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Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

It has been a rising concern to how Malaysia should address the securement of RE for

the sake of developing our country to a much higher state of a prestigious civilization while

also nullifying the adverse effects from an environmental perspective. This is a huge

challenge for Malaysia since there is a significant boost in energy demand for almost 20% for

some of the past 3 years (from 1999 to 2002). It is further expected for the energy demand to

increase to 18,000 MW by the year 2010. [1] An effective and sustainable energy policy has

been made to counter these disadvantages. Two essential considerations will be included into

this policy for the sake of its own success. The first consideration is that the complication

where countries are lacking in modern and economical energy services must be fixed.

Secondly, is to reduce the negative effects of energy improvement towards the countrys

natural environment to ensure substantial energy sustainability. It is of colossal importance

for Malaysia to start having actual concern for energy sustainability but also for not only

relying on one source of energy for the sake of our countrys development.

Malaysia has been attempting to address the issues of energy reliability and

sustainability throughout these past decades by implementations of past energy policies such

as the National Energy Policy (1979), National Depletion Policy (1980) and the Fuel

Diversification Policy (1981, 1999). [2] The National Energy Policy focuses mainly on

energy supplies, energy utilization and environmental responsibility. For the first aspect

(energy supplies), to ensure the provision of adequate, secure and cost-effective energy

supply by developing indigenous energy resources (both non-renewable and renewable) using

least cost options and to diversify supply sources (both from within and outside the country).

The second objective is to promote the efficient utilization of energy and discourage wasteful

and non-productive patterns of energy consumption within the socio-cultural and economic
parameters. The final objective is to ensure that factors pertaining to environmental

protection are not neglected in the pursuit of the supply and utilization objectives.

Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

Implementing green energy is quite a challenge in Malaysia since our country had

depend on the fossil fuel source for few decade as primary source of energy. In terms of

energy equivalent, Malaysia has gas reserves, which are four times the size of its crude oil

reserves. Natural gas reserves off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia are dedicated for

domestic consumption while those in Sarawak are allocated as revenue earner in the form of

liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports. Based on past energy patterns, growth in energy demand

concentrated in Peninsular Malaysia, implying uneven demand trends between Peninsular

Malaysia on one hand and Sabah and Sarawak on the other. Sales of electricity in Peninsular

Malaysia recorded a double digit average annual growth rate for the past ten years, in tandem

with the rapid rate of industrialization. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an

average of 7.2% per year in the same period (Economic Planning Unit,2001a). The main

sources of commercial energy supply in 1999 amounting to 37.2 million tonnes oil equivalent

(Mtoe) were derived from crude oil and petroleum products (48.5%) followed by natural gas

(41.8%), coal and coke (5.2%) and hydro (4.5%). The energy mix will continue to be

predominantly based on domestic resources in the next five years. Since domestic fossil fuel

resources (oil, gas and coal) are depletable, efforts to promote renewable energy as a fifth

fuel, especially for electricity generation will be intensified during the Eighth Malaysia Plan

period (20012005). The Government has identified oil palm residues as the biggest resource

that can be easily developed, thus having the greatest potential for bringing
renewable energy into the mainstream energy supply. Aside from biomass and its residues,

there are other renewable energy options in Malaysia such as biogas,municipal wastes, solar

and mini hydro will contribute to this implementation ogf green energy in future.

Malaysias national energy developments

Malaysia is a country in Southern Asia, which is gifted with plenty of natural

resources such as agriculture, forestry and minerals. Malaysia has being one of the top

exporters by exporting natural rubber and palm oil in agriculture. This can be shown that

Malaysia is rich of natural resources. In this article show that Malaysia supply and demand

scenario from 2000 to 2010 as well as its energy mixed. From the research, electricity

production in Malaysia stands at 103.2 billion kWh and consumption at 99.25 billion kWh

estimated in 2007. However, the largest energy consumer in Malaysia is transport sector

(40.5%) in year 2015 and followed by industrial sector (38.6%) which is also has the high

GDP in our country, then residential and commercial sector(13.1%), non-energy sector

(7.3%) and lastly agriculture and forestry sector (0.5%). On the other hand, this article is

discussing about leading the policies implemented by Malaysia government. There is three

key national policy frameworks tie with Malaysia development which is New Economic

Polic (NEP), 1971-1990, Nasional Development Policy (NDP), 11991-2000, and Nasional

Vision Policy (NVP),2001-2010. Besides, there is main government agencies or key players

who in charge of the implemented for energy policies such as Petroliam Nasional Berhad,

Tenaga nasional Berhad, Malaysia Energy Commission, Ministry of Energy, Green

Technology and Water, Malaysia Energy Centre, Centre for Environment, Technology and

Development Malaysia. these companies are playing an important job to implement for the

energy development. A lot of programmes implemented have been carried out for the energy

development in Malaysia. These programmes are mostly to improve the energy development

to become more efficiency or research in the renewable energy which can be used
unlimitedly. Lastly this article is also talking about the important involvement in Malaysia in

the international arena toward environment protection. Malaysia has participated in key

conventions regarding environment and sustainable development. Malaysia is a developing

country and an important subscriber to reducing climate change and promoting sustainable

Scenario and sustainable energy in Malaysia

Abundant and economical energy is the life blood of modern civilization. Due to serious

shortage of fossil fuels, it has triggered mankind awareness to find alternative energy sources.

At current production rates, global proven reserves for crude oil and natural gas are estimated

to last for 41.8 and 60.3 years respectively but the renewable energy contributes only 11% of

the total global energy used. [1] Thus renewable and sustainable energy will become one of

the main energy sources for the world. Future energy demand in Malaysia is expected to

grow at annual growth rate of 5-7.9% for the next 20 years. Hence, sustainable and renewable

energies are imperative to Malaysia. The energy mix in Malaysia is contributed by five main

sources, namely natural gas, coal, oil, hydro and renewable energy. In 2001, Malaysian

government launched the Small Renewable Energy Power Programme (SREP) as the first

step to encourage and intensify the utilisation of renewable energy in power generation.

Renewable energy such as solar, wind, mini hydropower and biomass can be found in

Malaysia. Despite the continuous effort to improve renewable energy, they are not fully

utilized to their maximum potential in Malaysia. Malaysia energy sector still heavily

dependent on non-renewable fuel as source of energy. More proactive steps are needed to

promote the usage of renewable energy in Malaysia. Therefore, this study will look into the

aspect of renewable energies to increase its efforts in obtaining greater efficiency in energy

conversion, transmission and utilization in Malaysia.

[1] Hossain AK, Badr O. Prospects of renewable energy utilisation for electricity generation
in Bangladesh. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 20007;11(8):1617-49

Comprehensive overview of renewable energy development in Taiwan

As world population continues to grow, depletion of fossil fuels and global warming

becomes a serious drawback. Meeting the Taiwans demand of energy is becoming a

challenge as its total energy consumption has increased substantially. Carbon dioxide (CO2)

emissions from the consumption of energy in Taiwan were 293 million tons in 2011,

accounting for 0.9% of the global emission. [1] The annual growth rate of CO2 emissions in

Taiwan is more than 5% over the past 20 years, ranking 23rd on the global list and 6th in Asia

and Oceania. Various policies such as Frameworks of Sustainable Energy Policy: An

Energy-Saving and Carbon-Reduction Action Plan in 2008 had been implemented to cope

with the current situation. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is one of the cleanest

sources of energy. Due to Taiwans wind climate, including the Asia monsoons and tropical

cyclones during the summer season and the north east trade winds during the winter season,

wind energy could be one of the most promising renewable energy sources in Taiwan. Tidal

power, wave power, current power, salinity gradient power and ocean thermal power are

considered as ocean renewable energy. Taiwan is surrounded by sea and has coastline of

more than 1500 km. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems (IEAOES)

specified the theoretical generation of annual ocean energy as follows: 10,000 TWh of ocean

thermal energy, 8000 80,000 TWh of wave energy, over 800 TWh of ocean current energy,

above 300 TWh of tidal energy and 2000 TWh salinity gradient energy. [2,3] This renewable

energy has great potentials for future development. Taiwan is located in a subtropical island

between the latitudes of 228 and 258 North and the longitudes of 1208 and 1218 East. [4]

Development of solar energy in Taiwan is also suitable as Taiwan has an average daily

sunshine of 3.78 kWh/m2 due to the benefits of long duration of insolation and small angle of

daylight deflection. These findings are the overviews of the promising renewable energy

resources which can aid Taiwan to achieve low carbonization and maximization of industrial


[1] U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). International energy statistics,; 2013.
[2] United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Midterm
policy, and insuring environmental sustainability, http://
we-work/rc-system/joint-programmes/ unct/resident-agencies/unesco; 2011.

[3] Luo HX. Smart, healthy and energy conservation into daily life. Ind. Technol. Res. Inst.

(IRTI) 2011;11(241):401 (in Chinese).

[4] Chen F, Lu SM, Tseng KT, Lee SC, Wang E. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in
Taiwan. Renew. Sustain. Energy
Rev. 2010;14:251128.