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DAFTAR ANTIBIOTIK DAN KERJANYA.

Mechanism of
Generic name Common uses Possible side effects
action

Aminoglycosides

Amikacin Binding to the


bacterial 30S riboso
Gentamicin mal subunit (some
Infections caused by Gram-negative work by binding to
Kanamycin bacteria, such as Escherichia Hearing the 50S subunit),
coli and Klebsiellaparticularly Pseudo loss inhibiting the
Neomycin monas aeruginosa. Effective against translocation of the
Aerobic bacteria (not Vertigo peptidyl-tRNA from
Netilmicin obligate/facultative anaerobes) the A-site to the P-
Kidney
and tularemia. site and also causing
damage misreading of
Tobramycin
mRNA, leaving the
Paromomycin bacterium unable to
synthesize proteins
Streptomycin Tuberculosis vital to its growth.

Spectinomycin
Gonorrhea
(Bs)

Ansamycins

Geldanamycin
Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics
Herbimycin

Rifaximin Traveler's diarrhea caused by E. coli

prevents bacterial
cell division by
Loracarbef Discontinued
inhibiting cell wall
synthesis.

Carbapenems

Ertapenem Bactericidal for both Gram- Gastrointestin


Inhibition of cell wall
positive and Gram-negative al upset and
synthesis
Doripenem organisms and therefore useful diarrhea
Imipenem/Cilastatin for empiric broad-spectrum Nausea
antibacterial coverage. (Note
Seizures
MRSA resistance to this class.)
Headache
Meropenem
Rash and
allergic
reactions

Cephalosporins (First generation)

Cefadroxil Gastrointestinal
upset and Same mode of
action as other beta-
Cefazolin diarrhea
lactam antibiotics:
Good coverage against Gram- Nausea (if disrupt the synthesis
Cefalotin or Cefaloth
positive infections. alcohol taken of
in
concurrently) thepeptidoglycan lay
er of bacterial cell
Allergic
Cefalexin walls.
reactions

Cephalosporins (Second generation)

Cefaclor
Same mode of
Gastrointestinal action as other beta-
Cefamandole
upset and diarrhea lactam antibiotics:
Less Gram-positive cover,
disrupt the synthesis
Cefoxitin improved Gram-negative Nausea (if alcohol
of
cover. taken concurrently)
thepeptidoglycan lay
Cefprozil
Allergic reactions er of bacterial cell
walls.
Cefuroxime

Cephalosporins (Third generation)

Cefixime Same mode of


Improved coverage of Gastrointestinal action as other beta-
Cefdinir Gram-negative organisms,
upset and diarrhea lactam antibiotics:
except Pseudomonas.
disrupt the synthesis
Reduced Gram-positive Nausea (if alcohol
Cefditoren of
cover. But still not taken concurrently)
thepeptidoglycan lay
Cefoperazone [Unlik cover Mycoplasma andChl Allergic reactions er of bacterial cell
e most third- amydia
walls.
generation agents,
cefoperazone is
active
againstPseudomona
s aeruginosa]

Cefotaxime

Cefpodoxime

Ceftazidime [Unlike
most third-
generation agents,
ceftazidime is active
against Pseudomona
s aeruginosa]

Ceftibuten

Ceftizoxime

Ceftriaxone [IV and


IM, not orally,
effective also
for syphilisand
uncomplicated gono
rrhea]

Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)

Same mode of
Gastrointestinal action as other beta-
upset and diarrhea lactam antibiotics:
Covers pseudomonal disrupt the synthesis
Cefepime Nausea (if alcohol
infections. of
taken concurrently)
thepeptidoglycan lay
Allergic reactions er of bacterial cell
walls.

Cephalosporins (Fifth generation)

Gastrointestinal Same mode of


Ceftaroline fosamil Used to treat MRSA upset and diarrhea action as other beta-
lactam antibiotics:
Allergic reaction
disrupt the synthesis
of
thepeptidoglycan lay
er of bacterial cell
walls.

Used to Same mode of


treat MRSA (methicillin- Gastrointestinal action as other beta-
resistant Staphylococcus upset and diarrhea lactam antibiotics:
aureus), penicillin-resistant disrupt the synthesis
Ceftobiprole Nausea (if alcohol
Streptococcus of
taken concurrently)
pneumoniae, thepeptidoglycan lay
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Allergic reactions er of bacterial cell
and enterococci walls.

Glycopeptides

Teicoplanin

Active against aerobic and


Vancomycin
anaerobic Gram-positive
bacteria including MRSA; inhibiting peptidogly
Telavancin
Vancomycin is used orally can synthesis
for the treatment of C.
Dalbavancin
difficile

Oritavancin

Lincosamides(Bs)

Clindamycin Serious staph-, pneumo-,


and streptococcal Bind to 50S subunit
infections in penicillin- Possible C. difficile- of bacterial
allergic patients, also relatedpseudomembranous ribosomal RNAthere
Lincomycin anaerobic infections; enterocolitis by inhibiting protein
clindamycin topically synthesis
foracne

Lipopeptide

Bind to the
membrane and
Daptomycin Gram-positive organisms cause rapid
depolarization,
resulting in a loss of
membrane potential
leading to inhibition
of protein, DNA and
RNA synthesis

Macrolides(Bs)

Azithromycin Nausea, vomiting,


and diarrhea
Clarithromycin (especially at higher
doses)
Streptococcal
Dirithromycin
infections, syphilis, upper Prolonged inhibition of
respiratory tract cardiac QT bacterial protein
Erythromycin
infections, lower interval (especially biosynthesis by
respiratory tract erythromycin) binding reversibly to
Roxithromycin
infections, mycoplasmal the subunit 50S of
infections, Lyme disease Hearing loss the
(especially at higher bacterial ribosome,
Troleandomycin doses) thereby inhibiting
translocation of
Jaundice
peptidyl tRNA.

Visual Disturbance, Liver


Telithromycin Pneumonia
Toxicity.[4]

Spiramycin Mouth infections

Monobactams

Same mode of
action as other beta-
lactam antibiotics:
disrupt the synthesis
Aztreonam Gram-negative bacteria
of
thepeptidoglycan lay
er of bacterial cell
walls.

Nitrofurans

Bacterial
Furazolidone or protozoal diarrhea or ent
eritis

Nitrofurantoin(Bs) Urinary tract infections


Oxazolidinones(Bs)

Thrombocytopenia

Peripheral
Linezolid VRSA
neuropathy

Serotonin Syndrome Protein synthesis


inhibitor; prevents
Posizolid the initiation step

Radezolid

Torezolid

Penicillins

Amoxicillin

Ampicillin

Azlocillin

Carbenicillin

Cloxacillin
Gastrointestinal Same mode of
Dicloxacillin
upset and diarrhea action as other beta-
Wide range of infections;
lactam antibiotics:
Flucloxacillin penicillin used Allergy with
disrupt the synthesis
forstreptococcal seriousanaphylactic
of
Mezlocillin infections, syphilis, reactions
thepeptidoglycan lay
and Lyme disease
Brain and kidney er of bacterial cell
Methicillin
damage (rare) walls.

Nafcillin

Oxacillin

Penicillin G

Penicillin V

Piperacillin
Penicillin G

Temocillin

Ticarcillin

Penicillin combinations

Both
Amoxicillin/clavulanate and
Ampicillin/sulbactam are
effective against non-
Amoxicillin/clavula recurrent acute Otitis
rowspan="4"
nate media[5] Only a few oral-
antibiotics active for skin
and soft tissue infections, The second
one of it is component prevents
Amoxicillin/clavulanate bacterialresistance t
o the first
Ampicillin/sulbacta component
m

Piperacillin/tazoba
ctam

Ticarcillin/clavulan
ate

Polypeptides

Eye, ear or bladder


infections; usually Inhibits isoprenyl
applied directly to the pyrophosphate, a
eye or inhaled into the molecule that carries
lungs; rarely given by the building blocks
Kidney and nerve damage
Bacitracin injection, although the of
(when given by injection)
use of intravenous the peptidoglycanba
colistin is experiencing a cterial cell
resurgence due to the wall outside of the
emergence of multi drug inner membrane[6]
resistantorganisms.

Colistin Interact with the


Gram-
negative bacterial
outer
membrane and cyto
plasmic membrane,
displacing bacterial
counterions, which
destabilizes the
outer membrane.
Act like a detergent
against the
cytoplasmic
membrane, which
alters its
permeability.
Polymyxin B and E
are bactericidal even
in an isosmotic
solution.

Polymyxin B

Quinolones/Fluoroquinolone

Ciprofloxacin

Enoxacin

Gatifloxacin
Urinary tract
inhibit the
Gemifloxacin infections, bacterial
bacterial DNA
prostatitis, community-
Nausea (rare), irreversible gyrase or
Levofloxacin acquired pneumonia, ba
damage to central nervous thetopoisomerase IV
cterial
system (uncommon), enzyme, thereby
Lomefloxacin diarrhea, mycoplasmal
tendinosis (rare) inhibiting DNAreplic
infections, gonorrhea
ation and
Moxifloxacin
transcription.

Nalidixic acid

Norfloxacin

Ofloxacin

Trovafloxacin Withdrawn
Grepafloxacin Withdrawn

Sparfloxacin Withdrawn

Temafloxacin Withdrawn

Sulfonamides(Bs)

Mafenide
Folate
synthesis inhibition.
Sulfacetamide
They
are competitive
Sulfadiazine
inhibitors of the
enzyme dihydropter
Silver sulfadiazine
Nausea, vomiting, and oate synthetase,
diarrhea DHPS. DHPS
Sulfadimethoxine
catalyses the
Urinary tract Allergy (including skin
conversion of PABA
Sulfamethizole infections (except rashes)
(para-
sulfacetamide, used
Crystals in urine aminobenzoate)
Sulfamethoxazole for eye infections, and
todihydropteroate, a
mafenide and silver Kidney failure key step
Sulfanilimide (arch sulfadiazine, used
in folate synthesis.
aic) topically for burns) Decrease in white
Folate is necessary
blood cell count
for the cell to
Sulfasalazine
Sensitivity to sunlight synthesizenucleic
acids (nucleic acids
Sulfisoxazole
are essential
building blocks
Trimethoprim-
of DNA and RNA),
Sulfamethoxazole(
and in its absence
Co-trimoxazole)
cells cannot divide.
(TMP-SMX)

Sulfonamidochryso
idine(archaic)

Tetracyclines(Bs)

Demeclocycline Syphilis, chlamydial infec Gastrointestinal upset inhibiting the


tions, Lyme binding
Doxycycline Sensitivity to sunlight
disease,mycoplasmal of aminoacyl-
infections, Potential toxicity to tRNA to themRNA-
Minocycline acne rickettsialinfections ribosome complex.
mother and fetus
Oxytetracycline , *malaria *Note: during pregnancy They do so mainly by
Malaria is caused by binding to the 30S
Enamel hypoplasia
aprotist and not a ribosomal subunit in
bacterium. (staining of teeth; themRNA
potentially permanent) translation complex.

transient depression of But Tetracycline


Tetracycline bone growth cannot be taken
together with all
dairy products,
aluminium, iron and
zinc minerals.

Drugs against mycobacteria

Clofazimine Antileprotic

Dapsone Antileprotic

Capreomycin Antituberculosis

Antituberculosis, urinary
Cycloserine
tract infections

Ethambutol(Bs) Antituberculosis

Inhibits peptide
Ethionamide Antituberculosis
synthesis

Isoniazid Antituberculosis

Pyrazinamide Antituberculosis

Binds to the
mostly Gram-
Rifampicin (Rifampi Reddish-orange sweat, tears, subunit of RNA
positive and mycobacteri
n in US) and urine polymerase to
a
inhibit transcription

Mycobacterium Rash, discolored urine, GI


Rifabutin
avium complex symptoms

Rifapentine Antituberculosis

Streptomycin Antituberculosis Neurotoxicity, ototoxicity As


other aminoglycosid
es

Others

Spirochaetal infections
Arsphenamine
(obsolete)

Meningitis, MRSA,
Inhibits bacterial
topical use, or for low-
protein synthesis by
Chloramphenicol(B cost internal treatment.
Rarely: aplastic anemia. binding to the 50S
s) Historic: typhus, cholera.
subunit of the
Gram-negative, Gram-
ribosome
positive, anaerobes

Inactivates enolpyru
This antibiotic is not
vyl transferase,
Fosfomycin Acute cystitis in women recommended for children and
thereby blocking cell
75 up of age
wall synthesis

Fusidic acid

Produces toxic free


radicals that disrupt
DNA and proteins.
Infections caused Discolored This non-specific
by anaerobic bacteria; urine, headache,metallic mechanism is
Metronidazole
alsoamoebiasis, trichom taste, nausea;alcohol is responsible for its
oniasis, giardiasis contraindicated activity against a
variety of bacteria,
amoebae, and
protozoa.

Inhibits isoleucine t-
RNA synthetase
Ointment for impetigo, c
Mupirocin (IleRS) causing
ream for infected cuts
inhibition of protein
synthesis

Platensimycin

Quinupristin/Dalfo
pristin

Thiamphenicol Gram-negative, Gram- Rash. Lacks known anemic side- A chloramphenicol


positive, anaerobes. effects. analog. May inhibit
Widely used in bacterial protein
veterinary medicine. synthesis by binding
to the 50S subunit of
the ribosome

Slowly Intravenous.
Indicated for
complicated skin/skin
structure infections, soft
tissues infections and
complicated intra-
abdominal infections. Teeth discoloration and same
Effective for gram side effects asTetracycline. Not Similar structure
positive and negative to be given for children and with tetracycline,
and also anaerob pregnant or lactate women. but 5 times stronger,
Tigecycline(Bs)
antibiotics, against Relatively safe and no need big volume
multi-resistant dose adjusted when be given distribution and long
antibiotics bacteries for mild to moderate liver half-time in the body
such asStaphylococcus function or renal patients
aureus (MRSA)
andAcinetobacter
baumannii, but not
effective for
Pseudomonas spp and
Proteus spp

Upset stomach, bitter taste,


Tinidazole Protozoal infections
and itchiness

Trimethoprim(Bs) Urinary tract infections

Referensi :

1. Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R. (1999) Host-Parasite Interaction; Nonspecific
Host Resistance, In: Microbiology Conceptsand Applications, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New
York, U.S.A. pp. 478-479. Available from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_antibiotics
2. Robert Berkow (ed.) The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition. Pocket
(September 1999), ISBN 0-671-02727-1. Available from :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_antibiotics
3. "Neomycin Drug Information". uptodate. Retrieved 2/11/2012. (subscription required)
4. Splete, Heidi; Kerri Wachter (March 2006). "Liver toxicity reported with Ketek". Internal
Medicine News. Available from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_antibiotics
5. "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-
acute otitis media in Argentinean children". Retrieved July 23, 2014. Available from :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_antibiotics
6. Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin: Complexation with Metal Ion and C55-Isoprenyl
Pyrophosphate K. John Stone and Jack L. Strominger Available from :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_antibiotics
7. "List of Antibiotics". Retrieved February 7, 2014. Available from :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_antibiotics