Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

Gmchrnica LI Ciwnwhtmica ACIU Vol. 53. pp. 197-214 0016-7037/89/$3.00 + .

Copyright 0 1989 Pergamon Press pk. Printed in U.S.A

Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar

Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637-1433, U.S.A.


Institut dAstrophysique, Universite de Liege, B-4200 O&e-Liege, Belgium

(Received July 14, 1988; accepted in revisedform November 2, 1988)

Abstract-New abundance tables have been compiled for Cl chondrites and the solar photosphere and corona, based
on a critical review of the literature to mid-1988. The meteorite data are generally accurate to +5-10%. Significant
discrepancies between Sun and meteorites occur only for Fe, Mn, Ge, Pb, and W; other well-determined elements
agree to &90/oon the average. There is no evidence for group fractionations in Cl chondrites of cosmochemically
similar elements (refractories, siderophiles, volatiles, etc.), but a selective fractionation of Fe cannot be ruled out.
Abundances of odd-A n&ides between A = 65 and 209 show a generally smooth trend, with elemental abundances
conforming to the slope defined by isotopic abundances. Significant irregularities occur in the Nd-Sm-Eu region,
however, suggesting that the abundance curve is dependably smooth only down to the -20% level.

1. INTBODUCTION abundances by weight and the number of analyses for the

THIS PAPERIS a new edition of the abundance compilations Orgueil meteorite. Column 6 gives weight abundances for a
of ANDERs and EBIHARA(1982; hereafter AE) for meteorites nominal Cl chondrite of Si = 10.64%, calculated from the
and GREVESSE(1984a,b) for the solar photosphere. Although atomic abundances in column 2. These values, rather than
meteoritic values have changed little, many photospheric those for Orgueil, should be used whenever abundances by
values, including those for C, N, 0, have improved greatly weight are needed (e.g., for normalization to Cl chondrites),
in recent years, mainly due to the use of highly accurate tran- as they are fully consistent with the atomic abundances in
sition probabilities, and thus permit a critical comparison of Column 2 (except for the incompletely condensed elements
solar and meteoritic abundances. In addition to better data, H, C, N, 0 and the noble gases).
our new abundance tables contain many small improvements, Comparison with previous data. All together, the values
such as better coupling of solar and meteoritic scales, better for 61 elements have been reevaluated since 1982 (Fig. l),
isotopic abundances, etc. but in only one case did the change exceed 20% (Hg) or one
Section 2 of this paper presents the new abundance tables. standard deviation (Hf). Apparently meteorite analyses have
Sections 3 and 4 review the elements individually for mete- converged to the point where most elements are known to
orites and the solar photosphere, showing how the values better than 10%. This seems to be true even for elements
were obtained and discussing uncertainties. Section 5 presents estimated indirectly from other meteorite classes. These in-
values for the solar corona, from spectroscopy as well as direct estimates by AE were confirmed in all four cases (B,
measurements of solar wind and solar energetic particles Nb, Ta, W) where they were checked by direct analyses
(SEP). Section 6 reviews data for noble gases. Section 7 com- on Cls.
pares photospheric, coronal, meteoritic, and cometary abun- Mass fractions (X, I, Z). From the abundances in Table
dances, as well as trends in s-process and r-process nuclides. 1, we have calculated mass fractions of H, He, and heavier
elements (usually referred to as X, Y, Z in the astronomical
2. ABUNDANCE OF THE ELEMENTS AND NUCLIDES literature). The values (%) are given below, with an alternative
2.1. Solar-system abundance?: Elements set for the solar Fe value (log Fe = 7.67) in parentheses. The
uncertainties are conservative estimates, calculated by varying
Abundances on the Si = 10 scale, based mainly on Cl the individual elements within their error limits.
chondrites, are given in Table 1, along with the values ofAE.
Columns 4 and 5 give the population standard deviation and X(H) = 70.683 (70.643) rt 2.5%
the number of C 1 analyses averaged. Parentheses mean that
Y (He) = 27.431 (27.416) f 6%
data for other meteorite classes were included, requiring a
more involved procedure (Sec. 3). Columns 7 and 8 give Z(Li-U) = 1.886 (1.941) 2 8.5%
The mass fraction of Si (for log Fe = 7.5 1) is 0.069889 1%.
A few definitions. Solar-systemabundances (formerly known as With this value, it is easy to calculate from Table 1 mass
cosmic abundances) are best estimates for the entire solar system. fractions of various condensates or element groups.
They are based on meteorites except for H, C, N, 0 and noble gases,
where solar and other astronomical data were used. Solar abundances 2.2. Solar abundances
are best estimates for the Sun. They are based mainly on photospheric
data, augmented as needed by solar wind, SEP, or other astronomical Table 2 gives solar photospheric abundances on the usual
(but not meteoritic) data. logarithmic (dex) scale relative to hydrogen [AE, = log(&,/
198 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

Table I. Solar-System Abundances of the Elements, 400% . . ..I... * I....,....,....,.. ..i.,..,....,..~.I..

Based on Meteorites (Arom@ Si)
- 2
Nt l
Element his Work* A ndrrs & (%) Meall Orgue@ ; .

iE Cl chondr.4 20.0% - *
z . he-**y::.-~:,.e . .**
( lY82)

1H .79 .lOO t2.72x10 2.02 s l

.72 rl09 2.18x109 Sh l.*r
. . .. .
2He d/g l
3 Li 57.1 59.7 9.2 1.49 pp I!
0.0% -
4 Be
01 x10
2 4
1.21 x10

, .
: . . .

7N -13 xl@ .48 xlOC tiso ppn -20.0%

X0 .3R x IO 2.O, xl@ 10 46.4 B
YF x43 8,43 1s 1 h0.7 ppm 58.2 ppm
10 Ne .44 xl06 3 7h xl@ 14 .. 203 PL/E
IlNa .74 .I00 5.7O .lOJ 20 5wo ,Dpm :;;
.074xlOh 1.075x 106
15 9.89 8
i -40.0% 1 * . . . t * * . . ~. . . A.&-J
ei.49 xl@
19 86%) p&w ihYO ppm
0 10 20 30 40 SO 60 70 80 90 100
13 AI ..49x IO+ 3.6
Atomic number, 2
14 Si .3O xl@ I .l,O x lo6 4.4 9 1O.M 8 0.67 s
15P 04 Y lo4 1.04 XIOJ 10 4 1220 ppm IlSO ppm
165 .I5 xl@ 58.15 xld 13 5 6.25 8 5.25 s PIG. 1. Comparison of new solar-system abundances with those
17CI 240 5,240 10 704 ppm 698 ppm
15 of ANDERS and EBIHARA (1982).
18Ar .Ol xl@ 1.04 x IOS h 751 @/I
19K 770 I1770 7.7 29 558 ppm 566 ppm
20 ca f.11 x10- 1.11 .lof 7.1 15 92SU pp 3020 ppm
21 SC 34.2 33.8 X.6 18 5.82 ppni 5.83 ppm
22 Ti 400 1; i4OO 5.0 7 436 ppm 436 ppm NH) + lZ.OO]. Individual results are discussed in Sec. 4. For
23 v 2Y3 295 5.1 Y 56.5 ppm 56.2 ppm comparison, column 3 shows the meteorite-based solar-sys-
24 Cr .35 xll? 1
1.34 xl04 7.6 13 2660 ppm 2660 ppm
25 hln 550
a510 9.6 20 1990 ppm 19%) ppm tem abundances from Table 1, converted to the astronomical
26 Fe 1.00xloi c
UIO I tll~ 2.7 19 19.04 8 8.51 8
27 Co :250 !250 6.6 18 502 ppm 507 ppm scale by adding 1.554 to the log of the abundance (see below).
28 Ni ,.93 *I@ 193 xi@ 5.1 27 1.10 8 1.10 8
29 Cu 522 .il4 il 8 126 ppm 119 ppm
Column 4 gives the log of the ratio Sun/meteorites. The ratio
30 Zn 260 I260 4.4 27 312 ppm 311 ppm itself is plotted in Fig. 2 against atomic number.
31 Ga 37.8 37.x h.9 14 10.0 ppm 10.1 ppm
32 Ge 119 11x 9.6 31 32.7 ppm 32.6 ppm The conversion factor from the solar abundance scale (log
33 As 6.56 6.79 12 18 1.86 ppm 1.85 ppm
34 Se 62.1 h?. I 6.4 1x 18.6 ppm iii2 ppm
NH = 12.00) to the meteoritic scale (Nsi = 106) has been
35 BF 11.8 Il.8 19 18) 3.57 ppzz 3.56 ppm derived by comparing the solar-meteoritic ratio, R = log (sol/
36 Kr 45 45.3 1x 8.7 pw,
37 Rb 7.09 7SlY 6.6 19 2.30 ppm 2.30 ppm met), for all elements. This comparison shows that R for
38Sr 23.5 23 X 8.1 1x 7.80 ppm 7.80 ppm
well-determined elements clusters between 1.52 and 1.58,
3YY 4.64 4.64 6.0 5 1.5h ppm 1.53 pp
40Zr 11.4 10.7 6.4 : 3.Y4
246 ppb
ppm 3.95 pp with a maximum around 1.55. We have adopted R = 1.S54
41Nb 0.69X 0.71 1.4 246 ppb
42 Mrt 2.55 2.52 5.5 2 928 pph YZX pps i 0.020, the mean for 12 elements (Na, Mg, Si, Ca, V, Cr,
44 Ru 1.X6 1.86 5.4 9 712 ppb 714 .Dpb
45 Rh 0.344 0.344 x (7) 134 pp* 134 ppb Co, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, and MO). This ratio is very close to previous
46 Pd 1.3Y 6.6 25 560 ppb 5% ppb
6 199 ppb 197 ppb
estimates by MEYER(1979), CAMERON(1982), and,@ 1.57
47 Ag l1.4Sh 0.529 2.)
48 Cd I.hl 1.69 6.5 30 z PPb 6x0 ,DPb f 0.16, 1.576, and 1.566 2 0.023. The nominal uncertainty
49 I 0,184 0.184 6.4 24 P&-b 77.8 ppb
50 S 3.82 3.82 Y.4 II 1720 ppb I680 pph
in coupling the two scales now is only kS%.
51 Sb 0.309 11.352 18 22 142 ppb 133 ppb
52Te 4.x1 4.91 10 17 2320 ppb 2270 ppb
53 I II) 433 ppb 433 ppb
54 Xe
4.35 ::, 8.6 ,DL,J
2.3. Solar-system abundances: Nuclides
55 cs 0.372 0.372 5.6 20 I87 ppb IS6 ppb
56 Ba 4.49 4.36 6.3 x 2340 ppb 2340 ppb Abundances of individual nuclides are given in Table 3.
57 Ia 0.44M) 0.448 2.0 4 234.7 ppb 236 p&lb
SMCe 1.136 I.16 1.7 4 603.2 ppb 619 ppb For radioactive and radiogenic nuchdes their abundances 4.55
59Pr 0.1669 0.174 2.4 20) 89.1 ppb 90 PPb
60 Nd 0.8279 0.836 1.3 4 452.4 ppb 463 ppb
AE ago are given in italics, based on half-lives from HOLDEN
h? Sm O.ZSH2 0.261 1.3 4 147.1 ppb 144 ppb (1985a,b,c and priv. commun.), except for K4, where the
63 E 0.0973 0.0972 1.6 4 56.0 @ 54.7 ppb
64 Gd 0.3300 0.331 1.4 4 196.h ppb 199 ppb value recommended in geochronology ( 1.2505 1O9 yr,
45 Tb O.OhO3 0.0589 2.2 21) 36.3 ppb 35.3 pp*
66 Dy 0.3942 0.398 1.4 4 242.7 ppb 246 ppb
STEIGERand JAGER, 1977) was used.
67 Ho 0.0889 0.0875 2.4 123) 55.6 ppb 55 2 ppb
68 Er 0.2508 0.253 1.3 4 158.9 ppb 162 ppb For isotopic compositions, we generally used terrestrial rather than
hY Tm 0.0378 0.03R6 2.3 20) 24.2 ppb 22 ppb solar values, except for H and noble gases. Solar values are hard to
70 Yb 0.2479 0.243 1.6 4 162.5 ppb 166 ppb
71 L 0.0367 0.0369 1.3 24.5 ppb measure accurately by spectroscopy, as the isotopic shifts of atomic
72 Hf 0.154 0.116 (1.9 :3) z: ;: 108 ppb lines are small compared to the width of photospheric lines. Only
73 Ta 0.0207 0.0226 1.8 2 14.2 ppb 14.0 ppb
74W 0.133 0.137 5.1 3 92.6 orb 92.3 ppb
for C and 0 can accurate isotopic ratios be obtained, using the infrared
75 Re 0.0517 0.0507 9.4 21 36.5 ?pb 37.1 ppb vibration-rotation bands of CO. These values confirm the terrestrial
76 OS 0.675 0.717 6.3 16 4X6 ppb 4x3 ppb ratios in Table 3.
77 rr O.hhl 0.660 61 474 ppb
78 Pt 1.34 1.37 7.4 973 ppb
Isotopic abundances generally are the terrestrial representative
?Y Au 0.187 #.I?36 15 145 ppb isotopic impositions r~ommended by IUPAC (HOLDEN et al.,
f-(1Hg 0.34 0.52 12 ._ 258 ppb 258 ppb 1984;and HOLDEN, priv. commun.). In caseswhere the recommended
81 n 0.1x4 0.184 9.4 18 142 ppb 143 ppb
X2 Pb 3.15 3.15 7.R 3 2470 oob 2430 ,vpb composition gave the abundance of a rare isotope to only one sig-
X3 Ri 0.144 0.144 8.2 Ill ppb nificant figure, we either took that value from the best measurement
90 Th 0.0335 0.0335 5.7 26.6 ppD
92U O.oUYO O.r#90 x.4 8.1 ppb
from a single natural source (Se, OS), or used the entire best anal-
i ysis, when it appeared that the recommended commotion was merely
a rounded-off version of the best analysis (25, La, Dy). We also used
the latest analyses for Ga (MACHLAN et al., 1986), Sn (ROSMAN et
al., 1984), Sb (DELAETER and HOSIE, 1988), Te (SMITH and DE-
LAETER, 1986), and Hg (ZADNIKet al., 1989).
The IUPAC com~itio~ are intended to represent the chemicals
and/or materials most commonly encountered in the laboratory,
not necessarily the most abundant natural material (HOLDEN et
al., 1984). This makes a slight difference for light elements (Li, B, C,
Abundances of the elements 199

Table 2. Abundances in the Solar Photosphere

(lo8 N&2.00)

hotospherc* Meteoritest Phlot.-Mst.

IH 2.00 12.00]
2He 0.99 +a. 035: l&99]
3 Li 1.16 _&x1 3.31 ti.ff! -2.15
4Be 1.15 io.10 1.42 ~0.04 -0.27
5B 2.6 fU.3) 2.88 ?O.O.# i ( -0.28)
bc 8.56 fO.04 [8.56]
7N 8.05 to.04 [8.05]
80 8.93 fO.035 [8.93]
9F 4.56 ti.3 4.48 ti.06 +o.os
IllNe 8.09 to. IO] [X.09 iO.lO]
II Na 6.33 20.03 6.31 S.03 +0.02
7.58 _+O.OS 7.58 +0.02 0.00
.lOO.o% -.~~~~~(LY-.~~~~~~~~~~~~I~~I~~~l~~..~
12Mg 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
13AI 6.47 io.07 6.48 _tO.OZ -0.01
14 Si 7.55 _+0.05 7.55 -ro.oz 0.00
Atomic number, Z
15 P 5.45 i(O.04, 5.57 iO.04 -0.12
16s 7.21 _io.lx 7.27 tO.O.5 -0.06
FIG. 2. Comparison of solar-system (meteoritic) and photo-
17CI 5.5 110.3 5.27 -@.fx i-O.23 spheric abundances.
18Ar h.56 ?O.lO] [6.56 _+O.lO] _
19 K 5.12 _%I3 5.13 ti.03 -0.01
20 Ca 6.36 ~0.02 6.34 to.03 +0.02
21 SC 3.10 qo.09, 3.09 _w.o4 co.01 0) and for elements with small radiogenic components (Sr, Nd, Hf,
22 Ti 4.99 to.02 4.93 ro.02 +0.06
4.00 iO.02 4.02 to.02 -0.02
OS). It makes a much larger difference for elements that are strongly
23 V
24 Cr 5.67 to.03 5.68 So.03 -0.01 depleted in the Earth (H, N, noble gases) or are largely radiogenic
25 Mn 5.39 to.03 5.53 +0.04 -0.14 (Pb). For the first group, we have retained the 1UPAC compositions,
26 Fe 7.67 +O,OSt 7.51 ~0.01 +0.16* in the expectation that any reader concerned about these small dif-
27 Co 4.02 20.04 4.9t -to.03 +0.01
6.25 ro.02 O.OO
ferences will consult the references cited by HOLDEN er ai. (1984)
28 Ni 6.25 M.04
2.9 CU 4.21 _%.04 4.27 _sm -0.06 and papers on isotope geology. Our choices for the second group are
30 Zn 4.60 _O.O% 4.65 iO.O.? -0.05 discussed below.
31C9 2.88 i(O.10 3.13 20.03 -0.25 For hydrogen, we recomputed the protosolar D/H ratio (GEISS
32 Ce 3.41 iO.14 3.63 20.04 -0.22
_ 2.31 ?a05
and BOCHSLER, 198 I) for our He/H ratio, again using the difference
33 As
34 Se _ 3.35 MO3 between He3/He4 in solar wind, (4.9 + 0.5). IO- (COPLAN et al.,
35 Br _ 2.63 _W.OU 1984; BOCHSLER, 1987) and in meteoritic planetary He (1.42
36 Kr 3.23 10.07 + 0.2). 10e4 (REYNOLDS et al., 1978; JEFFERY and ANDERS,1970).
37 Rb 2.60 _t(O.IS 2.40 $0.03 +0.20
2.93 to.03 -0.03
The resulting protosolar D/H-(3.4 + 1.0). 1O-s-is somewhat larger
38 ST 2.90 fO.06
39Y 2.24 M.03 2.22 to.02 co.02 than the previous value of 2 * lo- (GEISS and BOCHSLER,198 I), but
40 Zr 2.60 20.03 Z.hl 20.03 -0.01 agrees with the results for Jupiter and Saturn (GAUTIER, 1983; OWEN
41 Nb I.42 -a.06 1.40 _+.o.oI i 0.02 etal., 1986). It is larger, though, than the latest value for the interstellar
42 MO 1.92 ?0.05 1.96 -sx?2 -0.04
medium, 0.8 5 D/H s 2 * 10es (BOESGAARD and STEIGMAN, 1985).
44 Ru 1.84 9.07 1.82 _WO2 +0.02
45 Rh 1.12 iO.lZ 1.09 +a.03 10.03 For an error analysis, see GEISSand B~CHSLER ( 198 1).
46 Pd 1.69 _%.04 1.70 to.03 -0.01 For nitrogen, it is difficult to find a truly representative value, as
47Ag 0.94 50. 25) 1.24 SOI w;d trapped (mainly solar-wind) nitrogen in lunar soils shows a -35%
48 Cd 1.R6 _+O.JS 1.76 _NO3
increase in N/N14 during the last 2.5. lo9 yr (KERRIDGE, 1980;
49 In .1.66 _W.U) 0.x2 /0.03 (+0.84)
50 so 2.0 _+(0.3) 2.14 to.04 -0.14 CLAYTONand THIEMENS, 1980; GEISS and BOCHSLER, 1982). We
51 Sb 1.0 _+(0.3) 1.04 ?O.O? -0.04 have adopted the terrestrial atmospheric ratio, as it falls within the
2.24 _N.O.# solar-wind range. For lead, we have used the most accurate analysis
53 I 1.51 _fl.OR
54 Xe _ 2.23 _cO.O8
for Orgueil (TATSLJMOTO et al., 1976).
5s Cs 1.12 10.02
56 Ba 2.13 iO.OS 2.21 _1203 -0.08 For noble gases, we used mainly solar-wind values. How-
s7la 1.22 fO.09 1.20 ftw.oI +0.02
1.61 _N.OI
ever, for He3/He4, we again used 1.42 s 10s4, the ratio in
58 Ce 1.55 ti.20 -0.06
59 Pr 0.71 iO.08 0.78 -to.01 -0.07 planetary He, since the solar ratio has been raised by deu-
60 Nd 1.50 10.06 1.47 ia.01 +0.03
62 Sm 1.00 20.08 0.97 ?a.01 -0.03
terium burning. The situation for Nezo/Nez2 is quite complex
63 Eu 0.51 ?0.08 0.54 ~.a.01 - 0.03 as this ratio varies widely: present solar wind in Al-foils
64 Cd 1.12 fO.04 1.07 io.01 f0.05
65 Tb 0.1 iO.3) 0.33 _sI.OI (-0.43)
= 13.7 f 0.3 (GEISS, 1973); older solar wind in lunar soils
66 & 1.1 ?0lf 1.15 TO.01 -0.05 = 13.3 f 0. I (WIELER et al., 1986); low-energy SEP in lunar
67 Ho 0.26 M.16) 0.50 fO.01 (-0.24)
68 Er O.Y3 fOo,06 0.95 _@.OI -0.02
soils = 11.3 + 0+3 (WIELER et al., 1986) and in meteorites
69 Tm O.aa fO.15) 0.13 _&Of W;; = 10.6 f 0.3 (BLACK, 1972); ~~g~-ener~ SEP = 7.7 (+.X3,
7017, 1.08 *co. IS, 0.95 _+O.OI
71 Lu 0.76 ti.30) 0.12 _G.Oi [to&) -1.5) or 9.2 (+1.9, -1.8) (DIETRICH and SIMPSON, 1979;
72 HP 0.88 i(O.08, 0.73 _+0.01 CO.15 MEWALDTet al., 1984), which becomes 7.6 (+I. 7, -1.5) after
73 Te 0.13 kO.01
74 w 1.11 iO.15) 0.68 a02 (-cO.43) correction for Q/M-dependent fractionation (MEWALDTand
75 Re 0.27 20.04 STONE, 1987), or various kinds of planetary Ne in mete-
76 OS 1.45 _tO.lO 1.38 -4.03 f0.07
77 Ir 1.35 _(O.lO, 1.37 a.03 -0.02 orites: Ne-Al or -A2 = 8.4-8.9 (TANG and ANDERS, 1988)
78 Pt 1.8 _+0.3 1.68 &OS +0.12 and @Ne = 10. l- 10.6 (ANDERS, 1988). Much of the plan-
79 Au 1.01 -cO.lS) 0.83 20.06 :+0,18)
80 Hg 1.09 _~.Osi etary Ne is associated with isotopically anomalous Ar, Kr,
81 Tl a9 20.2) 0.82 _m?4 :+0.08)
2.05 sm?
Xe (ANDERS, 1988) and thus is not a good candidate for
82 Pb I.85 H.O.5 -0.20
83 Bi 0.71 a03 primordial solar-system Ne. This leaves SEP-Ne or solar-wind
9oTlt 0.12 i@Ocj 0.08 ti.02 +0.04
92 u (< -0.47) -0.49 +a04
Ne. The latter seems more appropriate, as its lower energy
makes isotopic fractionations less likely (GEISS, 1973). Indeed,
its isotopic composition is less variable than that of SEPs,
as shown by a comparison ofpresent-day measurements with
200 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

Table 3. Abundance of the Nuclides (Atoms/l06 Si)

_ .-. .-
Ekment, A Atom Process Abund.t Element, A Atom Process* Abund.t Element, A PAto,t Process* Abund. :.lement, A P4to.nt Process* Ab6nd.t
Percent PerCent

IH 99.9966 30Zn 64 48.63 613 51 Sb 121 57.362 R-5 (1.177 1 Lu 175 97.41 R,r 0.0357
: 0.0034 66 27.90 352 123 42.638 R 0.132 176 2.59 S 0.00095 1
67 4.10 51.7 176 0.001035
2He 3 0.0142 U,h? 3.86x1@ 68 18.75 236 52Te 120 0.09 0.0043
4 99.9858 U,b 2.12x1og 70 0.62 7.8 0.124 2Hf 174 0.162 P 0.000249
;;: ;:8; 0.0428 176 5.206 S 0.00802
3Li 6 7.5 X 4.28 31 Ga 69 60.108 22.7 124 4.76 0.229 176 0.00793
7 92.5 U,r,h 52.82 71 39.892 15.1 125 7.10 0.342 177 18.606 R,s 0.0287
126 18.89 0.909 17X 21.297 R,S 0.0420
4Be Y 100 X 0.73 32Ce 70 20.5 24.4 128 31.73 1.526 179 13.629 R,s 0.0210
32.6 130 33.97 1.634 180 35.100 S,R 0.0541
5R 10 19.9 X 4.22 :: 274 9.28
I1 80.1 X 16.98 74 3::; 43.4 531 127 100 R 0.90 i3Ta 180 0.012 ,w 2.48~ W6
76 7.8 9.28 181 99.988 g ,S 0.0207
6C 12 98.90 54xe 124 O.iZl P 0.00571
13 1.10 33As 7s 100 6.56 I26 0.108 0.00569 l.lW 180 0.13 P o.oi0173
128 2.19 ; 0.103 182 26.3 R,s 0.0350
IN 14 99.634 34Se 74 0.88 0.55 129 27.34 1.28 0.0190
15 0.366 76 9.0 5.6 130 4.35 ! 0.205 184
183 30.67
14.3 21 0.0408
77 76 ._ 4.7 131 21.69 R 1.02 186 28.6 R 0.0380
80 16 99.762 He 2.37~10 78 23.6 14.7 132 26.50 RJ 1.24
17 0.038 NH Y.04xlo3 80 49.7 30.9 134 9.76 0.459 75Re 185 37.40 R,s ns1193
IX 0.200 He,N 4.76x 104 82 9.2 5.7 136 7.94 :: 0.373 187 62.60 R 0.0324
187 o.o.z51
QF IQ 100 N a43 35Br 79 SO.69 S.Y8 550 133 100 R,s 0.372
81 49.31 5.82 760s 184 0.018 P O.OOOl22
IONe 20 92.99 &x 3.20x 106 56Bn 130 0.106 0.00476 0.0107
21 0.226 7.77xld 36Kr 78 0.339 n.153 132 0.101 0.00453 1X6
187 1.58
1.6 : 0.0108
22 6.79 HkN 234x105 g 11.45
2.22 0.999 134 2.417 0.109 IN7 0.00807
5.15 135 6.592 0.2% 18s 13.3 R,S 0.0898
1lNn 23 100 CNeEk 5.74~10~ 83 11.47 5.16 136 7.854 0.353 189 1h.l O.lO9
84 57.11 25.70 137 11.23 0.505 190 26.4 :: 0.178
12Mg 24 78.99 8.48x1@ 86 17.42 7.84 138 71.70 3.22 192 41.0 R 0.277
Z& 1.07x 105
::, ;:::: NeExC l.lSxld 37Rb 85 5.12 S7Ln 138 0.089 P 0.00039 0.247
87 27.835 1.97 138 0.00040! 77fr 193
191 62.7
37.3 :: 0.414
13Al 27 100 Ne,Ex 8.49 x 104 87 2 ii 139 99.911 SJ 0.446
7XPt 190 0.0127 P 0.0011170
5RCe 136 0.19 P 0.00216 0.0105
l4Si 28 92.23 0,EX Y.22xlO~ 38Sr 84 0.56 (1.132
138 0.25 P 0.00284 192
194 32.9
0.78 : 0.441
Ne,Ex 4.67x 104 2.32
138 0.00283 0.453
:1: 4.67
3.10 Ne,Ex 3.10x lo4 :!: 9.86
7.00 1.64
140 88.48 SJ 1.005 195
196 25.2
33.8 :: 0.338
87 1.51
142 il.08 R 0.126 198 7.19 R 0.0963
15 P 31 in0 NE,& 1.04x IOJ 88 82.55 IQ.41
59Pr I41 160 RS 0.167 79AU 197 luo R 0.187
16s 32 95.02 39Y 89 100 4.64
33 0.75
6ONd 142 27.13 0.225 10 llg 196 0.1534 P 0.00052
34 4.21 40 Zr 90 51.45 5.87
143 12.18 Z,S 0.101 198 9.968 S 0.0339
36 0.02 ;: 11.22 1.28
143 0.100 199 16.873 R,S 0.0574
17.15 I.96
144 23.80 0.197 200 23.096 S,r 0.0785
17CI 35 75.77 2S6Q 94 17.38 1.98
37 24.23 &s 913 96 2.80 l1.32(1 145
41Nb 93 100 0.698 148 5.76 0.0477 204 6.865 R 0.0233
18Ar 36 84.2 8.50u104
150 5.64 0.0467
38 15.8 ?Ex 1.60x104
40 s,iitz 26 42Mn 92 14.84 0.378 81 TI 203 29.524 R,S 0.0543
40 ~Ssti4 ;: 15.92
9.25 0.236 62 sm 144 3.1 P 0.00800 205 70.476 S,R 0.1297
0.406 147 15.0 R.5 0.0387
19 K 39 Y3.2581 96 16.68 0.425 147 0.0399 82Pb 204 1.94 s 0.061 I
40 0.01167 0.440 97 9.55 0.244 148 11.3 S 0.0292 206 19.12 R,S 0.602
98 24.13 0.615 149 13.8 KS 0.0356 206
40 5.48 0.f 93
l@n 9.63 0.246 150 7.4 s 0.0191 207 20.62 R.S 0.650
41 6.7302 Ex 253.7
152 26.7 R.S 0.0689 207 0.644
44Ru 96 154 22.7 R 0.0586 208 58.31 R,s
2OCo 40 96.Q41 5.52 0.103 1.837
42 0.647 ::0 592x104
395 98 1.88 0.0350 20x 1.828
63Eu 151 47.8 RJ 0.0465
43 0.135 E&S 82.5 99 12.7 0.236
100 153 52.2 RJ 0.0508 i3Bi 20Y 1nO 0.144
44 2.086 Ex,S 1275 12.6 0.234 R,s
46 0.004 ExCNe 2.4 101 17.0 0.316
64Gd 152 0.20 P,S 0.00066 POTb 232 100 RA (I.0335
48 0.187 E,Ex 113 102 31.6 0.588
1.54 2.18 S 0.00719 232 0.0420
104 18.7 0.348
155 14.80 RJ 0.0488
21 SC 45 100 ExNeE 34.2
45Rh 103 100 156 20.47 R,s 0.0676 32 U 235 0.7200 RA h.4ax lo-*
157 15.65 R,s 0.05 16 23.5 o.oos73
22Ti 46 8.0
158 24.84 RJ 0.0820 238 99.2745 RA O.OoRY3
47 7.3 :; 192
175 46Pd 102 1.020 6.0142
160 21.86 R 0.072 I 238
48 73.x EX 1771 104 11.14 0.155 0.0181
49 5.5 Ex 132 105 22.33 0.310
65Tb 159 100 R 0.06Gj
50 5.4 E 130 1% 27.33 0.380
108 26.46 0.368
66Dy 156 0.056 a.060221
23v 50 0.250 E&E 0.732 110 11.72 0.163
158 0.096 0.00037F
51 99.750 Ex 292 160 2.34
47Ag 107 51.839 0.252 0.00922
161 18.91 0.0745
240 SO 4.345 Ex 587 109 48.161 0.234
162 25.51 O.lOl
52 83.789 Ew 1.131x104 163 24.90 0.0982
48Cd 106 1.25 0.0201 164 28.19 0.111
:: 2.365
9.501 E
Ex 1283
319 108 0.a9 0.0143
110 12.49 0.201 67Hu 165 100 R 0.0889
25 Mn 55 100 E&E 9550 111 12.80 0.206
112 24.13 0.388 58Er 162 0.14 P O.OOo351
26Fe 54 5.8 113 12.22 0.197 164 1.61 PS 0.00404
56 91.72 114 28.73 0.463 166 33.6 R,S 0.0843
:: 0.28
2.2 116 7.49 0.121 167 22.95 R 0.0576
168 26.8 R,S 0.0672
49fn 113 4.3 0.0079 170 14.9 R 0.0374
27co SY 100 ES 2250 11s 95.7 0.176
59Tm 169 100 0.0378
28Ni 58 68.27 E,Ex 5OSn 112 0.973 0.0372
60 26.10 114 0.659 0.0252 7OYb 168 0.13 0.000322
61 1.13 115 0.339 0.0129 170 3.05 0.00756
62 3.59 116 14.538 0.555 171 14.3 0.0354
64 0.91 6 117 1.612 0.293 172 21.9 0.0543
118 24.217 0.925 173 16.12 0.04cil
29Cu 63 69.17 Ex,C 361 119 8.587 0.328 174 31.8 0.0788
65 30.83 Ex 161 120 32.596 1.245 176 12.7 0.0315
122 4.632 0.177
124 5.787 R 0.221
Abundances of the elements 201

long-term averages in lunar soils; +3 t 2% for solar wind, Beryllium (Sl, V2). The atomic absorption values of V2 are only
15% lower than the (y, 2an) data of Ql, and 10% lower than the
-33 + 15% for SEP.
calorimetric values of SI, which were previously rejected. Although
The Ar36/Ar38ratio is virtually the same in solar wind and the data of QI should he superior since they were based on large
in the Earths atmosphere, which makes the choice easy. For samples and a highly specific nuclear method, the differences were
Ar4, we have used the lowest Ar40/Arj6 ratio observed in small, and we have therefore retained all three sets. None of the
meteorites, (2.9 + 1.7) - 10e4 in an 1850C fraction from the samples were Cls, and the data were therefore corrected by frac-
tionation factors for refractories (KI): 1.11 for C2 and C30, 1.33 for
Dyalpur ureilite (G~BEL et al., 1978), which leads to Ar4 = C3V (see Sec. 7.3, however).
25 + 14. Part or all of this Ar4 could be radiogenic, but since Boron (Cl I). The latest measurements by Curtis and Gladney (Cl I)
the observed amount is only 5 * 10m5that expected from in give an abundance of 2 1.1 + 2 for Orgueil, close to the indirect value
situ decay of K4 in 4.55 AE (recalculated from BEGEMANN of 24 f 7 of AE. The latter value had been derived from the data of
and OTT, 1983), it seems that radiogenic Ar4 was very effi- C6 (mainly ordinary chondrites) by applying corrections for chondrule
content, on the assumption that boron is moderately volatile and
ciently removed in the measurement of G~BEL et al. (1978). hence depleted in chondrules. The data for C2, 3 chondrites when
Indeed, the observed value is remarkably close to the range similarly corrected show even better agreement with the new Orgueil
predicted by s-process calculations, 24 + 7 to 7 ? 2 for un- value:
pulsed or pulsed s-processes (BEER and PENZHORN, 1987, 8 C2, 3 chondrites (CII): 18.5 + 3.3
MACKLIN et al., 1989). We have therefore assumed that the
21 C2, 3 chondrites (CII. C6): 20.1 f 3.4.
Dyalpur fraction was nearly pure primordial Ar as of 4.55
AE ago, with only a negligible contribution of Ar4 from K4 There is little to choose among these various estimates, but following
decay. CII, we adopt the new Orgueil value.
For Kr and Xe, we used solar-wind compositions selected
by GEISS and BOCHSLER(1985). .3.2. F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl
Sodium (Gl3).
Aluminum (G14). The scatter of the data of Kl was reduced by
In this section we discuss the abundances of individual using their Al/Mg ratios rather than Al concentrations and converting
elements in Table 1, using the Si = lo6 scale. After briefly them to Al/Si ratios via the Mg/Si ratio from Table 1.
explaining our methodology, we review the elements by in- Silicon (M2). The 19 12 analysis of Tonk by Christie (M2) has been
reinstated, as it looks pretty good except for low Mg, Cr and high
creasing atomic number, omitting those for which no new
alkalis. The mean Si content for the 4 Cl chondrites then becomes
data have become available since AE. Only new (or previously 10.38 + 0.45%. This has no effect on the Si = lo6 normalization or
omitted) references are given, even though the revised abun- the Si value (10.64%) for a nominal Cl chondrite, which is used
dances generally include all the earlier data from AE. to convert atomic abundances back to weight abundances in
Table 1.
Methodology. We closely followed the procedure of AE. For each
element, we first tabulated all published values for each meteorite, 3.3. K, Ca, SC, Ti, V, Cr, Mn. Fe, Co, Ni
omitting only repeat publications or data obtained by obviously in-
accurate methods. We then converted the data to atomic abundances, Potassium (B6).
rejected obvious outliers, and calculated the mean for each meteorite. Calcium. The Ca and Al values from Table 1 give a Ca/Al (weight)
Replicates were generally counted as separate analyses except when ratio of 1.07, slightly below the empirical mean of - 1.08shown by
they seemed less accurate than the data by other authors; in such most meteorite classes (AHRENS,1970). However, we did not adjust
cases only their mean was used. As in AE, papers that contained no our Ca value, as the difference is less than the uncertainty in the
usable data generally are not cited at all. empirical mean, especially since the most recent data (Kl) suggest
For the normalization to Si, we used the authors own Si value if slight variations in mean Ca/Al among C 1-C3 chondrites, in addition
Si was determined on the same sample. In all other cases, we used to variations within the C 1,C2 classes attributable to hydrothermal
wet-chemical values: Orgueil lO.64%, Ivuna 10.60%, Alais 9.7 1% transport. It is not clear whether the mean Cl chondrite value is
(WIIK, 1969), Tonk 10.47% (CHRISTIE,1914, cited by MASON,1963). preferable to a grand average of all chondrite classes, but for consis-
Generally we averaged all analyses (= analysis mean), thus effec- tency we have chosen the former. The difference is less than 2% in
tively giving greatest weight to the frequently analyzed Orgueil. But any case.
for a few elements that showed systematic differences among mete- Scandium (G14, J3). Davis (1988, in preparation) has estimated
orites (Mg, Si, S, and Fe), we averaged the means for each meteorite, indirect Cl abundances of SC and several other refractory elements
thus giving unit weight to each (= meteorite mean). from their ratios to REE in chondrites, using a very precise set of
One limit to analytical accuracy that has not been generally rec- REE abundances based mainly on isotope dilution analyses (Sec.
ognized is the variable water content of Cl chondrites. These me- 3.6). His value for SC(6.066 2 0.085 ppm) corresponds to an atomic
teorites contain about 8% of loosely hound water, which is lost at abundance of 35.6 f 0.5, which is 4% higher than the value in Table
low relative humidities due to the transformation of MgSO., .7 Hz0 1 (but see Sec. 3.6).
to the tetra- or (less often) monohydrate. Very few analysts specify Vanadium (G14).
their sample drying procedure, and most published data thus have Chromium (G14).
an indeterminate error of 3 to 4% on top of the analytical error. Manganese (Gl3, G14).
References. As in AE, we use an abbreviated codefor referencesto Cobalt (RS).
analytical data, consisting of the first letter of the senior authors Nickel (R8, Tl).
surname and a number. These references are numbered consecutively
with those in AE, picking up where AE left off. 3.4. Cu. Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, MO

3.1. Li, Be, B Copper (RS).

Zinc. The revised value uses individual analyses rather than means
Lithium (K5). The 7 NAA analyses of M14 were not used as they from C8 and Kl.
showed up to two-fold differences between fragments and bulk sam- Germanium. The revised value uses individual analyses rather than
ples. If included they would have lowered Li from 57.1 to 53.0. means from Kl.
202 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

Arsenic (RS). Two low values from C7 and Hl were reinstated, as c. The grand mean of these mean enrichment factors was then
they were consistent with the new values by R8. used to normalize the absolute level of the reference pattern. (The
Selenium Data by Kl are systematically high by -20% compared 1~ error of the grand mean was f 1.22%,but the individual means
to the remaining analyses (which agree within *3%) and have therefore ranged from 0.924 to 1.129 the grand mean.)
been omitted. d. Abundances of monoisotopic REE were found by normalizing
Rubidium (B6). literature analyses of Cl and other chondrites to the abundances of
Strontium (B6. G2). polyisotopic REE from (b), rejecting fractionated or irregular patterns.
Yttrium (J3). The new average of 4.64 f 0.28 agrees exactly with The concentrations of SC, Y, Pr, Tb, Ho, and Tm in each meteorite
the old, but the error is smaller. Three indirect estimates give similar were then normalized to a standard C 1 by dividing them by the mean
values: 4.79 * 0.33 from Y/Ho of 8 C-chondrites (J3), 5.16 + 0.47 enrichment factor for polyisotopic REE in that meteorite. These Cl-
from Zr/Y of C-chondrites (J3). or 4.52 ? 0.12 from the Y/REE normalized abundances were then averaged.
ratio of 14 chondrites (DAVIS, 1988, in preparation).
Zirconium. Following (JS), we deleted the data of G7, which gave The REE data in Table 1 were renormalized to Si = 10.64% from
a low Zr/Hf ratio and were 23% low compared to the mean of the Davis 10.57%. Errors include both the error in the pattern and that
remaining 5 analyses, 1 I .4 * 0.7. This value also gives reasonable in absolute abundance. Because of this unconventional procedure,
Zr/Hf, Zr/Y, and Zr/Ho ratios, agreeing with those for C2 and C3 the number of analyses used for the atomic abundances in Table 1
chondrites (JS). It is somewhat disturbing, though, that C2, C30, requires some explanation. For polyisotopic REE, four Cl analyses
and C3V chondrites (K3, J3) give a mean Zr abundance virtually were used for the relative abundances and 5 19 Cl analyses for ab-
identical to the C 1 value, 11.7 * 1.0 vs. 11.4 + 0.7, although Kl have solute abundances. For monoisotopic REE, 20 to 23 analyses-in-
shown that these three classes are generally enriched in refractories cluding chondrites of other classes-were used. In contrast, the
by factors of 1.11, 1.11 and 1.33. Either these fractionations do not (weight) abundances for Orgueil in Table I were obtained by straight
apply to Zr or some of the Zr data are wrong. More highquality averaging, as usual.
analyses are obviously needed for Zr and Hf. Hafnium (86). The analyses of K3 and S4 were rejected, as they
Niobium (J-I).The first measurements on a C 1 chondrite (J3) agree were some 15% higher than the isotope dilution analyses of 86 ( 106.1,
very well with the earlier, indirect estimate of AE, 0.698 vs. 0.71, 107.1 ppb). Even the latter values gave an atomic Lu/Hf ratio slightly
and with the mean value from eight Cl-C3 analyses: 0.706 f 0.038 below the value inferred by B6 from isotope systematics: 0.233 vs.
(J3). Again, J3 find no systematic difference between Cls and other 0.243. As we did not feel justified in raising the REE, we lowered Hf
C-chondrite classes. from 0.159 to a compromise value of 0.154, which raised the Lu/Hf
Molybdenum (RS). The new value (RB) is based on a slight (- 1%) ratio to 0.238 while giving a Zr/Hf (weight) ratio of 37.9.
upward revision of the original data of P3. Tantalum (J3). The first measurements on a Cl chondrite (J3)
gave an abundance of0.0207, only 10% lower than the indirect value
3.5. Ru, Rh. Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Cs, Ba ofAE. (05 had previously given a Cl value of 17 ppb, corresponding
to an abundance of 0.248, but this seems to be an unreferenced value
Palladium (L6). Seven new isotope dilution values by L6 have left
by E6 for the Murray C2 chondrite.) Another indirect value can be
the mean unchanged.
obtained from the Sc/Ta ratio of 428 f 3 in Cl and C2 chondrites
Silver (L6). The six isotope dilution values by L6 are only slightly
(w/w; J3). With the SCabundance from Table 1, it yields a Ta abun-
lower than the 11 RNAA values used by AE, but have better precision:
dance of 0.0 198, only 4% lower than the direct value.
0.486 + 0.014 vs. 0.529 f 0.050. We have therefore used only the
Tungsten (RS). The mean of W2 and two new measurements by
data of L6.
R8 agrees well with the indirect value of AE, which was based on an
Cadmium (L6).
average of W2 and the C2-C3 chondrite mean (corrected for frac-
Tin. BEERet al. (1988) have measured the neutron capture cross-
tionation): 0.133 vs. 0.137.
section of Sn16,and have argued from s-process systematics that the
Rhenium (RS).
Sn abundance ought to be 2.95 f 0.23 rather than 3.82 f 0.36. It
Osmium (RS). The new values of R8 are near the low end of the
does not seem possible to lower the meteoritic value, which is based
range of previous measurements, and we have therefore rejected the
on 11 RNAA and ID measurements from four laboratories for three
highest four values used by AE (from C9 and E3).
meteorites. The mean of the two isotope dilution values is close to
The Orgueil value in Table 1 of AE should have been given as 504
the overall mean: 3.77 f 0.17 vs. 3.82 + 0.36 (as usual, errors are
ppb, not 699 ppb. (The latter number is the abundance on the Si
standard deviations of the population, not the mean).
= lo6 scale, . lo.)
Antimony (RS). The highly accurate metal extraction method of
Iridium (G14).
R8 gave 120 and 123 ppb for Orgueil, which agrees with the 1973-
Platinum (RS). In light of the new data, the Ivuna value of C9 was
1978 Chicago RNAA values (K4, Tl) but is markedly lower than
rejected (the Alais value had already been rejected by AE).
many other measurements. We therefore rejected 13 Orgueil and
Gold (RS).
Ivuna values that exceeded 155 ppb (an isotope dilution value by K3
chosen as a cutoff). For Alais, all four values were systematically
high, and we therefore rejected only the highest value (209 ppb). 3.7. Hg, Pb, Bi, Th, V
Tellurium (L6). The mean of nine isotope dilution values is only
Mercury (87). Mercury in Cl chondrites is too variable for a reliable
slightly lower than the mean of all 17 analyses: 4.69 + 0.16 vs. 4.8 1
abundance determination, and therefore has been customarily esti-
+ 0.47.
mated by interpolation. A better approach is to use s-process system-
Zodine. The indirect value for this element, based on ratios to F,
atics; specifically, the near-constancy of UN. BEER and MACKLIN
Br, In, and Cd, is only negligibly affected by the change in Cd abun-
(1985) have obtained a value of 0.34 f 0.04 in this manner, using
measured cross-sections and the abundances of neighboring elements
Cesium (B6). The new values left the mean unchanged.
from AE. As these abundances have hardly changed (Table l), the
Barium (86). The values of D2 and D5 were deleted, as they ap-
above value should still be valid.
peared to be not independent measurements but unreferenced data
Lead. The value of AE remains unchanged. It agrees within error
from the literature.
limits with a theoretical estimate by BEERand MACKLIN(1985): 3.15
3.6. Rare earth elements, Hf Ta, W, Re, OS. Zr, Pt, Au + 0.25 vs. 2.85 f 0.19. However, this estimate assumes no s-process
branching at T1204; rf such branching occurs, then the lead abundance
REE (B6, J3). We have used the pattern derived by Davis (1988, will be smaller (BEER, 1988). See Sec. 7.2 for further discussion.
in preparation), which was obtained in the following manner:
a. Relative abundances of polyisotopic REE were found by av- 4. REVIEW OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC ABUNDANCES
- - four isotope dilution analyses for Cls (B6. N2).
b. For each of 19 Cl chondrite patterns in the literature, the mean In this section, abundances are expressed on a logarithmic
REE enrichment factor was calculated relative to the reference pattern scale relative to log H = 12. Some of the elements in Table
from (a), rejecting outlying enrichment factors for individual REE. 2 have remained unchanged since the last critical compila-
Abundances of the elements 203

tions by one of us (GREVESSE, 1984a,b). We shall therefore HACKETTet al., 1986), with inclusion of a previously overlooked
discuss only those elements that have been redetermined since value for Y (GARTONet al., 1973).
Niobium (HANNAFORDet al.. 1985).
4.6. Nd, Sm, Gd, Er, Au, Th
4.1. H, C, N, 0
Neodymium (WARD et al., 1985).
These major volatiles are incompletely condensed in meteorites, Samarium. A new analysis by B&MONTet al. (1989, in prepara-
and thus the Sun is the only source of their solar-system abundances tion), based on new, accurate lifetimes of Sm II, has removed the
(LAMBERT,1978; SAUVALet al., 1984). Furthermore, since a frac- discrepancy between the photospheric and meteoritic values.
tionation process occurs in the chromosphere that depletes these ele- Gadolinium (BERGSTROMet al., 1988).
ments in the corona (Sec. 5 and 7. I), only the photospheric results Erbium (B&MONTand YOUSSEF, 1984).
are reliable. For various reasons summarized by GREVESSEet nl. Hafnium. Because the six Hf II lines used by ANDERSENet al.
(1987), the most accurate values come from a careful analysis of (1976) are faint and heavily blended, the actual uncertainty of the
vibration-rotation and pure rotation lines of molecules such as CO, abundance may be considerably larger than reported by these authors.
CH, OH, NH that are present in the solar infrared spectrum (SAUVAL Gold. The value in Table 2 is the mean of 0.95 (YOUSSEF,1986)
et al., 1988, in preparation), as obtained from space by the ATMOS and 1.08(N. GREVESSE,unpublished data), both based on the same
SL3 experiment (FARMERet al., 1987). These new results (Tables 1 blended line in the UV.
and 2) differ somewhat, for C and N, from those previously adopted Thorium. The value in Table 2 is based on a new study of the
by GREVESSE(1984a). spectra of the full solar disk and its center (N. GREVESSE,unpublished
data). The single Th line at 4019 A is blended with a Co1 line, the
4.2. Li transition probability of which was determined only very recently
(WHALINGand LAWLER,unpublished data). With this correction,
Lithium (STEENBOCKand HOLWEGER,1984). the Th value drops from 0.18 to 0.12.

Scandium (GREVESSE,1988, in preparation).
Titanium (BLACKWELLet al., 1987; GREVESSEet al., 1988). Excellent reviews are available on the problem of deriving
Vanadium (WHALINGet al., 1985; B&MONT et al., 1988). abundances in the solar corona, either by spectroscopy or by
Chromium (BLACKWELLet al.. 1987). measurement of particles originating in the solar corona, such
Manganese (BOOTHet al., 1984). as solar wind and SEP (MEYER, 1985a,b, GEISS, 1982; GEISS
Iron. Updating the discussion by GREVESSE(1984a), we note that
the earlier results of BLACKWELLet al. (1984) have been confirmed
by BLACKWELL et al. (1986), through study of faint Fe1 lines of rather LER, 1987). The most recent values are given in Table 4.
low excitation (~2.6 eV) with accurately known oscillator strengths. Spectroscopic measurements, summarized by MEYER(1985b), are
This result, based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), is available for H, He, C, N, 0, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and
listed in Table 2. Actually, slight non-LTE effects in excitation have
Ni. Ah converge well, but their uncertainties are rather large (-0.20
been discovered empirically in Fe1 (BLACKWELLet al., 1984), Til,
dex or even up to 0.48 dex for some elements such as He or C).
CrI (BLACKWELLel al., 1987), and V 1 (BI~ONT et al., 1988), all NOCI et al. (1988) reconsidered the abundances of C, N, 0, Ne,
through the use of very high accuracy transition probabilities. These
Mg, Si and S in different regions of the solar transition zone (a coronal
effects are taken into account in the corresponding abundances in
hole, a quiet region, and an active region). They concluded that the
Table 2.
coronal abundances do not differ from photospheric abundances by
A full non-LTE treatment of FeI-Fe11 by STEENBOCK(1985; see
also HOLWEGER,1988) shows that LTE-based abundances from Fe1
lines should be increased slightly (by -0.05 dex) to allow for devia- Table 4. Abundances m the Solar Corona
tions from LTE. This would raise the abundance of Fe from 7.67 to
7.72, still farther from the meteoritic value of 7.5 1. A substantially Element Spectroscapi, Solar Wind S.E.P. CLXTla Photosphere COKXla-
Adopted Phot.
lower value, 7.56 + 0.08, was obtained by GMARA(priv. commun.), I
I H 111.88?a30 11.53 ti.08 12.00
using transition probabilities of high-excitation Fe I lines (MILFORD 2m (10.88 9.48) 10.13 a.10 10.14 !oOt 10.14 Ho.06 10.99 s.03 -0.85
et al., 1988), which should be less sensitive than low excitation lines 6C 8.33 s.48 7.88 ?a02 7.92 to.04 7.90 ?a.06 8.56 !a04 -0.66
7N 7.55 ?a23 7.42 ?O.IS 7.40 0.03 7.40 to.06 8.05 H.04 -0.65
to temperature and non-LTE effects. 80 8.35 tO..?O 8.25 M.IS 8.30 HI.03 8.30 tfJO.06 8.93 HI.03 -0.63
Similarly, results from lines of Fe11 (by far the dominant species) 9F (4.00 to.30) (4.W fO.30 4.56 fO.30 -0.56)
should not be affected by slight departures from LTE. Although ac- IONe 7.50 ,a20 7.48 _@.OS 7.44 to.04 7.46 H.06 8.07 ~0.18 -0.61
llNs 6.40 to.23 6.38 3.04 6.38 _006 6.33 HI.03 +0.05
curate transition probabilities for good solar Fe11lines are very rarely IZMg 7.53 m** 7.59 MO3 7.59 MO6 7.58 H.05 +0.01
available, promising efforts to measure them have been made by 13 Al 6.40 10.27 6.47 _%.03 6.47 ti.06 6.47 _@.07 OS10
14 Si .7.55 _W..II -7.55 -403 -7.55 fO.05 7.55 to.05 0.00
WHALING(1985) MOITY(1988, priv. commun.), and PAULS(1988). 15 P 5.24 ti.06 5.24 fl.08 5.45 +0.04 -0.21
The latter author obtained dvahies for 3 Fe11lines in the near infrared, 16s 6.89 M23 6.93 !a02 6.93 to.05 7.21 Ho.06 -0.28
17CI 4.93 ?a14 4.93 fl.l.14 5.5 3.3 -0.57
which lead to A, = 7.63. But a higher value, 7.68 * 0.05, was obtained 18Ar 6.28 fl.26 5.93 ti.06 5.89 9.10 6.58 to.18 -0.69
in a reanalysis of ten forbidden Fe II lines (N. GREVESSE,unpublished 19K 5.14 Ml7 5.14 fo.17 5.12 H.13 to.02
work). Thus the question of the solar-iron abundance remains in a 20 Ca 6.43 a20 6.46 ?lW6 6.46 %I.08 6.36 MO.? to.10
21 SC :4.04 fl.40) (4.04 H.40 3.10 fo.G9 t0.96)
state of flux, but there is hope that full agreement will soon be reached 22 Ti 5.24 M12 5.24 9.13 4.99 ~.O,? t0.25
by joint efforts of atomic physicists and astronomers. 23 V 14.23 fl.40) (4.23 H.40 4.00 to.02 t0.23)
24 Cr 5.81 H.08 5.81 fl.09 5.67 MO3 to.14
25 Mn 5.38 fl.17 5.38 !a.18 5.39 a.03 -0.01
26 Fe 7.55 _Hl8 7.65 H.04 7.65 H.06 7.67 ti.03 -0.02
4.4. Ge, Pb 28 Ni 6.29 HZ 6.22 -HO.5 6.22 H.08 6.25 fO.04 -0.03
29 Cu 4.31 H.40) (4.31 XI40 4.21 M.04 Cfl.10)
Germanium (GREVESSEand MEYER, 1985). 30 Zn 4.76 fll8 4.76 H.19 4.60 fl.08 to.16

Lead (GREVESSEand MEYER, 1985).

4.5. Y, Zr, Nb
Yttrium, Zirconium. The results from GREVESSE(1984a), based
on data by HANNAFORDet al. (1982) and B&MONT et al. (1981),
have been recalculated on the basis of new ionization potentials (ZrI:
204 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

more than their rather large uncertainties (0.40 dex), except for 0, well with the earlier estimate of 45.3 (AE) obtained by Camerons
which is underabundant. method (ti3 was interpolated between Bra and Rbss, and ti4 be-
Solar-wind (SW) values are available for H, He, C, N, 0, Ne, Si, tween Se* and Spa). The Xe value was obtained by graphicallyfitting
Ar, and Fe; their uncertainties are on the order of 0.05-0.20 dex Xe to the Te-I-Cs-Ba peak, using both the even- and odd-A nuclides.
(BOCHSLER,1987). Within their error limits, the SW data agree with The result, 4.7, agrees with an estimate of 5.0 f 1.0 based on s-
spectroscopic coronal values, though the match for log He/H is hardly process systematics (BEERet al., 1983).
significant in view of the large errors (SW = -1.40 + 0.10, corona The corresponding elemental ratios may be compared with those
-1.00 f 0.48). of the solar wind and other estimates (Table 5). He4/Ne2 again is
The data for SEPs in Table 4 (BRENEMANand STONE, 1985) high compared to the solar wind and SEP, apparently due to different
cover a wider range of elements and are quite accurate (generally depletions of He and Ne in the latter (Fig. 3; Sec. 7.1). The other
f 10%). Following the authors, we list values corrected for a residual ratios seem to have stabilized, although the individual abundances
charge/mass (Q/M) fractionation; the correction is small for light of all four noble gases have changed.
elements but reaches +O. 10 to +O. 18 dex in the iron group (Sec. 7. I).
The SEP values-even without this correction-and SW values 7. DISCUSSION
generally agree within error limits with the spectroscopic values. We
therefore took the SEP-SW mean for He, C, Ne and Ar, and SEP 7.1. Photospheric vs. coronal abundances
alone for the remaining elements as our best estimates for the outer
layers of the Sun (Corona, adopted in Table 4). Differences between It is well known that several different processes affect
these values and photospheric ones (last column of Table 4) will be abundances in the solar corona (MEYER, 1985b; VAUCLAIR
discussed in Sec. 7.1. and MEYER, 1985; GEISS, 1985; BRENEMAN and STONE,
1985; GEISS and BOCHSLER,1985; BOCHSLER, 1987 and ref-
erences therein). There is clear evidence from abundance
6.1. He patterns that separation processes at relatively low temper-
Despite its high abundance and great astrophysical importance, ature fractionate the gas supplied to the corona. Elements
helium is difficult to determine accurately. with high first ionization potentials (FIP), which are neutral
In the Sun, He does not appear in the photospheric spectrum, and at this temperature, are depleted relative to elements of lower
therefore can be determined only from prominence spectra, solar FIP, which are ionized. Figure 3 shows this trend for data
wind, solar energetic particles, or models of the solar interior. Prom-
inence spectra yield very uncertain results, as the relevant physical
from Table 4: a -4.5-fold drop in abundance occurs between
processes are not well understood. Values of NuJNn vary from 6.5 9.5 and 11 eV.
to 16% (HIRAYAMA, 1978; MILKEY, 1978; HEASLEYand MILKEY, Thanks to the improvement in the data for CNO, some
1978). In the solar wind(BOCHSLER,1987), helium is extremely vari- trends now appear with greater clarity than in previous ver-
able, but generally NuJNn is rather low, -4 f 2%. A similar value
sions of Fig. 3.
is found for solar energeticparticles (COOK et al., 1984; MCGUIRE
et nl., 1986). However, none of these results are reliable enough for (1) The depletion is constant at -0.65 dex (factor of 4.5)
our purposes, due to low accuracy (prominences) or possible frac-
tionation (solar wind, SEP).
for CNO, and presumably for all heavy elements of FIP
Giantplanetsare another source of He/H ratios, but at least Jupiter 2 11 eV. The trend confirms the two-plateau pattern for
and Saturn (5.7 + 1.3% and 1.6 + 1.3%; CONRATHet al., 1984) the atom-ion separation process suggested by COOK et al.
seem to have been affected by fractionation. Only Uranus (9.2 (1979).
+ 1.7%; CONRATHef al., 1987) agrees with the result derived below.
(2) H and He part company from the other elements. He
We shall therefore turn to extrasolar sources, such as HII regions
or hot stars. Many results are available (SHAVERef al., 1983; WOLF lies -0.20 dex below the high-FIP element plateau at -0.65
and HEASLEY,1985; PEIMBERT,1986; PAGEL, 1987, 1988; MEYER, dex, in SW as well as SEP. Hydrogen, which cannot be de-
1989) and indicate a rather uniform abundance for media with termined in SEP, lies slightly above this plateau in SW, but
roughly solar metallicity, NHc/NH u 9 to 11%. Values in the same much higher, right on the low-FIP plateau, in the corona
range, 9.2 to 10.4% come from recent standard solar models, which
consistently give a He mass fraction, Y, between 0.264 and 0.288 itself, according to spectroscopic data (Fig. 3). Similar char-
(CAHEN, 1986; TURCK-CHI&E et al., 1988; BAHCALLand ULRICH, acteristic deviations have been seen previously in galactic
1988). We therefore adopt N&NH = 9.75% (Y = 0.275), with an cosmic rays (MEYER, 1985b; GEISS and BOCHSLER, 1985).
uncertainty of k8% (9% 5 NHJNH 5 10.5%; 0.26 5 Y 5 0.29). The reasons for this are not known, but these two elements
are much lighter and more abundant than any of the others.
6.2. Ne, Ar
Correction for fractionation. It is not quite clear what cor-
Like He, C, N, 0, these elements are fractionated relative to low
rection is most appropriate for Q/M fractionation, as this
FIP metals in the solar corona (Sec. 7.1). For this reason we shah
again partly rely on local galactic values, i.e. for HI1 regions, HI gas,
and stars, as reviewed by MEYER(1985a, 1989). As these data also
agree very well with photospheric values derived from coronal Table 5. Noble-Gas Ratios
spectroscopy, solar wind and SEP (corrected by a constant fraction-
ation factor for ah elements of 2 > 2 with FIP > 11 eV), we have Ref.

adopted the mean values: log Ne = 8.09, log Ar = 6.56 (Sec. 7.1).
These values agree with a prominence measurement, which presum- 20.6
ably refers to photospheric, not coronal material, as judged from the 22.5
Mg/O ratio (WIDING et al., 1986). Moreover, the Ar value is only Solar system 10
3% smaller than the value obtained by interpolating A? between Solar Wind
Si2 and Ca4 (CAMERON,1973, 1982; AE). Solar Corona, spectr.
SEP, Observed

6.3. Kr, Xe
For Kr, the latest value based on s-process systematics (45 k 8;
H. BEER,priv. commun., 1987; see also WALTERet nl., 1986) agrees
Abundances of the elements 205


0 5 10 15 20 FIPieV) 25

FIG. 3. Abundances of solar energetic particles (SEP) relative to the solar photosphere (Table 4). Elements K to Zn,
of first ionization potential (FIP) i 10 eV, are present in normal abundance relative to Si, but elements C to Ne, of
higher FIP, are depleted by an approximately constant factor. Apparently these elements are depleted in the corona
by a process depending on FIP (or first ionization time, FIT). The points for P and S would fall closer to the dashed
trend line if they were referenced to meteoritic rather than photospheric abundances. As H cannot be reliably determined
in SEP, we plotted representative spectroscopic and solar-wind data from Table 4.

correction depends strongly on the adopted Fe abundance. like features that are rapidly heated; here the relevant param-
BRENEMAN and STONE (1985) found that the SEP/photo- eter is the first ionization time (FIT), which is actually closely
spheric abundance ratio for low-FIP elements-including related to FIP.
Fe-fit a power-law in Q/M, and used this power-law as the Both mechanisms are very slow (days, for realistic param-
correction factor, on the tacit assumption that these elements eters), compared both to turbulent mixing times in the chro-
were not fractionated between photosphere and corona. An mosphere and to spicule lifetimes (5 min). A reliable value
alternative, if extreme, approach would be to use no correc- for the coronal abundance of H would provide strong con-
ticn at all. The mean ratio log (SEP/photosphere) then be- straints on these mechanisms.
comes -0.61 dex (instead of -0.65) for high FIP elements Neon and Argon. We can derive photospheric abundances of these
and -0.01 + 0.09 dex (instead of +0.07) for low FIP elements. elements from the rather accurate SEP and solar-wind data, by adding
In particular, the iron abundance then becomes 7.53 (close the correction factor of 0.65 dex to the coronal values. We thus find
to the meteoritic value) instead of 7.65. Given these uncer- ANe = 8.11 + 0.10 and A*, = 6.54 + 0.10; very close to the local
galactic values of 8.07 f 0.18 and 6.58 +- 0.18 derived from HI1
tainties in the Q/M fractionation correction, the SEP data regions, HI gas, and stars (MEYER: 1985a, 1988). [A new analysis by
cannot be used to resolve the discrepancy between photo- MEYER (1989) again gives very similar coronal and local galactic
spheric and meteoritic iron abundance. values: ANe = 8.08 + 0.06 and 8.14 * 0.10; AA, = 6.55 + 0.08 and
Gamma-ray spectroscopy of flares has provided a new 6.63 + 0.20.] This agreement is not likely to be fortuitous, and thus
technique for determining solar abundances, probably at seems to support the underlying data: SEP and solar-wind abundances,
a constant coronal fractionation factor for all heavy elements with
chromospheric level (MURPHY et al., 1985). Recent results FIP r 11 eV, and the astronomical measurements used for the local
(REAMES et al., 1988) show that if the ratios Mg/O, Si/O, galactic estimates. We shall therefore adopt for the solar system the
and Fe/O agree with SEP values, then Ne/O is about 3X means of the solar and local galactic values, with an estimated un-
larger and even C/O may be larger. These results are very certainty of *25%: ANe= 8.09 2 0.10 and AA, = 6.56 + 0.10.
7.2. Meteoritic vs. solar abundances
Mechanism and site of separation process. If FIP is the
relevant physical parameter, then the fractionation must take Gross trends. The log of the abundance ratio Sunfmete-
place in low-T, i.e., chromospheric-type, material (T-N lo4 orites (Table 2) is plotted in Fig. 4, with the elements grouped
K) consisting of neutral and singly ionized atoms (MEYER, according to cosmochemical character. Elements that are
1985b). Most likely, neutrals somehow diffuse away from the poorly determined in the Sun are represented by open sym-
gas and enter the corona, whereas ions are prevented from bols.
doing so by the magnetic field. Two mechanisms based on On the whole, the agreement is remarkably good. Past dis-
this idea have been investigated thus far. VAUCLAIR and crepancies have gone away as the solar values-especially
MEYER (1985) proposed gravitational settling of heavy neu- thanks to improved transition probabilities and other atomic
trals in the -6500 K temperature plateau of the middle data-have become more accurate. Even now, the agreement
chromosphere, with FIP as the key parameter. Others (e.g. improves if we delete the less accurate values. The mean
GEISS, 1985) have considered diffusive loss of neutrals during Sun-meteorite difference for all elements from Table 2 (except
the fast rise of matter from chromosphere to corona in spicule- the very uncertain Ag, Tb, Ho, Lu, Tl and the grossly dis-
206 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

Germanium. GREVESSEand MEYER (1985) have suggested

that the discrepancy for this element (and lead, below) could
be real, implying chemical enrichment in Cl chondrites. In-
deed, Ge is known to be depleted in all other chondrite
classes-by factors up to 0. 15X-but so are I3 other elements
of similar volatility (Fig. 4), apparently reflecting volatile loss
during chondrule formation (LARIMER and ANDERS, 1967).
Germanium appears to have no unique property that would
allow it to go its own ways, unaccompanied by other elements
of similar volatility. It is siderophile as well as volatile, but
so are, to only slightly lesser degrees, Ag, Cu, Sb, Sn, etc.
(WAI and WASSON, 1977).
Lead. At first sight it seems that a suitable enrichment
process for Pb is available. The highly volatile (~600 K) ele-
ments, to which Pb belongs, show much larger variations in
abundance, including-in contrast to the 1300-600 K
group-occasional superenrichments above C 1 chondrite
levels, though only in ordinary, not carbonaceous chondrites.
Some authors suggest that these volatiles were left behind in
the nebula by earlier generations of meteorites and condensed
on the last traces of dust after temperatures had dropped
FIG. 4. Solar photospheric and meteoritic abundances (Table 2) (HIGUCHI et al., 1977). Others believe that the volatiles sub-
agree rather well, except for elements affected by thermonuclear re- limed from the inner parts of the meteorite parent bodies
actions (Li, Be), elements poorly determined in the photosphere (un- and condensed in the cooler, outer regions (BINZ et al., 1976).
certain abundances or errors, or large errors: open symbols), and five In the cases studied, Pb usually is accompanied by other ele-
problematic cases: W, Fe, Mn, Ge, and Pb (see text). If these elements
are omitted, there is no systematic difference between photospheric ments of similar volatility (Cd, In, Bi, Tl), but in highly vari-
and Cl chondrite abundances of the five major cosmochemical able proportions (HIGUCHI et al., 1977), with Pb and Bi oc-
groups. casionally predominating (KEAYS et al, 197 1; TILTON, 1973).
However, it is very unlikely that such superenrichment
cordant In and W) is -0.005 10.10 dex. If we limit ourselves can explain the high Pb abundance. This process is not specific
to the 32 elements known to better than 25% (0.10 dex), the for Pb, it has never been seen in C-chondrites, and it produces
mean difference becomes -0.006 + 0.04 dex. And if we retain enrichments that are highly variable on a mm or cm scale-
only 29 accurately known elements (having a sufficient num- in contrast to the observed uniformity of the Pb distribution
ber of good lines with good transition probabilities) then the within meteorites (u for Orgueil is *8%, Table 1) or between
data agree within kO.036 dex, i.e., +9%. For the last two meteorites (Orgueil and Ivuna agree within + 17%, according
means, we omitted four well-determined but discordant ele- to BURNETT et al., 1988). Moreover, 12 C chondrites-in-
ments, which are discussed below: Mn, Fe, Ge, and Pb. eluding Orgueil-analyzed by spark-source mass spectrom-
Of the elements disagreeing by more than 0.10 to 0.15 dex, etry/isotope dilution (K.?) show a perfectly normal abundance
Li and Be are depleted by nuclear reactions at the bottom of trend for volatiles: Cl/C2/C3 N 1.00/0.50/0.25-0.30. Ap-
the convection zone. Twenty others (B, F, P, Cl, Ga, Rb, Ag, parently none of these meteorites, including Orgueil, has been
In, Sn, Sb, Ce, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Pt, Au, Tl) without affected by superenrichment.
doubt are poorly determined in the photosphere, due to severe Tungsten. The discrepancy is large (+0.43 dex), but the
blending of their few available lines, lack of accurate transition fault may well be with the solar data (HOLWEGERand WER-
probabilities, or both. NER, 1982). Although the transition probabilities are very
However, this leaves five other elements-Ge, Pb, W, Fe, accurate, the two ostensible WI iines are very faint and per-
and Mn-that deviate more than expected from the quality turbed, and may not even be due to WI. Alternatively, the
of the solar data. In chondrites, elements of similar volatility ionization energy of W may be too low by 0.43 eV.
and cosmochemical properties usually fractionate together, Iron and Manganese. The discrepancies for these two ele-
by similar factors (ANDERS,197 1). Thus, if these five elements
had been fractionated by known cosmochemical processes,
Table 6. Mean Abundance Ratios, Photosphere/Meteorites
other elements of the same cosmochemical group (Fig. 4)
should have fractionated by similar factors. We therefore Elements N log Phot./CI
compare mean abundance ratios for each cosmochemical This work* AE
group, omitting the five elements under discussion as well as Refractories 23 0.002 H.U4 -0.029 a.15
a few poorly determined elements (Table 6). Silicate 2 o.cOO?0.00 -0.007 ti.013
Siderophiles 4 - 0.003 ?O.Ol -0.054 tiO81
All of the deviations are less than la, and except for the Volatiles, 1300-600K 5 -0.022 &.f$# -0.099 fl.15
~600 K volatiles, all are smaller than in 1982. We must Volatiles,<600K 3 (0.13 ti.08) 0.059im.14
therefore consider the possibility that Ge, Pb, W, Fe, and *We omitted Li, Be, Mn, Fe, In, W, and Pb (Sec. 7.2) and-acepi 101 the
Mn were fractionated in C 1 chondrites by selectiveprocesses a5CQ K volatile+-the elements poorly determined in the photosphere
(open symbols in Fig. 4). However, the means for each group remain close
that affected only these elements and no others. 10 ~10 aen when the poorly-determined clements are retained.
Abundances of the elements 207

ments (+O. 16 and -0.14 dex, i.e. 40-50%) are puzzling, as Na/Ca, S/Ca, Si/Ca (HOLWEGER, 1977); 3) they give the
both elements appear to be well-determined in the solar pho- smoothest nuclidic abundance curve (SUESS,1947; ANDERS,
tosphere. Although the solar data for Fe have not yet fully 1971). Nonetheless, even the best may not be good enough,
converged, and need to be confirmed by measurement of the and one must therefore periodically reexamine Cls for ev-
dominant species, Fe II (Sec. 4.3), most results are higher idence of modification or alteration. We shall summarize
than the meteoritic value. It would be surprising if this dis- and update the discussion in AE.
crepancy were resolved merely by improved atomic data or
High-temperature minerals. Orgueil contains - 1%of olivine and
a better understanding of physical processes in the photo- orthopyroxene, either indigenous or accreted on the regolith of the
sphere (HOLWEGER, 1988). parent body. This component has only a negligibleeffecton the overall
Perhaps the meteoritic abundance of Fe is at fault. The composition. Some few Orgueil samples are enriched in refractories,
most obvious way to fractionate Fe-as nickel-iron-is not suggestingsporadic (regolith?)contamination with Ca, Al-rich inclu-
sions, but since we have rejected all such anomalous analyses, they
feasible, as it would simultaneously deplete other siderophiles.
do not affect the abundance table.
There are two lines of evidence against such depletion. (1) Presolar matter. Several types of interstellar matter have been
The most abundant, well-determined siderophiles-Co and identified in C-chondrites: diamond, Sic, organic matter, in abun-
Ni-are not depleted in Cl chondrites relative to the Sun dances of a few to a few hundred ppm. As these exotic components
(Table 2, Fig. 4). (2) There is no systematic break in the account for < 1O-* of the total C and Si, they have only a negligible
effect on overall abundances. The apatite mentioned by AE turned
abundances of odd-A nuclei between A = 99 and 111 (Fig. out to be local rather than exotic.
5), where cosmochemical character changes rapidly: Ru, Rh
(refractory siderophiles), Pd (normal siderophile), Ag (mod- Hydrothermal alteration. Cl chondrites have been altered
erately volatile siderophile) and Cd (highly volatile). Even a by liquid water in their parent bodies, but for most water-
10 to 20% increase, let alone a 50% increase, in the abun- soluble elements there has been no net change, suggesting
dances of Ru, Rh, Pd relative to Ag, Cd would cause a marked that the alteration took place in a closed system. The principal
offset in the curve. exceptions are Br and I, where abundances had to be esti-
However, a more selective fractionation process of Fe alone mated from other meteorite classes (AE). Large variations
is available, at least in principle. Below 400 K in a solar gas, have been found for C2 chondrites, where in addition Na,
the stable chemical form of Fe is magnetite, FesOl, which K, and Ca have been affected (KI).
would therefore be the principal condensate of Fe in an in- Interelement ratios: di$eences between Cls and other
terstellar cloud that remained at 5400 K throughout con- meteorite classes. In contrast to volatiles, refractory elements
traction. On crystal chemical grounds, most other siderophiles usually have essentially constant ratios in all chondrite (and
should not be enriched in magnetite, and this has actually even some achondrite) classes. Some authors (e.g. JOCHUM
been confirmed for meteoritic magnetite from C 1 chondrites et al., 1986) have assumed that this constancy is exact for all
(KRAHENBOHL et al., 1973; KERRIDGE et al., 1979). Once refractory lithophiles except V (KI), so that mean ratios for
formed, magnetite could fractionate from other solids on the all C chondrites can be used to refine ratios for C 1 chondrites.
basis of its ferromagnetism. Moreover, there is evidence for AE pointed out two apparent exceptions to this constancy:
Fe/Si fractionations in meteorites and planets (LARIMERand the Zr/Hf and Re/Ir ratios of C2 chondrites were - 14%
ANDERS, 1970; MORGAN and ANDERS, 1980). higher than those of Cls. However, these differences have
It is not certain, however, that the pure Fe304 grains re- not stood up in the light of new data or reevaluation of older
quired by this mechanism were available. Although Fe is data. The Zr/Hf ratio of Cls now is within the range for
strongly depleted in the interstellar gas (SALPETER, 1977; other classes (J3; Sec. 3.4, 3.6). The variations in Re/Ir and
PHILLIPSet al., 1982), so are many other elements (Ni, Mg, Re/Os ratios seem to reflect mainly differences among lab-
Si, etc.), and it is not clear that the major part of Fe is con- oratories or analysts, not meteorite classes.
tained in discrete magnetite grains rather than in mixed, per- Thus at present there is no direct evidence for interelement
haps amorphous, grains. fractionation of refractories, within the accuracy of the data.
For Mn, no similarly selective chemistry is available. It is However, there are some disturbing inconsistencies. KAL-
one of the least volatile of the 15 moderately volatile (1300- LEMEYNand WASSON (198 1) have shown that the (Mg-nor-
600 K) elements (Fig. 4), and if it is enriched in C 1 chondrites, malized) abundances of eight refractory lithophiles (Al, SC,
at least some of the other elements should be also. If we take Ca, Lu, Yb, Eu, Sm, La) vary systematically among C-chon-
the solar data at face value, then only Ge appears to be so drite classes: Cl/C2,C3O/C3V = l.OO/l.l l/1.33. Since the
enriched, but since several of these elements are poorly de- Mg/Si ratios are constant in the first three classes and only
termined in the Sun, it may be possible to devise an ad hoc 3% higher in C3Vs, one would expect elementPi ratios for
mechanism for enriching Mn, Ge, and a few other elements all refractory lithophiles to vary from class to class by the
that is consistent with the data and is cosmochemically ten- above factors. But JOCHUMet al. (1986) confirmed this trend
able. only for SC; for Nb, Y, and Ho they found no enrichment in
C2s, slight enrichment in C3Vs, and large enrichments in
7.3. Cl chondrites as abundance standards a C30. KNAB (198 1) found essentially constant Zr/Si ratios
There are three major reasons why Cl chondrites are used in all C chondrite classes.
as the abundance standard: 1) they seem to have escaped the Evidently at least some of these data must be wrong. If all
fractionation processes (e.g. chondrule formation) that af- refractory lithophiles are fractionated by the Kallemeyn-
fected other meteorite classes (ANDERS,197 1); 2) their volatile Wasson factors, then their Si-normalized abundances should
element abundances are higher and match solar ratios for vary correspondingly from class to class. Conversely, if these
208 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

abundances do not vary for some elements (e.g. Zr), then the The low-mass region (Fig. 5) seems generally smooth,
interelement ratios of refractory lithophiles cannot be con- though the steep slopes and varied topography would mask
stant. Obviously, these contradictions will have to be resolved small irregularities. The most sensitive test is provided by
by further measurements; until then, it seems advisable not the Pd-Ag-Cd region, where the flat trend and contiguity of
to use data from other meteorite classes if at all possible. two isotopic pairs help bring out small irregularities. The Ag-
Cd irregularity noted by AE has smoothed out somewhat due
7.4. Smoothness of abundance curve to the revision in the Ag abundance, and would require only
a further 7% drop in Ag/Cd ratio for perfect continuity. Such
A major milestone in this field was GUESS (1947) postulate a change exceeds the combined error of the two means
that the abundances of nuclides-especially of odd A-are a (+1.8%), but since the Ag value is based on only 6 analyses
smooth function of mass number. The slope of the abundance from a single laboratory, a larger systematic error cannot be
curve is accurately defined over short segments by isotopic excluded.
pairs, and on the basis of the above postulate, Suess adjusted The high-mass region (Fig. 6) is more suitable for a test,
elemental abundances as needed to produce a continuous, as it is flatter, has many more isotopic pairs, and contains
smooth curve. mainly refractory elements, which do not readily fractionate
Suess adjustments (by factors of up to 100, e.g. Re) were from each other in cosmochemical processes. The REE are
vindicated by subsequent measurements, and in view of this of particular interest, since they are chemically coherent and
success, his postulate later became one of the main reasons analytically very well determined (Sec. 3.6, Table 1).
for choosing C 1 chondrites as the abundance standard; they The most sensitive test is the Nd-Sm-Eu-Gd region, where
gave the smoothest curve. four isotopic pairs occur in sequence and thus provide four
However, now that most Cl chondrite abundances are well-defined curve segments. Yet the new data, despite their
known to better than lo%, the smoothness of the abundance high accuracy, still fail to give elemental trends agreeing with
curve can be tested to higher accuracy. Deviations may imply the isotopic trends: Sm looks too low and Eu looks too high.
either chemical fractionations of Cl chondrites, or failure of AE ruled out analytical error, and discussed various chemical
Suess postulate at the - 10% level. or nuclear causes for this irregularity. The chemical expla-
This question was reexamined by AE, who claimed nations, involving some special process for Cl chondrites,
smoothness of .slO% overall, but with irregularities at Pd- now look less plausible, as our new REE abundances, based
Ag-Cd and Nd-Sm-Eu, which they attributed to analytical on DAVIS (1988, in preparation), are quite similar to REE
error or chemical fractionations. BURNETT et al. (1988) ap patterns in other meteorite classes. Apparently the smoothness
proached the problem experimentally, analyzing by a single postulate breaks down below the 10 to 20% level, due to
technique the elements Ni through Ru as well as Fe and Pb nuclear causes. This is not quite surprising, since most nu-
in six samples of two Cl chondrites. They concluded that the elides in this mass region are made by both the s- and r-
abundance curve is smooth within 4 to 10% between A = 60 processes, and even if the distributions of pure s- or r-process
and A = 10 1, but not necessarily at higher mass numbers. nuclei were perfectly smooth, their mixture need not be. The
Figures 5 and 6 show our new data for the mass regions 67- nuclear parameters determining s- and r-process yields are
139 and 135-209. not perfectly smooth functions of mass number, and thus

I , I , I , / /_
50-O -. 0 Reftaclorles
Go n Slderophlles
0 Volollles 1300-600K
Ge + Volollles < 600K
. As
2 -

. II5
Ill II II I I? I I I I I
O 70 80 90 100 HO I20 130 140
Moss Number

FIG. 5. Abundances of odd-mass nuclides from Zn to La are a smooth function of mass number, with elemental
abundances conforming to the trend set by the isotopic ratios (tie lines). Peaks at Y, Sn, and Te-Cs correspond to
closed neutron or proton shells of the nuclides themselves or their neutron-rich, shortlived progenitors in the r-process.
There is no evidence for fractionation of cosmochemical groups from each other, as there are no distinct offsets at
junctions where cosmochemical character changes (Ge-As-9 or Rh-Pd-Ag). The only exception is a 7% offset between
Ag and Cd.
Abundances of the elements 209

I 0 Refractories n Slderophlles + Volallles <600K

Oaw 160 170

Moss Number

If30 190 200 210

FIG. 6. The trend from Ba to Bi is likewise smooth, except that Sm is too low relative to Nd and Eu. As analytical
and cosmochemical causes are ruled out (see text), it appears that the abundance curve is smooth only down to the
-20% level.

the smoothness postulate is bound to fail eventually. None- by first assessing the s-process component (UPPELER et al.,
theless, this principle, which has successfully guided the field 1982 and references therein). The abundance N, of a pure
for 40 years, should be retired with proper honors, now that s-process nuclide is inversely proportional to the neutron
it has reached its limits of applicability. capture cross section CTand directly proportional to the neu-
tron fluence (CLAYTON et al., 1961). Thus a plot of UN, vs
7.5. Nucleosynthesis: Contributions of s and r-processes A indicates the fluence as a function of A, permitting recon-
Most heavy nuclides are made by both the s- and r-pro- struction of s-process conditions in some detail. Progress in
cesses, but the contributions of these processes can be resolved this field has required both better abundances and better cross

1aC I I I I I I 1
50 70 90 HO 130 150 170 I90 50 70 90 II0 130 150 170 190 3
Mass NumberA Moss Number A

FIG. 7. (BEER, 1988, priv. commun.). In the s-process, abundance FIG. 8. (BEER, 1988, priv. commun.). To obtain the r-processcom-
N and neutron capture cross-section u are inversely proportional to ponent of nuclides of mixed parentage, the s-process component From
each other and thus a plot of UN for s-process nuclides is a function Fig. 7 is subtracted from the total abundances. These r-process re-
mainly of neutron exposure (WPPELER et al., 1982). A computer fit siduals (open symbols) form a smooth curve passing through the
to the s-only points (filled symbols) accounts for the region 90-205, r-only nuclides (filled symbols), suggesting that the input data
but underproduces Pb2*and light nuclides of A i 90. Two additional (abundances and cross sections) are reasonably accurate. The peaks
s-processes, at higher and lower fluences, are needed to account for at A N 130 and = 195 represent the enhanced abundances of short-
these two regions. See text for additional discussion. lived, neutron-rich progenitors with closed, 82- or 126-neutron shells.
210 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

sections, of which the latter were contributed mainly by the COMET HALLEY
Karlsruhe group (BEER, 1986; KAPPELER, 1986; BAO and (Jessberqer
et 01 , 1988)
KAPPELER, 1987).
Figure 7 shows a aN, plot, based on the abundances from
Table 3 (BEER, 1988, priv. commun.). The filled symbols are
s-only nuclides used for normalization of the curve in the
mass range 90 -z:A < 205. The open symbols represent either
mainly-s nuclides or f-only nuclides that are situated in
branchings (e.g. Gd15), belong to interpolated elements (Kr,
Xe, Hg), or were used to normalize the curve below A = 90.
A computer fit to the s-only points accounts for the mass 1 H C N 0 No Ma Al SI S K Cu TiCr Mn Fe Co Ni1
region 90 < A c 205, but underproduces Pbzo8 and the nu-
elides of A < 90. For these, two additional s-processes at high FIG. 9. Mg-normalized abundances in Comet Halley (JESSBERGER
and low fluences (strong and weak processes) are needed et al., 1988) generally match those in the solar photosphere, and-
for the gas/dust ratio assumed (DELSEMME, 1988)-show no defi-
(BEER, 1986). The line splits at branch points where neutron ciency for C, N, and 0. However,Fe and Si are distinctly anomalous.
capture competes with p-decay; the top and bottom curves If these values are correct, then Halley has the lowest Fe/Si ratio of
represent the individual branches of the synthesis path. any known solar-system object, except for the Moon, and cannot be
From the aN curve, the s-process components of mixed, pristine interstellar matter.
r + s, nuclides can be calculated, provided their gs are known.
Subtraction of these s-components then leaves the r-com-
ponents. These (open symbols) along with pure r-nuclides
ponent only, and we have therefore added the HCNO abun-
(filled symbols) are plotted in Fig. 8. The curve is rather
dances for the gas component, using the gas/dust ratios of
smooth over most of its range, except below A = 70 where
DELSEMME(1988). These data are compared with photo-
the e-process begins to contribute. As subtraction of similarly-
spheric abundances in Fig. 9.
sized numbers usually inflates errors, the smoothness of the
The depletion of H is very large, and obviously reflects the
curve suggests that the input data (abundances and cross sec-
non-condensation of molecular hydrogen. C, N, and 0, on
tions) are reasonably accurate.
the other hand, agree remarkably well with solar values. Even
A caveat to be noted is that the above conclusions were
N no longer shows the depletion reported in earlier studies
obtained within the framework of the classical s- and r-
(GEL%, 1987), but since theN value critically depends on
processes. The actual processes may be different and more
the gas/dust ratio and the composition of the gas, it cannot
complex (CAMERON, 1988, priv. commun.).
be regarded as definitive. As Nz is the most volatile of the
principal molecules in comets, it is a potentially valuable
7.6. Comet Halley
indicator of the formation temperature and subsequent ther-
Now that the Vega and Giotto missions have obtained mal history of the comet (YAMAMOTO,1985).
data from Comet Halley, it is interesting to compare these Of the remaining elements, two disagree by more than 2~:
data with the new photospheric and meteoritic abundances Si = +0.30 dex, Fe = -0.37 dex. Sulfur is a trifle below 2a,
(Table 7). The most extensive data, from the PUMA- 1 mass at +0.23 dex. Relative to meteorites the Si and Fe discrep
spectrometer (JE.SSBERGERet al., 1988), are for the dust com- ancies are a little smaller (+O. I7 and -0.2 1 dex), but are still
outside the quoted errors. Since these discrepancies have op
posite signs, they cannot be eliminated by changing the nor-
Table 7. Abundances in Comet Halley*
malization from Mg to Si or some other element. (Indeed,
one argument for the Mg normalization is that it gives a
T; ornet Halley SWI
E-- mean residual close to zero, i.e. 0.01 + 0.20 for the 13 ele-
Geiss Delsemme Jessber er
(1987) (1988) a al. (19 L )
ments from Na to Ni.)
To first order, the Halley data suggest that Fe/Mg and Mg/
9.41 9.21 9.47 S.08 12.00 -2.53
: 8.90
7.59 fO.4 ,
Si both decline with distance from the Sun (HOLWEGER,
9.17 9.00
6.31 ::;:
1988). However, when additional data for meteorites and the
-7.58 -7.58 7.58 7.58
Earth are included, the two sequences are quite different, and
Eg -7.79
-0.06 thus cannot represent a simple monotonic decline with dis-
Si 7.73 0.30
7.53 7.44 ?a12 7.21 7.27 0.23 tance. Note in particular the varying positions of EH and EL
: 4.88 ti.18 5.12 5.13 -0.24
Ca 6.38 tOI. 6.36 6.34 0.02
chondrites. Fe/M& Sun > Earth > EH > C c H > EL > L
Ti 5.18 ti.18 4.99 4.93 0.19 > LL > Halley. Mglsi: Earth > Sun = C > H = L = LL
Cr 5.53 too.09 5.67 5.68 -0.14
Mll 5.28 ti.15 5.39 5.53 -0.11 > EL > EH > Halley. At best one of these sequences is a
Fe 7.58 7.30 _@.07 7.67 7.51 -0.37
CO 5.06 _<.22 4.92 4.91 0.14
simple function of distance, and perhaps neither of them is.
Ni 6.19 ftI.18 6.25 6.25 -0.06 We therefore limit ourselves to the following tentative con-
(1) Relative to Mg, Comet Halley seems to possess its
increasingOS. logarilhmic abundances as follo;uS: H (0.G da), C (0.15), t-4 (&35), and Cl (0.48) cosmic complement of C, 0, and perhaps even N, i.e. the
(Delsemme, 1988). Jessbersrr orieinalvalues for the dust component only were: H = 8.89 kO.08,
C= 8.49~.08.N=7.20~).12.O =8.53+0.05. ice component (GEL%, 1987).
Abundances of the elements 211

(2) Halley has the lowest known Fe/Si and M@Si ratios BERGS~R#MH., B&MONTE., LUNDBERGH. and PERSSON
of any object in the solar system (except for the Moon), far- A. (1988) Transition probabilities for Gd II and a new deter-
mination of the solar abundance of gadolinium. Aaron. Astro-
thest from the solar ratios (JESSBERGER et al., 1988). If these phys. 192,335-337.
data are correct, then Halley cannot be pristine interstellar B&MONTE. and YOUSSEFN. H. ( 1984) The solar abundance
matter. Apparently at least its dust component was affected of erbium. Astron. Astrophys. 140, 177- 178.
by the chemical processes that fmctionated these elements B&MONT E., GREVESSE,N., HANNAFORDP. and LOWE
elsewhere in the solar system (ANDERS,1986). R. M. (198 1) Oscillator strengths for Zr I and Zr II and a new
determination of the solar abundance of Zr. Astrophys. J. 248,
Acknowledgements-We thank Janice Butz for skillful preparation BI~MOILT E., GREVESSEN., FAIRES L. M., MARSDENG.,
of the manuscript, undaunted by the logistic complexities of this LAWLERJ. E. and WHALINGW. (1988) Lifetimes and transition
transatlantic collaboration. J. P. Meyer provided countless construc- probabilities in V II and the solar abundance of vanadium. As-
tive suggestions that greatly improved the paper. We also thank the tron. Astrophys. (in press).
following colleagues for formal or informal reviews: L. H. Aller, H. &;uz C. M., IKRAMUDDI~M., REY P. and LSPSCHUTZ M. E.
Beer, A. G. W. Cameron, J. R. de Laeter, J. Geiss, D. Hartmann, (1976) Trace elements in primitive meteorites: VI. Abundance
R. D. Hoffman, U. Kr&henbiihl, H. Palme, E. C. Stone, and D. S. patterns of thirteen trace elements and interelement relationships
Woolum. We are indebted to C. J. Waddington for Figures 1 and 2, in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim.
and H. Beer for Figures 7 and 8. This work was supported in part Acta 40, 59-7 I.
by NASA Grant NAG 9-52. BLACKD. C. (1972) On the origins of trapped helium, neon
and argon isotopic variations in meteorites: 1. Gas-rich mete-
Editorial handling: H. Palme orites, lunar soil and breccia. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36,
AHRENS,L. H. ( 1970) The com~sition of stony meteorites: Is there an abundance anomaly for the 2.2 eV Fe I lines in the
(IX) Abundance trends of the refractory elements in chondrites, solar spectrum? Asfron. Astrophys. 132,236-239.
basaltic achondrites and Apollo 11 fines. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. BLACKWELL D. E., BOOTHA. J., HAD-K D. J., PETFORD
10, l-6. A. D. and LEGGET?S. K. (1986) Measurement of the oscillator
ANDERSE. (197 1) How well do we know cosmic abun- strengths of very weak 1 eV Fe I lines. Mon. Not. Roy. Astr.
dances? Geochim. Cosm~him. Acta 35,5 16-522. sot. 220,549x%3.
ANDERSE. (1986) What can meteorites tell us about comets? BLACKWELLD. E., BOOTH A. J., MENON S. L. R. and PET-
FORD A. D. (1987) An LTE analysis of the solar photospheric
In Comet Nucleus Sample Return, ESA SP-249, 31-39, Eur.
Space Agency, Paris, France. Ti I and Cr I spectra: evidence for non-LTE in excitation. Astron.
ANDERSE. (1988) Circumstellar material in meteorites: Noble Astrophys. 180,229-240.
gases, carbon, and nitrogen. In ~eieorites and the Early Sofar BOCHSLERP. (1987) Solar wind ion composition. Physica
System (eds. J. F. KERRIDCEand M. S. MATTHEWS),pp. 927- Scripta T18, 55-60.
955. Univ. Arizona Press. BOESGAARDA, M. and STEIGMANG. (1985) Big bang nu-
ANDERSE. and EBIHARAM. (1982) Solar-system abundances cleosynthesis: Theories and observations. Ann. Rev. Astron. As-
of the elements. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46,2363-2380. trophys. 23, 3 19-378.
ANDERSENT., PETERSENP., and HAUGE0. (1976) The solar BOOTHA. J., BLACKWELLD. E. and SHALLISM. J. (1984)
hafnium abundance. Solar Physics 49,21 I-21 5. Analysis of Mn f lines in the solar spectrum using accurate os-
BAHCALLJ. N. and ULRICHR. K. (1988) Solar models, neu- cillator strengths. Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Sot. 209,77-8 1.
trino experiments, and helioseismology. Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, BRENEMANI-I. H. and STONEE. C. (1985) Solar coronal and
297-312. photospheric abundances from solar energetic particles. Astro-
BAO 2. Y. and K?~PPELERF. (1987) Neutron capture cross phys. J. 299, LS7-6 1.
sections for s-process studies. Atom. Duta Nucl. Data Tables BURNETTD. S., WOOLUMD. S., BENJAMINT. M., ROGERS
36,411-451. P. S. Z., DUFFY C. J. and MAGGIOREC. (1988) A test of car-
BEERH. (1986) s-Process studies using single and pulsed neu- bonaceous chondrite elemental abundance smoothness. Geo-
tron exposures. In Advances in Nuclear Astrophysics (eds. E. chim. Cosmochim. Acta (in press).
VANGIONI-CAM,J. AUD~LJZE,M. CA&, J. P. CHI~?~E,and J. CAHENS. f 1986) About the standard solar model. In Advances
TRAN THANH VAN), pp. 375-383. Ed. Frontitres, Paris. in Nuclear Astrophysi&s teds. E. VANGIONI-F~M, J. AUDOUZE,
BEER H. (1988) Chronometers. Contribution to the Intl. M. CASS&J. P. CHIBZE, and J. TRAN THANH VAN), pp. 97-
Workshop on Quests in Nuclear Astrophysics and Experimental 104. Ed. Front&es, Paris, France.
Approaches, Crete. CAMERONA. G. W. (1973) Abundances of the elements in
87 BEER H. and MACKLIN R. L. (1985) 198.iy9.2M)~X)~~22.204Hg the solar system. Space Sci. Rev. 15, 121-146.
(n, y) cross sections and the termination of s-process nucleo- CAMERONA. G. W. (1982) Elemental and nuctidic abun-
synthesis. Phys. Rev. C32, 738-755. dances in the solar system. In Essays in Nuclear Astrophysics
BEERH. and PENZHORNR. D. (1987) Measurement of the (eds. C. A. BARNES,D. D. CLAMON, D. N. SCHRAMM),pp.
neutron capture cross section of Ar and an s-process analysis 23-43. Cambridge Univ. Press.
from 34Sto %a. Astron. Astrophys. 174, 323-328. C7 CASE D. R., LAUL J. C., PELLY 1. Z., WECHTERM. A.,
Neutron capture cross-sections of stable xenon isotopes and their patterns of thirteen trace elements in primitive carbonaceous
application in stellar nucleosynthesis. Astrophys. Space Sci. 97, and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim.
95-l 19. Acta 37, 19-33.
$k%?) N~~~~~ncapture cross sections and solar abundances of Allende inclusions: Volatile~lement dist~bution and evidence
Yb 5~76Luand ,Hf for the s-process analysis for incomplete volatilization of presolar solids. Geochim. Cos-
ofthe%dionucliAe 17&Lu. Whys.Rev. C30,464-478. mochim. Acta 40, 85-94.
BEER H., WALTER G. and ~PPELER F. (1988) s-Process CLAYTOND. D., FOWLERW. A., HULL T. E. and ZIMMER-
studies on tin. Astron. Astrophys. (submitted). MAN B. A. (1961) Neutron capture chains in heavy element
BEGEMANNF. and OTT U. (1983) Comment on The nature synthesis. Annals Phys. 12, 331-408.
and origin of ureilites by J. L. Berkley et al., Geochim. Cos- CLAYTONR. N. and THIEMENSM. H. (1980) Lunar nitrogen:
mochim. Acta 47,975-977. Evidence for secular change in the solar wind. In Proc. Co&
212 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

Ancient Sun (eds. R. 0. PEPIN, J. A. EDDYand R. B. MERRILL), GEISS J. and BOCHSLERP. (1985) Ion composition in the
pp. 463-473. Lunar & Planetary Institute, Houston. solar wind in relation to solar abundances. In Rapports isoto-
CONRATHB. J., GAUTIERD., HANELR. A. and HONSTEIN piques duns le systeme solaire, (ed. by CNES), pp. 213-218.
J. S. (1984) The helium abundance of Saturn from Voyager Cepadues Ed., Paris.
measurements. Astrophys. .I. 282, 807-815. GOBEL R., OTT U. and BEGEMANNF. (1978) On trapped
CONRATHB., GAUTIER D., HANELR., LINDALG. and MAR- noble gases in ureilites. J. Geophys. Res. 83, 855-867.
TEN A. ( I987 ) The helium abundance of Uranus from Voyager GI4 GILDING J. L., KEIL K., FLJKUOKA T. and SCHMI-~-~ R. (1980)
measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 15003-15010. Elemental abundances in chondrules from unequihbrated
COOKW. R., STONE E. C., VOGT R. E., TRAINORJ. H. and chondrites: Evidence for chondrule origin by melting of pre-
WEBBERW. R. (1979) Elemental composition of solar energetic existing materials. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 50, 17 I - 180.
particles in 1977 and 1978. Proc. 16th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf G2 GREENLANDL. and LOVERINGJ. F. (1965) Minor and trace
12,265-270. element abundances in chondritic meteorites. Geochim. Cos-
CCK~KW. R., STONEE. C. and VOGT R. E. (1984) Elemental mochim. Acta 29, 821-858.
composition of solar energetic particles. Astrophys. J. 279,827- GREVES~EN. (1984a) Abundances of the elements in the Sun.
838. In Frontiers ofAstronomy andAstrophysics (ed. R. PALLAVICINI),
COPLANM. A., OGILVIEK. W., BOCHSLERP. and GEISSJ. pp. 71-82. Ital. Astron. Sot., Florence, Italy.
(1984) Interpretation of He3 abundance variation in the solar GREVESSEN. (1984b) Accurate atomic data and solar pho-
wind. Solar Phys. 93, 4 15-434. tospheric spectroscopy. Physica Scripta T8,49-58.
C9 CROCKETJ. H., KEAYSR. R. and HSIEHS. (1967) Precious GREVESSEN. and MEYERJ.-P. (1985) Germanium and lead:
metal abundances in some carbonaceous and enstatite chon- Significant differences between meteoritic and photospheric
drites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 1615-1623. abundances. Proc. 19th Cosmic Ray Conf 3,5-8, LaIolla, CA.
Cl1 CURTISD. B. and GLADNEYE. S. (1985) Boron cosmochem- GREVESSEN., SAUVALA. J., FARMERC. B. and NORTON
istry. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 75, 31 l-320. R. H. (1987) Diatomic molecules in the solar infrared spectrum
C6 CURTISD., GLADNEYE. and JURNEYE. (1980) A revision from ATMOS-SW high resolution observations. In Obsewa-
of the meteorite based cosmic abundance of boron. Geochim. tional Astrophysics with High Precision Data, 27th Liege As-
Cosmochim. Acta 44, 1945-1953. trophysical Colloquium, pp. I 1l- 117. Inst. dAstrophysique,
DELAETERJ. R. and HOSIE D. J. (1988) The isotopic com- Liege, Belgium.
position of antimony. Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Proc. 83,3 11-318. GREVESSEN., BLACKWELL D. E., PETFORDA. D. and BOOTH
DELSEMME A. H. (1988)The chemistry of comets. Phil. Trans. A. J. (1988) Revision of the absolute scale of the Oxford Ti I
Roy. Sot. London A325,509-523. oscillator strengths and the solar titanium abundance. Astron.
DIETRICHW. F. and SIMPSONJ. A. (1979) The isotopic and Astrophys. (in press).
elemental abundances of neon nuclei accelerated in solar flares. GI3 GROSSMANL. and GANAPATHYR. (1975) Volatile elements
Astrophys. J. 231, L91-L95. in Allende inclusions. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf 6th, 1729-1736.
D5 DREIBUSG. and WANKEH. (1980) The bulk composition of HACKETTP. A., HUMPHRIESM. R., MITCHELLS. A. and
the eucrite parent asteroid and its bearing on planetary evolution. RAYNERD. M. (1986) The first ionization potential of zirconium
Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 204-2 16. atoms determined by two laser field-ionization spectroscopy of
D2 DREIBUSG., KRUSE H., SPETTELB. and WKNKEH. (1977) high-lying Rydberg series. J. Chem. Phys. 85, 3 194-3 197.
The bulk composition of the moon and the eucrite parent body. HI HAMAGUCHIH., ONUMA N., HIRAO Y., YOKOYAMAH.,
Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf 8th, 21 l-237. BANDOS. and FURUKAWAM. (1969) The abundances ofarsenic,
E3 EBIHARAM., WOLF R. and ANDERSE. (1982) Are Cl chon- tin and antimony in chondritic meteorites. Geochim. Cosmo-
drites chemically fractionated? A trace element study. Geochim. chim. Acta 33, 507-5 18.
Cosmochim. Acta 46, 1849- 1861. HANNAFORDP., LOWE R. M., GREVESSEN., BI~MONTE.
E6 EHMANNW. D. (1965) On some tantalum abundances in and WHALINGW. (1982) Oscillator strengths for Y I and Y II
meteorites and tektites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 29,43-48. and the solar abundance of Y. Astrophys. .I. 261,736-746.
Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during N. (1985)Radiative lifetimes for Nb II and the oroblem of the
the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985, l-45. solar abundance of niobium. Astron. Astrophys.l43,447-450.
J.P.L. Publ. 87-32. HEASLEYJ. and MILKEYR. (1978) Structure and spectrum
G7 GANAPATHYR., PAPIAG. M. and GROSSMANL. (1976) The of quiescent prominences: III. Applications of theoretical models
abundances of zirconium and hafnium in the solar system. Earth in helium abundance determinations. Astrophys. .I. 221, 677-
Planet. Sci. Lett. 29, 302-308. 688.
B. (1973) Rydberg series and autoionization resonances in the E. (1977) Mysterite: A late condensate from the solar nebula.
YI absorption spectrum. Proc. Roy. Sot. London A333, 17-24. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 843-852.
GAUTIERD. (1983) Helium and deuterium in the outer solar HIRAYAMAT. (1978) Prominence spectra and their interpre-
system. In Primordial Helium (eds. P. A. SHAVER,D. KUNTH, tation. In Physics of Solar Prominences (eds. E. JENSEN, P.
and K. KJaR), pp. 139-161. ESO, Garching, F.R.G. MALTBY,and F. Q. ORRALL),pp. 4-32. IAU Colloquium No.
G10 GEISS J. (1973) Solar wind composition and implications 44, Inst. Theoret. Astrophys., Blindern, Norway.
about the history of the solar system. Proc. 13th Intl. Cosmic HOLDENN. E. (1985a) Long-lived light mass element half-
Ray Conf 5, 3375-3398. lives (A < 125). Report BNL-NCS-36959.
GEISS J. (1982) Processes affecting abundances in the solar HOLDENN. E. (1985b) Long-lived heavy mass element half-
wind. Space Sci. Rev. 33,20 l-2 17. lives (A > 125). Report BNL-NCS-36960.
GEISSJ. (1985) Diagnostics of corona by in-situ composition HOLDENN. E. (i985c) Total and spontaneous fission half-
measurements at 1 AU. Proc. ESA Workshop on Future Mis- lives for uranium and plutonium nuclides. Report BNL-NCS-
sions in Solar, Heliospheric and Soace Plasma Phvsics._ 37-50. 36961.
ESA SP-235. - HOLDENN. E., MARTINR. L. and BARNESI. L. (1984) Iso-
GEISSJ. (1987) Composition measurements and the history topic compositions of the elements 1983. Pure Appl. Chem. 56,
of cometary matter. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 859-866. 675-694.
GEISSJ. and BOCHSLERP. (1981) On the abundances of rare HOLWEGERH. (1977) The solar Na/Ca and S/Ca ratios: A
ions in the solar wind. In Solar Wind Four (ed. H. ROSENBAUER), close comparison with carbonaceous chondrites. Earth Planet.
pp. 403-4 13. Max-Planck Inst. Aeronomie, Lindau, F.R.G. Sci. Lett. 34, 152-I 54.
GEISS J. and BOCHSLERP. (1982) Nitrogen isotopes in the HOLWEGERH. (1988) Accurate spectroscopy of intermediate
solar system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46, 529-548. and late spectral types. In The Impact of Very High S/N Spec-
Abundances of the elements 213

troscopyon Stellar Physics(eds. G. CAYRELand M. SPITE),pp. in carbonaceous chondrites. Geochirn. Cosmochim. Acta 34,
4 I I-420. D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland. 78 l-824.
HOLWECERH. and WERNERK. (1982) The solar abundance MCGUIRE R. E., VON ROSENVINGET. T. and MCDONALD
of tungsten. Solar Phys. 81, 3-8. F. B. (1986)The composition of solar energetic particles. As-
J2 JEFFERYP. M. and ANDERSE. (1970) Primordial noble gases trophys.J. 301,938-96 1.
in separated meteoritic minerals: I. Geochim. Cosmochim.Acfa MEWALDTR. A. and STONE E. C. (1987) Isotope abundances
34, 1175-l 198. of solar coronal material derived from solar energetic particle
JESSBERGER E. K., CHRISTOFORIDIS A. and KISSEL J. (1988) measurements. Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf: (Moscow)3,
Aspects of the major element composition of Halleys dust. Na- 255-258.
ture 332,691-695. MEWALDTR. A., SPALDINGJ. D. and STONEE. C. (1984) A
J3 JOCHUMK. P., SEUFERTH. M., SPETTE~3. and PALMEH. high-resolution study of the isotopes of solar flare nuclei. Astro-
(1986) The solar-system abundances of Nb, Ta, and Y, and the phys. J. 280,892-901.
relative abundances of refractory lithophile elements in differ- MEYER J.-P. (1979) The significance of the carbonaceous
entiated planetary bodies. Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta 50,i 173- chondrites abundances. In Les .%ments et leurs isotopesdam
1183. lunivers,pp. 153-188. Institut ~A~physiqu~ Liege, Belgium.
Kl KALLEMEYNG. W. and WASSONJ. T. (1981) The compo- MEYERJ.-P. (1985a) The baseline composition of solar ener-
sitional classification of chondrites-I. The carbonaceous chon- getic particles. Astrophys.J. Suppi. Ser. 57, 15 l-17 1.
drite groups. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 12 17- 1230. MEYER J.-P. (1985b) Solar-stellar outer atmospheres and
K&PPELERF. (1986) Status of the classical s-process. In Ad- energetic particles, and galactic cosmic rays. Astrophys.J. SuppI
vancesin NuclearAstrophysics(eds. E. VANGIO~I-HAM, J. AU- Ser. 57, 173-204.
DO~ZE, M. CASSB,J. P. CHIZZE, and J. TRAN THANH VAN), MEYER J.-P. (1988) Everything you always wanted to ask
pp. 355-373. Ed. Frontieres, Paris. about local galactic abundances, but were afraid to know. In
K&PPELERF., BEER H., WISSHAK K., CLAYTON D. D., Origin and Distributionof the Elements (ed. G. J. MATHEWS),
MACKLINR. L. and WARD R. A. (1982) s-Process studies in pp. 337-348. World Scientific, Singapore.
the light of new experimental cross sections: Distribution of MEYERJ.-P. (1989) The abundances of matter in the inter-
neutron fluences and r-process residuals. Astrophys.J. 257,82 I- stellar medium, In Cosmic Abundances of Matter (ed. C. J.
846. WADDINGTON).American Institute of Physics (in press).
KEAYSR. R., GANAPATHYR. and ANDERSE. (197 1) Chem- MILFORDP. N., GMARA B. J. and ROSSJ. E. (1988) Mea-
ical fractionations in meteorites-IV. Abundances of fourteen surement of relative intensities of Fe1 lines of astrophysical in-
trace elements in L-chondrites; implications for cosmother- terest. J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Transx (in press),
mometrv. Geochim. ~osmochim. Actu 35.337-363. MILKEY R. M. (1978) Models of the~~ynamic properties
KERRIDGE J. F. (1980) Secular variations in composition of of prominences. In PhysicsofSoiar Prominences(eds. E. JENSEN,
the solar wind: Evidence and causes. In Proc. Conf Ancient Sun P. MALTBY,R. Q, ORRALL),pp. 349-356. IAU Colloquium
(eds. R. PEPIN,J. A. EDDY, and R. B. MERRILL),pp. 474-489. No. 44, Inst. Theoret. Astrophys., Blindem, Norway.
Lunar & Planetary Institute, Houston. MORGANJ. W. and ANDERSE. (1980) Chemical composition
KERRIDGEJ. F,, MACKAYA. L. and BOYNTON W. V. (f979) of the Earth, Venus, and Mercury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.
Magnetite in CI carbonaceous meteorites: Origin by aqueous 77,6973-6977.
activity on a planetesimal surface. Science 205, 395-397. MURPHYR. J., RAMATY R., FORRESTD. J. and KOZLOVSKY
K3 KNAB H.-J. (198 1) The distribution of trace elements in car- B. (1985) Abundances from solar-flare gamma-line spectroscopy.
bonaceous chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 1563- Proc. 19th Cosmic Ray Conj 4,249-252. LaJolIa, CA.
1572. Ml4 MURTYS. V. S., SHUKLAP. N. and GOEL P. S. (1983) Lithium
K4 KRKHENB~HLU., MORGANJ. W., GANAPATHYR. and AN- in stone meteorites and stony irons. Meteorifics18, 123- 136.
DERSE. (1973) Abundance of 17 trace elements in carbonaceous N2 NAKAMURAN. (1974) Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg,
chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 1353-1370. Na and K in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. Geochim.
K.5 KRANKOWSKYD. and MULLER0. (1964) Isoto~nh~ufi~eit Cosmochim. Acta 38,757-775.
und Konzentration des Lithiums in Steinmeteo~ten. Ge~h~m.
Cosmochim. Acta 28, 1625-1630.
(1988) Elemental abundances in different solar regions from
LAMBERTD. L. (1978) The abundances of the elements in
EUV observations. Astron.Astrophys.198, 3 I I-32 1.
the solar photosphere: VIII, Revised abundances of carbon, ni-
trogen and oxygen. Mon. hrof.Roy. Asfr. Sot. 182,249-272. OWENT., LUTZ B. L. and DEBERGHC. (1986) Deuterium in
LARIMERJ. W. and ANDERSE. ( 1967) ChemicaI ~~onations the outer solar system: Evidence for two distinct reservoirs. Na-
in meteorites-II. Abundance patterns and their interpretation. ture 320.244-246.
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acfa 31, 1239-1270. PAGEL B. E. J. (1987) Primordial abundances of the light
LARIMERJ. W. and ANDERSE. (1970)Chemical fractionations elements. In ESG-CERN School on Astro-ParticlePhysics(eds.
in meteorites-III. Major element fractionations in chondrites. A. DE RUJULA, D. NANOPOULOS,P. A. SHAVER).World Sci-
Ge~him. Cosm~h~m~Acta 34,367-388. entific, Singapore.
I*6 Loss R. D.. ROSMANK. J. R. and DELAETERJ. R. (1984) PAGELB. E. J. (1988) Primordial helium and the half-life of
Mass spectrometric isotope dilution analyses of palladium,.silver, the neutron. Gemini 18, 1-4.
cadmium and tellurium in carbonaceous chondrites. Geochim. P3 PALMEH. and RAMMENSEE W. (1981) The cosmic abundance
Cosmochim. Acfa 48, 1677- 168 1. of molybdenum. Earth Planet. Sci. Left. 55.356-362.
MA~HLANL. A., GRAMLICHJ. W., POWELLL. J. and LAM- PAI& U. (1988) Transition proclitic and bmnching ratios
BERTG. M. ( 1986) Absolute isotopic abundance ratio and atomic of astrophysical interest: Ionized iron and neutral carbon. Ph.D.
weight of a reference sample of gallium. J. Res. NBS 91, 323- thesis, l-62. E.T.H., Zurich, Switzerland.
331. PEIMBERTM. (1986) On the helium and heavy element en-
MACKLINR. L., WINTERSR. and SCHMIDTD. M. (1989) richment of the interstellar medium. Publ. Astron. Sot. Pacific
Resonance neutron capture by argon-40. Astron. Astrophys. 98, 1057-1060.
SuppI. (in press). PHILLIPSA. P., GONDHALCKAR P. M. and PE~INI M. (1982)
MARTIK., WILKENINGL. and SUE% H. E. (1972) Solar rare A study of element depletion in interstellar gas. Mon. Not. Roy.
gases and the abundances of the elements. Astrophys.J. 173, Astr. Sot. 200, 687-703.
445-450. QI QUANDTU. and HERR W. (1974) Beryllium abundance of
M2 MASONB. (1963) The carbonaceous chondrites. Space Sci. meteorites determined by non~~t~ctive photon activation.
Rev. 1,62 l-646. Earth Planet.Sci. Lett. 24, 53-58.
MAZORE., HEYMANND. and ANDERSE. (1970) Noble gases R8 RAMMENSEEW. and PALMEH. (1982) Metal-silicate extrac-
214 E. Anders and N. Grevesse

tion technique for the analysis of geological and meteoritical TURCK-CHIBZES., CAHENS., CASSBM. and Door C. (1988)
samples. J. Radioanalyt. Chem. 71, 401-418. Revisiting the standard solar model. Astrophys. J. (in press).
REAMESD. V., RAMATYR. and VON ROSENV~NGET. T. VAUCLAIRS. and MEYERJ.-P. (1985) Diffusion in the chro-
(I 988) Solar neon abundances from gamma-ray spectroscopy mosphere, and the composition ofthe solar, corona and energetic
and )He-rich particle events. Astrophys. J. Lett. (in press). particles. Prof. 19th Cosmic Ray Conf: 4,233-236, LaJolla, CA.
REYNOLDSJ. H., FRICK U., NEIL J. M. and PHINNEY D. L. VECK N. J. and PARKINSONJ. H. (1981) Solar abundances
(1978) Rare-gas-rich separates from carbonaceous chondrites. from X-ray Ilare observations. Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Sot. 197,
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 42, 1775-l 197. 41-55.
ROSMANK. J. R., Loss R. D. and DELAETERJ. R. (1984) V2 VILCSEKE. and LOHMANNG. (1978) Bestimmung von Be-
The isotopic com~sition of tin. Intf. J. Mass Spec. Ion Proc. ryllium in extraterrestrischer Materie mit Hilfe der Bammenl~n
56,281-291. Atomab~~tion~~ktroskopie. Z. Anal. Chem. 293,410-411.
SALPETERE. E. (1977) Formation and destruction of dust WAI C. M. and WASSONJ. T. (1977) Nebular condensation
grains. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 15, 267-293. of moderately volatile elements and their abundances in ordinary
SAIJVALA. J., GREVESSEN., BRAULTJ. W., STOKESG. M. chondrites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 36, l-1 _.3
and ZANDERR. (1984) The pure rotation spectrum of OH and WALTERG., BEERH., KPIPPELERF., REFFOG. and FABBRI
the solar oxygen abundance. Astrophys. J. 282,330-338. F. (1986) The s-process branching at Se. Astron. Astrophys.
SCHMIDJ., BOCHSLERP. and GEISSJ. (1988) Abundance of 167, 186- 199.
iron ions in the solar wind. Astrophys. J. 329,956-966. W2 WXNKEH., BADDENHAUSEN H., PALMEH. and SPETTELB.
SHAVERP. A.. KUNTH D. and KJXR K. (1983) Primordial
_. (1974) On the chemistry of the Allende inclusions and their
~etium. k$O, Garching F.R.G., 418~. origin as high temperature condensates. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.
S4 SHIMA M. (1979) The abundances of titanium, zirconium 23, l-7.
and hafnium in stony meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta WARD L., VDCEL O., ARNESENA., HALLINP. and WANN-
43,353-362. STROMA. (1985) Accurate experimental lifetimes of excited
S1 SILL C. W. and WILLISC. P. (1962) The beryllium content levels in Nd II. Physica Scripta 31, 161-165.
of some meteorites. Geochim. Cosm~him. Acta 26,1209- I2 14. WHALINGW. (1985) Absolute transition probabilities in Fe
SMITHC. L. and DELAETERJ. R. (1986) The isotopic com- II. Technical Report 85A, Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena, CA.
position of tellurium in the Abee meteorite. Meteoritics 21, 133- WHALINGW., HANNAFORDP., LOWE R. M., BIBUONT E.
139. and GREVESSEN. (1985) Absolute transition probabilities in
STEENBOCKW. (1985) Statistical equilibrium of Fe I/Fe II in vanadium I and the solar abundance of vanadium. Astron. As-
cool stars. In Cooi Stars with Excesses ofHeavy Elements (eds. trophys. 153, 109- 115.
M. JASCHEKand P. C. KENNAN), pp. 23 l-235. D. Reidel, Dor- WIDING K. G., FELDMANU. and BHATIAA. K. (1986) The
drecht, Holland. extreme ultraviolet spectrum (300-630 A) of an erupting prom-
STEENBOCKW. and HOLWEGERH. (1984) Statistical equi- inence observed from Skylab. Astrophys. J. 308, 982-992.
librium of lithium in cool stars of different metallicity. Astron. W~ELERR., BAURH. and SIGNERP. (1986) Noble gases from
Astrophys. 130, 3 19-323. solar energetic particles revealed by closed system stepwise etch-
STEIGERR. H. and JAGERE. (1977) Subcommission on geo- ing of lunar soil minerals. Geochim. &osm~h~m. Acta 50,1997-
chronology: Convention on the use of decay constants in geo- 2017.
WIIK H. B. (1969) On regular discontinuities in the compo-
and cosmochronology. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 36, 359-362.
sition of meteorites. Commentationes Physic@Mathematicae 34,
SUE% H. E, (1947) Uber kosmische Kemhlufigkeiten. 1. Ei-
nige H~ufi~ei~regeln und ihre Anwendung bei der A~h~~ung
WOLF S. C. and HEASLEYJ. P. (1985) The determination of
der Haufigkeitswerte fur die mittelschweren und schweren Ele- the helium abundance in main sequence B stars. Astrophys. J.
mente. Z. Naturforsch. 2a, 3 1 l-32 1. 292,589-600.
Tl TAKAHASHIH., JAN~~ENSM.-J., MORGANJ. W. and ANDERS WOOSLEYS. E. and HOFFMANR. D. (1986) 16th advanced
E. (1978) Further studies of trace elements in C3 chondrites. course. In Nucfeosynthesis and Chemical Evolution (eds. B.
Geochim. Cosm~him. Acta 42,97-106. HAUCK, A. MAEDER,and G. MEYNET).Saas-Fee.
TANG M. and ANDERSE. (1988) Isotopic anomalies of Ne, WOOSLEYS. E. and HOFFMANR. D. (1989) Parametrized
Xe, and C in meteorites: III. Local and exotic noble gas com- studies of nucleosynthesis. Astrophys. J. Suppl. (in press).
ponents and their interrelations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ada YAMAMOTOT. (1985) Formation environment of cometary
52. 1235-1244. nucleiin the primordial solar nebula. Astron. Astrophys. 142,
f 1976) U-Th-Pb and Rb-Sr svstematics of Allende and U-Th- YOUSSEFN. H. (1986) A search for gold in the Sun. Astron.
Pb systematics of Orgueil. Gekhim. Cosmochim. Acta 40,6 17- Astrophys. 164, 395-396.
634. ZADNIK M. G., SPECHTS. and BEGEMANN F. (1989) Revised
TILTONG. R. (1973) Isotopic lead ages of chondritic mete- isotopic composition of terrestrial mercury. Znt. J. Mass Spec.
orites. Earth Plane?. Sci. Lett. 19, 32 l-329. Ion Proc. (in press).