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Efficiency of the Strain Based Approach Compared to the Displacement Formulation for the Analysis of Structures

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Compared to the Displacement Formulation for

the Analysis of Structures

D. HAMADI1, A. OUNIS2, and C.A. D'Mello3

Abstract The formulation of finite elements based on the been observed that the finite element method often leads to

strain approach has continued in recent years and many convergent results as the number of elements is increased.

elements were developed; for general plane elasticity Along with the development of high speed computers, the

problems, plate bending and shells elements. This approach application of the finite element method also progressed at

leads to the representation of the displacements by higher a very impressive rate. Thereafter within a decade, the

order polynomial terms without the need for the introduction

potentialities of the method for the solution of different

of additional internal and unnecessary degrees of freedom.

Good convergence can also be obtained when the results are

types of applied science and engineering problems were

compared with those obtained from the corresponding recognised, and many books have been written on the finite

displacement based elements, having the same total number of element method [1] received worldwide diffusion. On the

degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the membrane elements development side, many researchers continue to be

remain stable with geometrical distortions and plate bending preoccupied with the problem of the formulation of new

elements are free from any shear locking since they converge elements, and further development of improved algorithms

to the Kirchhoff solution for thin plates contrarily for the for special phenomena. At the same time a new approach of

corresponding displacement based elements. The main elements was developed at Cardiff University, referred to as

objective of this paper is to present the efficiency and the

the strain based approach. This approach is based on the

performance of the strain based approach compared to well

known displacement formulation; and this is through some

calculation of the exact terms representing all the rigid

validation tests using elasticity plane elements, bending plates body modes and the other components of the displacement

and shell elements.

functions which are based on assumed independent strain

functions; insofar as it is allowed by the elasticity

Index Terms Displacement formulation, Elasticity plane

compatibility equations. With the continuation of the

element, Finite elements, Plate bending, Strain Approach. development of elements based on the strain approach,

many elements were developed for general plane elasticity

problems as well as shells by Sabir et al [2][4].

I. INTRODUCTION Furthermore, with the success of the application of the

strain approach to the plane elasticity problems, the

T HE analysis and design of structures is a topic of

interest in a variety of engineering disciplines. In

problems of structural mechanics the analyst seeks to

extension of the work to the development of finite elements

in polar coordinates has continued [5 ][7], the results

obtained for the various components of stresses were

determine the distribution of stresses throughout the satisfactory and converged to the theoretical solution as the

structure to be designed. It is also necessary to calculate the number of elements was increased. Some other elements for

displacements of certain points of the structure to ensure shells and three- dimensional elasticity have been also

that specified allowable values are not exceeded. When developed by Djoudi et al [8], Sabir et al [9], Belarbi et al

dealing with the continuum structures, the finite element [10], and Assan [11]; from the validation tests, these

method is more suitable and powerful tool of analysis, one elements have been shown to produce results of an

can vary the size, the shape, the thickness and the material acceptable degree of accuracy without the use of large

property of an element to suit the overall property of the number of elements. Lately, Djoudi and Bahai have

structure which makes it particularly appropriate for developed a new strain based shell element for the linear

complicated problems involving non-homogeneous material and nonlinear analysis of cylindrical shells[12] and two

other elements for vibration analysis of shell structures

Manuscript received February 12, 2010, Efficiency of the Strain Based

Approach Compared to the Displacement Formulation for the Analysis of [13], [14] the effectiveness of these elements was

Structures. demonstrated and the convergence were also undertaken.

Djamal HAMADI, Civil Engineering and Hydraulics Department Faculty of Belounar and Guenfoud have also developed a new

Sciences and Technology, Biskra University B.P. 07000 Algeria, fax:

00 21333741038; (e-mail: dhamadiuk@yahoo.com). rectangular plate bending element for thin and thick plates

Abdelhafid OUNIS Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Sciences and based on the strain based approach and the

Engineering Sciences, Biskra University, B.P. 07000, Algeria fax: Reissner/Mindlin theory [15]. A new rectangular element

0021333741038; (e-mail: safidin@yahoo.fr).

Cedric D'Mello, School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City

was elaborated for the general plane elasticity by Belarbi &

University, Northampton Square London EC1V OHB, U.K. Fax: +44 (0) 20 Maalem [16]. Most recently, a new quadrilateral element

7040 8570 (email: C.A. D'Mello@city.ac.uk)

ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Vol I

WCE 2011, July 6 - 8, 2011, London, U.K.

et al [17]; it is a simple element and has only two degrees Possibility of enriching the field of displacements by

of freedom per node. The various numerical examples show terms of high order without the introduction of intermediate

the performances of the strain based approach. It can be nodes or of supplementary degrees of freedom (allowing so

said that the formulated element remains stable with to treat the problem of locking).

geometrical distortions. Finally, the main objective of this

paper is to present the efficiency and the performance of the

strain based formulation compared to well known IV. STRAIN BASED APPROACH FORMULATION

displacement formulation; and this is through some

validation tests using membrane elements, bending plates As an example for the strain based formulation, the

and shell elements. description of Q4SBE1 (Strain Based Quadrilateral In-

plane Element with An Internal Node) element will be

given in this section.

II. DIFFERENT FORMULATIONS Figure 1 shows the geometric properties of Q4SBE1

According to the choice of the interpolation field several element, the corresponding nodal displacements. At each

models of the finite elements can be generated which are: node (i) the degrees of freedom are U i and V i .

A. Displacement model The three components of the strain at any point in the

Cartesian coordinate system are given in terms of the

This model is the most popular and most developed. In

displacements U and V:

this model, the finite elements are based on an interpolation

of the displacements field. The displacements are

U

x (1a)

determined in a single and detailed way in the structure, x

whereas the stresses are not continuous at the boundaries. V

y (1b)

B. Stress model y

In this model the element is formulated on the base of U V (1c)

xy

stress field approximation only. y x

If the strains given by equations (1) are equal to zero, the

C. Mixed model

integration of these equations allows obtaining the

This model is based on two independent interpolations of following expressions:

two or more various unknown fields, generally the U a1 - a3 y (2a)

displacements fields and stresses fields within the element.

In general this model takes the unknown parameters of V a2 a3 x (2b)

these fields as degrees of freedom. Equations (2) represent the displacement field in terms of

its three rigid body displacements. The displacement fields

D. Hybrid model of the Q4SBE1 element are given by the following equations

This model takes in consideration an assumed stress (3):

distribution within the element and assumed displacements

along its edge. U a 1 - a 3 y a 4 x a 5 xy - a 7 y 2 (R 1)/2

(3a)

E. Strain Based Approach a 8 y/2 a 9 (x 2 H y 2 )/2

This approach is based on the calculation of the exact

terms representing all the rigid body modes and the other V a 2 a 3 x - a 5 x 2 (R 1)/2 a 6 y a 7 xy

(3b)

components of the displacement functions; which are based a 8 x/2 a 10 (y 2 Hx 2 )/2

on assumed independent strain functions insofar as it is

allowed by the elasticity compatibility equations. With H 2/(1 - v) , R 2 v /(1 - v)

Direct interpolation based on the strain approach

provides a better precision on these values and on

constraints and displacements (obtained by integration);

compared to the classic formulation where deformations are

obtained by derivation of the chosen displacement fields.

The main advantages of this approach are [18], [19]:

Easy satisfaction of the main two convergence criteria

bound directly to strains (constant strains and rigid body

movement).

Effortlessly decoupling of the various strain components

Fig.1. Coordinates and nodal points for the quadrilateral element Q4SBE1

(a field of uncoupled displacements generates coupled

ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Vol I

WCE 2011, July 6 - 8, 2011, London, U.K.

summarized with the evaluation of the following well Mac-Neal [21] affirms that the trapezoidal shape of the

known expressions Eqs. (4): membrane finite elements with four nodes without degrees

of freedom of rotation (with linear fields) generates a

K e A 1 T Q D . Q .dx .dy A 1

T

(4a) locking even if these elements pass the patch-test. This

S problem is known as "trapezoidal locking".

Ke A1 T K0 A1 (4b) NOTE. This rule does not apply to the finite elements

based on the strain approach.

With: K 0 Q D

. Q.dx dy

T

(4c) The results obtained for elements Q4 and PS5 (Table

s 1) show well the problem of trapezoidal locking announced

by Mac-Neal [21].

V. NUMERICAL APPLICATIONS Through these three cases of meshes (Figs. 2a, 2b, 2c),

the efficiency of Q4SBE1 element is confirmed. In

The efficiency of the strain based approach will be shown conclusion, it can be said that "Q4SBE1" element is very

through the following applications, using some strain based powerful for this type of problems dominated by bending,

elements formulated recently (Q4SBE1, SBH8, SBP8C, and it remains stable with geometrical distortions.

ACM_Q4SBE1 and ACM_SBQ4) compared to the results B. Simply Supported Square Plate (Plate Elements)

obtained from some corresponding displacement elements.

The test of the simply supported square plate is examined

A. Mac-Neal's elongated cantilever beam (Membrane with either a uniform loading (q = 1) or with a concentrated

Elements) load (P = 1) at the centre (Fig.3). The quarter of the plate is

Let us consider the example of the elongated cantilever divided into a mesh of N x N elements. The convergence

beam(Fig.2) of Mac-Neal and Harder 20, with tests are carried out on two different L/h ratios of 10 and

rectangular section (6 x 2 x 1) deformed in pure bending by 100 for thick and thin plates respectively. The results for

one moment at the end (M =10) and by a load applied at the central deflection are given in Table II and Table III.

the free end (P=1).

7

Data : E=10 , =0,3 , L=6 , t=0,1

case case

1 (1) (2)

1 1 1 1 1

10 Sym.

L

1

0,2

a) Regular Shape Elements

Sym.

45 45

10

1 L

(L = 10, h = 1. or 0.1, E =10.92, = 0.25)

45 The strain based elements SBP8C and SBH8 have quite

10 rapid rate of convergence to reference solutions for both

1 thick and thin plates. They are free from any shear locking

since it converge to the Kirchhoff solution for thin plates,

contrarily for the corresponding displacement based

c) Parallelogram Shape Elements

element DBB8

Fig.2. Mac-Neal's elongated beam subject to (1) end shear and (2)

end bending.

C. Scordelis-Lo roof (shell elements)

The cantilever is modelled by six membrane elements The next test to be considered which is frequently used to

rectangular (Fig.2a), trapezoidal (Fig.2b) and parallelogram test the performance of shell element is that of Scordelis-Lo

(Fig.2c). The results obtained for Q4SBE1 are compared roof having the geometry as shown in Fig.4. The straight

with those obtained with other known quadrilateral edges are free, while the curved edges are supported on

ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Vol I

WCE 2011, July 6 - 8, 2011, London, U.K.

mechanical characteristics are given in Fig.4. Considering

the symmetry of the problem only one quarter of the roof is

analysed (part ABCD).

The results obtained by the combined flat shell elements

ACM_Q4SBE1 and ACM_SBQ4, for the vertical

displacement at the midpoint B of the free edge and the

centre C of the roof are compared to the reference values

based on the deep shell theory. Furthermore, the

convergence of this element is also compared to other kinds

of quadrilateral shell elements Q4 24, DKQ24 [29] and

ACM-SBQ4 [30] Figs.5 and 6. The analytical solution

based on the shallow shell theory is given by Scordelis and

Lo [31], which is slightly different from the deep shell

theory.

Convergence curves (Figs.5 and 6) show the good

contribution of the strain based approach.

Pure bending End shear

Element

Regular Trapezoidal Parallel Regular Trapezoidal Parallel

Q4 0,093 0,022 0,031 0,093 0,027 0,034

PS5[22] 1,000 0,046 0,726 0,993 0,052 0,632

AQ [23] 0,910 0,817 0,881 0,904 0,806 0,873

MAQ [24] 0,910 0,886 0,890 0,904 0,872 0,884

Q4 [25] - - - 0,993 0,986 0,988

Q4SBE1 1,000 1,000 1,000 0,993 0,994 0,994

TABLE II: CENTRAL DEFLECTION OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED PLATE WITH A UNIFORM LOAD

wD

x100

qL4

L/h=10 L/h=100

Mesh SBP8C SBH8 DBB8 SBP8C SBH8 DBB8

[26] [10] [26] [10]

2x2 0.3812 0.326 0.2283 0.0349 0.0523 0.0045

4x4 0.4218 0.4048 0.351 0.2563 0.3081 0.0171

8x8 0.4229 0.4145 0.3982 0.3856 0.3883 0.0582

12x12 0.4270 0.4249 0.4171 0.4033 0.4029 0.0786

Exact solution [27] 0.427 0.406

Where: D = Eh312(1-2)

TABLE III: CENTRAL DEFLECTION OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED PLATE WITH A CONCENTRATED LOAD

wD

x100

PL2

L/h=10 L/h=100

Mesh SBP8C SBH8 DBB8 SBP8C SBH8 DBB8

[26] [10] [26] [10]

2x2 1.1745 0.9907 0.7269 0.113 0.1452 0.0134

4x4 1.321 1.243 1.097 0.789 0.8387 0.0481

8x8 1.363 1.333 1.289 1.108 1.115 0.1636

12x12 1.372 1.364 1.344 1.152 1.145 0.2269

Kirchhoff solution

1.16

[27]

Ref. [28] 1.346

ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Vol I

WCE 2011, July 6 - 8, 2011, London, U.K.

0,57

0,56

0,55

Wc ref. = 0.541 cm

0,54

0,53

ACM_Q4SBE1

0,52 ACM_SBQ4

Q4 24

DKQ24

0,51

Analytical

0,5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Number of elements

Fig.5. Convergence curve for the deflection Wc at point C.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Number of elements

3,2

ACM_Q4SBE1

Vertical deflection WB at point B

3,3

ACM_SBQ4

Q4 24

DKQ24

3,4 Analytical

3,5

3,7

3,8

ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Vol I

WCE 2011, July 6 - 8, 2011, London, U.K.

hexadrique simple bas sur le modle en dformation pour ltude des

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[26] D. HAMADI and T. MAALEM, Presentation of an Efficient

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ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)

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