kamama food snack cf. tauna OS *kama'-/*kamay- "food"

kambi mark of excellence kambin sarauta "turban, crown" cf. kambun baka
"working on a person by suggestion ? < *power of mouth" cf. Sng. kambu
''don, cadeau, hymen" Or. gonfo "crown, hat"

kamori shell (of e.g. nut, egg) cf. amaroki

kamfani commercial firm, company (milit.) < Eng.
kamfas compass < Eng.
kamili perfect, gentle < Ar. kamil
kamin before see kafin
I. Gwd. kami Kof. tagam "in front" Tgl. kam "when" 2. Bur. akima ta
C.Cha. *kama "face, front" 3. Dgl. kime, keme "quand" 3a. Mas. kamata "le

jour precedent"
kamu measure of forearm and hand cf. kam a OS *'am- "arm"
I. NB *kam "hand, arm" BN am- "hand, arm" SB am- "arm" 2. Gis. har)
"arm, hand" 3. Lei. kab- "main, bras" 6. P.Sem. *'amm + at "forearm"
kan on (top of) < kai "head" + n
kan if cf. idan
I. Gwd. nka "when" RK ka "und" 2. Log. ka(a) "und, mit, wenn" ka'n "Zeit-

punkt" Bur. ka "mit, und" 3a. Lam. ka' "des que" 6. Gur. Gan "day, time" ...
gana "when"
kana then and only then ? < Ar. kana "it was" contrasting with tukuna q.v.
kananzir kerosene < Eng. cf. Zar. kalanzir Kri. karozin Twi krasin
kanar colonel < Eng.
kanari canary cf. Kri. keneri (same tones asH.)
kangare, sangare stiffen cf. MkL kuggirar) (ideo.) "sec, rigide"

kange restrain, pen, segregate see gark- cf. kara

kangida totem cf. ? W.Bantu class 7 & 8 ka + n + gida

9. CB *-gid- "taboo" P.WN *-gil- "avoid (taboo), abstain" i. TgL kida "ta-
boo" H. gida "home, kin" 2. Pad. gide "ancetre" 3. MkL kiyiwe "margdi
(divinite), pouvoirs de punition, de repression"
kango uninhabited house, town cf. fanko
9. Gby. kor)gor)go "ideo. designe des ruines abandonnees" Mnd. kongo, konko
"brousse" 8. Sng. kon "be empty" 3. DgL kongorom "empty" MkL koke

"vider" i. Gwd. kor)go "bark (of tree)" Sur. kwa7ap "diinne und leichte Baum-
kanju cashew ? < Yor. kaju (ultimately, via Portuguese, from a W.Indian

kankan securely, tightly cf. Mg. kar), karjkar) "tightly hard, obstinately" Zar.
kankam "serrer, presser"
kankana watermelon "Citrullus vulgaris" cf. guna
8. Sng. kankani 9. Efik ikon
kankare scrape (off) also kart-, karc-, kats- ? < kar + t cf. koto
1. Ang. er "sc., scratch" 2. Gd. karyats- "scratching" Mg. kira "rub" Bud.
kaliu "kratzen" kaiu "kratzen, reiben" 3. Bid. kor- "scr., scratch, engrave" Dgl.
kortye "nettoyer le fond d'une grande jarre" kara "eplucher avec un couteau"
Bid. kerec "nettoyer le fond d'un canari" Kr. kurt- "frotter" Lei. klr "grignoter,

ronger" 3a. Lam. kerirje "grignoter" 4. P.HEC *hangar- "scratch" P.Cu.(D)

*x/h-t- "sc. (ground), sweep" (E) *xwat- "rub, sc. (with hands, paws, etc.)"
P.SC *xi4- "sc. off" *xa7''- "sc., rub" 4a. Jnj. ka'ya "sc., scratch" 6. ? ES
xwai-, kwast- "sweep"
kankare concrete < Eng.
kanki hartebeest (Alcelaphus gwanki
sp.) cf. agare,

2. Glv. kyaka "antelope like a donkey"

Dgl. gangilam "Grand Koudou" (E.

dialect) "tout animal a grandes comes" 4. Or. qorke 8. Kan. kargum "Senegal
h." Bgr. kariya 9. Tv. kayer Gby. kaggara "male de certains antilopes" Sw.
kansakali sword cf. asgiri, aska, lauje "sickle" OS *nigal- "sickle, sword"
8. Kan. kasagar "sword" katsaga "spear" (Benton) Dz. sinkar "lance" 9. Amo
(Plateau BC) ka + sangali Tv. sanker i. Gwd. kasengari Bol kaskar Ngz.
kasakar Bed. gasakaran 2. Gab. kscakar Bur., Mdr.gps. katsakar Hrz., Vm.,
Mat. katsakar 3. Sok., Turn, kaskar 2. Bac. sungwa "sw." sungwate "knife"
4. Bye. sangal "knife" 6. ES zagar "spear, lance"
(some Cha. languages have "knife" + source of borrowing)
kan postage stamp < "head-of king (of England)"
kanta counter, shelf < Eng. cf. Kri. kawnta
kanti shop, store < Eng. canteen cf. Kan. kanti Kri. kantin "restaurant at-

tached to large institution"

kantoma municipal administrator ? < Eng. cantonment magistrate also
kantomati (? obsolete)
kanumfari clove(s) also karanho, kalamfari, gurumbali cf. Mnd. koromfole
Kan. gurumbal Tur. anagarfal Ar. qaranful
kanwa potash cf. Bam. kwa "sel" Kan. kalvu "natron"
kanya ebony tree {Diospyros mespiliformis) also kaiwa cf. Yor. kanran, karan
Ewe keyi Gd. kujina

kara clash, collide karo "collision, battle" OS *qaraw- "war, fight"

1. Ang. kar "quarrel (vb.)" 2. Ter. kara "quarrel" Kot. kwar "war" Glv. 7wara
"war" Bac. kawa + to "war" 3. Turn, karaw "colere, guerre" 8. Kan. kariga
"war" 4. P.Cu. *g'^-l- "be hostile, throw weapon" Afr. karani "contra-

diction, contrariness" Bye. girim, megaram "be inimical" P.SC *k'^ah- "beat
with weapon" 5. Eg.(Bu) hai "fight (vb.)" 7. ? Tur. agar "lancer" magar "se

combattre reciproque Vun I'autre"

kara, kare stalk e.g. corn stalk, sugar cane karakara, karkara "farmed land
around the city" P.W.Cha. *kara "material for plaiting a mat"
9. Mnd. kala, kara "brin de paille, tige etc." hausa kala "canne a suae" 8. Sng.
kari (pi.) i. Bol. kari Gwd.(N) r)kikara Ang. gal "sugar cane" 2. Bur. kila
Mfg. ggala "partie centrale d'une tige" Gd. kara "stalk, straw, arrow shaft" 3.

Lei. giladi "tige de graminees importantes" 3a. Lam. kiya' "tige" 4. Brj. kayle
Afr. garida, agiira "stalks" Sml. gargor "stubble or thatch" Or. agada "sugar
cane" P.HEC *agada "stalk" 7. Tur. 1711 8. Knz. ^age "Durrastengel" Kan.
kangale (? < ka + ngaie) karkara "reed" 6. Shuwa Ar. ageige "stalk (after cut-
ting)" Amh. qarqari "bamboo sp."
kara, kare screen from view kara "tact" cf. gark-, kange, kiyay- P.W.Cha.
*ka(y)ar- "defend, protect" W, C. Cha. kara "fence"
2. Gd. kalama, karama "shield (n.)" 6. ? Sem. k-U "surround for protection"

4. Or. kerkara "protect" P.HEC *kalo "enclosure" Had., Alb. g-r- "shield
(n.)" 7. Tur. angar "s'abriter derriere" 5. Eg.(Bu) qera, ger "shield" 6. Tge.
kar'a "beschiitzen" Gz. 'agre "large shield" Gur ago "shield" 8. Knz. karu
karaga bed, throne (made of cornstalks or palm stems) cf. kara "stalk"
9. Mnd., Bam. kalaka "lit fait de tiges" Bua raka "mat" Kenga raga "mat" 2.

Log. raga "Matte" 3. Tum. raga "natte sp." Mkl. raga "natte" i. Tgl. kara
"bedstead" kara "mat sp."
karahiya disfavored act < Ar. karahiya
karama generosity, miraculous power < Ar. karama
karambani meddlesomeness cf. Gd. kandamana
karambata eagle, kestrel sp. also karamf-, karamm-
I. Bol. karmata "white hawk" 4. Sml. kolambai "eagle sp." Abo. killante
"vulture" ? Afr. bagilema "African fish eagle"
karamiki jackal, hyena ? < kare + n + ? cf. dila
I. Gwd. kare bikyiya "jackal < dog of bush" 2. Gis. kir u "Schakal (Hund
des Busches)" Muy. mbike

karankarma collarbone cf. Kan. ngalngal

karanta read makaranta "school" cf. karatu ? < Ar. qara' + suffix cf. Kan.
karar)- Tub., Mnd. kara Tur. aym "lire, etudier"
karara very cold also kalau OS *ar-, *or- "cold"
karas carrot < Eng. pi. cf. Kri. karots "carrot"
karatu reading ? < Kan. karata (vb. n.) cf. karanta
karauka, karabka main road cf. H. turba
4. Bye. garabi "footpath" Or. kara "road, way" 9. Ful. law-, lab- "path, way"
kara receive, accept
I. Gwd. ngi- "hold" Sey. qgap
karaba, kaleba, kaba Tgl. lobi "accept" Gj.
"seize" Pic. gubun "hold" guptu karamp- "saisir" 2. Mfg.
"seize" 3. Bid.
hwambat- "prendre dans ses bras" Gd. gapa "embrace" gaal "held in a firm
embrace" 4. Bil. kalab "in Empfang nehmen" Ma' -kupuriya "snatch" REG
*k'ab- "catch, have" 5. Eg.(Bu) kerf "seize, carry off" 6. Sem. q-b-1 "receive"
Soc. kebi "prendre furtivement" 7. Siw. kabb "embrasser"
kare, karya (f.) dog (pi. karn-) (f.) cf. kyarkeci, kwikwiyo
OS *kar-/*kayar-, *k-y-l-; *kuHen- "dog" i. P.W.Cha. *kw/yar- 8. Kan. kari
3. Mkl. kurusu "chiot" 4. P.Cu. *k-r(r)- P.EC *ker- P.SC *k(w)ari Bye. kelus
"pup" (for -us marking diminutive, see duushi) 4a. Bnc. kyan 6. Gur. gajii,

gaya 8. Berta gali, geli "d." agwe "hunting d." Knz. wel 5. Eg.(Bu) uher,
uher, uahr
kargo, kalgo Bauhinia thonningii Kan. kalur Shuwa Ar. karum
kari frond of deleb palm cf. kara
I. BoL, KK kari "(corn) stalk" 2. *xyali "leaf" Bud. qgalei "leaves of
palm" 8. Kan. ggalai "leaves of palm"
karimi generous < Ar. karim
kariya carrier (on bicycle) < Eng.
karkara cultivated region around town cf. Sid. qarqara "border, shore, near"
karmami leaves of corn plants also "stunted corn plants used as fodder"
I. Bol. korum "leaves of beans" Ngz. iaiamawa "dried leaves of sorghum"

3. Lei. harme "feuilles, plantes, herbacees" 4. Or. qarmi "what is left on the

ground after harvest"

karofi dyepit cf. garura Mnd. kara "indigo" fye "calabash utensil, open space"
fi "dark blue"
karsana heifer cf. saniya "cow"
kartushi cartridge ? < French cartouche

karuwa prostitute ? < Kan. karua "prostitute" cf. Kan. karwa "wind" H. an
iska "son of wind, immoral person"
karya, karye break cf. kece, keta "tear" ira "cut" P.Cha.(N) *k9i9 "break" P.

W.Cha. *q-tl- "break in pieces"

8. Sng. keyri "casser" Ted. kar, gar "casser" 9. P.WN *kel- "cut" i. Ngz. kaiu
(tr.) taiu (intr.) "break" karmu "chop" KK kiya "break" kiyusu "cut" 2. Mwl.
ukuli, ukui "break" 3. Lei. kar "enlever les feuilles vertes des tiges" Bid.

ke(y)- "couper, casser, blesser" 4. Bil. kar "hrechen etwas" P.SC *katl-
"separate" Bye. kirit "cut, wound" 4a. Jnj. ka'ra "cut"
kasa put down, overcome kashe "kill, cancel" cf. kisa "killing (n.)" kasa "fail,
fall short" kasko "fragment of pot" kayar da
I. Ngm., NBJ kes- "war" Pr. kec "war" 2. Msg. kasa "fallen" 3. Dgl. karse
"jeter a terre" Mkl. koss-, guss- "battre, casser, frapper, eclater" Lei. kasi "piler
3a. Lam. kas "demolir, casser" 4. Abo.
des graines oleagineuses, etre fragile"
knock down" 4a. Jnj. keja "kill" 6. Gz.
'EkEs-, 'igis- "kill" Sml. kaus- "kill,
qasa "throw down, make fall" S.Ar. kes "put down, let fall" Sem. x-s-r
"bring down, diminish, degrade" 7. Tam. xsy "extinguish (fire)" Tur. aYsay
"crever, mourir"
kasa puff adder
I. Bol. kankarsa NBM kakansa
kasa fail completely cf. gaji, kasa OS *kas- "fall"
I. H. kashe "knock down" Tgl. kassi, katsi "falling short" Bed. kasuwan
"illness" RS mukas "Mudigkeit" 4. Bil. ga' + s "hinfdllig werden" P.Cu.(E) *ga
"down" 6. Amh. kassa "become thin" 7. Tur. a7sar "atterir, s'abattre" 8.

Sng. gyasa "etre sans valeur, etre moins que"

kasada risk cinikin kasada "dealing in unsaleable goods" ? < Ar. kasada "sell

badly" cf. Kan. kasada "application, industry" (? needed to sell such goods)
kasafi, kasabi preoccupation cf. Mnd. kasabi "compte, calcul" < Ar. kasaba
"earn, acquire"
kasala lethargy < Ar. kasala
kasance be, exist cf. P.Cu. *k-s- "breathe"
kasangali shinbone also sangali q.v. cf. E.Ful. kosngal "foot, leg"
kaset cassette tape < Eng.
kashegari next day ? < ka pronoun + shekar- "go by" cf. shekara, washekare
kashi small heap, portion < kasa "put down"
kashi feces ? < k- + isi P.Cha.(N) *isi P. W.Cha. *'iS"
OS *his- "feces" 6. Gz. ka'^se "feces" kwasha "defecate" ES qwaza "have

dysentery" i. Gwd. kwasi Ngz. sau

Hwn., Hg., R *(n)Kwus- "urine" Pad.

kusie "contents of animal's stomach" Gd. sia "contents of intestine" 3.

Kr. kusi Lei. kasinya "intestins, excrement" 5. Eg.(Bu) usesh + t "urine, excre-

ment in general, evacuation" 4. Sid. kose "animal f." Or. uso "feces, urine"
Sml. us +/- ki "contents of stomach" 4a. P.N.Om. si- "dung" Jnj. siya "fe-
ces" sesa "urine" 6. P.Sem. *si' + at "feces" Shr. syot "feces" 7. Tur. awas,
iwassen "urine" 8. Knz. osi "Mist (Esel)"
kashiya cashier < Eng. cf. Kri. kashia
kaska tick cf. suka "prick"
1. Gwd. keska 4a. Bnc. kaskas "fly" 2. Gis buskum "Floh" 4. Gaw., Dly.
Tsm. uske "louse" Bus. sake- "louse" ? Bye. s'e "tick, parasite"
isqe "louse"
8. Knz. issi "Laus" 6. Amh. mazgar "tick" Gur. mazgar, masqar "tick"

kasko pot "small earthenware bowl" asa ta yi kasko "the ground is hard" cf.
Dgl., Bid. kosko "sable agglomere assez dm"
kasuwa market < Kan. kasugu, kasuwu < Ar. suq cf. Dz., Ted. kasogo Dgl.
kasko "commerce, echange avec argent" Ngz. asak < Ar. as + suq cf. lubayya
katako plank, lumber < Yor. patako cf. Kri. pata "flat wooden paddle for beat-
ing clothes in washing"
katanga wall (of mud) cf. danga "fence" q.v.

katara outside of thigh cf. kuturi P.Cha.(N) *kat9r "tail" Sng. katara "region
lombaire et fesses"
kati playing cards < Eng.
katifa mattress cf. Moroccan Ar. qtifa "woollen carpet" Sudanese Ar. qatifa

"fringed blanket" ? Sng. katibo "espece de natte"

katsauri antelope "a., male duiker" ? < k + S-B- cf. ganjar
2. Muk. kutsu "gazelle" 9. Hehe kitsimba "dikdik" 3. Bid. 'ujiro "gazelle"
6. P.Sem. *zaby- "gazelle" Amh. insu "dikdik" 8. Dz. gazab- "antilope sp."
katse cut off, interrupt cf. karya "break" kashe "kill" kece, keta "break
through" Bid. kadaw "barrer le chemin"
katiima pig of iron OS *katum- "metal"
kau, kawa move away cf. kawar da, kau da "move (tr.)" kauce "move aside"
cf. away"
Or. kaya "put aside, put
kauci Loranthus sp. cf. Mlk. kocon Yor. ose
kauri, kabri thickness, stoutness also kamri cf. kumbura, iba
for B-R see babba OS *kab-r- "be thick"
I. Gwd. kabari, kawri "thick" Dr. gambey "long" gamak "fat, obese" Pic,
Bui., DZ g-b-r "heavy" 2. HK kubanye "big" HF kub(w)anda "big" kibiyenda

"long" 3. Kr. kimbili "long" Lei. gomlo "le grand" 4. P.SC *gab- "stout,
strong, thick" P.EC *G-b'- "be fat" Bye. gob "fat" (Bender, 1971) 4a. Jnj. kula
"thick" 5. Eg.(Bu) khepen "be fat" (F) hpn "fat (adj.)" 6. Ar. kubr "bigness"
Heb. kabbir "powerful" Gz. kabra "be honored" 8. Knz. kombo, konbo
(kombori pi.) "dick, fett"

kaushi roughness kausasa (vb.)

I. Ang. kls 6. ES kwasakwasa (vb.) Gur. kasasa (vb.) 7. Tur. karsss- (vb.)
kawa grill, roast also awa cf. gasa, girki, kunne, afe, yafe, one P.Cha.(N)
*aku/*akwa "fire" P.W.Cha. *kaw/y- Cha. (E, W, C.) k-w- "fry" OS *kaw-
"set fire" *qawar- "burn"
I. RS hwoh "brennen" 8. Kan. kaye- "fry" 4a. Jnj. gey a, ge- "fire" 2. FK kya
"cook" Mg. ngyu "burn" 3. Dgl. ogiye "griller, frire" Mkl. ogge "bruler" Mub.
kewi "Feuer" Bid. 'egey "rdtir, frire" 3a. Lam. hao "griller (dans un recipient)"
Ban. hawam- "fry" 4. Bil. kau "warm sein" kwan "backen" P.Cu.(E) *7w-y-
"become hot (from fire)" *gT' "burn" *k-l- "burn, roast, broil" P.SC *'oh-
"burn" Or. (h)o"a "be hot" Bye. tikwi "cook" 6. P.Sem. *-kwiy- "burn" 7.

Tur. 9kway "griller, bruler" (akaway vbL n.) e70w "roast (corn)" a7iwan
"foyer" 9. Gby. gi "faire bouillir, cuire"

kawai only kawaici "reticence, silence" cf. kewa

? OS *qaway- "be empty" i. Ngz. kawai 3. ? Bid. kaway "se desister en faveur

d'autrui" 4. P.EC *kaww- "alone" Bye. nagwai "pure, absolute, nothing but"
6. Gur. quna "alone, an only" 8. Kan. gaw(u)i "solitary, stray, without an
kawalipimp cf. Ar. qawwad
kawo bring see kai "take"
kawu maternal uncle < Ful. kawu
kaya load(s) "1., headload, enlarged scrotum" kayan ... "appurtenances, things
of ..." kayan aiki "tools" cf. kai "head, take", goya
I. BN *kak9r- "load, things to be carried" SB, BT *7'^-l- "load, thing" 2. Gd.
karya Mwl. kuro Bud. kaloe "Ware, Gefdft" Pad. kataqa "les effets" 3. Lei.
kanya "chose" 9. Mnd. kaya "poche renfermant les testicules" Ful. kulle
"things" 8. Kan. kare "things, loads, tools" Knz. karre "Warenspenden bei
Hochzeiten" 2. Log. 7'oi "Zeug" 3a. Pv. kwa "thing" 7. P.Ber. *kra "thing"
Tur. ehare "biens, betail" 5. Eg.(Bu) kar "object, thing, tool, furniture, goods
etc." kher + t, khe + t, henu "goods, things, possessions etc." 6. ? Sem. K-yr
"good, luck, generosity" 4. ? Bye. hekwal "lucky, fortunate"

kayar da overthrow, knock down = kashe

see kasa "fail, fall short, *fall to the
I. Ngz. throw down" 4. RHEC *ka'- "defeat" P.Cu.(E)
karu "knock over,
*ga "down" Sid., Brj. kar- "throw down, stretch out"
kaza so and so, such and such < Ar. ki6a
kaza hen (pi. kaji) ? < k + 'uz-(r)

7. Tur. ekaji "coq" tekajit, tekahit "chicken" Ber. *tazidn "chickens" i. Gwd.
kaza, kaja, kahi KK kezi BoL, Ngm. gaja "cock" Ngz. gaza Bed. kaza- NBD
azar "cock" Tgl., Pr., Der. *kw-luk "cock" NB *t-rk- "cock, chicken" 2. Ter.

kuza, Pdl. kuja Pad. utsaka *7w-ts-k 8. Kan. kaxa Yarava "duck"
(Yarava "Yoruba") kaji "guinea-fowl" 2. Bud. kaji "guinea-fowl" 5. ? Eg.(Bu)
ushnu "feathered fowl" 3. Mkl. 'uzu "poulet, coq" Lei. kor "chickens" toro
"chicken" 3a. Ban. iekka Lam. sekne 8. Mab. sek- 6. Gur. jara "hen, chick-
en" 4. P.EC *lukk- "chicken, hen"
kazaf false accusation cf. Ar. ki6ab "falsehood"
kee pick out and set aside
I. Tgl. kebi "name (vb.)" 3a. Lam. kee "choisif
kece, keta tear, be torn also "break through, contravene" cf. karya "break"
kashe "kill" katse "cut off" OS *-t-, *-ts-, *-tl- "cut, break" *qet- "tear"
1. Gj. kesi "tear" 2. FG kiti "break (rope)" 2. Mfg. kurt- "enlever (peau, vete-

ment, toit)" 3. Dgl. kirtye "ecraser" katye "fendre" Bid., Mgm., Mkl. key-
"hlesser, decoller, casser, couper" 3a. Mas., Ban. kus- "snap, break" 4. Or.
qirit'- "break off, cut to pieces" Ag. qeTeT- "tear" Bil. qantab "abreiften" 5.
Eg.(Bu) heta "break, tear up, be wrinkled" 6. Sem. k-tt- "cut, crush, demol-
ish" 7. Tur. garattat "se casser avec un bruit de craquement"
keji bird-cage < Eng.
keke bicycle, machine ? < Yor. keke "bicycle, cart"

keso old mat once used for packing cowries)

2. Bok. xisi "mat" FG ksidu "mat", kaz- "mat" Mfg. guzer

"natte" 3. Kr. gisi "mat" Mkl. 'ese "panier en ronief 4. Or. gesso "basket"
kesa "sack" Bye. hayis "plait (fibre, palm leaf, cord)" Brj. asam- "braid,
plait" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) hesa "cord, rope, string" 6. Amh. kesa "straw, straw mat,
straw (hat), bag" Ar. qass "straw, rush" ? Sem. kls "bag" 7. Tur. eswuswu
"natte vieille et usee" ezz "etre tresse (autre que cheveux)" tassuwt "natte,
kewa loneliness cf. kawai Ful. yew-, gew- "feel lonely"

kewaya, gewaya go round wallo, waiwaya cf. juya,

makewaya "latrine" OS
*ur- "go round" *kor- "be round"

I. H. awanya "surrounding a place, making a circuit, metal ring" Bol. kolu

"return" Ang. kel "wander aimlessly" Ngz. kwarkwartu "turn around and
around" 2. Mfg. katwal- "entourer, faire le tour de qqch." ? Bac. kiwa + to
"year" 3. Dgl. kiwil kiwil, kikawal "en rond" 4. P.Cu.(E) *kal-, *kil-, *kwal-,
*xwal- "go (a)round" 6. Sem. k-l(-)l- "surround, encompass, crown" Amh.
tukul "round hut" 8. Ted., Dz. (tu)kul/r- ''rond" 5. Eg.(Bu) qet "circle, orbit
(n.)" kerker "to circle"
kibiya arrow ? < k + B-y- OS *gab- "weapon"
4. P.Bon. *kabu "a. shaft" bir "a., a. point" 9. Mnd. bye, biya
(pi. kabunya)
"fleche, pointe de fleche etc." Mandingo bunya "fleche" Landoma (WA)
kebalma (pi. tsebalma) CB *-cebe 8. Kan. kabi "bow" Ted. kapi "bow" i.
KK elu Tgl. fik Dr. pek Gwd.(N) mpa 2. Msg. barau 3. Bid. alla "fleche"
3a. Lam. e "piquer" be riya "decocher une fleche" 8. Sng. biri "tirer une fleche"
5. ? Eg.(Bu) bebut "a.s" 6. Gz. hyp, hepa "shoot with a." (see harba)
kicin kitchen < Eng.
kifa, kife overturn, invert OS *ka'up- "cover, close"
9. Gby. kifi "changer de cote, renverser" i. Ang. kirp "turn over, cover" Bol.
kur- 2. Ter. kurpa Mfg. ku- "renverser (un recipient), couvrir" 3a. Lam. ku
"couvercle, fermeture (d'un grenier)" 4. Ag. kembeb- "turn over" P.SC *kuf-
"close, shut" Bye. gwibi 5. Eg.(Bu) qebqebi + t "overthrow" qema "over-
turn, overthrow" qabu "overwhelmed, doubled over oneself" qef, kefa "un-
cover" (F) k3b "fold over, double over" 6. Ar. gafa'- "turn upside down" Gz.
gafa' "oppress, hurt, treat violently" S.Ar. gef- "turn" g-tf- "turn over" Ar.,
Amh., Gz. q-l-b "overturn"
kifi fish P.Cha.(N) karfi P.W.Cha. *kiraf- ? < K^-r + ? "meat of water" Cha.(W,
C, E) *kw-r- "skin, body" *mbi "water" cf. lri
I. NBJ, NBM kwariy- "meat" RK kiryet "Fleisch" kirif "Fisch" NBS arfi 2.

Log., Bud. ki'- "Fisch" 4. P.Cu. *kw-lt-'-m "fish" (*(N-)k-w- "race, tribe,
people" *y-m, *m-w- "water") 4a. Jnj. kurtumi "fish" Ham. kara "fish" 5.
Eg.(Bu) ha "flesh of body, joint of meat" hema "fish, hunt" (m- "water")
ham, heb + t "fish" heb "catch (birds, fish)" hat "to fish, fishing net" 8.

Knz. kare "Fisch" Turkana -klya "fish" -kirin "meat" P.E. Nilotic %i + rir)

"meat, flesh" 6. Soc. ? kuwerhor "espece de poisson"

klla see watakila

kilabo, kilago tanned ox-hide

8. Kan. kalago "female kid, tanned leather" 3. Lei. kilaba "peau (homme,
animal)" 4. Afr. galbo "hide, skin (of cattle)" arab "skin, wrinkle" Kmb.
galba 4a. Chara galba 6. Gur. galba "tanned hide to lie down on" Ar. qirba
"water skin" i. BN *r-v- "skin"

kilaki prostitute (Western dress, modern style) < Eng. clerk (for progression of
semantic shifts, see Bargery)
kill light grey horse cf. Kan. kali "fresh, green, white (horse)" (Benton) kirri

difu "light grey horse" H. bikili "bay horse"

kilif paper clip < Eng.
kilili green cf. kore Kan. kali "green, fresh, unripe" Bud. kali
kilisa horse riding for pleasure cf. Kan. kalis- "exercise (vb.)" kalisa "physical
training (generally on horse)"
kilishi wool rug also "official who carries emir's rug" cf. Kan. kalasa "carpet"
kiliya leaving roadway clear (by driver) < Eng. clear cf. Kri. klia di gengwe
"make room for free passage"
killa fence OS *kil- "fence"

kilo kilogram, kilometer < Fr.

kima moderate amount, fair assessment klmanin "about, approximately"

kimanta "to estimate, to value" ? < Ar. qima "value, price, stature of man,
size of an amount"
kimba pepper "a small pepper, tree and fruit of Xylopia aethiopic' cf. Ngz,
Kan. kamba C.Cha., Gby. kimba Shuwa Ar. kyimba, kumba Tur. kinba
kindirmo sour milk, yoghurt ? < Kan. cam kandarmu "buttermilk" (cam
kindai, kindayi basket (small) see kwando
I. Ngz. kande "H. lefe'' 8. Kan. kande "H. kindar Knz. konte "Korb" 4. Sid.

kumude "small basket" 4a. Bnc. kant "basket" 9. Ful. (Volta Basin)
handere pi. kande- "panier a grain" i. Ngm. gadere
kira, kiraya call, name, summon also kira cf. kirari "praise shouting", kara
"cry out" gaya "tell" P.W.Cha. *qirawa/*q'^ara "cry, call"
I. Gra. kiri- "speak" Grn. kara + ya "say" RS hal "rufen" Ngw. kinkira

"speak" FG xar "call" Gd. kura'i "praise" halim- "verbal noise" Mfg. halm-
"appeler qqun par un nom de louange" Mof. takaray "tell" Pad. hula "crier"

gala "louer" 3. Kr. kel "mots, Worten" Dgl., Mgm. kol- "appeler" 3a.Lam.
ka'a "crier fort" 4. P.Cu.(E) * hil-/*hul- "to cry" Bye. hil "to bark" P.HEC kul-
"tell" Ag. keley- "shout (vb.)" 5. Eg.(Bu) kai "cry out" henu "cries of joy.

praises" 6. Hars. kelo^ "tell" Shr. kolo^ "tell" Gz. kalha "cry out" Gur.
(at)kalla, athalla "make noise by shouting" xana, hanna "call, invite" 7.

P.Ber. *yT
kira pound (something moist) cf. kwaa, raa
I. Bol. kiru- "pound (wet substance)" 2. Mfg. harp- "pietiner, ecraser
lourdement" 3. Dgl karpe ''piler (quelque chose deja imbibe d'eau)"
kiri peddling cf. Yor. kiri "roam, peddle" Bud. kurima "umherwandernder Hand-
ler" ? < Kan. ?

kirki good quality ? < kir + ki cf. gyara, kyau OS *x-war-/*x-yar- "be good"
I. NBJ kirru SB Wangday kar 2. Nkt. sekera ( *S-y "thing") 3. Lei.

kile "valeur" Dgl. kirir) "en bonne sante, joyeux" karar) "net, eclairci" 3a. kiler)

"fin, joli, regulier" Pv. kalier) "clean" 5. Eg.(Bu) khert "possessions, goods"
hes (vb.) "reward, recompense, show favor to" 6. Sem. K-yr "good, select,

noble, lucky" 7. Tur. ehare "Mens, betaiV (Foucauld) ehere "bien (materiel)"
kirtani string
6. Ar. xTtan "thread" 4. P.Cu. *(x)-y-t- "tie, sew, thread (n.)" HEC *kirr-

"thread" 3a. Ban. kiyedu "plait (vb.)" i. Tgl. kodgk "rope, string" Pr. keik,
keek "rope" 5. Eg.(Bu) hetru "cords" kartha "cord, lace, thong" 6. Heb.
hot "thread" Hars., Soc. kayd "rope" ? Sem. k-rr- "rope, thread, twist"

klshi jealousy (esp. between women) kishiya "co-wife, antithesis" cf. Zar.

kyense "etre jaloux (jalousie entre femmes)"

kishingia leaning on elbow also kishinkia ? < k + C-K-( ) cf. sunkuya,
tanwara "bend"
I. Gwd. kukusuruwa, kur)kuruwo "elbow" Tgl. kurgundum Bol. basungule

"elbow" 2. Muy. jahwid "elbow" 3. Krb. kocirjgiden "elbow" Dgl.

kotyingilo "coude" Bid. kucumpilo "coude" 4. REG *djikl- "elbow" Or. HEC
cikile "elbow"
kissa fraud, guile cf. Ar. 7iss
kitika pick-up truck < Eng. kit-car
kitse plait, braid (hair) cf. Mnd. kunsigi, kunsi "cheveux, chevelure" (ku "tete")

kitse fat (animal) (n.) P.W.Gha. *kic- OS *kucer- "fat, grease"

I. Gwd. kantsi, kyice Brm. kindi Gra. kusa "corpulence" KK kazo "corpu-
lence" NBJ gasama 8. Kan. kaisa Berta k'oSi "fat, butter, grease, oil" 2. Bur.

gp. *tuk(9)s- "fatness" MM *akwas Mfg. maza "graisse" 3. Sok. kaisi Kr.
kasaw "fettes Fleisch" son "Fett, 01" Gbr. ose 5. Eg.(Bu) at "fat, oil" antch,
ant, aatch- "fat, grease" usha "fatten (geese, cattle)" 4. P.EC *kils- (adj., vb.)
Sid. maqaisa "become fat" 4a. Shn. k'wots'a Dim. ku'^sto 6. Ar. kuzr "kid-

ney fat" Hrr. kassa "animal fat (not edible)" Heb. kasa' "be fat" Gz. m-gz-'
"fatten" tamagza'a "become fat" Gur. maze, manze "animal fat" 7. Tur.
eksu "etre gras (chameau)" tinzart yarcelle de graisse non fondue"
kiya-kiya mini-bus ? < Yor. kia-kia "quickly"
kiyama Resurrection (Day) < Ar. qiyama
kiyay- herd, graze, protect kiwo "tending, grazing" P.W.Cha. *ka(y)ar- "de-
fend, protect" cf. gark-, kara
8. Knz. kiye "fuhren, leiten" i. Plateau Cha. ky-r "tend, watch over, care for,

feed" Dr. karan "herding" 2. Gd. gara "watch over, keep guard, tend (ani-
mal)" garan9 "herd of cattle" Pad. gwaia "garder, attendre" ? Mfg. cakar-
"garder" mecakwer- "herger, pdturage" 3a. Lam. gol "surveiller, epier" 3. Mkl.
'else, 'ilse "accompagner, garder les troupeaux" Lei. gil- "garder, preserver" 4.

P.HEC *kalo "pasture, enclosure" Afr. kalale- "protect oneself" olole "graze,
eat" Bye. kwiri "graze, eat" kwirai "pasture" Sid. qerrisa "preserve (from
evil)" 6. Amh., Gz. k-U-l- "surround, guard, protect" 7. Tur. telilt "pdturage
d'une certaine grandeur"
ko, kau, kam particle (used enclitically to topicalize preceding word) cf. kuma,
kuwa Dgl. kaw "aussi"
ko or also sentence-final question marker (alternative unstated) cf. NBM, Gis.,

Gd. kwa sentence-final question marker Sem. 'aw "or"

ko- every- (before question words, e.g. ko + me "what?" = "everything") ? <
kw-1 cf. kaf "completely"
I. RS hwalar) "alle" Ang. ko- (e.g. we "who?" kowe "everyone") kis5k "all,

every" (sak "body") Sur. ko (before n. or question word) "jede(r)" SB kw-N

"all" 2. HB kupu "all" HF, HK kirpi "all" FG gwa'- "all" 3. Lei. koli "tout,

tous" Sok. kuldii) "alle(s)" 3a. Ban. halar) "all" Mus. hala "all" Lam. kulom
"demesurement" kuiom "sans mesure" 4. P.Cu. *w-l-, *-kk- "all, every" P.SC
*'akal"all" 4a. Jnj. kup' "gather, all" 6. Sem. kw-11- "all" 7. Tur., Tam akk-
"all, every" 8. Knz. kurri "sammeln (Schafe)" 9. Ful. kala "each, every"
koe fade (color) Gd. kuta
kofato, k(w)afa hoof cf. kufutai "slipper" afa "foot" OS *qaf- "hoof" *kab-
(1/r-) "shoe, sandal"
kofot "Huf" 2. Msg. horbaq- "Huf" harbak "Schuh, Sandale" Log. kabe
"Huf" 'yalabe "Schuh" ? Mfg. patakwar "sabot, patte" 3. Dgl. korbito "sabot
(d'animal)" Lei. garba "chaussure" Turn, gaban "chaussure" 4. Sid. kope
"shoe" kotte "hoof" P.EC *kob + t- "foot, hoof, footprint, shoe" ? Bye.

karfas "Schuh der Pflugschar aus Elefantenhaut" 5. Eg.(Bu) kap(u) "sole of

foot" kebu "sandals" 6. Hars. xef "paw, hoof, sole"
kofe copy (n.) < Eng.
kofi coffee < Eng.
kofur corporal (n.) < Eng.
kogi river ? < Mnd. ko "riviere, corns d'eau" + gyi, gi "water" cf. Bam. ko "ruis-

seau, marigot" ji "water" Cp. kor) "river"

kogo, kwarga hole, cavity (rock, tree, etc.)" cf. haa
I. Tgl. kurgo "den, hole, cave (tree, mountain)" Sur. goyot "Gruhe, Hbhle"
Gwd.(N) kye'kar "grave" 2. Mfg. gwagwam "trou profond" 3. Dgl. kurka
"creux" Mkl. gugile "creux (arbre), ruche" }g. g070t "Grube, Hbhle" 3a. Lam.
gugurak zu "raie des fesses" (zu "derriere, fondement") 4. Sah. gonga "cave,
pit" Or. gonga "hollow" Bil. gaqa "Hbhle" Sid. goggola "hollow in tree" 5.
Eg.(Bu) q-r (+t) "hole, hollow, cavern" hahatu "pits, caverns" 6. Gur.
gwangwa "hole in tree or stone" Amh. gudgwad "hole" Soc. hangigoh
"trou" ? Gz. daxaxa "hollow out, excavate" Ar. xarq "crack, hole" 7. Tur.
^y^xyni "petit vallon ayant une vegetation dense"
kokawa wrestling, struggling cf. kara "clash, collide"
I. Ang. kwok "dance, wrestling, strenuous game" Gra., Krf. kawa "fighting"
Ngz. kawa "game, playing" 2. Bac. kawate "war" Msg. gau "Krieg"
koko cocoa ? < Eng.
koli peddling cf. kiri Kan. kole "nickname for a small trader"
kolo I. drum (similar to jauje) cf. Kan. kolo "small drum" Ted. koUi "petit

2. vulture cf. ungulu
I. Tgl. kooglok DZ kalo "kite hawk" NBB gyalu "kite hawk" 9- P-WN *-kwal
"kind of hawk" 2. Gd. kwaryat- "kite hawk" Zgv. guluwa "kite hawk" 3.

Mkl. killiwe "? epervier qui mange poussins ?" Turn, kuul "epervier siffleur" Lei.

gola "epervier" Dgl. gulo "oiseau de proie" Kr. agolomkuy "petit epervier" 3a.

Mas. kolo + na "vulture" Mus. kolokolora "vulture"4. Had. golunsa "vul-

ture" Abo. kore "kite" Bon. kor-, kod- "hawk" Sml. gorgor "large, black
vulture" Afr. gurumma "immature Egyptian vultures"
3. daughters OS *kal- "female in-law"

koma, kuma return "r., turn (in)to, repeat, *become"

I.Gwd.(Cancara) kuwa "return" RF hum "sich umdrehen" humar) "zuriick-

kehren" RB hum "wiederholen" RS hoh "eintreten" 2. Mba. hoy "retourner,
rentrer" Bud. koi, hohi "zuriickkehren" 3. Mkl. kime "tourner, changer, devenir"

Dgl. kome "etre rentre" 5. Eg.(Bu) hem(m) "retreat, withdraw" 6. ? Sem.

k-w-n "be, become, occur" 7. Siw. kim "entrer"

komi, kwami boat, trough ? < k + mb-1

I. Bui. kumbalim Gj, NBB koma 2. Ter. dambal kwomb- 3. LeL,
Gbr. kob(o)ro 4. Brj. hobolo 9. kombon "pirogue, abreuvoir" E.Ful.
kombo- Mbe e + komi Bafut ki + kom CB *-yombo 8. Knz. kub "Schiff,
Boot" 5. Eg.(Bu) heba "kind of boat" hep + t "boat" hesp + t "trough"
kora, kore drive off, drive away P.W.Cha. *qar- OS *ko*^ar- "drive away"
I. H. hari "raid" Gwd. kur-, kul- DZ, Bui. k-r- 2. kut-, kit- Gd. kare
"escort away" karakara "driving animals away" Klb. giit- Mad. gara 3. Dgl.
ori "poursuivre" tore "chasser"]g. 'or- "schlagen" 3a. Lam. 'uei "chasser, eloig-

ner, expulser" 7. Tur. hurat "suivre a la trace" Tam. 7IU "follow discreetly"
4. Had. hoU- "chase, divorce" Abo., Sid. hor(r)- "raid, chase" Bye. galel
"drive away" 4a. Jnj. kala "drive cattle" 5. Eg. gera "drive away, reject" 6.

Ar. ^awwar "defeat, throw back" Gz. 'awd'a ( < w-d-' "go away") "drive out,
etc." RF ngwe "vertreiben" RD ngah "treiben"

kora baldness also "bare spot" OS *golah- "be bald"

6. Sem. q-r-h "shave, make bald" Ar. qara^ "bald" qarah "land containing

neither water nor trees" 4. P.Cu. *g'^-l-H- "bald"

korame hoe (long-handled) cf. galma, kalme
I. Ngz. kuram "short-handled hoe" 4. Irk, kurumo Alg. kuromo 2. Hwn.

kura "hoe" Hid., Wmd. k'^ul- "hoe" 3a. Lam. kara-, karva "houe" Zim. kra
kore green (of foliage) also "gown dyed very dark with indigo" cf. akawal,
I. Dr. kwara-kwara "blue" Tgl. kulkul- "light blue" NBT goran "black (n.)"
Plateau Cha. kwo "dark" RB kikyaw "schwarz, griin werden" 2. *kw-i-
"dark" Wmd., Mg. *kwuri "green" Bac. kwuli- "dark" 3. Tum. kole "noir
(chevaiy Dgl. kullan "entierement noir (cheval)" 4. Or. kulle "dark blue,
brown (of cow)" Brj. kole "black" Sid. kol- "black, green vegetables, mead-
ow" Sml. magol "green trees and grass" 4a. Jnj. kara "black" 3a. Mas. wura'
"black" 5. Eg.(F) W3d "green" (Bu) ursh "become green"
mekerr "blue" 7. Tur. ikwal "etre noir, vert fonce" iyvjal "etre brun" 6. ES
taqwara "be black"
kos training course < Eng.
kotu law court < Eng.

koya red earth (used for dye etc.)

I. Teshena (BN) goya "red" Dr. kuri "red earth" Tgl. kulji "red soft stone

(ground from a special mineral)" 2. Mfg. kulendendez- "rouge sang" 3. Dgl.

korindo "bande de cuir rouge, empldtre rouge" kurdum "entierement rouge clair
(cheval ou jument)" 6. Gur. 'agure "red color" 7. ? Tur. azgay "enduire avec
Vocre rouge" ? < s + K-y- 5. Eg.(Bu) khenti "red earth, red ochre, red paint"
koy- learn, imitate, teach cf. hora, kwaikwaya
8. Knz. kur "lernen, gewohnen" i. Gwd.(N) kwayo Dr. kuke "learn, teach" DZ
kwul- "1." Pic. kwalim- "1." Grn. kyal- "learn" NBW kum- "1." kumay-
"teach" Bol. ngoz- "1., imitate" Cp., RF kam "1." 2. Bur. kiiir "1." 3. Mkl.
doye "apprendre, enseigner" doze mimer"
go'i "imiter"
"imiter, 3a. Lam. guei' <
Lam. r)om "apprendre" 4. Sml. kori "educate, adopt" Afr. gaw "imitation"
angawe "1. by imitating speech" Bye. limid "get to know, become
accustomed to, 1." 6. Soc. gele "etre habitue" Sem. ^-1-m "know, 1., mark,
environment" Sem. 1-m-d "get accustomed" 7. Tur. almad "apprendre, sa-
voir, s'habituer a"
kubbi hearts (card suit) ? < Ar. kubba
kube sheath
I. Ang. kip "sheath" kup "cover" 2. Gd. cifa "sheath" kuvangila "sheath"
(kuva "hut, room" ngila "knife") 9. Gby. koo "gaine, fourreau" 3. Bid., Dgl.
Mkl., Tum. *c-B- "fourreau, gaine" 4. Afr. kiba, siba Or. c'ube "sheath knife"
P.HEC *cube'e "dagger" Bye. sikib "sheathe" Sah. kabab 6. Gz. qaqab Akk.
kububuwa viper
I. Ang. mpar) "snake, viper (?)" 2. Htk. bubu "Schlange" Gv. buba "snake" *p-bu "snake" 3. Lei. kumba "serpent" Kr. gafofo "serpent sp." 3a.

Lam. V9va "cobra" 9. CB *-bamba "snake" 6. Ar., Hrr. hubab "snake" Gur.,
Amh. abab "snake" 4. Afr. gubun "v. poisonous black snake" ? Bon., Or.,
Brj., Der. *(m)bof- "snake, python"
kuewa okra, gumbo (Hibiscus esculentus) < K+ B-( ) kabewa, kubewa "pump-
kin, Cucurbita sp." cf. bango, buta, kumbo OS *xab-/*xabi^- "vessel"
I. Gwd.(N) kambyogo "pumpkin" Pr., Ngm., KK, Ngz. K-mb-r-m "okra" BN
KaBiyau "pumpkin" DZ mburli "okra" 2. Pad. r)gue "gombo" Zgv. ggua

Mg. ngaoi "Hibiscus cannabinus" Dab. gibin "okra" Bac. mbwaley "okra"
3. Mkl. kambalta "gombo" Lei. tambulo "gombo" Bid. baywa "gombo vert" 8.
Kan. gabalto "Hibiscus esculentus" ngawai, ngabbai "Hibiscus cannabinus" 9.

Mnd. gba "Hibiscus esculentus" gbanya "champs de gombos" Np. ebe "pump-

kin" I. NB *'p-y-m "pumpkin" 4. Brj. (h)abore "calabash" (Hudson, 1989)

Kwa. mbele "gourd plant" P.Cu.(E) *7wib- "calabash" 6. Gur. qwamat
"gourd" Soc. 'amal "courge" Jib. g-w-h "water melon"
kuut- escape, slip away from also suut- ? < but q.v.
kudaku potato also kugundaku cf. dukuma
9. Mnd. ku "tete, dugu "terre, sol" S.Mlk. kudu "houle,
boule, igname, etc."
etc." I. Gra. kukunduku Ank., DZ kuduku Cp. kugkur) 9. Yor. kukunduku
Np. kukun duku 2. C. Cha. kudaku, kunduku widespread Gv. budagwa r)kt.
butagwa HG watakwi 3a. Lam. kwaydaku
kudu south cf. gindi
I. Pr. ku "head" kuderir) "south" Bel., Krf. kunti- "head" Ank. mukwan

"south" 2. Maf. ge "tete" gie'e "sud" Klb. hudoma "face" Mg. gwudugwa
"face" Gd. kunwa- "front" Nkt., Glv., xuD-v- "face" Zgv. makunde "face"
Hid. xwalma "south" 5. Eg.(F) hnt "face" hnty "in front, south" 4. Sml.
xudub, gudub "south" Bye. gwadab "front part" 3a. Mas. kudu'u "east" 6.
Amh. gwann < gwadan "side" Akk. putum "front" 3. Dgl. widyane "visage"
7. P.Ber. *udm "face"
kui money, cowries also kuri cf. wuri "cowrie" Mnd. kolo de "une caurie"
(traditionally for use as ornaments, the first reference to use as currency is

by Al ^Umari in 14th century Mali. The Kano Chronicle speaks of the reign
of Muhammad Sharif, c. 1710, as the period when kui were first seen in
Hausaland) ? Tur. tamaggalot "cowries, money" P.SC *kwa'l- "beads" Sml.
kul "bead" Or. (Foot) celle "cowrie" Mfg. macatay "cauris" Poular cede
"cauris" Eg.(Bu) sura + t "white bead"
kufai ruins (of old house or town) also "scar" cf. fanko
I. NB k(w)af- "scar"Gd. ufina "old, vacant compound" 6. Hrr. kufai

"used tea leaves or coffee beans, leftover" Gz. kwahila "sweepings, dregs"
kufutai slipper(s) (usually yellow) kufti "shoes, riding boots" cf. kofato "hoof"
9. Gby. kpufutu "sorte de chaussure ancienne" i. NBT karapatan "shoe" (? <
"protect foot") NBP kota "shoe" Ang. kap "sandals" 2. Mfg. patakwar "sa-

bot, patte" 4. Or., Sid., Der. kop'e "shoes, sandals" P.EC *kob- "sandal" 6.

Ar. xuff "boots in yellow leather" Gz., Amh. kuf "shoe"

kuge hand bell (tongueless, double, a royal instrument) see Vansina, J. Afric.

Hist. 10, 187-197 (1969) cf. Kan. kogi Gby. kurjge etc.

kujera chair, stool ? < k + jir/jer

for *z/j-r "remain, sit, be" see jira


I. Gwd. kujara Ngz. kujere, gwajere 2. Mfg. jarjga "chaise, siege" Maf. jegele
"siege" Bud. jei "bleiben, sitzen" 3. Lei. jangla "banc, tabouret"
kuka cry (n.) (pi. kok-) (high-pitched, e.g. child, bird, hyena) cf. kuwwa, ugi
I. Gwd.(Gitata) kukwa RS kuk "weinen" Ang. kuk "bark (vb.)" 2.
kug- "call (vb.)" HB
kuka "call (vb.)" Log. kwakwi "Geschrei" kokl "Stimme,
Schall" 3. Dgl. kokka "cry (n.)" kokke "pousser un grand cri" Mkl. kokil-,
gukil- "crier" 5. Eg.(Bu) qaq "cry out" gaga, geg "cry of bird" 4. Bye. kuk
"cluck, crow" kwinh "speak, call out, give voice (animals, birds)" Sid. kiikki
"bird cry" P.SC *'ok "call"
kiika baobab tree P.Cha.(N) *kuka
8. Sng. ko Kan. kuka, kuwa Bgr. kuka 7. Tur. akaku "esp. d'arbre" 9. Gb.
kwahi Wolof gui 3a. Mas. kona Ban. kwagguna 6. Gur.(Wol.) kuk "kind of
kuku cook (n.) < Eng.
kula pay attention P.W.Cha. *'^al- "hear, listen" OS *ol- "look, see"
8. Zar. kula "se soucier de" 1. Dr. kule "look after" 2. Hwn. kila "wait for" kul "wait for" Bac. kul- "hear, taste, wait" 3. Lei. gol "voir" 3a. Lam.
gol "guetter, surveiller" 4. P.Cu. *k^-ll- "see, look at" PCu.(E) *-mk^'-l-
"hear" Bye. "pay attention to" 7. Tur. ukkal "se soucier (de)" 6. Hars.

hwol "understand" hefol "be careful, look after (oneself)" Gz. xallawa
"watch, guard" xallaya "watch, look after, keep in mind, perceive" Ar. x-w-1

"take care of" Heb. h-l-y "think, care for" 8. Kan. karan- "listen" i. Ngz.
karam- "listen attentively"
kulakula castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis)
4. Bil. gulkua 6. Amh. guPo
kule cat
I. H. kwara "genet" Tgl. kule "cat" kalta "wild cat" NBK muskule (cf. H.
mussa "cat") 2. Ter. galda "wild cat" Bac. koley + to "cat" 4. PHEC *gollo
"civet cat, genet" 4a. Jnj. ki'ro "civet cat" 6. Gur. qarijijia "civet cat"
kulki, kulka club, stick cf. H. gora "bamboo"
I. Tgl. kule "cl. (used in hunting)" 9. Gby. gule "massue casse-tete" 3. Bid.
koliny "grosse massue avec laquelle les Kodara, caste de chasseurs, abattent le

gibier" 4. Rnd. xoxom "cl." Bye. kolei "st." PCu.(D) *k-l(l)- "st., cl."

kullelock up see ulle

kullum always, regularly, every day cf. Ngz. kulum Kan. kullum ? < Ar. kull

kulma fish sp. OS *kulum- "fish"

kulob club (social, sports) < Eng. cf. Kri. klob

kuma also, too
I. Dr. kama 2. Pad. guma "aussi"
kumallo bile (gall) also "nausea, vomit" cf. Kan. kamolo "contents of stom-
ach, vomit" molimoli "frequent sickness" Tub. komelo "gall, bile" Gur.
kubro "bile" Sem., Cu. m-rr- "bile, bitterness" Knz. marara, mirri "Galle"Np.
kunmalo "vomiting" ? < H.

kumama weak cf. H. guma NB *Kw-(m) "lack" P.SC *k'um- "short"

kumbo calabash sp. (long, narrow) cf. kuewa, kurumbo, kabo
3. Mkl. 'umpo "calebasse"

kumbura swell for K + B-R see kauri

I. Gwd.(N) kyubu Sur. 79691 "anschwellen, sattwerden" Ngz. gubamt- 3. Kr.

hope "gonfler" Lei. hilbi "gonfler (nuages)" 3a. ? Lam. hulum "gonfler" 4. Sid.
garb- "swell" P.EC *G-b'- "be fat" 5. Eg.(Bu) khepen "be fat" 6. Ar. kabura
"be big" 7. Tur. akaf "se gonfler"
kumfa bubbles, froth, foam
I. Gwd. kumpa Bol. gogio NBK hwapun 2. Mad. gop (vb.) Gd. tsakufins,

hwafa "foam, froth" kurapa "ferment (vb.)" 3a. Lam. kuf "ecume"
4. P.Cu. *hump-/*himp- (n., vb.) Or. kofa'^a "rise (of dough, batter)" Bye.

kabbahe (n.) 5. Eg.(Bu) hebba "bubble up (vb.)" 6. Ar. xamar "leaven

(dough) (vb.)" xamr "fermented drink" 7. Tur. takaffe "mousse, ecume"
kumurci cobra also kwamarci cf. kwaki
3. Lei. kumlo "sorte de serpent"

kunama scorpion
5. Eg.(Bu) khun "to sting (of scorpion)" 9. P.Cent. Gur *-nam i. Gwd.(N)

kurami Ron g-ry-N 7. Tur. a7ardam "pseudo scorpion (venimeux)" 2. Gdu.

gurinja 8. Kan. kalanji 4. Dly. xonnor- Irk. xerar) Sid. kurra 3a. Ban.
hurura Amh. gint 4a. Bnc. k'om^

kunci cheek pi. kumatu P.W.Cha. *h- + guN- "cheek"

I. Ngz. gumci "chin" NBT ooman 2. Gd. hwahwaga, xwoxwama Mdr.
'uma "cheek, chin" 3. Krb. gorgumei, gorkumkor) "Wange" Turn gura kam
"barbe" (gura "polls" kam "menton") Dgl. gargumo "/owe" tyolkumo "menton"
Mgm. game "joue" 3a. Lam. gin "joue" 4. Dhl. kunkumi "cheekbone" Ag.,
Bil. kumis "cheek" Sid. qice 4a. Jnj. kemsa "chin" 6. ES gunc- "cheek,
chin" 7. Tur. tagomast "joue, pommette de joue" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) khabsit "part
of the body, ? chin"

kunfu, kunhu lung also kufu cf. huhu

I. NB *kuf- 2. Hrz. kukufa Muk. kuval 6. Hrr. kuf-
kuni quinine < Eng.
kunkuru tortoise cf. garkuwa see gark- P.W.Cha. *kur-
9. P.BC *i + kulu RWN *-kwulu Mnd. kunya "tortue" 8. Sng. nkura "tortue
de petite dimension" i. Tgl. kurdi, kunguli 2. Msg. kogkorar) "Schild der
Schildkrdte" Klb., Hid. kwakurum- Hg. x'^ul- FK, FM kwokur(u)m-
kwul(u)kw- MM *ku(lu)kay 3. Kr. kekre "tortiie sp." Sok. kokere "Schild" 3a.
Lam. gugurei "tortue" gurei "tortue sp." 4. Dly. konkolo "Schild"
kunna, kunne kindle, ignite P.Cha.(N) *aku "fire" P.Cu.(E) *'ek^- "fire" cf.
kawa/awa, one, tukunya OS *^ak- "be hot; fire" *kum- "be hot, burn"
I. H. kunkunniya "soot" 8. Kan. kannu "fire" 2., FM, FB *xun-

"burn" Bud. hin "brennen Dgl. onne

"faire de la fumee" 7. Tur.
(intr.)" 3.

aku "s'allumer, etre allume" 8. Knz. ulle, ^uUi "anzUnden, brennen" i. RB hoi/
hwal ... man "anzUnden" (man "Feuer") 4. Afr. ure "be ignited" Dly. xam-
"anzUnden" 6. E.Sem. *-qwud- "kindle"

kunne ear
1. RW.Cha. *kw-m 2. Wmd., Hid., Klb. *ky-mi Glv. ximi Bud. homu 3.

Kuj.kumayo Ndm. ham Sok. on 3a. Lam. hum 4a. Kf., Mch. wamo 6.
RSem. *u6n 7. RBer. *udm "face" 8. Kordofanian *k + un 4. Sid. qontic-
"zone around the ear, meatus of the ear" qonta "earwax"
kuntigi lute (one string) ?< Mnd. koni + tigi "joueur de guitare" koni "doigt,

tout instrument a cordes dont on joue avec les doigts"

kunu gruel
9. Mnd. kini "mets farineux" Np. kugnu (? < H.) i. Pr. kwande "mush"
Plateau Cha. gwim, gwom "flour mixed with boiling water" ? BN akurna
2. Pdl. tukundi "gruel" 3. Sok. undu "Mehlbrei" Dgl., Bid., Mgm. 'ande
"boule" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) khun + t "drink offerings" 4. Irk. xwante "gruel" Or.
qinc'e "thick porridge" 6. Gur. anqacce "flour boiled in water"
kunya shame, modesty
9. Mlk. ku + nya "tout animal auquel il est interdit de faire du mal" ku "respect,
crainte, embarras etc." RWN *-yiku (*-kui) "taboo" Gwd. kumirjya 3. Dgl.

sokany "honte, pudeur" (Lei. so "obeir, respecter") Mkl. konya "adresse,

specialite etc." i. NBS kuku "mother-in-law" 2. Gd. ayi "be ashamed" 4. Or.
qanl "shyness" Afr. ilko "taboo, unacceptable behavior according to
prevailing social custom" Irk. kumba "in-law (first degree)" Bye. sikw'- "be

kura hyena also kure cf. wurji

8. Kan. kura "big" (pi. wura) Sng. koro, kora Gdu. kulam i. Gj. uhuli 2.

Msg. (n)gurnai 3. Turn, korar) "chacal" Lei. kirwe "panthere" Mkl. golme
"panthere, guepard" 3a. Lam. guarai 7. Tur. tahuri "hyena sp." a7oray "male
hyena" 9. P.WN *-gwil- "leopard" 4. Afr. yangula Bye. karai, galab "hyena
spp." P.Cu. *gw-tt-, *warab- 6. ES tak'^la "jackal"

kuratandu hide container for antimony ? < Kan. kura "big" tandu "vessel
made of camel hide" cf. tandu
kura sip cf. raa, sura, shara
I. Tgl. kobe "sip" NBM wura- 2. Gd. huruaci "drinking a sip of liquid"

Bac. kulae "dew" xabu "drink" 4. Bye. gw' "drink" gibit "drink off
at a draught" 4a. Jnj. kup'- "sip" 5. Eg.(Bu) harp "plunge in water" 7. Tur.
7abbat "mettre dans sa bouche une gorgee de liquide/fumee"
kurciya dove P.W.Cha.*kur-
4a. Bnc. ker "pigeon" i. H. aguwa "dove sp." Gwd.(N) sgurfi BT *kurku NB
*luku RD ruguta 2. *kurku- Hrz. kulkule "pigeon" Mfg. kurgwadakw
"tourterelle sp." (? dagwal- "court, petit" relevant) Mgm. guggii ''pigeon" 3a.

Lam. kuruk "tourterelle sp." 4. Afr. kukkurru, tukkurru, orro "dove"

kurrubahe "ring-necked dove" Or., Der. guge- 5. Eg.(Bu) germpi, genkha
"dove, pigeon" 6. ES argab, ragb "pigeon, dove" Jib. ^ekeb "pigeon" 9.

Bassa-Kaduna, Ebe, Np. *lukuku "pigeon" 7. Tur. adalbkum "pigeon do-

kurege ground squirrel also narege ? < rega, lea "peek, peep out" (his kirari
comments on his cunning in having several burrows) hut see kusu for *ku
"rat, rodent"
I. Dw. wurangi "rat" 4. P.Rft *gwarar) "rat"
kurfo whip Cyan) kurfo "military police" P.Cha.(N) *ia9 "hit" see rafke OS
*qurap- "beat"
8. Kan. karfo "whip" Bgr. kaurfo "fouet" 2. Gd. kurapa "leather whip" 3.
Mkl. marpa "cravache, fouet" Lei. miraw "fouet pour jugement" Sok. mrau
"Peitsche" 3a. Lam. garwei "fouet en peau d'hippopotame" 4. Or. (EDG) galba
"long whip of fiber or leather" Sid. garafa (vb.) 6. Gz. qa^afa "flagellate"
garafa "whip (vb.)" gwarifa "chastisement" Ar. kirbaj < Turkish
kurkuku prison ? cf. kuUe "lock up" uum "sitting sulkily silent"
kurkunu guinea-worm Tur. karkanu
kurkure rinse (mouth) cf. Dgl. korkidye "se rincer la bouche" Sid. kurkura "emp-
ty (a gourd), clear (wax from ears)"

kurma deaf ? < kul- + ma "hear + neg' cf. ba, kula Gwd. kumma "deaf"
kurmi forest kasuwar kurmi "Kano's principal market" AA *l/r-m "dark" cf.
8. Kan. kulimi "forest" kalam "black" kaim- "spirit, shadow" i. NBJ, NBM,

NBB kwal- "forest, sacred place" Dr. takaram "dark" la tukurum "forest"
Ngz. kuiam-kuism "ghost" RB kwal "fetish" 2. Gd. hurama "large forest"
ulama "household fetish" iama "fetish shrine" Gab., Gan kwalamda "for-
est" Mg. kwuiu "forest" Gis. kule "Fetisch" 3. Turn. kQlam "feuillage" Dgl.
kelmo "ombre, dme, coeur" kulma "tamarind tree (as for Hausa, for Dgl. too
this tree is the home of spirits)" 4. Or. hurrum- "forest, jungle" Sid. ulma
"thick forest" Dly. hor(r)o "Wald" P.SC *kim- "thicket" Sml. kayn "forest"
5. Eg.(Bu) gemh "leaves of trees, foliage" gemhu "part of a shrine" qenuhi

"shrine, chapel" 6. Gz. ^om "tree, grove, forest, woodland" Sem. h-r-m
"make sacred, banish, forbid"
kurna Ziziphus spina Christi cf. aya "thorn", magarya "Ziziphus jujuba"
I. Ang. kor "type of thorny tree" NBT oye "H. kurna" Dr. kuli "thorny

mimosa" 8. Kan. kurna Ted. kurnu, kurru "Z. Mauritania" Knz. ^agul "Dom-
strauch" 6. Shuwa Ar. karno 3. Sok. kunnau "Z. s. c." gode "Z. lotus" Bid.
kuna "Z. s. c." Dgl. korno "arbre etc. aux fruits ronds, rouge clair, comestibles,
sucrees etc" Mkl. kunno "jujubier sp." gurnuku "boulette faite de farine de
jujube" Smr. gui "Z. lotus" 2. Log. kirna Bud. kurna Gd. kudana "tree sp.
(edible fruit, grows near water)" guravina "H. magarya" 4. Sml. gob, gob
"Z. s. c, Z. Mauritania (very large, grows in river beds, small thorns)" Bye.

gaba "Rhamnus nebeka oder Z. spina Christi" ? Abo. kor "tree" ? P.SC *k'or-
"tree, wood" 6. Gur. g-r-B- "tree sp." (Endegen g'aro "tree sp.") P.Sem.

*7inab- "fruit, grape" Ar. 41b "place of growth of spina Christi" ^unaba
"Rhamnus zizyphus" nabq "Z. spina Christi" 5. Eg.(Bu) nebs "Z. spina Christi"
anb "grape, vine" annu "kind of tree"
kurtu gourd sp. (water vessel) cf. gora i, kwacciya, ululu, warya
I. Ngz. kurtu 2. Mwl. gurati "large water pot" 3. Lei. gundu "gourde" Mkl.

'unde "calebasse sp." 5. ? Eg.(Bu) khett "water skin" 4. ? Afr. kudi "goatskin
water bag" P.SC *honto "calabash bowl" 6. Gur. kwarda "water bottle" 7.

Tur. te7ert "marmite en terre"

kurtu recruit < Eng. cf. Kri. krut
kurum silence, only cf. shiru
I. Ngz. ru- + bound pronoun "alone" 3. Jg. korom "Einbde" Dgl. ruse "faire
taire" 3a. ? Lam. 'urei "seulement" 6. Gz.('a)rmm "be silent" Gur. amm

"silence" ammat "only, alone" S.Ar. ^ar "seulement" Ar. x-lw "solitary,
lonely, alone" 7. Tur. elwa "chagrin, nostalgic" 5. Eg.(Bu) ger "be silent"
kher + ? pronoun "alone"
kurumbo gourd "two different types of gourd basin" kumbo
also (q.v.) "type
of g. basin similar to one of the above" cf. kurtu, warya
3. Bid. kurumbil ''gourde en calebasse" 4. Irk. qwara'amo "piece of calabash,
calabash dish"
kurumbo chain case (bicycle) ? < above (because of shape)
kururuwa shouting kururiita "exaggerate" cf. kira, kuwwa OS *qur- "voice,
I. H. riiri "roaring" rera "sing" Gwd. kuruwa "noise, shouting" Ngz. kuruwa
"shouting" rauru "call" riirau "garrulousness" ruruwa "grumbling, mumb-
ling" ruwa "singing, song" Ang. ruru "shouting" gilile "shout, scream"
NBM, NBK kwar- "shout" Tgl. lule "cry" 9. P.WN *-lul- "shouting" 8. Ted.
kululu "cris de deuil des femmes" Sng. kyilili "pousserdes you-yous" Kan. kalala
"noise, shout" 4. Dly. halil "schreien" Sid. liala "shout loudly" rara "shout"
Brj. liil- "bray" Afr. lulus "precentor, leader in speech/song" Bye. Ill "shrill
(women in joy or sorrow)" Bil. alal "schreien" 7. Tur. -rrawraw "cri d'a-

larme" iru, araw "braire (dne)" 5. Cop. lulai "shout" 6. ? Gz. lawlawa "move
the tongue"
kurwa soul,shadow, spirit, ghost cf. inuwa, rai
I. Gwd.(N) kurugo "wind" NBM arawan, arywan "soul" Ngm. kyelu
"shadow" 2. Mfg. kuley "esprit des ancetres, esprit sumaturel" Mat. kwolar
"wind" Maf. kwalar "vent" 8. Kan. karwa "wind" 3. Lei. kalo "wind" 5. Eg.
(F) k3 "soul, spirit" 4. Or. ekera "ghost of dead person" Kmb. arwa + ta 6.

Gur. arwa < Cu.

kurya silk-cotton tree ''Bombax buonopezense, red-flowered s.-c. tree" cf. gurjiya
I. Ang kyur, kur (?) "silk-cotton tree (H. rlmi)" Ngz. kararaw 2. Mfg.
mekerek "kapokier" 3. Kr. takarka "kapokier a fleurs rouges" 9. Lossi (?, not
in Mann and Dalby) kula Ful. kuluhi
kusa near, nearness kusata (vb.) P.W.Cha. *kwaca
OS *gos- "be small" i. RF, Sur. kus "nahe, Ndhe" Cp., Ang. kus "near" 2. *kuzux- "near" * kus- "short" Hid. kurs- "short" Pdl.
kutun "short" Hg. *KuS- "short, near" F., Gd., Njn. gus(-) "short"
*xurza "near" Mfg. gwe gwe(e) "pres, proche" 3.Kr. ku (preposition) kose

(vb.) Gbr. usiu "nahe" 5. Eg.(Bu) (er) ges "near, by the side" 8. ? Knz. igitt-.

egett- "nahe, Ndhe" 4. Brj. hoyt'- "be near, be short" Dly. it'- "nahe" 6. Sem.
x-s-r- "be short" 7. Tur. ihaz (vb.)
kushewa grave also kushanya pi. kusheyi cf. unsa "wrap"
I. Gwd. kunsa Sur. kacir NBS Yasingani NBK kusayi ? < H. Zks. vugunsu
9. Np. kosia 5. Eg.(Bu) qersu "coffin, sarcophagus" qeres "prepare for bur-
ial" (F) also kns "bury" Cop. kos "burial" kaise "preparation for burial" 7.
Siw. akacca "tombeau" 4. Bye. kanaja "corpse" genada "funeral" 6. W.Sem.

g-nz- "prepare for burial" 2. FM se' "bury"

kushin cushion < Eng.
kuskure, kure miss target, make mistake
7. Tur. axrsk "etre erronne, fautif, manque, non reussV tagule "erreur de mot"
4. Bye. kud ''sich verirren" 6. S.Ar. x-l-s "miss, mislead, guess wrong" Ar.
xati'a "commit an error" Akk. xatu "sin"
kusu rat, mouse P.W.Cha. *kisami, *qatlam- P.Cha.(N) *kusam ? < ku( ) + s-m
"*home, *farm" cf. CB *-kocue "rat sp." OS *husem- "mouse"
for ku(
I. Gwd. (N) ku' Dr. kom "rat" Bed. kuman "rat" 2. Hg. kwi, kwu "rat" Ter.
gp.*kwum "rat" R, *xim- "rat" Mfg. ahwam "rat, souris" 3. Bid.
kumo "rat (terme generique)" (kuuum "rat des champs") Lei. guma "rat"
(kumra "rat sp." gumsu "sorte de rat qui vit Lam. dans les champs") 3a.

kueiom "ratde Gamble" (Mkl. dome "champ") 4. P.Bon. *ko|;u "rat, mouse"
Afr. ik4yo "mouse" P.Sam. *gir "rat" Dly koysaro "Ratte, Maus" Bye. gwib

"mouse" ? < gwi + b Kwa. gila- "fat-mouse" 4a. Jnj. ko'yu "rat" 9. Gby. koe
"ecureuil de terre, rat palmiste" Yor. eku "any bush-rat" (ekute "house-rat")
W.Ful. (Futa Jalon) giru "rat, souris" (Poular) gusiiru "agouti, cane rat" 8. Dz.
koro "rat" Ted. kor soyu "gerboise" 6. Akk. xunsir- "mouse" Ar., S.Ar. g-rD-
"rat" 5. Eg.(Bu) gert "kind of rat" 7. Ber. aGardi "rat, mouse" Tur. akutei
"petit rat, souris" ta7ulit, akunder "rat spp."
for s-m
OS *so'- "barn" 9. Mnd. so, su "home, domicile, habitation, maison, village''

RD, RK sam "Zimmer, Raum, Hutte" som "Leute" 3a. *Sine "farm,
compound" Lam. 'uso "village, concession familiale" Zim. aso "compound"
I. NBM Sim "farm" SB *Zim "field, farm" RK 'ase "abgeemtetes Feld" RS 'asi
"das Bebauen" BN *-(a)saw "hut, house" 2. Hg. usa "farm" F. 'Sa' "com-
pound, farm" Gd. asl "at home" Vm. husag "village"

kusumburwa flute samara "section of corn stalk used as musical instrument"

OS *tlambar-/*tlambir- "flute"
4. P.Cu.(D) *"i-m-r "reed, cane" 6. ES samal "bamboo, haft of spear" Ar.

zamar "play on reed" 5. Eg.(Bu) sba "flute" seb + t "reed, flute" (F) sbiw
"flautist (?)" 2. Mfg. lambay "baton"
kusurwa corner "c, compass point" also surutu cf. Ar. kasra "nook of house"
kusur "windings, ravines" kasar "fold, inflect"
kutur(i) rump, bottom (usually of animal) P.W.Cha. *kitari "tail" P.Cha.(N)
katar "tail" cf. katara
I. Gwd. kutiri "bottom" 4. P.SC. kata "back (usually of animal)" P.HEC
*gate "area back of house" Brj. gund'ure "waist, spine, backbone" Afr. gera
"tail, base, origin, residue" gerale "area near tail" 6. Gur. qittajijia "but-
tocks, anus" 5. Eg.(Bu) khet "the hinder part"
kuturu leper ? < kutur "bottom, *stump" (because of lost fingers and toes) cf.

kututture "stump of tree or corn plant" Or. qurcT "leprosy" ES q-m-t-

"mutilate, leprosy"
kututture stump < kutur "bottom, *base"
kuwa particle - ko q.v.
kuwwa, kuwa shouting OS *kuw-/*kuy- "shout" *kuha'- "speak, shout"
I. Gwd.(N) kuwo "cry (n.)" Dr. kuwu "shouting" RB kawa "weinen" NBT

awu- "call (vb.)" 3a. Lam. kuto' "crz de detresse" 4. Bil. kua "schreien" Ag.
koy- "emit sound (non-human)" Afr. ku^to "cri" Bye. ankuw "schreien,
briillen" 6. Gur. ko, kot "shouting" Gz. naqawa "emit sound, scream,
shout" Akk. naqu "shout"
kuyanga slave (female) pi. kuyangi
6. Ar. qiyan "slave" 8. Sng. konga "esclave femme" (pi. kongey) Kan. kanji
"male or female slave" Dz. kinci "captif, esclave, richesses" 4. Bil. ganjina
"Sklave" Bye. kanjar "entlaufener Sklave" 9. Mnd. gyo "esclave" gyo kye
"esclave male" 5. ? Cop. *kawwani "serviteur, esclave"

kwabo kobo (smallest unit of coinage) eventually < Eng. copper (slang for
"penny") cf. Yor. kobo Kri. kopo Kpelle kapa "cent" Maori kapa
kwaa mix (with liquid) cf. kira, raa
I. Ngz. kala "plaster (mud)" NBP gubei "mix 2. Gd. gufa
"make soft by applying water or oil" kua
"wash" Mfg. hale hale
"melanger (de la terre avec de Veau)" Maf. gwaal "toumer dans la bouche un
aliment qu'on n'arrive pas a avaler" 3. Mkl. koilcok "melange a beaucoup de
liquide" Lei. hob "mouiller, tremper" hobri "melanger" 4. Sid. kuf- "be wet"

Sml. xo, xoy, qoy "moisten" 5. Eg.(Bu) kheb "steep in water" Cop. horp
"become wet"
kwacciya calabash (small) cf. kurtu, kwarya
Gwd. kociya "calabash for drinking
I. beer" Ang. kwas "calabash sp." (H.
urzunu) NBS Rati "calabash (gen.)" 2. Nkt., Zgv. kwata "calabash" 3a.

Ban. gw9t9 "calabash (gen.)"

kwao frog, toad OS *ir- "frog"
I.Gwd.(N) rjkwarak RD kodok NBM, NBJ tukud-y 2. Muy. gwodedik Maf.
kudaf Mat. kwadaf Bat. gp. (n)gw-nda Log. guduge 3. Lei. ginadi Sok., Dgl.,
Bid. gor- 3a. Lam. geo "grenouille" 5. Eg.(Bu) qarr, qerr, kar, kar 8. Knz.
golgodaya 9. P.WN *-kwale CB -kede 4. Brj. kon'-, kund'- Bil. qware^ 6.

Gur. qwaca, qwalaca Syriac 'urd^^o Ar. qirra, qarra Amh. qwarn-, anqwar-
7. Tur. agaru Tam. aqrqra "large f."

kwaf cup < Eng. cf. Kri. kop

kwaikwaya imitate < koya see koy-
kwaki cobra (black) ? < kwal + ki P.W.Cha. *(q)ur- "snake" P.WN *-7waka
I. RK kiggyer "Schlange" Ang. kwol "cobra" NBD akuko "snake" Dr. kori
"black cobra" 2. Ter. gp. *xw-l/r- "snake" Msg. wala "Schlange" Pad. havala
"cobra" Mdr., Glv. 7/xaval- "snake, python" 3. Mub. kako "Schlange" Mgm.
koykoko "vipere grise" Sok. kogl "Schlange" Lei. kalo "serpent" Smr. kula
"Schlange" 3a. Lam. holimbi "serpent d'eau sp." (mbi "eau") 4. Bye kwakwar
"snake" Abo. korkessa "python" Afr. warru "serpent" gungay "a deadly
snake" Kmb. warra "snake" 6. Tge. kukat "snake sp." Gz. gayle "black
snake" qagast "viper, serpent, horned serpent" 5. Eg.(Bu) herr + t, kaka
"worm, serpent"
kwaki cassava flour ? < Yor paki "cassava" (same tones as H.)
kwakwa oil palm, coconut palm cf. Twi, Ashanti, Fan popa, papa "palm
branch midrib" Twi kokosi "coco palm" Nzema kukwe "coconut" Portu-
guese coco "coconut"
kwal coal < Eng. cf. Kri. kol

kwala collar < Eng. cf. Kri. kola

kwal aba glass bottle cf. gora i, warya OS *kolab- "container"
9. Yor. koloba "tin for storing food" 8. Kan. kalva Sng. kulba "grande cale-

hasse, bouteille" Knz. kebe "Flaschenkurbis" i. Ngz. garuwa "gourd bottle" 2.

Ter. kola Muk. kwalaba "bottle gourd" Gis. koloba "bottle gourd" 4. Or.

kolba "horn cup" P.Sam. *kob "cup" RCu.(E) *7wib- "calabash" Sah. qob

"wasserdicht geflochtener Korb" 6. Gz. garab "leather bottle, vessel of skin"

kalabo "woven basket, pouch" Soc. girib "basket" Akk. gurab 7. Tur.
akerebreb "petite bouteille en cuir"
kwalashat shirt with collar < Eng.
kwalbati culvert < Eng.
kwaleji college < Eng.
kwalekwale boat "small Kakanda canoe" cf. Mnd. kulu "arbre creuse, pirogue,
bateau etc."Kasem (Voltaic) kole "canoe"
kwali cardboard, carton cf. Yor. pali "cardboard"
kwalli antimony cf. Ar. kuhl Mnd. kale, kali
kwalta bitumen, tarred road < Eng. coal tar cf. Kri. kolta
kwamma old hen guinea-fowl OS *kom- "fowl"
kwana bend, road comer < Eng.
kwana pass night also "24 hour period" cf. kwanta, wuni
I. Gwd.(N) kwa "24 hour period" Ank. gor) "night" Bel. hom "sleep" RD

kon, kwan "sich niederlassen" RF ggwen "Nacht, Tag" makon "Tag (24 Stun-
den)" 2. *kw-n- "lie down" Bur. xyeni "sleep" Wmd. gonyu "sleep"
Hg., F. *xw-ny- "sleep, lie down" Gd. gwurjyin, nwunyina "sleep" Gdu.
wiyenu "sleep" Maf. kem- "passer la nuit" MM *hin- "lie down" Zgv. xanaya
"lie down" Gv. xunig- "lie down" Dab. wan "sleep" wan "He down" 5.

Eg.(Bu) un, unn "be, exist" 3. Lei., Gbr. kun "sleep" Nan. kena "Nacht"
Mkl. kone, gune "s'asseoir" 4a. Jnj. kuna "lie & sleep" kewa "sit down" 3a.
Lam. gua'a "rester" 8. Knz. gii "Ganztag von 24 Stunden" ugu "Nacht, Tag,
Ganztag, Lebenzeit" 4. RCu.(E) *axaw "to be" *igw- "be, become, remain"
*haw/y "be, stay" 6. Sem. k-wn "be, be in place, stay" Gur. qana, qara, kara
"24 hour day" 7. Tur. agan "s'accroupir" sagan "descendre (aun lieu)" asagan
"place oil un troupeau passe la nuit" Tarn, guni "attendre"
kwance, kunce untie OS *ket- "tie"
I. RB hwet "losen, aufknopfen" NBD kanda "untie" 2. *kwasant- Gd.
kusira "become unwoven, fall apart" 3. Dgl., Bid. kanye "se reldcher" Mgm.,
Mkl. 'utt- "reldcher, echapper"
kwando basket cf. kindai, kwlkwito, kwatashi "small b." kantalma "large b."
? < k + nd-1
3. Lei. kondor "panier avec poche en filet" Dgl girdo "type of b." i. Tgl.

kodop "basket sp." 4. Or. gundo "flat b. for bread" P.Bon. *kag'oda "b."
8. Sng. kokonda "panier en vannerie spiralee" 2. Dab. ndel "panier en osier"

Bur. ntsila "large reed b." kwatsala "small palm b." Klb., Mg. tsala "b." Msg.

kunsa'^ "grofier Korb" 5. Eg.(B) karehta "measure (?), pannier, basket" (F) nds
"measure for loaves and dates" Ar. qintar "measure of 160 ratl's weight"
I. NBW, NBK, NBB lakutu "b." 4. Irk. lakwanti "b." 7. Tur. ta7ennat
kwano metal bowl, roofing iron cf. Yor. panu Kri. pan Bam. pani(n) "measure
for small quantities of grain" Eng. pan
kwanta lie down kwanto "lying low, ambush" cf. kwana
I. Bol. gandu, ngunt- Mh. gand- Tgl. wandan 2. Mol. hinde HG xanze
"sleep" Gis. hinje "schlafen" 3a. Mas. henjeta "night" 3. Mkl. (t)ugide "(se)

coucher, dormir" Dgl. weye, wiye "efre couche" 4. P.Cu.(E) *kat- "lie down"
P.Cu. *kw-tt- "sit down, sit" *g-tt- "sleep, lie down" 6. Hars. hend- "be
sleepy" Gur. *gwaddala, *gatara "fall asleep, doze" 5. Eg.(Bu) qeti "sleep"
khentchem "? sleep"
kwanta rafi reedbuck (Redunca sp.) lit. "lie down by stream"
1. (Tgl. lilir) "reedbuck" lilim "lying down, because of fear or to escape
danger") Ngz. kwarakwanta "i?. sp." Krf. kwanta "reedbuck" NBB kwanta
"hartebeest" NB gal(a)fi "i?. sp., Kobus sp." Ngz. garafiya "hartebeest" 2.

Mfg. bagalaf "roan antelope" 3a. Masa lafna "roan antelope"

kwanya occiput, brain substance cf. wawalwa
9. Mnd. ku- "head" kunna, kulla "ligne de separation des os parietaux" kunne,

kuUe "cervelle" 2. Gan. xwan "brain" 4. Alb. qlpayara "brain" 5. Eg.(Bu)

hen "skull, brain pan"
kware bark, skin P.W.Cha. *k'^ar- cf. kwasfa
kware strip (outer cover) cf. kwasfa OS *kotla'- "peel, tear" Cha. (W, E, C.)
kw-r- "skin, body"
2. Mfg. kult- "enlever (ecorce, plume, croute), ecorcer, eplucher" 3. DgL kork-

"coquille d'oeuf, coque d'arachide" 4. Or. qola "peel, pod, shell"

kwari, kware valley, furrow cf. gurbi, orama OS *xar-, *kur- "river" *wur-
"hole, water"
I. H. kwararo "alley, narrow street" wuriya "stream" Ngz. wuriya "water-
course feeding river" RD golor) "enges Tal, Kluft, Felsspalte" 2. HP, HK, HG
xuli "river" 3. DgL, Bid., Jg., Lei., Smr. kw-r-y- "fleuve, marigot, etang, der

See, Flufi" 4. Bil. kura, kuri 'Tlufi" Afr. golo "gorge, valley" P.Cu. *('-)kw-l
*river, lake, valley" 6. ES qw-U- "valley, lowland, (Gz. also river)" Amh.
kure "pond" Gz. qalay "gulf, ravine, gully, pond xawr "gulf, mouth
etc." Ar.
of river, tract of land between two hills" Akk. xurr- "hole, mine" 5. Eg.(Bu)

kheru "low-lying land, swamp" (F) hrw "low-lying land" 7. Tur. agalmam
"reservoir d'eau naturel (quelconque)" (aman pi. "water")
kwari quiver kwaroro "type of bag, penis sheath"
(n.) cf.

1. NBS hulti Tgl. kuluk fik (fik "arrow") 2. Mfg. gulam "carquois" Gis. gulum

Dab. gilam, glam 3a. Msm. kul 'bendyu ('bendyu "bow") 6. Shuwa Ar.
kurtu ? < Kan.
kwarjini charisma cf. jini "blood" ("white blood" = "popularity", "black
blood" = "unpopularity") Sid. gaccena
kwarkwaro spindle, bobbin cf. Kan. korokoro "spindle of shuttle"
kwarkwasa ant sp. cf. Bok. pweiuhwasa "spider"
kwarkwata louse also warwata cf. waro "insect"
05 *burgic- "insect sp." i. NBB kurtu Bui. korgudo Gj. kwalikoto Tgl. wode
"flea, louse" 2. FG kalukii Bac. kulate "louse" kurakurate "spider" Mwl.
kurakurati "spider" Mat. r)kuukuay 3. Bid., Dgl. gorgor "puce, punaise" Kr.
agidgidi Turn., Lei., Mkl. (n)girs-, (n)gers- 4. P.Cu. *k'^-r(')-d- "tick, scor-
pion" *p-rr-t "flea, bug" Afr. inka^ "lice" inka^tu "louse" Or. gergo "chicken-
louse" 6. Akk. pirxas- "louse" Gur. qarac, qanac "flea" Ar. bur7u^ "flea" 7.

Tarn, tabrrxot "louse" Tur. kukku, kukkuten "puceron qui s'attaque aux
kwarto adulterer, paramour
2. Ter. xarta Bud. karte "penis" C.Cha. *kwal "penis" 4. RCu. *k'^-tl-l-

"penis" 8. Sng. korte, korta, korto "malefice, mechancete"

kwarwa goose "knob billed goose" cf. Dr. kuyok "goose" Mnd. buru koro "oie

du Soudan (lit. dine du canard)" Shuwa Ar. umm kur "hob-nosed {sic) goose"
kwasa, kwashe take out, take away (esp. food from pot) cf. wace
I. H. washe "strip contents from home" NBM gasa "take away" 2. Gd.
ngaza "bring out of pot" Pad. kasa "prendre, porter" *kis- "hold, seize"
HK kusu "hold, seize" Mfg. kai- "enlever, deaocher" kus- "hold, seize"
Muk. kas "hold" 3a. Lam. kulut "enlever" kulut mbarao "se deshabiller"
(mbarao "vetement") 4. P.Cu.(E) *gus- "take away, take out, take off" 7.

Tam. -k(k)s
Tur., Siw., "dter, enlever"
kwasfa shell, outer skin also kwafsa, k/wanso, kwalfa ? < kw-( ) + f- cf . P.W.
Cha. *^arap-, *k^aHab- "bark" Cha. (E, W, C) kw-r "skin" P.AA (Militarev
6 Stolbova) *q'^-i-f "scales, shell, scab" OS *orip-/*irop-, *olif- "bark"
5. Eg.(Bu) hesb "bark a tree, strip" i. H. ir- "hide, skin" kware "bark,
skin" NBT orope "bark" Dw. kur "skin" put "tree" ko put "bark" 2. FM
kwatipu "bark", Hg., F., -fu "tree" 3. Lei. kolmbo "ecorce

d'arbuste sp." 4. REC *kolf- "bark" P.Cu. *k-r(')-(p)- "bark, skin" 4a. Bnc.
k'omp'ar "bark" ? pu "*tree" (e.g. |am "swamp, bushy highland vegetation"
^ampu "tree sp.") 6. S. Ar. keif- "bark" Gur. qalfi "bark of tree" Akk. qilpu
"skin" 7. Tur. akaraf "emballage"
kwastan customs, customs duties < Eng. cf. Kri. kostoms
kwat coat < Eng.
kwata quarter (of yard, hour) < Eng.
kwata I. quay cf. Np. kpata "harbor"
2. abattoir cf. Yor. pata "butchering" pa "cut"

kwatakwata completely cf. Yor. patapata

kwatangwalo hip joint for -ngwalo see ingwallo
2. Gd. tangala "side" 4. Afr. glonko "side part of waist above hip"

kwatanta compare, describe, copy cf. gwada

kwatashi basket "type of small b." also takwashi cf. kwando, kwas- "collect
and remove"
I. Ngz. takaci "basket or calabash used to lift dirt out of a well" RF kicci
"Korb" 2. Muy. hatoc "basket" Muk. takwasa "basket" 4. Or. giticca "bas-
ket" 6. ES q-rcat "basket"
kwazazzabo gully, ravine cf. Tur. azazzabo "lieu oil on descend" zabbat ''de-

kwTi side of body between thorax and hips tumbi
? < k + Bil cf. clbiya,
1. Pr. ili "chest" Brm. ilimsl "chest" 2. Bur. xyimbil "ribs" Co.
"ribs" FJ, Mwl., Zgv. *-mbil- "*area of ribs" 3. Tum. el "ribs" 3a. Lam.
mbalar) "cote, proftl" 8. Knz. berri "Seite, Rippe, Hufte" 5. Eg.(Bu) ben + t "a
portion of the body"
kwikwiyo puppy cf. kare
3. Bid. kurkido "chiot" 4. P.Cu. *kw-rkw-r- "puppy" 6. P.Sem. *gurw-

kyaftin captain < Eng. cf. Kri. kyapin
kyakkyara cackling of hen also kyarkyara cf. cara, cera "crowing (of cock)"
kyakkyewa "loud laughter"
2. Gd. kakara Log. kelkel "gackem" Mfg. kekerey "rire de joie" 3. Dgl. kerkire
"caqueter (poule)" 6. Ar. qa'qa'a "cackle" 7. Tur. hekiki "rire aux eclats"

kyandir candle also "fluorescent light bulb" < Eng. cf. Kri. kyandul
kyagwa cat ? < k + y-ngwa( ) cf. kule, tunku

9. (Cameroun) Kwakum, Mer)ka, Baba', Lamso' -nyango- "cat" i. Bol. sanwa

"cat, wild cat" H. gwangwaleta "wild cat sp." (Gra. leta "bush") Ngz. ngara

"wild cat" H. tamungul- "genet" 2. FB, FM muggwur- "wild cat" Hwn.

'amr)wara "cat" 'amwaya "wild cat" 4. Awg. anguca P.SC *k'^-n- "civet cat"

4a. Jnj. arjaca 6. Gur. qarijijia "civet cat"

kyar (ideo.) with a rending sound da kyar (also da yar, da kyat) "with diffi-

culty" 2. Gd. ngah "doing s. thing with difficulty" 4. Sid. qarra "difficulty,
trouble, pain"
kyarkeci, kyalkeci wild dog also iriinju cf. kare
I. Gra. karkali "hyena" 2. Dab. kweykwaya "hyene" 3. Dgl. kulko "cynhyene"

kyau, kyawo goodness, beauty kyauta "gift, do a kindness" kyautata "im-

prove" kyautu "be suitable" ? < k + yaw- cf. gyara, kirki, yawa
I. Gwd. kyawu, cawu Tgl. kor) "good, kind, handsome" RD hyaw "gut, schon
sein" 2. Gis kuwi "good" kuko ''schon" 3a. ? Lam kautu "cleanness" 5. Eg.
"something of worth, benefit, be of value" 4. Sid. kayyo "good
(Bu) shau
luck" Or. ho"a "be kind" Bor. kayoma "grazia, fortuna, dono"
kyauro reed, shaft of arrow (Saccharum sp.) also kyamro, kyarmo cf. kara OS
*yara-/*yaraw- "reed"
I.Gwd. keregwa "arrow shaft" 2. Log. gem "Rohr, Halm" 3. Sok. kel "Rohr,
Halm" 7. ? Tur. akeyuwod "roseau" 6. Sem. qalam "reed, stalk, pen" 5.

Eg.(Bu) kenn, ganu, gen "reed"

a how ? cf. haka "thus", "how?" aa
I. Gwd. nka "how (relative)" anga "where?" 2. Laam. ga "oii" Glv. ngwen
"how many" FJ 'agye Maf. ke "comment?" 3. Jg. 'alga "wie?" Dgl. r)a mor-
pheme de subordination polyvalent (temporel, causal) 3a. Ban. ga "how many"
4. Afr. anke "where?" Dhl. meka "how many" 4a. Jnj. aka "how?" 5.

Eg.(Bu) akh "how? why? what? where?"

aba bodily pain P.W.Cha. *q-b- "swell"
abila tribe < Ar. qabila
adangare lizard ? > k + D + -r)gw-l- cf. hawainiya OS *dinkar- "lizard" (six of
the 13 roots for 1. or 1. sp. in Edgar (1991) have GR either initial or final)
8. Tub. kadunkuli Mab. endindiggere 3a. Mas. hodogola i. KK dagkara

Ngm. dakura 4. Bye. (a)dangalai 2. FK (w)njaxala Laam. digir "lezard"dmu

"lizard rose" igir "margouillat" Gd. tangua "chameleon" 3. Mkl. doggolo
"margouillat sp." Bid. erkel "femelle du lizard" Kr. asur)guli "gecko" 6. Gur.
angaraya i. Bol. gare Tgl. kilir) 4. Abo., Afr., Or., Kmb. garr- "lizard sp."
addara predestine < Ar. qaddara
afa foot cf. (w)afa "hoof" see kofato, kwauri
I. Ang. kwep "foot of all hooved animals except horse" 5. Eg.(Bu) kap(u)

"sole of foot" 2. rukuf- "thigh" 3. Kr. kampa "Fw^, Bein" Sok. often
''Fufi, Bein" 7. Tur. teffart "partie de la jambe an dessus de la cheville" 4. Sml.
kub "lower leg" 6. Hars. xef "foot, sole"
afe, yafe dry, grill by firecf. kawa "grill, roast"

I. Gwd. kyepe "roast on skewers" NBB 7apw- "roast" 2. Maf. kaf- "se

dessicher" Mfg. gupc- "griller superficiellement" 4. P.Cu.(D) *g(^)-p- "bonfire,

boil" P.Cu.(E) *guf-, *'oh- "burn" *kah- "dry (intr.)" P.HEC *gaf- "cook by
boiling" Afr. kafe "become dry" Or. kafafa "dry slightly"
aga invent cf. era "fabricate", arya "lie (n.)", age "false accusation"
6. Ar. xalaqa 2. Msg. argux "LUgner, lUgenhaft" 3. Bid., Mgm. kilg- "crier"

4. Afr. uklug-, ankallag- "create" 7. Ber. sk-rk-s "mentir"


ahO; afo horn also "cupping, bloodletting"

4. Sid. qeho "shoulder blade" i. P.W.Cha. *apa 3. Dgl., Bid. gep- Mgm.
gapu Kr. gaw Mkl. 'opiso Lei. keben i. BN fuwa- NB *p-r 3. Dgl.
Tgl. bol
punna ''corne de chasse" 4a. Bnc. pel 5. Eg.(Bu) thupar "horn, trumpet" (F)

^b "horn, tusk" 6. Heb. sofar "horn, trumpet"

ka'ida regulation, rule < Ar. qa4da
aimi spur ? < aya "thorn, fishbone" cf. Ar. sawk "thorn" sawka "spur"
aiayi itching also "chaff from winnowing" cf. kankare
OS *hok- "scratch" i. Gwd. kekegyi 7. Nefusa kadkad "chatouiller" Semlal
galgad "chatouiller" Tur. karkar "etre gratte" 2. Gd. hwahwa "scratch" Mfg.
gaya "demangeaison (sur le corps)" 3. Mkl. 'akkine "se gratter, demanger" Bid.
r)eru-r)eru "chatouillement, frottement, demangeaison" 8. Knz. kilkil "jucken"

3a. Lam. kilek kilek "fagon de chatouiller" gilek "chatouiller" 4. P.EC *hek-
"scratch" P.HEC *hangar- "scratch" Brj. hokok- "scratch oneself" Or.
(h)anqoqa "scratch" Afr. hulahuUe "rash" Bye. hagun "kratzen, jucken" 6
Our. akaka, ankaka "scratch where it itches" Akk. ekeku 9. Ful. way-, gay-
"itch, scabies" 4a. Jnj. ka'ya "scratch, scrape"
aji reedbuck (Redunca sp.)
I. NBW garji + na 2. Log. Log. koase "Wasserbock" 3a. Lam. kes "cohe des
aa, a'a how ? cf. haka, a
I. Tgl. kukwa
gaka NBM 2. Hwn. kukun Zgv. kixa Htk. kcYkey 3a. Mas.,
Mus. gage "how many?" 4. Bye. kak "how, what ?" Abo. kako(h) "how
much ?"

kala word, speech ? < Ar. qala (vb.)

kalau, lau very (good health) cf. kyau
4. Der. elo "well, kind, suitable" P.Cu.(E) *lo "true"
allafa be eager about, accuse falsely ? < Ar. kalifa bi "be addicted to, be in
love with" kallafa "impose (difficult task) upon"
amshi, anshi pleasant smell cf. gum ideophone of strong smell
I. Tgl. kume "smell (vb.)" 4. Sml. unsi "perfuming" (< umi)
amus dictionary < Ar. qamus
ane younger brother < "small" see anane anuwa, anwa "younger sister"

cf. karami
8. Sng. keyne "y. b." Dz., Ted. kinni "small" Dz. gayi "y. b." Kan. gana
"small" Knz. kinna "klein" 9. P.WN (*-ken-) "small"
I. Tgl. kenuk "sister's child, mother's brother" Ang. gyin "small" NBB kiyin

"small" Bog. kay "small" 2. Mwl. kyer) "small" Htk. gene "Junge" Bud. 13 ana,
gana, gana "klein" Laam. kiya "small" 3. Smr. ginay "small" 3a. Pv. ki
"small" 4. Bye. er'ikena "younger, youngest, last born" ('ar "children") Bil.

genay "Kleinheit, Kleinigkeit" 5. Eg.(Bu) khem "small" henu, hunu "boy,

young" Cop. kuin "small, few" 6. Soc. qeyhen "petit"
anane small pi. Ranana ? < ane ananta "smallness, humiliate"
I. Dr. kalkal Ngz. gangam 2. Pdl., Bok. xwankin Bac. kyenkyen FK qgyixun

Glv. gkikwax-, xa'Tkana 9. P.WN *-keke

ar- I. increase, do again, finish arko, aro "durability" arasa, arike
"finish" arshe "end (n.)" OS *ar-, *ayats- "finish" *oti^- "end, finish
(vb.)" Cha. (E, W, C.) -t- "finish" H. kat "completely (finished)"
for g-r- "bigness" see girma
I. KK gatt- "increase" Dr., Tgl. k-re "keep on doing" kwae "finish" 2. Gid.
grak "finish" Log. ga "zu Ende gehen" galega "beenden" 3. Dgl., Mgm. gay-
"augmenter" Dgl. karle "faire augmenter" gas- "finir, achevef Bid. 'ar "grandir,

croitre" guise "se repeter" Bid., Mkl. 'agila "augmenter" 4. Or. giira "do repeat-
edly" Or. gudda "big" guddi'sa "multiply" Bye. gwud "be much, many"
gudis "augment" Sid. gud-, gut + is- "finish" Had. gull- "finish" Afr. ^agite
"be repeated" Brj. kad- "repeat" kadad- "add" kar- "add to" Sml. korcj- "in-
crease" 6. Gz. x-t-m "end, close and seal etc." S.Ar. k-l-s "finish" Hars., Ar.

x-l-s "finish" ES c-rr-s- "finish" Gur. cTraqa "finish" 7. Tur. igat "etre
nomhreux, etre frequent, etre long (temps)"
2. crying out, noise, complaint cf. gaya, kira OS *ar-, *qor- "shout"
I. NBK kay "call" NBT kawu- "call" erun "shouting" Brm. gare "call" 2.

Ter. gara "call" FG xar "call" Bur. kuraku "noise" Pad. gala "louer" 3. Dgl.
kole "crier" Tum. gura "cri" Mkl. ge "cri d'alarme" 4. P.SC *k'^ala'- "shout"
Sml. gar "claim, plaint, suit" 6. Gz. qal "voice, speech, sound, noise" Sem.
q-wl 7. P.Ber. *yi "call"
karami small cf. rame karanta "diminish", aranci "shortage"
8. Kan. karami "younger sibling" 2. Bud. kerami "younger sibling" 3. Dgl.
geram "de petite taille" Mub. ram "klein" Kaj. kirami "small" 9. Mnd.
kuruma "petit de taille"

arau glass bracelet, glass phial Ar. qarura "glass bottle" Msg. karwa "Armring"
karf- strength, metal cf. kera "forge" kwari "strength, hardness" (for "strength/
iron" cf. uziDa/nziDa "iron, strength" Amh. bray "iron" bartat
"strength" Kan. su "iron" su hi "steel" (bi "male"))
I. P.W.Cha. *q^af- "forge" Gwd.(N) kurfi "money" RF kef "Eisen" Bol. guwa

"forging" Plateau Cha. k'^-l-m "forge" 2. Gd. hwaia "iron bar used as mon-
ey" 3. Dgl. garpe "forger" Bid. garap "forger" 3a. Lam. geo "fer" 4. Irk. xelif
"strong" 6. Amh., Gur. gulbat "strength" ? Ar., S.Ar. q-ww- "strong" 8.

Ted. girbi "strong" 5. Eg.(Bu) khepesh "strength, any weapon"

ari sting (n.) cf. aya

arni i. century < Ar. qarn

2. smell (e.g. rancid, burnt) also asni, kauri, kari P.Cu. *q-(y)r- "smell

karya lie, falsehood kirye "slander" ? < kera "fabricate" kira "fabrication"
I. Gwd. yaruwa 3. Dgl. are "mentir, raconter" Lei. gur "decevoir, ne pas tenir
promesse, flatter" 5. Eg.(Bu) qera "a lie" 7. Tur. karras "duper, tromper" Ber.
akarkas "mensonge"
kasa earth, ground, land, down karkashi "underneath" kaskasta "lower, re-
duce status" OS *qats-/*qawats- "sand"
I. Gwd. kasa, kisi 5. Eg.(Bu) khast "district, a kind of land, desert (?),

foreign land (?)" 2. *k9s- "town, country" Bac. gasey "farm" Ngw.
hasu "sand" Bud. kesa "Sand" Log. uxse "unteres, unter" Gd. atsa "under"
4a. P.N. Om. *kats' "sand, earth" 4. Bil. qusa "Sand" Bye. has "Sand, Staub"
Or. kosi "dirt" i. Ang. gyls "sand" Ank. hes "sand" RF hos "Sand" 6. Gz.
xosa, hoda "sand, gravel" Hars. xoter "down, underneath" 3. Dgl., Mgm.,
Bid. ki- "terre" Bid. ti kii "en has"
kasaita be big, important cf. Tam. akkswat "big"
kashi bone ? < k + '-s- P.Cha.(N) *as9 "leg, foot" see sau OS *kats-, *kas-

"bone" ^atsem- "leg" *^acem- "bone"

1. W.Cha. 'i/us- Tgl. wos "bone" 3. E.Cha. '-s- 3a. Lam. 'uso 8. Knz. ossi
"Bein, Fufi" Berta kara "bone, horn of giraffe" 2. C.Cha. g-'-4 9. Ful. (d/

g)'i'al 4. P.SC *^o4- "cheekbone" Bye. miku'al "bone marrow" (AA *m-7y
"water, be wet") P.Cu.(E) *^al- "cheek" 5. Eg.(Bu) qa/es 7. P.Ber. *i7S 6.

P.Sem. *^asm 4. Ag. *r)ac "bone" 4a. Jnj. gaca "cheek"

kat completely (finished) OS *koti^- "end, finish (vb.)"
kaura migrate
2. Mdr. kat "auswandem" 3. Dgl. kamre, karme "se deplacer avec toute la case,

demenager" Bid. kamar "demenager" 4. P.Sam *gur "move house" Abo. gur-
"migrate" P.Boni *kiir "emigrate, change settlement" Dly. kiar "umziehen,
migrieren" 7. Tur. galat "demenager" 5. Eg.(Bu) her "move away from" herti
"caravan march"

aurara roast lightly cf. kawa, Rami 2, one OS *qar-/*qawar- "burn"

I. RB 'angor "verbrannte Reste in einem Topf" Ank. kur "burn" KK karu

"roast" 2. Dab. kwal "sec" Mfg. kakar- "bruler" takwar- "bniler, detruire par

le feu" 3a. Mas., Ban. r)gal- "burn" 4. Or. qorasa "burn to fumigate" P.Cu.
(E) *^or- "burn" 5. Eg.(F) krr "bake (pots)" 6. Gur. magg'ara "burn, kindle"
7. Tur. karurat "se bruler"
kauye village also "edge of anything, neighborhood" awanya "surrounding
a place, metal ring" cf. kewaya
8. Np. kawuye "unwalled" ? < H. i. NBW awayo "bush" NBK kuwaya

"bush" 2. Brm. wiye "bush" Njn. wiye "bush" wuye "farm" Mwl. wiyo
"farm" 3. ? Bid. 'ore "brousse" 3a. Ban. ggora "bush" 4. P.Cu. *k'^-l- "tribe,
clan" Afr. gawra "fields, cultivated land" Brn., Alg. kwera "bush, un-
cultivated land" Or. qoro "territory (owned by landlord), quarter" 6. Sem.
g-wr "be in vicinity"
kawa see kawa
kawa friend (female, of woman) cf. kawa, kanwa "desire, love (n.)" kauna
"love (vb.)"
I. Gwd.(N) ho "like (vb.) Gib. r)gu + na (n.) NBP hwo, ho "love, want" NBK,
NBM gyam- "friend" BN *m-nga "friend" 2. Gd. nga'a "want, desire, like"

guva "friend" gima "friend (H. kawa)" Dab. ngama "friend" Maf. gwaa
"amie d'une femme" Bac. huma "want" Log. (u)g9m, gem "wollen, lieben" Mg.
gu "want" Mad. qgov "like" Pad. r)gwa "aimer, vouloir" 3. Lei. qgwa "aimer,
vouloir" kuma "desirer" Dgl. gi- "compagnon de" ga- "compagne de" Bid. ga (f.)
ge (m.) "camarade" Tum., Mkl. gey- "aimer, vouloir, desirer" Mgm. 'anko "de-

sirer, vouloir" 4. P.Cu.(D) *k-(7)-n, *ky-Ml- "love, want" P.EC *ge^l- "love"
7. Tur. aggam "admirer, agreer" 6. Hars., Mhr. k-w-r "love" Sem. *ax'^- "bro-

ther" 4a. Bnc. koy "want, look for"

kaya thorn also "fishbone" cf. hakori "*canine tooth" kaimi "spur" kari
"sting" karaya "fish with sharp fins {Schilbe mystusY' OS *kar- "horn" *qar-
"fish sp."
I. Gwd. akagya Tgl. kerek "sharp" Ank. nken Sur. gir BT *(h)ar- NB *aBa +
kiya (aB- "thing") DZ, Brm., Bui. 'ir- Ron *gir- (Bol. har + i) 2. FK kiki
Dab. gidigid 4. P.Cu. *q-r(r)- "sharp point, tip" REC *k-dh- "thorn" Gaw.
qant 8. Kan. karere "thorn" Tub. kula "fishbone" Dz. elle, erre "thorn" Sng.
kardyi "epine" Knz. kaddi "Dom" 3a, Lam. qa'i "epine, aiguille" 3. Mub. 'inye
"Dorn" Sok. oyum "Dorn" Bid. 'awal "aiguiser" 9. P.WN *-ghwyu (*-ghwuni)

5- Eg.(Bu) qah "tip (of a horn)" 6. Amh. qarrasa "sharpen (pencil)" Heb.
qots Gz. g'^at "point, pointed"
ayyade fix, lay down ? < a'ida q.v.

azami dirty, vile < Ar. qazamiy "of mean appearance, vile" azanta "dirti-
ness, filth"
azwa, aswa scabies cf. aiayi OS *-jor- "dirt, be dirty"
I. Ngz. kasatuwa "scabies" RS ngos "kratzen" RB sinzwe(h) "jucken" Ang.
kwas "H. aswa" 2. Gd. gadza "scabies" 4. P.Cu. *q-ts- "itch" Dly. qos-,
xos- "kratzen" 3a. Lam. haswa'a 3. Mkl. gozono "gale" 5. Eg.(Bu) skhen
"skin disease" 8. Sng. kasuma ''gale" 2. Dab. gorboy "gale" 6. Ar., S.Ar. garb
"mange" 4. Afr. ^agrite "have scabies" Or. hoqsis- "itch (vb., trans.)"

kera, klra forge, fabricate makera "forge (n.), anvil" makeri "blacksmith" cf.

kaga, karf-, karya OS *kura'^- "strike"

I. Plateau Cha. kw-1- "forge, falsehood" NBS, NBD kwai- "forge" Gj. gilla

"iron" BoL, Dr. gu'- "forge" Bed. kaki "smithing" 2. HK gula, gila "forge"
Bac. kala "blacksmith" FJ kura "forge" FB 'ilan "smithing" Maf. gala "forge"
ngwala "forgeron-fossoyeur" 4. RHEC *kal- "produce (by non-humans)" 4a.

Jnj. ke'ra "build a house" 9. Mnd. kula, kola "forger, enclume" 8. Kan., Dz.
(k)agel "enclume etc." Knz. gir, kir "machen" 3a. Zim. ge "creer" gew "fer,

toute sorte de metal" Lam. gada "travail de la forge" re "fabriquer" 5. Eg.(Bu)

ari "create" qema "create, work in metal" 6. Gur. qurqura "blacksmith"
Amh. q'^araq'^ara "work with metal" Sem. k-wr "blacksmith's furnace" 4.
kareramo "smith" Ma' kirane "forge" mkirane "blacksmith"

keta cruelty, malice cf. kece, keta cf. Sng. korte "mechancete" Mnd. gyara
"toute chose amere ou mauvaise, mechancete" Bam. korot- "mettre sur une mau-
vaise voie, poison magique" 4. ? RSC *kad- "arrow poison" 6. ? Gz. qedar
ketare cross over cf. kadarko, kece
5. Eg.(Bu) khet "ford, passage" 6. Ar, qata*^ "cut, cross" Amh., Gur.
*K(w)r-T- "cut, cross" Mhr. keta^ "cut" Jib. ktt "cut, go along an edge" 7.

Tur. 7ts "couper" 4. P.Cu. *k-(n)t- "cut" Sml. weidaro "cross, pass by" Bil.

kisir "hinuhersteigen" 2. Glv. 7ud, 'u7udara "cut" Nkt. -7-D- "cut, tear" 3a.

Mas. r)ata "cut" 3. Mgm. kassiyo "traverser un obstacle"

keya, kyeya occiput cf. kai "head" wuya "neck"

I. Gwd. kyiya "head" Grn. kaya "occiput" 8. Knz. eyye "Hals" 4. P.Cu.
*k-'l-, *'y-L(L)-w- "skull, occiput" Sid. qo'le "name, occiput" Or. qole "nape

of neck" i. NB *kyar "back" 6. Gur. g'ir "hollow in the nape of the neck"
9. RWN *-7iu "head"
i, iya refuse, reject, dislike maiyi "enemy" iyayya "hatred, enmity"
iyama "aversion, loathing" hana cf.

1. NBW tay- "prevent" NBJ ina "prevent" Tgl. kweele "refuse, oppose,
disagree" 2. Mdr. gyena "refuse" Bur., Mg. rjgal- "hate, refuse" Bud. gen
"verweigem, zuriickhalten" 3. Tum. gar) "refuser" Bid., Dgl. ye "haif' Dgl.
mekrinye "refuser completement de travaillef 3a. Lam. yin "empecher" 7.
P.Ber. *ugi "refuse" 4. Sid. qirri "oppose" qah- "refuse, enemy" P.Cu.
*7'^-l(l)- "be at enmity with" Bye. girim "be inimical" Afr. giddi, gagihto

"contrariness, contradiction" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) ken "be angry" kenau "hatred"

4a. Jnj. gi'u "be angry" 6. Gur. q'anna "grudge, ill-feeling, spite" Sem. q-n'-
" jealousy, anger"
iba fatness see kauri, taia
Gd. kupa "animal fat" 4. Bay. kabi "fat" Yaaku ke'pey "become fat" Sid.

ke'ma "be very fat"

idaya count, reckon also ididdige, irga ? < K-( ) + -y- cf aya, iga, kaai .

3. Dgl. kety, key "un (employe uniquement en debut de numeration)" i. Tgl.

made "count, enumerate" NBD, NBP uw- "count" RF kwat "zahlen,
bezahlen" 2. Pad. tagwa "compter" 4. Sid. kira, kl'da Abo. kod- "drip" PEC
*dik- "count" Bye. digwi "count, reckon" 7. Tur. uddan, iddan "etre compte"
sidan "compter" 6. ES q'^-t-r-, q'^-s-r- "count" Ar. ^adda "count, reckon"
ififiya turtle also fifiya
I. NB *fyanfyan
lirii crowing of cock
1. Ngz. kwakuriyakwak 2. Mfg. kwakulak "cocorico"
il very small, very few see ure llu "firefly" cf. Ang. kiliwus "firefly" (wus

ila perhaps ? < Ar. qila "it is said"

ira cut off, sever irare "(cut) sticks, twigs" P.W.Cha. *ar- "divide" *q-r-

"cut" cf. karya, etare OS *ara^- "cut"

2. HB r)gulo "break" FM r)gii "break" Njn. (m)giladi "cut, break" Gdu. ngiita
"break" Zgv. xaraya "cut" Hwn. kyaiur) "chop" 3a. Lam. r)gar "dechirer" 4.

P.Cu. *k-l- "slaughter" P.SC *ker- "cut (meat)" Sid. qiri "cut to pieces" Bil.

qara^, qarac "schneiden, ahschneiden" 4a. Jnj. ka'ra "cut" 6. Gz. galaya "cut
off, break off, separate" Amh. gallala "cut" 3. Dgl., Bid. 'ere "dechirer" 7.

Tur. alay "couper avec quelque chose de tranchant"


iri hide rope irgi "untanned ox-hide" Cha.(E, W, C) K'^-r-"skin" cf. kilabo
OS *ur-, *gar- "skin"
1. Gwd. kyiri "ox-hide, rope made of leather" KK 'irgi "skin" 2. Bud. cirgu,
curgu, curgo "Haut, Vorhaut" 4. P.Cu. *k-r(')- "skin" RCu.(E) *xa4- "skin gar-
ment" Afr. ^arum "strap, thong" Irk. qaway "strip of hide" Ma' kikekelo
"small piece or strip of hide" Sml. yel "strap" 7. Tur. akker "peau non
tannee" Ber. (g)l-m "skin" 5. Eg.(Bu) khara "thong, strap" khar "skin, hide"
khau(+)t "skins, hides" 8. Zar. kiiru "peau" 3a. Lam. kar) "laniere" 6. Amh.,
Hrr. qalad "strip of leather" Ar. gild "skin, hide, leather"

iriiri Cynodon sp. "Dub grass" cf. tsambiya Sid. qirqirt- "long grass sp."

irin very black, very dark cf. bai, tilim OS *kalem-/*kulem- "charcoal"
4. P.Cu. *k-r(r)- "dark, night, black" 8. Kan. kalum "noir de la nuit" Dz. kula
"noir brillant" Zaghawa gilli "night" Bgr. ili, kil(i) "black" (also suffixed to
two horse colors) Knz. urumma "schwarz" 9. Gby. gir-gir (ideo.) "tres noire,

obscurite totale" i. Dr. taksram "dark" KK galo "green, blue" Tgl. kalme
"blue, dark" 3. Sokoro kilmio "schwarz" Dgl. kelmo "ombre, dme" Bid.coeur,

kilmo "charbon" 2. *k'^ui- "darkness" Hg., F. 3a. Lam.

nKuri "black"
r)gui "tres noir" 4a. Jnj. kara "black" 5. Eg.(Bu) qerhu, kenem, kehna "dark-
ness, night" 7. Tur. ungal "avoir des paupieres noires" sangal "noircir les pan-
pieres" ikwal "etre noir" 6. ES *t-q'^-r- "be black" Akk. guxlu "antimony"
irji chest pi. iraza ? < K-r + -z- cf. majina "phlegm" P.Cha. *'ai- "cough,
lung, chest" P.Cu. *7-l(l) "stomach, heart" ? P.Ber. ul "heart" P.Sem. *'ir (+)
t "petto"
2. kar + aiu "chest" (kir "head") FB 7ura} xaiu "chest"
1. Gwd. giriji RB, RD (a)jin "Brust, Brustkorb" Tgl. kuld- "womb, cough" Cp.
zur) Ank. pizur) (pi "mouth") DZ, Gj. ng(y)ei- "chest" NBJ mulu "chest" NB
*m-s- "chest" 3. Mkl., Bid., Mgm. *g-rg-(r) "poitrine" Mkl. 'eze "tousser" 4.

Sid. koccima "stomach man)" Dly. ero "Brust" 6. Gz. kari "stomach,
abdomen" Heb. karets "belly, paunch" Akk. karsu "stomach (?)"
ishi, ishirwa thirst, craving (? rwa redundantly < ruwa "water") yashi "cov-
eting" RCha.(N) kazam "thirst" (*am "water") RW.Cha. *qudzi
2. Log. 70zam "Hunger" 4. P.Cu. *(g)-('-)tl- "be hungry" Sml. gajo "hunger"

Ma' kasu "thirst" Sid. hude "hunger" 6. Gur. gaja, gacca "hunger, famine"
Ar. gasi^ "thirst for" 7. Tur. e7si "mourir de faim" 4a. Jnj. ikto "be thirsty"
kito "die"
issa story, anecdote < Ar. qissa "narration, story"
iyasi considered estimate, analogy < Ar. qiyas

iyasta consider carefully, estimate < iyasi

oda kidney ? < w-1 + d- cf. wallo "ball" wara "grain, nut" NB, BN, C.
Cha., Ban. K^-r/ls OS *kul- "kidney"
I. Bol. wolu, 'odo'odo Dr. 'ond- Bui. waldi ? RB ggwaral 2. Pdl. wadawada
Mat. kwadu a a "back") Laam. gguduf
(? dme" 3. Dgl. godiya "rein,

estomac de mouton" 4. P.Cu. *(m)-k'^-l(l)- P.SC *(n)kw-l- Bye. ankwel'a,

tunkwila 6. P.Sem. *kulyat 5. Eg.(Bu) qet "circle, go round" (Cerny) grt
"kidney" 9. P.WN *-kwol- "heart" Ful. gedu ernde "coeur organe assimile a
un noyau" (er- "heart, stomach") 7. ? Ber. -G-z(z)-l-

ofa doorway also ofa, ohwa cf. kafa "small hole"

OS *ko'af- "door, gate" i. Gwd. kopa RB fukwap (fo "mouth") NBP, NBS

Hw-w- "doorway" NBD agwabu "doorway" 2. Bac. kwa- "mouth, doorway"

3. Kr. ku "mouth" 6. S.Ar. x/h-h "mouth, entrance" Gz. xoxat Ar. xawxa

Jib. xoh "mouth" 4. P.Rft. ka'afu "gateway" Sid. kurfo "hole in the ground"
(P.Cu. *ap- "mouth") REG kaw- "hole" Brj. hombo "entrance of house" 5.
Eg.(Bu) khebai "cave, hole etc."
oo, ouwa small calabash cf. gwangwani, urzunu, warya
OS *ko+ko- "vessel" i. H. owan kai "skull" Zks. kwolkin "calabash" 2., FG, Mat. *kw-kwa "calabash" Maf. kwokway 3. Mgm. kukuwa

"courge" Kr. gurgum "gourde" 4. Sid. kokki- "skull, vessel" qonco "pumpkin,
gourd, skull" 6. Gz. kokam "gourd, potsherd, scoop etc." Ar. qumqum
"long-necked bottle" Amh. qorqorro "tin can" 4. Afr. korkoro "tin can"
8. Kan. (Benton) kogar "tin" 7. Tur. takarkort "crane"
ouwa top, summit cf. koli
I. Bol. ? kokiyok "tuft of hair" Ngz. guguyak "rock, mountain" RK gugwat
"Felsenhugel, Berg (pi.)" Krf. gikkini "mountain" 2. Bok. xanngwiya "stone"
FG xakwu "mountain, stone" Gd. gyigwa "mountain" 3. Jg. kokode "kleiner
Steinhiigel, Pels" 3a. Lam. guguei' "pierre, montagne" 4. Sid. konka "point"

Bil. kirkirta "Schddel, Scheitel" 7. Tam. akrkr, acrcr "pile of stones"

oli top, summit also ololuwa cf. kai "head", ouwa, wawalwa OS *ol-
I. H. walluwa "cranium, "mountain" RK got "Felsenhugel,
skull" Pr. kulle
Berg" 2. Gab. r)gwele "mountain" Mg. gwu "mountain" 7W-
"mountain" Glv. 'akwura, gila "stone" Zgv., Gv., Nkt. kur- "stone" Gv. gila
"stone" 3a. guei', go'i "pierre, montagne" 3. Mkl. mokkolo, mokkulsu "pierre,
montagne, colline, rocher" 4. Sid. qal- "top, roof" P.Cu. *k'^-r- "climb, top,
hill" Had. qorita "summit" Or. ko(o)ra "go up, climb, mount" 6. Gur. qurit

"summit, top" Amh. rasa q'^arr "helmet" (ras "head") Gz. q'^ar'^ "helmet"
Akk. xurs- "rock, mountain" 5. Eg.(Bu) har "head" her "upper part, sky,
ascend, upon"
Rone burn, dry up kiina "burning heat" cf. kawa/awa "grill, roast" kunna
I. Bui. konu "burn" 2., FM, FB xun- "burn" 3. Dgl. onne "faire de
la fumee, se secher a la fumee" Lei. kuny "cuire sans eau" 4. Ag. ank'^int- "be
hot" Bye. kwimi "bake (meat)" 5. Eg.(Bu) qenu "heat, fire, burn"
korama river "big stream flowing through fertile plain" ? < K'^-r + ma cf. AA
*ma/*am "water" H. kwari, kware "valley" Kwara "River Niger"
I. Ang. kuram "lake" RK haram "river" BN anku (? < am + kur) "river" 2.

FB 7aran "lake" 4. Or. galana "sea, big river" haro "lake, pool" Bye. magwal
"water hole" Afr. geru "origin of a river" 6. Gur., Gz. qor(i)ro(n) "river" 7.

Tur. egaraw "fleuve" agarew "vaste etendue d'eau" agalmam "reservoir d'eau

kos-, OS- suffice, be satisfied, ripen ? < -wl- + s-

3. Kr.dose "rempUr" Sok. osn- "genug werden" Mkl. 'olle "murir" 'onne
"suffisant" 'one "remplir" 3a. Lam. kus "plein" 4. Or. qasso "ripe" Brj. hu'-,
hum- "be full" bus- "fill" RSC *xul- "be sated, be satiated" Sml., Afr., Or.
**^uls- "be heavy" i. Ngz. gawayak "sated with food, well fed" Ang. gil "be
satisfied" Dr. koi "ripen" 2. Log. 'uia, 'oia "fiillen, sich fullen" Bud. koho
"satt werden" Cb. 7uya "fill" Pdl. hyerra "fill" 6. RSem. *kaii' "full of food"
Akk. kasu "crescere molto" 7. ? Tur. esia "etre rempli d'eau" maswad "etre soul"

5. ? Eg.(Bu) sa "be full, satisfied" sesa(a) "repletion, sufficiency" s + sa "fill

with food"
kota handle (of tool) ? < kwat- see kwace
koto pecking cf. kwankwasa
I. Gwd. kpoto 3. Dgl. kokidye "grignoter" 4. RCu.(E) *xwat- "rub, scrape
(with hands, paws etc.)" Bil. qwatqwat "picken, hauen (vogel mit dem
kuble, kuble tie knot cf. kulla
I. H. kuba "door lock" Tgl. koble "lock (vb.)" NBP kurmbai- "knot (vb.)"

3. Mfg. kalw- "nouer, attacher (pattes d'un animal)" 4. R.Cu.(E) *gib-/*gub-

"close" 4a. Jnj. kulfu "close (vb.), stick for closing door" kulfto "locked, be
closed" 8. Sng. kufal "serrure, mettre sous clef" 6. Ar. qufl "lock (n.)" Sem.
q-f-1, q-l-f 7. Tur. elkubbet "serrure"

uda, uje fly (n.) cf. waro "insect" OS *diway- "fly" *ji'-/*juw- "insect sp."
6. Ar. qaduh "fly" i. Gwd. gkunda Ngz, juwa + k 3. Bid. 'uduwo Lel. kelje
"grosse mouche, taon" 2. *kw-njafu "mosquito" ( fu "tree")
Hwn. kikaa- "mosquito" Gd. kukua "sandfly" kadzar)a "mosquito" Mdr.
gp. gu(n)ja "mosquito" 8. Knz. kulti 4. RCu. (D,E) *(H)int- "louse" P.SC
*hinto/*hinto "fly" *t(y)u "mosquito" Kns. xaja Das. klSin 4a. Jnj. kura
Om. wuts- I. RB kungwish ? < ku + ngwish 6. Gur. qisa "kind of fly" 5.

? Eg.(Bu) hat, hura "fly (vb.)" 7. P.Ber. *izi

udura tie knot, decide cf. hada, kaddara

6. ES q(w)atara "tie up, knot" i. Sey. ndur "arrange" Tgl. kwadle, kwalle
"tie up, knot" 2. Gdu. hadaran "arrange" H-rt- "close" 3. Mgm.
aro "ligoter" 4. P.HEC *gurda 7. Tur. akrad "Her, ligoter" edrer "se coller"
5. Eg.(Bu) heter "join together, unite etc."
kugi roar, bellow, rumbling also gunji cf. kiaka, kuwwa
I. Dr. kui < *kuhi "cry" 2. Maf. gwoguv- "grander d'une voix grave" 8. Kan.

kogo "sound, voice, noise" 3. Bid. kogom "crier (singe), grommeler" 4. Or.
koqa "sound of a leopard" 6. Gur. g'^agg'^ara, g'^arra "roar, bellow, low"
Sem. g-^-r 7. Tur. angaw "rugir, meugler (lion, taureau)"
kugiya hook
I. Gwd. kurigyiya 3a. Lam. klleke 4. Or. hokko Sid. honkolo Bye. 'agwir
Sml. hangol
ugu lower back "sacro-lumbar region" cf. goya, kungurmi
1. Kof. guk "upper back" Ang. kaguk "back, especially lower back" NBS
r)g9r)gi "back" 2. Bud. kagu "Hinterteil" Mad. malakugum "back" 3. Dgl.

gogo "partie superieure du dos" ]g. kok (pi. 'oge) "RUcken" 4. P.Sam. *girgir
"back" 8. Kan. kawu "area above small of back" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) haa "behind"
uliuli groundnut balls cf. kwallo "ball" kulu
2. Pad. will wile "tourteau d'arachide"
kull- tie knot, join together cf. igiya, kuble OS *x-l- "close, lock"
1. H. kuUe "lock up" Gwd. kirisa "knot (n.)" Ang. kiil "knot, tie a knot" Tgl.
keri "tie, imprison" Bol. r)gor "tie (up)" Gib., Krf. r)gar- "tie" Kof. kugul "tie"
2. Gd. gwala "tie onto" gurata "tie tightly" takuia "tie a knot" Dab. kir "tie"
3. Dgl. kerse "faire un noeud" 4. P.Cu. *k^-tl-r- "tie, etc." Afr. kir^e "bind, tie
tightly" Or. koronji- "tie firmly" P.SC *^or "bind, tie" 3a. Lam. 'uium
"nouer, faire un noeud" 7. Tur. aglay "faire un noeud a" 6. Ar. ^aqal "bind
(legs of camel)" Gz. ^aq'^ara "bind up, knot etc." 4. Bye. hakwir "zubinden,

schliefien" 3. ? Lei. tegre "attacher avec plusieurs noeucis" (? < t + g-r) 5. Eg.
(Bu) kara + t, her + t, hat "prison, place of restraint"
ulu beans cf. goro, gujiya "Voandzeia"; wallo "ball"; ulliatu, ululu "swel-
ling" ulu-ulu "large and round"
9. Dyl. kuru "Voandzeia" 8. Kan. ggalo "beans" ggaloggalo "swollen glands"
kolji "groundnut" (cidi "ground") Knz. ugud "Bohnen" N.Sem. *pul-

"fava" 5. Eg.(Bu) pur, pura "beans" aurit "beans, Syrian beans" i. RF kerem

"Bohnen" Dr. worom "beans" NET waran 2. Pdl. worom- Bac. warey Gdu.
kere "groundnuts" *g'ire/*r)gire 3. Lei. tongu "haricot" guna

"arachide" Mgm. buggul "pois de terre" Kr. Bid., Mkl. -k-r- "Bohnen, pois de
terre sp."

kuliilu big gourd water pot OS *qul- "vessel"

uma flea also "fowl-lice, sandflies" Cha. (E, C) '(k)-m "eat (hard things), bite"
OS *omal- "insect sp."
8. Sng. ngumba "tiques des chiens, poux des poules" 6. Amh., Gz. q(w)-m-l
"louse" 7. Tur. agarmal "tique" 1. Gwd. (Gitata) gkuma Ang. ngum "insect
sp." Sur. r)gum "eine fliegende Kdferart" NBD agurm- (Tgl. wode "flea, louse,

bite") 3. Dgl. ume "mordre" Bid. 'om "mordre" Smr. wome "essen" 3a. Lam.
gua'a "insecte sp.; provoque des demangeaisons" 4. P.HEC *gam'- "bite" Bye.

g'am "tick" hem *nko "flea" *keh- "bite, sting" 4a. Dizoid
"tick sp." P.SC
umE "eat" 7. Tur. kukku "puceron" Tam. axxu "insect" 5. Eg.(Bu) khun(n)
"bite, sting (of scorpion)" unkh "bite, gnaw"
umba, ambor- fingernail, claw also "mussel shell" cf. akaifa P.W. Cha.
*uban "nail" Cha. (E, W, C) *kw-r "skin, shell"
I. NBD agalambau NB -wi, kw-r)gwi Tgl. "skin + edge + hand, arm" Dr.

kwalir) Gib. ngirba Ngz. gurbak "finger, fingernail" 3a. Lam. qgiie a
"ongle" {"griffe + main") 4. P.EC *kuba "finger, toe"
unci, kumji narrowness, smallness untata (vb.) cf. guntu, ure
I. Gwd.(N) kintin "short" Tgl. kwandal "shortness" 3. Kr. koce, konce

"petit" Bid. gete' "petit" 3a. Lam. kwetete "etroit" 4. P.Cu. *k'^-tty- "small,

thin" P.Cu.(E) *k^'- "thin" P.HEC *kat- "thin" Sid. quta "short, dwarf 6.
Gur. qumtal "short" Sem q-t-n "be small, thin" 8. Knz. urtunna "kurz,
klein" 7. ? Tur. ikraz "etre etroit, court"
ungiya group of people, collection, quantity also umjiya, umniya cf.

4. Or. qomo "people, relatives, kind, sort" 6. S.Ar. qawm, gom "raiding

party" 5. Eg.(Bu) qeb(u) "company, group, multitude, companies of sol-

diers" (F) km3w "class of soldiers"
ungurmi cranium cf. ouwa
2.Gd. kunguranyina "skull" 7. Tur. takarkort "crane" 5. Eg.(Bu) qemhu,
gemh + t "crown of head" 6. P.Sem. *gulgul + at "cranio" Soc. gemgemoh
kunsa wrap, envelope cf. kushewa, uU-
1. Gwd. kumusa Ngz. kaisu "wrap (turban), tie"
5. Cop. kaise "prepare for

burial" Lam. ku'u "envelopper, emballer"


kura urine also "water not mixed with anything"

2. Mfg.,, Bud. *kuray 5. Eg.(Bu) khaa "make water, diuretic, aper-

ient, ekbolic" (F) hs^ "urination" 6. ? Heb. sexur Jib. kerof "animal urine"
kura, ura dust cf. habra
I. Ang. orr) RF 'oror) NBT kure (? < H.) Ngm. 'ura 2. Pdl. kolo Ngw. kilaw FK

k'alo "ashes" Gdu. ggura- "ashes" 3. Lei. kubra "farine" 4. P.SC *^ora
"ashes" P.Rft. *gubar- "flour" Or., Der. awara "dust" Afr. ^ana, ^ona "dust
storm, sand storm" 6. Amh. awwara Ar. ^afr Heb. ^apar, 'ep^r Hars. 7ebar
7. ? Tur. godrar "poussiere"
kure be small, be narrow cf. karami, kunci, kuru OS *kal-/*kil- "be small"
I. H. kil, kiris (ideo.) "very small, very few" Gwd. cukuri "small" ? < cu +
kuri NB *r)g8r "near" DZ xyeli "small" 2. Gd. kurinya "youngest child" Bur.
nkyar "small" Gdu. kul "short" Mfg. degwele('e) "court, petit, nain" (da "de
(provenance)") Mad. akla "little" Msg. guile, gulai "kurz, klein" Log. galiya,
galea "kurz" 3. Mkl. goror) "pres, proche" ? Dgl. togoroty, sokoroty "etroit
(pour un lieu)" 3a. Mas., Ban goro "small" 9. Mnd. kuru "petite taille etc."

Yor. kuru "short" 8. Ted., Dz. koro, korei "court" Kan. kori "short (man)"
4. P.Cu. *k-ll- "be small" 5. Eg.(F) h3 "be little, young" h3 "near" (Bu) qaa
"by, near" 4a. Jnj. garo "small in number" 6. Sem. q-11- "be light, small"
7. ? Tur. ighal "etre de petite taille" (Cortade)
kuri'a casting lots, balloting < Ar. qur^a cf. Sng. kurra "tirer au sort" Tur.
kelyu "jeter un sort" Tam. ixrrya "sortilege"

kurji pimple, boil pi. kuraje

6. Ar. xuraj "pimples, boils, abscess" i. Gwd. kuriji "eruption, boil" Ngz.
gabarzai "boil" SB 'is-, 'us- "boil, pimple" Ank. sil "ulcer" 2. Mfg. gurier)
"plaie etendue, plaie ouverte" (Rossing) gurier) "ulcer" Mad. gurdzoh "ulcer"
Muk. gorodzo "ulcer" F., Hg. zi "pimple, ulcer" 4. Brj. aysi "abscess boil
(sic)" Bye. asul "Wunde, GeschwUr" 6. Gz. Amh. q'^-sl "wound, sore, abscess.

pain" 5. Eg.(Bu) khest "boil, ulcer etc." kherit "wounds, gashes" gent "slit,

uru pony also "breed of small horse, short person or donkey" cf. aguru, ure
Kan., Bgr, koro "donkey" P.Cu.(D) *d-( )k'^-r "donkey"
kuruciya youthfulness cf. kure cf. Bud. kurucei "weich, feucht, lose" Log.
kaluxsi "Weiche, Taille"
kusa nail (metal) also tsuga
4a. Dim., Ari, Ham. gus- "fingernail, toenail" 6. ? Ar. qaws "bow, carding
kwace take by force cf. kwasa OS *qot- "take by force" P.W.Cha. *qaf-"seize,
hold tightly"
4. P.Sam *q'ab + (}a "catch, seize, hold" Or. kaba (+ da) "seize, catch, have"
Brj. kaf- "have" Sid. qoca, qonca "catch, seize" i. Tgl. kote "hold" Pic.

guptu "seize" 2. FB rjgaft "seize" Cb. guzi "hold" guti "seize" Gd. kuci "pull
out (handful of hair or grass)" gutss "seize and pull away forcefully" Mfg.
karz-, garz- "attraper, saisir" Klb. agiiziy- "hold" Bur. kata "take" katsa "take
a little" Gv. xutan- "hold" 3. Mub. huwuta 'fangen" 7. Tur. kabattet ''pren-
dre a pleine main" 5. Eg.(Bu) kep, gap, kefa "seize" kef + t "seizure" 6. Sem.
q-t-f "pluck"
kwafa fill up gaps cf. gwaa "insert"
kwai egg cf. golo, gwaiwa, gwaiduwa, kwallo, kwaya ? P.Cha. *Kw-L- OS
*kol-, *kay- "egg" *qol- "testicles"
I. H. kwalatai "testicles" waiwaya "scrotal infection" Gwd. kwoyi (N)
kwar) NBD akin Ngz. agwai Bed. gwiyan Sey., Bol. w-1- "egg, testicles" 4. P.

Cu.(E) *k^anh- "egg" (D) *k'^-l(l)- "testicles" Bye. kuhi, kwahi 4a. Jnj. kewa
"egg" 9. Gby. kui "oeuf" P.WN *-gila "egg" 8. Dz. kwili "oeuf" Kan. ngawul
"egg" 6. Soc. qehelihen ''oeuf' kere^el "testicule" Gur. anqula, anqura "egg"
anqulu "testicles" 2. Njn. kuro'i Mwl. ug'ulo' Gab., Gan. (n)ge'ila 3. Tum.
nga, r)a "oeuf" 3a. Lam. gel, gye'e "testicule" Msm. gwel "testicle" 7. Shi.
taglayt 5. Eg.(Bu) kherui "testicles" (kheri "scrotum")
kwakwalwa brain "brain substance, part of skull containing brain" also kwalwa
cf. kwanya, koli
I. H. kwalluwa "cranium, skull" Gwd. kugkuwa Gj. kulaga (ga "head") Tgl.

wulewule 2. Pdl. hwanhwana Bok. xur + "head" Hwn. xuxunana Mdr.

makxyekye 7. Tur. akalkal "cervelle" takarkort "crane" 4. Sid. angole "brain"
P.Cu.(D) *k-'l- "cranium, head, self" 3. Lei. gelngese- "cervelle" 5. Eg.(Bu)
herit "skull, top of head" 3a. ? Lam. wa "head"

wallo ball, stone of any fruit also "ball game" cf. gululu, kewaya, wai,
wara, waya OS *kor- "(be) round"
8. Knz. guUu ''Kern der Dumnuft" i. Ang. gwar "round, spiral, patterns" 2.

Log. r)golo "rund" Mfg. r)galr)gal- "mettre en boule" Gd. takurak "round" 3.

Mkl. kirra "tourner la boule" Dgl. kiwil kiwil, kikawal "en rond" 4. Sid. qoUe
Or. kolle "field hockey" P.Cu.(E) *xir- "be round" P.SC *k^aia "beads" 4a.

Jnj. kar "be round" 9. P.WN *kul- "to roll" Mnd. kolo, kulu etc. "boule" 3a.
Lam. ? hula "balle (des grains)" 6. Ar. ku(r)ra "ball" Tge. korit "ball" Akk.
gullat- "ball, etc." 5. Eg.(Bu) ququ "kind of fruit, palm nuts (?)" qur + t "a
fruit" kar kar "anything round" 8. Knz. gurgur "aufein Knduel wickeln, rund"
Kan. korkor "circle" kari "bracelet" 7. Tur. takarikara "balle (pour jouer)"
kwama beans cf. kulu
I. Sur., Cp. kom "groundnuts" Ang. girm "groundnuts"
kwangwara shield "white, oblong shield" cf. gark-
I. Ang. kan + girp "shield made of skin" ("buffalo" + "covering, protection")

wanwasa knock on, tap on cf. koto OS *kos- "strike"

I. Ngz. kwankori "rapping child's head with knuckles" 4. Or. qosaqqosa

"rap repeatedly, knock" Sid. qunke "knuckles" 6. ES (9n)q-sq-s- "rouse, stir,

shake" Gz. q^asq^asa "stir (fire)" 3. Mgm. kokko "frapper a la porte"
wanso shell, pod, boll see kwasfa
4. Sml. gu^unso "ball, any round body"
wanso locusts cf. waro "insect"
I. KK kwancar DZ kuza 3. Mkl. wesso, wessu "sauterelle sp., criquet" 4. Kmb
koncafara Sid. kancafare (cf. H. fara "grasshopper, locust" AA *p-r- "jump,

kwara kernel, grain, nut (esp. "shea-nut") (= kwaya q.v.) cf. goro, gululu, iri,

I. Tgl. koorok "grains" kwalak "shea tree and fruit" NBM akur "shea nut"
NBS (7)wuryi "seed" Krf. kira "seed" SB ngul-(f) "seed" 2. *kw-l
"seed" Gd. hula "shea-nut" Log. 7wala "Korn (im Allgemeinen)" Laam., ? Pad.
h^-1- "grain pour semer" 3. Dgl. era "noyau du fruit du palmier-doum" Bid.
wero "noyau de jonc" Turn, guu "noyau" Mkl. 'ulo "grain, enfant" 4. Brj. karo
"children" Or. qaro "pupil of eye" Sml. il guruh "eyeball" 6. Hars. gele^
"date-stone" hegelot "eyeball" Mhr. galat "date stone" galhot "eyeball" 7.

Siw.agram "noyau de datte" 5. Eg.(Bu) khann + t "core, kernel"

kware be expert, good kwarai "very (good)" cf. kokari "striving hard"
5. Eg.(Bu) aqer "be excellent, perfect" 4. Bil. gar "konnen, vermbgen"

ware choke wara "exceed capacity" cf. maura, shaara "throttle, seize by
throat" mawarwa "throat" RCha. *7w-r- "neck, throat" cf. maogwaro,
I. Gwd. mokori "choke one's neck" Tgl kwari "choke"

wari strength, power, soundness, hardness cf. arfi, tsauri

OS *-r- "dry (vb.)" 7- P-Ber. *yym "be dry hard" 9. P.WN *-gw-l-
"strength" *kwua- "be hard" 2. Gd., FB ng-r- "strength" Hwn. ka7urak
"hardness" Dab. kwal "sec" i. H. oari "hard effort" KK 'yakara "strength"
Bui. qget "strength" 3. Turn, nga "etre fort" Bid. bakirok "dur, fort" 3a. Lam.
okorok "dm" Ban karar) "strength" 4. Sid. qora "dry up" Bil. gar "stark,
krdftigsein" Bye. akir "strong, hard" Kmb. kar- "stiff, hard, strong" Or. ango
"force" Abo. goga "dry" goga + "finger" = "hard, strong" P.SC *xal-, *xal-
"be dry hard" *karah "dry, hard" *^ur-, *^uD- "strength" 5. Eg.(Bu) qen "to
be strong"
waro i. insect cf. kwarkwata, uma
I. Tala kuryi "mosquito" 3. Lel.kore "mouche" Tum. harir) "mouche sp." 3a.
Lam (Kraft) kwareo "fly" 4a. Jnj. kura "fly" 4.P.HEC *kora "flea" 8. Kan.
kuli "beetle, insect" kari "tick" Berta ho'oror) "fly" 2. Bud. kari "Kamel- und
Pferde-Laus" Bac. ggularje, qgulagto "mosquito" i. SB *vur- "mosquito" NBD
avultu "mosquito" 2. Dab. virrut "mosquito" 5. Eg.(Bu) hura "fly (vb.)"
6. Gur. woro "kind of insect that lives in the house" Gz. 'aqaron "fly" 7.

Ber. kurd-, gurd- "puce"

waro 2. thief, wizard also "hyena, crocodile etc." cf. arawo P.Cha.(N) *xar9
"steal" P.Ber. *ak9r, ak'^ar, ukar "steal" OS *xuru^-, *kir- "steal" (for the
polysemy cf. Eg.(Bu) seshtu "crocodiles, secret powers of evil" hun + t

"crocodile, evil")
3. Dgl. gallo "mauvais, desagreable, mechant" Bid. kurus "homme mechant"
(duskul "vilain") 5. Eg.(Bu) huri "fraud, wrong" kher "evil, wickedness" 4.

Afr. gar^a "theft" Dly. kere^- "stehlen" Abo. ger(i)' "steal" korsa "medicine"
Or. qolo "evil spirit" qallu "sorcerer" qoricca "medicine, poison" Bye.
gwihar, guhar "steal" P.HEC *kn- "do magic" P.SC *'ag^iy- "steal" *k^aiar-
" doctor-diviner" 7. ? Tur. emekkeleyu "sorcier" 9. P.WN *7iu- "steal" 6.

Soc. di + qaien "voleur, mauvais esprit" Amh. tanq'^ay "wizard" tanaqq^ala

"engage in sorcery" 8. Knz. dogir "Zauherer, Hydne" Kan. karama "wizard,
witch" 2. Bud. kararam "Zauherer, Hexe"
kwarya (fem.) calabash, gourd (pi. ore) also "shell of tortoise" < Kw-r +

(fern.) cf. gora i. (masc), kurtu OS *kol- "calabash" *gal-, *kal-y-, *od-
"vessel" *kol- "jug, jar"
I. H. kullu, kuUumi "jug" kololo "bottle gourd sp." urzunu "gourd sp."
NBW galiy + ai (fern.) 2. Njn. ggwure 3. Bid. koriyo "gourde a eau" 4. Brj.
kore "wooden pot" P.SC *kwad- Bye. gar'a "Kurbis" Or. wille, hulle "gourd
sp." 6. Gur ulle, walle "gourd, bowl" Ar. qar^a "pumpkin, squash" P.Sem.
*gull- (+at) "ciotola" 5. Eg.(F) krht "vessel" (Bu) khait 8. Bgr. gare
wauri shinbone also wabri, wamri, ori
I. Gwd. gorogoro "shin of the leg" Tgl. r)ur)ur "tibia" NBD akwala "calf of
leg" 3. Jg. korbo "Schienbein" 3a. Lam. hulahur sem "mollet" (sem "pied")
4. Abo. kerker "shin" Sml. kub "lower leg"
waya grain, pill cf. iri, wai, wallo, wara wayar ido "eyeball, pupil of eye"
1. Tgl. (h)ai "millet" 9. "sorghum" 2. *wiy- "seed" Gdu.
Juk. ayi
xay, hi'wa "seed" gawa "sorghum" Laam. (ndulma) hiya "grain" hiya ta Iwa
"mil (gros)" (Iwa "village, quartier etc.") Mwl. gwoyo "sorghum" Bac. zumwey
"sorghum" (zum- "eat") xiya "sorghum" Dab. viyi "millet" Mfg.
magaya "petit mil" 3. Kr. kokoy "arachide, pois chiche" Mkl. gelgile "graine
sp., coque d'arachide" 3a. Msm. kaya "millet" Pv. ikwa "seed" 9. Gby. gbaa
"noyau, pepin, grain" Twi (K) gbe "sorghum" 5. Eg.(Bu) khukha "seeds" 7.
Tam. qawqaw "groundnuts" Tur. akoka "fruit de palmier doum" 6. P.Sem.
*-'kul- "mangiare (avidamente)" ES *'ekel "cibo, cereale"

kyale ignore ? < i "refuse" + ? cf. RCu. *'-r- "see, know" Afr. ma41e "ignore"
(ma- neg. marker)
yalyata laugh loudly cf. Gby. kekei "rire aux eclats" Sid. qecciqecci (n.)

yara grass sp. ''Hyparrhenia sp."

2. Gd. kura "grass sp. (used for mats)" 3. Dgl. tyoro ''Hyparrhenia sp." 4. ?

Afr. gorrob "tall pasture grass" ? Or. migira "kind of tough grass"
yashi sandfly, midge
I. NBT as "bite" 6. Shr. qies "small bug" Gz. q^ans "flea"
yasta kindle by striking yastu "flint"
I. H. yas, iris "the sound of severing rope" 2. Gd. kyas "striking a match"
7. Tur. kersat "allumettes"
yaure, yamre door cover ? < kyamare "reeds" cf. gambu
yaya louse, lice
I. NB *iy- "bite" 5. Eg.(Bu) pai "louse, lice" pi "flea" puiu "fleas"
yifta, yibta blink ? < k + 1-p- "close" cf. rufe, makaho
I. Ang. cap yat (yat "eye") Tgl. kilip "describing movement of eyes, light-

ning" 4. Sid. qippis "wink at" lippo "twinkling of eye" Bil. cilib + s- "blinz-
eln, blinzen" 6. Mhr., Jib. 7-m-t
yuya laziness < i wuya "refuse difficulty"

la'ada commission, mark-up < Ar. 'al + ^ada "custom, fees, charges"
ia'akari care, consideration cf. hankali, ankara ? < Ar. 'al + ^aql
la'alla perhaps < Ar. la^alla

la'ana curse (n.) la'anta (vb.) < Ar. la^ana

la'asar evening < Ar. 'al + ^asr cf. Tam. Fasr Bam lansara Sng. alasar
laba pound (weight) < Eng. lb. (H. la ba)
labari news, information, story < Ar. 'al + axbar cf. Kan. lajSar Ngz. labar
labi cattle track < Ful. labi "roads"
labta load, overload cf. Kan. lapta "loading" Bol. lapt- Ngz. bpta (n.) "load"
labudda definitely, certainly < Ar. la + budda
la-, ra- hide behind, cling to cf. rufe, lullua Cha.(W, C.) 1-- "close, cover"
I. H. laaa "approach stealthily" ya- "smear, plaster" 2. Gd. 4a (ideo.)

"close against something larger" lara- "smoothe (mud or clay suface),

plaster" 3a. Lam. lu "couvrir, proteger" 4. P.Cu.(E) *dlab-/*dlib- "cover" Or.
rip'a "hide, lie in wait" 6. S. Ar. rf "safeguard, protect" (other Sem. "sew,
heal") 7. Tur. araf "s'accrocher (a)"
lauu child also "young of animal" P.W.Cha. *ia' "child, give birth"

I. Ngz. kulai "baby" 4. Or. gurba "small boy" durba "small girl" 6. Hars.
ieb "youth" Ar. sabab "youth"
lacca lecture (n.) < Eng.
lada wages, reward ? < la'ada q.v.

ladabi politeness < Ar. 'al + 'adab

ladan muezzin cf. Kan. ladan Ar. 'al + 'a6an "call to prayer (n.)"
lafa die down cf. rue OS *ra'up- "finish (vb.)"
I. KK luba "be tired" Tgl. reee "pacify, make calm" 2. Pad. rawa "etre fa-
tigue, mourir" HF, HK lib-, lu- "be tired" Gdu. ru "die" Gd. rip "get lost" FM
rip "get tired" 3a. Ban. lob-, lop- "get tired" 3. Dgl. rome "deperir (animal)"
Lei. labu "famine, extreme soif" Mgm. rawo "se fatiguer" 4. Kmb., Had. lapp'-
"lie down" P.Cu. *r-p- "sleep, finish" *r-h- "die" REG *raf- "sleep" 6. Amh.
laffa "tire, work hard" Gz. 'a^rafa "rest, find relief, cease, die etc."

lafiya health, well < Ar. al + ^afiya

lahani blemish, flaw ? < Ar. lahan "speak Arabic incorrectly"
lahira the next world < Ar. 'al + axira
lahuru hair in nostrils cf. sura "head hair' OS *tla^ar- "hair"

I. P.W.Cha. *i-H-r- "hair" H. shari, shiro "long hair on chest of ram" RK

sukul "Haar" sewey "hair" sewo "beard" Njn, so'o "hair" Mwl.
2. Bac.
syowo "hair" Gdu. zievO "hair" Gd. sinkin- "hair" Mfg. lara "plume" 3. Dgl.,
Bid. law- "cheveux, poils, duvet (oiseaux)" 4. P.Cu. *t-g^-r- "hair, wool etc."
P.SC *^ara "body hair" 4a. ? W.Om. ts-w-r "hair" 8. Knz. sir "Haar" 6.
P.Sem. *i-^-r "hair, barley" 5. Eg.(Bu) shu + t "feather, hair, foliage" 7.
Tarn, azzar "hair" Tur. ezer "depilation" Ghd., Zen. az-w "hair" ? P.Ber.
*z-w-r "body hair"
laifi crime, fault cf. H. aibi Ar. 'al + ^ayb Sng lebu Mnd. lebu Tarn. 14b
la'ifi impotent man < Ar. da^f
laima i. dampness also rima, ruma cf. AA *m-' "water"
1. H. raa "dew" Ang. lorn "soak Gra. halmi "moisten" 2. Gd. yilam "soak"
Bud. lamgo "Tau" Bur., Ngw. kilagku "dew" 8. Kan. kalango "dew" 9. CB
*-mi,*-me "dew" 3. Lei. londi "etre mouille" 4. P.SC *lem" "be damp" Ma'
kilemetu "dew" Sid., Kmb. loja "dew" Bye. mi' "become damp" 7. P.Ber.
*talamut "dew" 5. ? Eg.(Bu) nema "lake"
2. parasol, umbrella (a symbol of royalty) also "parachute" cf. Kan. laima
Tub. lema Log. leima Ngz. layima Ar. 'al + xayma "tent, awning"
laka spinal cord cf. Abo. reka "backbone"
laka mud OS *laha-/*lahi- "clay"
4. Bye. luk "Lehm, Ton" Afr. ruga, turuS turuq Or. laqa "play in mud" P.SC
*tleg- "clay" 6. ES ragrag "marsh, swamp" c-m-laqa "dirty with mud (vb.)"
Amh. aronqa "mud" 7. Tur. elakam "bourbe, bourbier, boue" talaq "argile,
boue" I. NBK turku "dirt" 3a. ? Dgl. tingo "salete" 2. Msg. toloq "schmut-
zig" Bud. naka "schwarzer Morastboden" Mad. lilek "marshland"
laabi nickname < Ar. laqab
lake eat small quantity greedily OS *l-- "lick"
lawas weakness, slackness also liyas, ligis
I. H. rago, lakwato "lazy, cowardly" raki "cowardice" laai "very soft" laui,
laushi "softness" 2. Gd. rakwata "working slowly" 3. Dgl. lakuwas "Idche"
Lei. ligji, lugji "attache de maniere Idche" 4. Sid. lecci "be indolent, hang
loose" leqe leqe "loose" Or. lugna "fearful, cowardly" Bye. n'akw- "soft" 5.

Eg.(Bu) negeh "be weak" 6. Ar. laxi^a "be soft, be lax" 7. Tur. el7an "etre

lache (sans courage), paresseux"

lalata spoil, degenerate, immorality
I. H. lala "laziness" 8. Sng. lala "mauvais, etre mauvais" Bgr. r)gelali "bad"
Knz. milli "schlecht" 4. Sid. lele "wickedness"
lale welcome! ? < Kan. lale "greeting between two persons of same rank"
lallasa, rarrasa persuade, coax ? < lasa "lick" q.v.

4. Bil. lans "schmeicheln" 6. Tge. lahsa "schmeicheln"

lalle henna
9. Np., Yor. lali ? < H. 8. Kan., Dz. n-lle 7. Tur. analla 4. Or. (Foot) insolila
lalle certainly, for sure
4. Or. lule "straight" P.Cu.(E) *lo "true"
lalub-grope cf. Gd. raram-
lamba sign, trade mark also "vaccination, medal etc." < Eng. number cf. Yor.
namba, naunba "vaccination" Kri. nonba "number" H. lambawan "im-
ported poison (e.g. for locusts)" lambatu "road culvert, drain"
lambu irrigated plot cf. Sng. lombu lombu "etre impregne d'eau, imbibe"
lami tastelessness
I. Tgl. lumjum "tasteless" 8. Kan. kalam "tasteless, stupid" 2. Mfg. lem lem

"pen sale" 3. Dgl. lem lem "ideophone (evoque saveur salee)" 9. Ful. lamm-
"etre sale (acre, acide, aigre)"

lamTri attitude, outlook, pronoun < Ar. damir

lamsa fish sp. OS *letlum "fish"
lamuni credit, surety < Ar. damin
lamya, lanya frog spawn
I. Ang. lamwat "frog" Sur. lumwat "frog" NBB leti "frog" 3a. Mus. luna
"frog" 4. P.Rft. *tlac "frog" P.Sam. *rah "frog"
langalanga long and slender
9. Gby. lar)ga-ler)ge (ideo.) "designe quelque chose de tres long" 3. Kr. ler)a

"diinn, mince" 4. Sid. lellenq- "slender"

lanwasa bend also malwasa, tanwasa
4. Alg. rankus- 5. Eg.(Bu) rek "incline towards" (F) rq "incline, turn aside"
6. Ar. r-k-*^ "bow down, be bent"
lantarki electric light, electricity < Eng. via ?
lardi district, province cf. Kan. larda "earth, globe country" < Ar. 'al + 'ard
larura necessity < Ar. dariara

lasa lick ? < lah + s cf. harshe OS *lahas- "lick"

I. Gwd. lihye, riyar, rise 4. Bye. lihas, lehas Bil. lans-, lanz- 6. Sem. lah-s/k
"lick" 5. Eg.(Bu) nes "devour, consume" 8. Sng. halassa Berta hala
"tongue" ra^a "lick" 2. Muk. alah "tongue" Maf. le'en "tongue" 3. Dgl. lele
"gouter du bout de la langue" 7. P.Ber. *ll7

lasafta calculate, reckon < lissafi q.v.

laso, lasso twenty cf. Ful. (Niger, upper Volta) laso

latsa squeeze, press OS *'alac- "press"

latti lateness < Eng. late

lauje sickle ? < L-G-D cf. ruwa 2., sok-
I. Gwd. rije, bwje NBD luja NBJ lldu NBB ledi NBT leden KK, Ngm. bwdi
Bed. lawurj- Tgl. lond- "cutlass, sickle" 2. Mfg. iuwe "couteau" Bok. iaxta
"knife" Pdl. iugdi "knife" *iaKw- "sickle" Gd. iakwa, raganwa
"sickle" 3a. Lam. iukwei "faucille" 3. Mgm. jugidi "couteau" Jg. leqgero
"Messer" ? Kr. yakorde "couteau a deux tranchants" 7. Tur. tebq, telghen
"petit couteau" 5. Eg.(Bu) nakiu "cutting weapons" nekha + t "knife" 4. Or.
gorade "sword (curved)" Bye. guradi "Schwert" Bil. galuda "Taschenmesser"
6. Gur. golodo, galod "kind of knife" gwarade "sword" garje "knife used for
cutting dsdt" Gz. galado "knife with curved point" 8. Knz. kandi "Messer,
Dolch" Sng. kyendi "faucille" i. Gj. kwiltir) "sickle"
laui, labi softness ? < la'b + ki cf. lafa, lawas, laushi, raa OS *lam- "be
soft" *naw- "be tired"
I. NB, SB *1-B- BN 1-m- 2. Bur. la "weak" Mfg. la- "mou" 8. Kan. lap
(ideo.) "soft" 3. Lei. law "mouiller" Bid. law "se ramollir" Mgm. lamati
"mollesse, faiblesse" 3a. Lam. lulum "mou, doux" 4. Or., Brj., Kmb. laf- "soft,

weak" 6. ES 1-H-m "soft" Gz. lahum, lamlam, "soft" Akk rabb- "light, soft"
5. Eg.(Bu) refref "soft bread" (F) nw "weak" 6. Ar. d-^-f "be weak" 4. P.SC
*da^- "be weak"
launi color, tune, pattern cf. Ar. lawn "color, kind, sort" lahn "tune"
laushi, raushi softness also luus (ideo.) cf. laui, ruus OS *lic- "be weak,
I. Tgl. lubaz Ngz. labad, lamis "soft" 3. ? Bid. laus "ideo. evoquant qc. ou
qn. qui ne vaut rien" 4. Bil. libbi + si "weich" Sid. lessa "tender" Bye. limsa
"weich, fein, zart, glatt" 6. Gz. lamus "soft" 7. P.Ber. (Rossler) *l-m-d 3. Lei.

lomdi "mou" Dgl. lapat "doucement"

lausur garden cress ''Lepidium sp." also labsur, lafsur cf. Kan. lapsur
lauya lawyer < Eng.

lawali cattle path < Ful. lawol cf. labi

lawur potato also "millet sp. cf. Sur., RF, NB, SB lawur "potato" ? < H.
laya charm Kan. laya "charm, amulet" Poular aye "eau avec laquelle on a efface
des versets ou formules magiques etc. " Ar. al + 'aya "verse from the Koran"
layi line "aligned housing development etc." < Eng.
lazimi incumbent < Ar. lazim cf. H. lazimta "persevere at, do continually,
lebur levelness < Eng. level
lebura workman < Eng. labourer
lee lip ? < *\- "flesh, skin" + B- "mouth" cf. baki OS *tlup- "lip"

9. lee "langue" i.
Gby. Pr. lovok "lip" fok "mouth" Pic. walbi "lip" bi
"mouth" 4. P.Cu. *L-'p-n Bye. ambaloi, ambaroi "lip" ? < "mouth + flesh"
6. P.Sem. *iap + at 5. Eg.(F) sp(+)t
leda plastic (pliable) ? < Eng. leather
lefe basket (made from palm fronds)
1. H. malafa "hat, mat (made from palm leaves)" 9. Mnd. lefe, lefa, defe
etc. "plateau en paille tressee, servant de dessous de plat etc." Ful. lefere "basket
with rimmed, narrow mouth" 8. Sng. lefa "paillasson pour couvrir un vase"
2. Log. lefi "Palmblatt" Bud. lebi "Dumpalmbldtter" Bur. iibu "bag" 3. Dgl.
lapa "lamelle interieure de la foliole de doume" Bid. lapa "jonc doux pour les

nattes douces" 4. Bye. alafi, alafe, lafe, nafe "Korb, wasserdicht geflochtener
Korb" Or. lemata "basket, cover of pan" 6. Gur. lemat "low, wicker

basket used for eating" 5. Eg.(Bu) nubut "baskets" neb (+ t) "basket, (cup,
basin)" 8. ? Kan. nemu "large basket for carrying loads" (Benton)
lea, rega peep, peek "take quick look"
9. Gby. lek "regarder, viser" i. RK riyan "sehen" BN Tka- "see, look" Ngz.
launu, ikau "see, look" 2. Gd. ringaa "peek at, spy on" 4. Sid. lu'u "peep-
ing out" RCu.(E)