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PRODUCTION OF 20000 METRIC TONS/YEAR OF MONOCHLOROBENZENE BY THE DIRECT CHLORINATION OF BENZENE

A REPORT ON PLANT DESIGN OF MONOCHLOROBENZENE UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF PROF. A. K. SAHA BY

ANTARIM DUTTA

12/CH/09

DIPANJAN BISWAS

12/CH/17

ABHISEK PAUL

12/CH/01

BIKRAMJIT SHA

12/CH/13

BISWAS 12/CH/17 ABHISEK PAUL 12/CH/01 BIKRAMJIT SHA 12/CH/13 Department of Chemical Engineering Haldia Institute of

Department of Chemical Engineering Haldia Institute of Technology

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Haldia Institute of Technology CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project report titled ,

Haldia Institute of Technology

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report titled , " PRODUCTION OF 20000 METRIC TONS/YEAR OF MONOCHLOROBENZENE BY THE DIRECT CHLORINATION OF BENZENE" submitted by Abhisek Paul, Antarim dutta, Bikramjit Sha, Dipanjan Biswas in partial fulfillments for the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in Chemical Engineering during session 2012-2016 Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia is an authentic work carried out by him under supervision and guidance.

Date-

Place-

Prof A. k. Saha Department of Chemical Engineering Haldia Institute of Technology

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to convey our sincere gratitude to Prof A. K. Saha(HOD of chemical Engineering Depertment,HIT) for his invaluable suggestions, constructive criticism, motivation and guidance for carrying out related experiments and for preparing the associated reports and presentations. His encouragement towards the current topic helped us a lot in this project work which also created an area of interest for our professional career ahead.

.

(ABHISEK PAUL)

(BIKRAMJIT SHA)

(ANTARIM DUTTA)

(DIPANJAN BISWAS)

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ABSTRACT

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CONTENT

Introduction ……………………………………………………… Properties & uses ……………………………………………………… Manufacturing process ………………………………………………………. Process flow sheet ……………………………………………………… Material Balance ……………………………………………………… Energy Balance ………………………………………………………. Cost Estimation ………………………………………………………. Conclusion ………………………………………………………. Reference ……………………………………………………….

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INTRODUCTION Chlorobenzene was one of the earliest heavy organic chemicals that is, those chemicals which were produced industrially in large amounts. The former United Alkali Company first produced chlorobenzene industrially at Widnes, England, in 1909. Chlorobenzene first acquired importance during the World War I, when it was required in high tonnage 8 making phenol in picric acid manufacture. Chlorobenzene is a colorless, mobile liquid with an almond like odor. At ordinary temperature and pressure chlorobenzene is unaffected by the presence of air, moisture, or light, and upon prolonged boiling, shows no tendency to split off chlorine. The chlorine atom in chlorobenzene is unreactive at ordinary temperatures and pressures. At moderate temperatures, chlorobenzene is unaffected by steam, alkalis, hydrochloric acid, and dilute sulphuric acid. Even boiling for several hours with alcoholic KOH has no effect on chlorobenzene. It is soluble in all proportions in ether, chloroform, benzene, alcohol and carbon disulphide. It is insoluble in water. Hydrolysis, with the formation of Phenol takes place at 450°C to 500°C in the presence of a catalyst or with alcoholic alkalis or with water under pressure at high temperatures. Aniline may be prepared by reaction with concentrated ammonium hydroxide under pressure in the presence of copper catalyst. Of technical importance is the preparation of DDT by condensation of chlorobenzene with chloral in the presence of fuming Sulphuric Acid. Chlorination of chlorobenzene in the presence of a variety of catalysts produces prominently o and p-Dichlorobenzene isomers. Chlorobenzene forms both binary and ternary azeotropic mixtures with water and a number of organic liquids. Chlorobenzene are less toxic than benzene. Liquid chlorobenzene produces mild to moderate irritation upon skin contact. Contact with eye tissue at normal temperature cause s pain, mild to moderate irritation, and possibly some transient corneal injury. Prompt washing with large quantities of water is extremely helpful. Continued contact may cause roughness or a mild burn. Absorption through the skin is slow and with short-term exposure over a limited period of time, no significant amounts will enter the body. Since the monochlorobenzene vapor forms explosive mixtures with air, open flames and smoking should not be allowed where chlorobenzene is stored or used. PEOPERTIES & USES MANUFACTURING PROCESS The basic principle behind the manufacture of Chlorobenzene is the chlorination of benzene with or without the presence of a catalyst (Friedel-Craft reaction). The products of such a reaction would be Chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene and the higher

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chlorinated benzenes. In actual practice in the industry, only Chlorobenzene and small amounts of dichlorobenzene are formed. The amounts of dichlorobenzene and higher substituted Chlorobenzene formed can be reduced greatly by using selective catalysts and modifying reaction conditions. Thus essentially chlorination of benzene can be considered as taking place in three pairs of two stages each:

(1) Chlorination of benzene to monochlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene. (2) Chlorination of dichlorobenzene to trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzenes. (3) Chlorination of tetrachlorobenzenes to pentachlorobenzenes and hexachlorobenzene. Chlorination can be carried out either batch wise or continuously. When minimum formation of dichlorobenzenes is required then the latter procedure is followed. In the batch process, benzene is contained in a deep, iron or steel vessel, fitted with lead cooling coils. The chlorine feed-pipe enters at the bottom of the chlorinator and the catalyst is ferric chloride. The temperature is maintained at less than 45°C. HCl produced in the reaction can be recovered after separation from benzene by washing with a refrigerated solvent. At temperatures below 40°C, the rate of formation of dichlorobenzene is very low and this fact is used to suppress formation of dichlorobenzene in the continuous process. A typical continuous process plant consists of a series of small, externally cooled steel vessels containing the catalyst. Chlorine is supplied to each vessel through suitably placed inlets and the temperature of the reaction is maintained between 20 - 40°C. As the Chlorobenzene is formed, it leaves the chlorination zone at a speed that allows no further chlorination to take place. Unreacted benzene and Chlorobenzene are continuously separated by fractional distillation, returning the benzene to the chlorination stage and the efficiency of this process can be as high as 95%. There are different ways in which the chlorination of benzene can be brought about and these form the different processes for the manufacture of Chlorobenzene. The first is called the Raschig Process. In this process, benzene is chlorinated by chlorine that has been produced in situ in the reactor by the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen chloride. A pre-heated mixture of benzene vapour, air, steam, and HCl, at ordinary pressure, is brought into contact at 220° - 260°C with a catalyst of copper oxide. 2% of the total benzene combusts, giving rise to about one quarter of the total heat output of the process. The disadvantage of this process is that the high temperature greatly favours high combustion rates of benzene and the reaction may become uncontrollable. Moreover the high costs of this vapour phase chlorination process in comparison with other available processes, allows it to be highly uneconomical for

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Chlorobenzene manufacture and thus renders it obsolete. In another process, chlorination of benzene is carried out in a quartz tube at 400 - 500°C. Here the principal product obtained is Chlorobenzene along with minor amounts of dichlorobenzene. Benzene has also been chlorinated in the gaseous phase at 425°C by means of nitrosylchloride. The process of Loeser and Schmidt, in which a mixture of benzene vapour, HCl, and air is reacted at 150 300°C in contact with a copper hydroxide-alumina catalyst (in the form of a fluidised mass), may be regarded as a variant of Raschig’s Process. The disadvantages of all these processes are low efficiency and high temperature, which may make the reaction uncontrollable leading to formation of higher Chlorobenzene. Based on all the above considerations, the continuous liquid phase chlorination of benzene at a temperature of about 40°C is best suited for production of large amounts of monochlorobenzene in the industry. The process is economically viable too making it the most popular process being used in the industry for the manufacture of monochlorobenzene all over the world. As already known, industrial chlorination of benzene is carried out in the liquid phase at moderate temperature with the help of a catalyst to produce monochlorobenzene and minor amounts of dichlorobenzene. Chlorobenzene and the o- and p-dichlorobenzene are the principal products. The reaction is a consecutive, competitive reaction. Liquid benzene is fed to a chlorinator operating at 2.4 bars. The feed enters at 25°C, at atmospheric pressure and also contains some water. Gaseous chlorine is fed to this tank, also at atmospheric pressure and at 25°C and is considered fully pure. There may be several chlorinators operating in series or parallel depending upon the degree of chlorination of benzene required. Ferric chloride is usually the catalyst. This can be added as a solution in benzene, or as iron turnings, or scrap that provides the ferric chloride in the chlorinator. Since the reaction is exothermic cooling is required to maintain the temperature at about 40°C. The HCl gas (90% of the HCl formed) leaving the reactor is first cooled to condense the impurities (benzene and chlorinated products) and then it is scrubbed in a scrubber using refrigerated Chlorobenzene. The crude chlorobenzene stream leaving the reactor is washed with NaOH solution (20 wt%; maintained slightly alkaline to protect downstream equipment from corrosion) in a pre- neutralizer. The product stream is free of HCl. The product is fed to a Benzene Recovery Column, which is a distillation column. Here the bottoms are almost 100 % pure chlorobenzene. The tops contain 98 % by weight of benzene and 2% chlorobenzene and all of the benzene is recycled to the benzene storage via a purifier. From the purifier the monochlorobenzene is sent to the refrigeration system. The bottoms from the Benzene column contain monochlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene. This is fed to the chlorobenzene

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column, which is again a distillation column. This may contain 12 to 20 trays and is operated at a pressure ranging from 37 lb/in.2 abs. The temperature in the chlorobenzene column may be between 100 - 120°C. Monochlorobenzene is the overhead distillate product of a purity of 99%. Dichlorobenzene is the bottom residue product of a purity of 97%. The reactions involved in the process are as follows:

1. C 6 H 6 + Cl 2 C 6 H 5 Cl + HCl 2. C 6 H 5 Cl + Cl 2 C 6 H 4 Cl 2 + HCl Dichlorobenzene is assumed to be a para-isomer. Formation of trichloro isomers is neglected. When concentrations of dissolved chlorine remains essentially constant then reactions are first order. r b = -k 1 x b r m = k 1 x b k 2 x m k 1 = 1 x 10 -4 s-1 at 55°C

r d = k 2 x m

Where b = benzene, m = monochlorobenzene, d = dichlorobenzene

k 2 = 0.15 x 10 -4 s-1 at 55°C

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PROCESS FLOW SHEET

PROCESS FLOW SHEET FIG-1 10 | P r o d u c t i o n

FIG-1

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MATERIAL BALANCE Basis: 330 days/year of operation. The plant has to produce 23.3 kmols/hr of monochlorobenzene. Assume one hour of operation. Balance across Chlorinator Assume that 100% chlorination occurs in the chlorinator at 40˚C. It is also assumed that 10% of the HCl produced in the chlorinator is entrained as liquid in the product. The rest leaves as vapour along with benzene, MCB and DCB. Only the p-isomer of DCB is formed in the chlorinator. It is assumed that from the chlorinator, the stream d is led into a condenser from where we recover the HCl product formed. Reaction 1: C 6 H 6 + Cl 2 C 6 H 5 Cl + HCl Reaction 2: C 6 H 5 Cl + Cl 2 C 6 H 4 Cl 2 + HCl MCB formed = 24.03 kmols/hr DCB formed = 3.80 kmols/hr HCl formed = 31.63 kmols/hr Benzene remaining = 3.80 kmols/hr Input into chlorinator:

Benzene present = 31.63 kmols/hr Chlorine present = 31.63 kmols/hr Output from chlorinator:

In stream d (29.65 kmols/hr):

MCB present = 0.44 kmols/hr DCB present = 0.15 kmols/hr HCl present = 28.47 kmols/hr

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Benzene present = 0.59 kmols/hr In stream a (33.46 kmols/hr) :

MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr HCl present = 3.16 kmols/hr Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr Material balance across Neutralizer To neutralize 3.16 kmol/hr of HCl, we need 3.16 kmol/hr of NaOH solution. The NaOH soln. is made slightly alkaline so 2.5% extra soln. is taken. The strength of NaOH soln. taken is (20+2.5) wt.%. NaOH + HCl NaCl + H 2 O Input to Neutralizer:

NaOH solution = 32.82 kmols/hr. NaOH present =3.32 kmol/hr Water present in soln.= 29.50 kmol/hr Stream a (33.46 kmols/hr):

MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr HCl present = 3.16 kmols/hr Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr Output from Neutraliser:

In stream b (35.98 kmols/hr):

NaCl present = 3.16 kmols/hr Water present = 32.66 kmols/hr NaOH present = 0.16 kmols/hr In stream c (30.3 kmols/hr) :

MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr Balance across benzene column It is assumed that all the entering benzene in this column goes out as distillate as the top product. The Distillate contains 98 vol% benzene and 2 vol% MCB. Let the distillate stream be e. Input into the benzene recovery column:

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In Stream c (30.3 kmols/hr):

MCB present = 23.44 kmols/hr DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr Output from the Benzene recovery column:

In stream e (3.26 kmols/hr) :

Benzene present = 3.21 kmols/hr MCB present = 0.05 kmols/hr In stream f (27.99 kmols/hr) :

MCB present = 24.21 kmols/hr DCB present = 3.78 kmols/hr Balance for Recycle stream It is assumed that all the benzene from the benzene column goes to the purifier from which all the benzene is recycled back into the feed stream. Recycle r into feed stream = 3.21 kmols/hr Fresh feed = 28.42 kmols/hr Balance across Chlorobenzene column The purity of the MCB in the distillate is assumed to be 99 mol% . The purity of the MCB in the residue is assumed to be 3 mol% . Input to the chlorobenzene column:

In stream f (27.99 kmols/hr) :

MCB present = 24.21 kmols/hr DCB present = 3.78 kmols/hr Output from the chlorobenzene column:

In stream g (24.23 kmols/hr) MCB present = 23.99 kmols/hr DCB present = 0.24 kmols/hr In stream h (3.76 kmols/hr) MCB present = 0.11 kmols/hr DCB present = 3.65 kmols/hr ENERGY BALANCE Chlorinator

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Assumption is made that the fresh benzene and chlorine to the chlorinator are stored at a temperature of 30 0C. The reaction temperature is 40 ˚C. The inlet gases are to be heated to the reaction temperature. Thus the heat required for this process is

∑ ∫

Where H is the heat required. C p is the specific heat of component Specific heat of benzene = 1.7514 kJ/kg K Specific heat of chlorine = 8.28 + 0.00058T This heat may be supplied by condensing at atmospheric pressure.

Amount of steam required for producing this much of heat is

Where

C 6 H 6 + Cl 2 C 6 H 5 Cl + HCl H r = -8.5294 x 10 3 kJ/kmol

C 6 H 5 Cl + Cl 2 C 6 H 4 Cl 2 + HCl H r = -41.1036 x 10 3 kJ/kmol Thus the heat liberated within the reactor is

is the latent heat of vaporization of steam = 2256.9kJ/kg

 ∑ 

= 413.22 x 10 3 kJ/hr

The reactor is assumed to function under isothermal conditions. Hence cooling water must be provided via jackets to keep the reactor at the constant temperature of 40 ˚C. Cooling water flow rate is found out by

The gases from the chlorinator go out at the temperature of 40 ˚C. Neutralizer NaOH + HCl NaCl +H 2 O H r = 54.213 x 10 3 kJ/kmol

Net heat produced in the neutralizer is H = -171.313 x 10 3 kJ/hr This heat produced is utilized to increase the temperature of the outlet stream.

∑ ∫

By a process of trial and error we find that the outlet temperature is 345 K.

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Benzene Column

Assumption is made that no heat losses occur in the column. For such a column the heat

balance may be written as

Fh f +Q w =Dh D +Wh W +Q c

F

is feed flow rate

D

is the distillate flow rate

W is the underflow flow rate.

h

indicates the enthalpy of the respective stream

Q

w and Q c are the reboiler and condenser heat loads.

h

=

T r is refernce temperature taken as 0 K

h f = 555.4 kJ/kg

h d = 615.33 kJ/kg

h w = 538 kJ/kg

The condenser heat load may be calculated as

Q C = is the latent heat of vaporization the values for benzene and chlorobenzene are

393.3 kJ/kg and 331.1 kJ/kg respectively.

hence Q C is obtained as 7.9588 x 10 3 kJ/hr

Substituting the values obtained we get

Q W = 3.2192 x 10 6 kJ/hr = 894.22 kW

Chlorobenzene Column Assumption is made that there are no heat losses. Hence the previous equation

holds.

Fh f +Q w =Dh D +Wh W +Q c

The values for the enthalpies of various streams are

h f = 505.7 kJ/kg

h d = 508 kJ/kg

h w = 497.3 kJ/kg

The condenser heat load is calculated as

Q C =

Thus Q C = 1.3226 x 10 6 kJ/hr = 367.4 kW

Hence Q W = 2.8017 x 10 3 kJ/hr = 778.25 kW

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MAJOR EQUIPMENT DESIGN Process Design Of Chlorobenzene Distillation Column For simplicity of calculation let us assume that the feed entering the distillation or chlorobenzene column is a binary mixture of MCB and p-dichlorobenzene and the o- dichlorobenzene is not entering as feed. Vapour Pressure Data (Pressure = 48269.0 Pa)

Temperature (K)

Vapour

Pressure

of

MCB

Vapour

Pressure

of

DCB

(mm Hg)

(mm Hg)

405

700

190

408

810

210

411

900

240

415

1000

260

418

1050

300

422

1150

330

426

1300

370

429

1400

400

433

1500

450

437

1700

500

441

1800

575

444

2000

625

448

2200

680

453

2400

740

(Table no i)

Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Data :

Temperature (K)

x a (mole fraction of MCB in liquid)

y a (mole fraction of MCB in vapour)

419.367

0.00

0.00

416.329

0.05

0.135

413.256

0.10

0.251

410.394

0.15

0.351

407.722

0.20

0.436

405.220

0.25

0.511

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402.873

0.30

0.575

400.665

0.35

0.632

398.584

0.40

0.683

396.617

0.45

0.727

394.755

0.50

0.766

392.989

0.55

0.803

391.311

0.60

0.833

389.714

0.65

0.862

388.190

0.70

0.888

386.735

0.75

0.911

385.344

0.80

0.932

384.011

0.85

0.951

382.733

0.90

0.969

381.506

0.95

0.985

380.326

1.00

1.00

We have,

(Table no ii)

F

= 27.04 kmols/hr

D

= 23.52 kmols/hr

W

= 3.52 kmols/hr

X

F = 0.865

X

D = 0.865

X

W = 0.865

Average molecular weight of Feed = 117.15 kg/kmol Average molecular weight of Distillate = 112.84 kg/kmol Average molecular weight of Residue = 145.96 kg/kmol

D

= 2653 kg/hr

W

= 513.77 kg/hr

Assume that the feed is a saturated liquid at its boiling point.

So q =

q = 1.

Slope = (q\q-1) =

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From the graph ; minimum ( X d \R m + 1 ) = 0.73 minimum reflux Rm = 0.3561 mol reflux/mol D Operating reflux ratio (1.5 Rm ) = 0.5341 Intercept = 0.64 No. of ideal stages = 11 No. of stages in the enriching section = 4 No. of stages in the stripping section = 7

L

= RD = 12.56 kmol/hr

G

= L+D = 36.08 kmol/hr

̅ = L +qF = 39.6 kmols \hr ̅ = G +(q-1)F = 36.08 kmols \hr Properties :

kmols \hr ̅ = G +(q-1)F = 36.08 kmols \hr Properties : AVERAGE PROPERTIES (Table no

AVERAGE PROPERTIES

(Table no iii)

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(Table no – iv) ENRICHING SECTION TRAY HYDRAULICS : (1) Plate spacing , ts =

(Table no iv)

ENRICHING SECTION TRAY HYDRAULICS :

(1) Plate spacing , ts = 305 mm (2) Hole diameter , dh =5 mm (3) Hole pitch , lp =15 mm (4) Tray thickness , tT =3 mm

Assume equilateral triangular pitch (6) Column dia ,Dc :

Based on entrainment flooding. All relations from Perry’s handbook

C sb = U nf [

]

[

]

ft/s.

(L/G) x

= 0.015

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(5)

(5) = = 0.10

=

= 0.10

C sb =0.23 m\s U nf = 5.9982 ft\s Assume U n =0.8 U nf = 1.4511 m/s. Net area for flow , A n = A c - A d Vapour flow rate = 0.6583 m 3 /s A n = 0.6585 / 1.4511 = 0.4538 m 2 . A d = 0.0988 m 2

Assume 0.77

Where

A c =

A d = 0.0988 Dc 2 A n = 0.785 D c 2 0.0988 D c D c = 0.81 m , Corrected A d = 0.0622 m 2 A c = 0.5153 m 2 L w = 0.62 m Active area, A a = A c 2A d =0.3909 m 2 . (7) Perforated area, A p

corrected = 180 -

Area of calming + distribution zone, A cz A cz = 2(L w * t) , t=thickness A cz = 0.0351 m 2 (that is 6.81% of A c ) A wz = 0.0327 m 2 . let w = 20 mm A w = 0.0221 m 2 (that is 4.3% of A c ) A d = 0.0622 m 2 A p = A c 2 A d A cz - A wz = 0.3231 m 2 A h = 0.1 A p = 0.03231 m 2

= 0.785

2

c = 99.9 ˚ c = 80.1 ˚

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(

)

(8) No. of holes, n h = 1646 holes. (9) Weir height , h w = 12 mm (10) Weeping check :

h d = K 1 + K 2 (

)

Assume sieve plates K 1 = 0 , K 2 = 50.8/C v A h / A a = 0.083 t T /d h = 0.6 C v = 0.73

h d = 66.95 mm

Frances Weir Equation :

2

h ow = F w x 664 x [

]

q( liquid load ) = 3.459 x 10 -4 m 3 /s = 6.275 gal/min F w = 1.005 h ow = 4.95 mm Head loss due to bubble formation ,

[

]

= 2.28 mm liq.

Now, h d +

h w + h ow =16.95 mm Since from the graph; actual design > minimum design there is no weeping (from fig. 18-11) (11) Downcomer flooding :

h dc =h t + h w + h ow + h da + h hg Dynamic Seal; h ds = h w + h ow +h hg /2 Q = 4.02165 x 10 -4 m 3 /s = 6.382 gal/min L w = 0.62 m = 2.05 ft ; F w = 1.005 h ow =5.00 mm h ds = 12 +5+0.15\2 =17.075 mm h t = h d +h l 1

h l 1 =

U a = 1.6845 m/s = 5.5707 ft/s

= 59.23 mm liq.

h ds

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o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

= 0.1079 lb/ft 3

F a = U a

= 0.59

= 1.83

h l = 0.59 x17.075 = 10.074 mm

h t = 66.95 + 10.074 = 77.024 mm. Loss under downcomer, h da h da = 165.2 ( q/A da ) 2 Assume clearance C = 13 mm. h ap = 17.075 C = 4.075 mm

A da = L w h ap = 2.5265 x 10 -3 m 2

h da = 3.92 mm h dc = h t + h w + h ow + h da + h hg =77.024+12+5+3.92+0.15 = 98.094 mm

t s = 305 mm

As h dc < t s ,there is no downcomer flooding.

Summary of tray calculations

D c = 0.81m

L w = 0.62m

h w = 12 mm t s = 305 mm d h = 5mm l p = 15 mm, triangular pitch. t t = 3 mm n h = 1646

% flooding = 80%

(12) Column Efficiency (a)Point Efficiency, E OG

N g =

W = liq. flow rate = (3.9589 x 10-4 /0.715) = 8.13 x 10-3 m3 /s

Ua = 1.6845 m/s hw = 12 mm, N scg = (µ g \ρ g Dg) = 1.02 Ng = 0.3548

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o f

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N L = K La L

K La = = 1.568 /s L = (h f A a t ) / (1000q) h f = 193.90 mm L = 38.29 s N L = 60.038

= M

= 1.111

(

)

E OG = 1 e -NOG = 0.2970

(b) Murphree Plate Efficiency, E mv

E OG = 0.32967

N Pe =

Z L = D c cos (L /2) = 0.52 m D E = 6.675 * 10 -3 (U a ) 1.44 + 0.922 * 10 -4 h L 0.00562 = 0.0120 m/s N Pe = 2.2669

= 1.09

E mv = 0.3237

(c) Overall column efficiency, E oc

Eoc =

=

=

Considering 80% flooding,

= 0.2

E a = 0.29946

E oc = 0.30789 E oc = N t \ N A

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o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

=

= 2.886

;

M = 0.385

N og =

 = 0.974

= 0.974

N A = 12.66 ≈12 trays N A = 12 trays Tower height, = t s * N A = 305 * 12 = 3660 mm

H = 3.66 m

STRIPPING SECTION TRAY HYDRAULICS :

(1) Plate spacing , t s = 305 mm (2) Hole diameter , d h =5 mm (3) Hole pitch , l p =15 mm (4) Tray thickness , t T =3 mm

(5)

 

= 0.10

=

Assume equilateral triangular pitch (6) Column dia ,D c :

Based on entrainment flooding. All relations from Perry’s handbook, 6th edition. Fig. 18-10 ,

C sb = U nf [

(L/G)* (

C sb = 0.21 m/s

] 0.2 [

] 0.5 ft/s

) 0.5 = 0.046

U nf = 5.204 ft\s Assume U n =0.8 U nf = 1.2590 m/s. Net area for flow , A n = A c - A d A n = 0.6121 m 2 . Ad = 0.0988 m 2

Assume 0.77

24 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

=

= 100.7˚

A c =

A d = 0.0988 Dc 2 A n = 0.785 D c 2 0.0988 D c D c = 0.94 m , Corrected A d = 0.0883 m 2 A c = 0.6939 m 2

L w = 0.73 m Active area, A a = A c 2A d =0.5173 m 2 . (7) Perforated area, A p

corrected = 180 -

Area of calming + distribution zone, A cz A cz = 2(L w * t) , t=thickness A cz = 0.05446 m 2 (that is 7.85% of A c ) A wz = 0.0251 m 2 (that is 3.6% of A c ) let w = 40 mm A d = 0.0883 m 2 A p = A c 2 A d A cz - A wz = 0.4377 m 2 A h = 0.1 A p = 0.043774 m 2 (8) No. of holes, n h = 2230 holes. (9) Weir height , h w = 12 mm (10) Weeping check :

= 0.785

2

c = 99.9 ˚ c = 80.1 ˚

h d = K 1 + K 2

Assume sieve plates K 1 = 0 , K 2 = 50.8/C v A h / A a = 0.0846 t T /d h = 0.6 C v = 0.73 h d = 50.75 mm

2

25 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

Frances Weir Equation :

h ow = F w x 664 x [

]

q( liquid load ) = 1.239 x 10 -3 m 3 /s = 19.68 gal/min

F w = 1.02

h ow = 9.616 mm

Head loss due to bubble formation ,

[

]

= 1.7109 mm liq.

Now, h d +

h w + h ow =21.616 mm

Since from the graph; actual design > minimum design(10 mm) there is no weeping.

(11) Downcomer flooding :

h dc =h t + h w + h ow + h da + h hg Dynamic Seal; h ds = h w + h ow +h hg /2

Q = 1.4527 x 10 -3 m 3 /s = 22.5973 gal/min

L w = 0.73 m = 2.395 ft ; F w = 1.025

h

h

h

h

U a = 1.388 m/s = 4.5548 ft/s

= 52.54 mm liq.

ow =10.74 mm

ds = 12 +10.75+0.15\2 =22.815mm

t = h d +h l 1

l 1 =

h ds

= 0.1133 lb/ft 3

F

a = U a

= 0.6

= 1.5331

2

h

h

Loss under downcomer, h da

h da = 165.2 ( q/A da ) 2

Assume clearance C = 13 mm.

l = 0.6 x22.185 = 13.689 mm

t = 50.75 + 13.689 = 64.439 mm.

26 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

h ap = 22.815 C = 9.815 mm A da = L w h ap = 7.164 x 10 -3 m 2

h da = 4.94 mm h dc = h t + h w + h ow + h da + h hg = 64.439+12+10.74+4.94+0.15 = 98.094 mm t s = 305 mm

As h dc < t s , there is no downcomer flooding.

Summary of tray calculations D c = 0.94m

L w = 0.73m h w = 12 mm t s = 305 mm d h = 5mm

l p = 15 mm, triangular pitch. t t = 3 mm n h = 2230

% flooding = 80%

(12) Column Efficiency (a) Point Efficiency, E OG

N g =

W = liq. flow rate = (1.3499 x 10 -3 /0.835) = 1.6166 x 10 -3 m 3 /s

Ua = 1.3883 m/s hw = 12 mm, N scg = (µ g \ρ g Dg) = 0.725 Ng = 0.6522

N L = K La L

K La =

(

)

= 1.4562 /s L = (h f A a t ) / (1000q) h f = 133.242 mm L = 11.23 s N L = 16.353

27 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

= M

= 1.489

E OG = 1 e -NOG = 0.4596

(b) Murphree Plate Efficiency, E mv

E OG = 0.6843

N Pe =

Z L = D c cos (L /2) = 0.59m D E = 6.675 * 10 -3 (U a ) 1.44 + 0.922 * 10 -4 h L 0.00562 = 7.78838 m/s N Pe = 3.979

= 1.23

E mv = 0.565

(c) Overall column efficiency, E oc

Eoc =

=

=

Considering 80% flooding,

From fig,

E a = 0.4873 E oc = 0.5368 E oc = N t \ N A N A = 13.04 13 trays N A = 13 trays Tower height, = t s * N A = 305 x 13 = 3965 mm

H = 3.965 m Overall tower height = 3.66 + 3.965 = 7.625 m

= 0.2

28 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

=

= 0.911

;

M = 1.635

N og =

 = 0.6156

= 0.6156

Total number of plates = 12 + 13 = 25 plates.

COST ESTIMATION

Monochlorobenzene plant size = 62.5 T/day Taking cost indices of (1134 in 1997) and (100 in 1926) Fixed capital investement in 1926 = Rs 12.82 crores Fixed capital investment = Rs 170 crores Estimation of total investment cost:

1) Direct cost:

a) Purchased equipment cost:(15 40% of FCI ) Assume 30% of FCI =Rs 51 crores

b) Installation cost:(35 45% of PEC) Assume 35% =Rs 17.85 crores

c) Instrument and control installed:(6 30% of PEC) Assume 25% of PEC =Rs 12.75 crores

d) Piping installation cost:(10 80% of PEC) Assume 60% =Rs. 30.6 crores

e) Electrical installation cost:(10 40% of PEC) Assume 35% of PEC =Rs 17.85 crores

f) Building process and auxilliary:(10-70% of PEC) Assume 60% =Rs 30.6 crores

g) Service facilities:(30-80% 0f PEC) Assume 50% =Rs 25.5 crores

h) Yard improvement:(10-15% of PEC) Assume 10% =Rs 5.1 crores

i) Land:(4-8% of PEC) Assume 6% =Rs 3.06 crores

Therefore direct cost =Rs 194.31 crores

Indirect cost:

Expenses which are not directly involved with material and labour of actual installation or complete facility

a) Engineering and supervision:(5-30% of DC) Assume 25% =Rs 48.57 crores

b)Construction expenses:(10% of DC) =Rs 19.431 crores c)Contractors fee:(2-7% 0f DC) Assume 6%

29 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

=Rs 11.65 crores d)Contingency:(8-20% of DC) Assume 12% =Rs 23.31 crores Therefore total indirect cost =Rs 102.96 crores Fixed capital investment:

Fixed capital investment(FCI) = DC+IC = 102.96 + 194.31 = Rs 297.27 crores Working capital investment:

10 20% of FCI Assume 16% =Rs 47.56 crores 1)Total capital investment:

= FCI + WC =Rs 345.53 crores Estimation of total product cost(TPC):

Fixed charges:

a) Depreciation:(10% of FCI for machinery) =Rs 29.727 crores

b) Local taxes:(3-4% of FCI) Assume 3% =Rs 8.9181 crores

c) Insurances:(0.4-1% of FCI)

Assume 0.7% =Rs 2.080 crores d)Rent:(8-12% of FCI) Assume 10% =Rs 29.727 crores Therefore total fixed charges =Rs 70.45 crores But, Fixed charges = (10-20% of TPC) Assume 15% Therefore Total product cost = Rs 469.66 crores

Direct production:

a) Raw material:(10-50% 0f TPC)

Assume 40% =Rs 187.86 crores b)Operating labour(OL):(10-20% of TPC) Assume 15% =Rs 70.449 crores

c)Direct supervisory and electric labour:(10-25% of OL) Assume 20% =Rs 14.08 crores

b) Utilities:(10-20% of TPC)

Assume 15% =Rs 70.449 crores Maintainence:(2-10% of FCI)

Assume 8% =Rs 23.381 crores

c) Operating supplies (OS):(10-20% of maintainence) Assume 15%

30 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

=Rs 3.50 crores

d) Laboratory charges:(10-20% of OL) Assume 12% =Rs 8.45 crores

e) Patent and royalties:(2-6% of TPC) Assume 4% =Rs 18.78 crores

Plant overhead cost:

50-70% of (OL+OS+M) Assume 65% =Rs 63.40 crores General expenses:

a) Administration cost:(40-60% of OL) Assume 50% =Rs 35.22 crores

b) Distribution and selling price:(2-30% of TPC) Assume 20% =Rs 93.932 crores

c) Research and development cost:(3% of TPC)

=Rs 14.0898 crores Therefore general expenses(GE) =Rs 143.24 crores Therefore manufacturing cost(MC)= Product cost+fixed chages+Plant overhead expenses =Rs 603.51 crores

Total production cost:

Total production cost =MC + GE =Rs 746.75 crores Gross earnings and rate of return:

The plant is working for say 320 days a year Selling price =Rs. 25 /kg Total income =62.5×320×1000×25 =Rs 500 crores Gross income =Total income total product cost =Rs 30.34 crores Tax =50% Net profit =Rs 15.17 crores Rate of return =net profit/total capital investment = 4.41 %

31 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

32 | P r o d u c t i o n

o f

M o n o c h l o r o b e n z e n e