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Copyright 2013 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Linear Buckling Analysis

Thin structures subject to compression loads that havent achieved the material strength limits can
show a failure mode called BUCKLING. This failure can be analyzed using a technique well known as
linear buckling analysis.
Linear buckling is a mathematic tool used to predict the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic
structure. It is solved by first applying a reference level of loading, Pref, to the structure.

A standard linear static analysis is


then carried out to obtain stresses
which are needed to form the
geometric stiffness matrix KG.
Copyright 2013 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Linear Buckling Analysis

This new matrix is evaluated using the initial stiffness matrix augmented by the initial stress matrix
corresponding to the load specified in the static load step, multiplied with a factor that is determined
such that the resulting matrix has zero as its lowest Eigen frequency. The buckling loads are then
calculated by solving an eigenvalue problem:

K KG x 0
The lowest eigenvalue Cr is
associated with buckling and the
critical or buckling load is:

PCr Cr PRef
Copyright 2013 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Linear Buckling Analysis

The problem of linear buckling is


solved in two stages:
A standard linear static analysis is carried
out to obtain stresses, which form the
geometric stiffness matrix .
The buckling loads are then calculated by $$------------Case Control Cards ------------ $
$
solving the eigenvalue problem. SUBCASE 1
Requires STATSUB card for a SPC = 2
LOAD = 3
Buckling Analysis: $
SUBCASE 2
SPC = 2
METHOD = 1
STATSUB = 1
$
BEGIN BULK
EIGRL 1 2 MASS
FORCE 3 82 01.0 0.0 0.0 -1000.0
SPC 2 1 123 0.0
$
Copyright 2013 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Exercises

Exercise 05: Column Prebuckling


Prebuckling analysis Loading:
P Unit load, P = 1 N

BC's:
Fixed in all directions at the bottom
R10 mm
1000 mm

Properties and Material (already defined for this model):


Linear steel properties:
E = 2.1e5 MPa
nu = 0.3
rho = 7.85e-9 t/mm

= 2
Analytical solution:
2 Critical Load, Pcr = 4070 N
=
2
=
Copyright 2013 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Exercises

Exercise 06: Plate Prebuckling


Prebuckling analysis Loading:
P
Unit load, P = 1 N

BC's (already defined for this model):


1500 x 1000 Simply supported condition
t = 5 mm

Properties and Material (already defined for this model):


Linear steel properties:
E = 2.1e5 MPa
P
nu = 0.3
rho = 7.85e-9 t/mm

Analytical solution:
Critical buckling mode = 2nd.
Critical Load, Pcr = 102973 N