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58 1 Equations and Inequalities

Supply the reasons in the proofs for the theorems stated in Reason
Problems 65 and 66. 1.
2.
65. Theorem: The complex numbers are commutative under
3.
addition.
Proof: Let a  bi and c  di be two arbitrary complex
Letters z and w are often used as complex variables, where
numbers; then:
z  x  yi, w  u  vi, and x, y, u, v are real numbers.
Statement The conjugates of z and w, denoted by z and w, respectively,
1. (a  bi)  (c  di)  (a  c)  (b  d )i are given by z  x  yi and w  u  vi. In Problems
2.  (c  a)  (d  b)i 6774, express each property of conjugates verbally and
3.  (c  di)  (a  bi) then prove the property.
Reason 67. zz is a real number.
1.
2. 68. z  z is a real number.
3.
69. z  z if and only if z is real.
66. Theorem: The complex numbers are commutative under
multiplication. 70. z  z
Proof: Let a  bi and c  di be two arbitrary complex
71. z  w  z  w
numbers; then:
Statement 72. z  w  z  w
1. (a  bi)(c  di)  (ac  bd )  (ad  bc)i 73. zw  z  w
2.  (ca  db)  (da  cb)i
3.  (c  di)(a  bi) 74. z/w  z / w

SECTION 1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications


Solution by Factoring
Solution by Square Root
Solution by Completing the Square
Solution by Quadratic Formula
Applications

The next class of equations we consider are the second-degree polynomial equations
in one variable, called quadratic equations.

DEFINITION 1 Quadratic Equation

A quadratic equation in one variable is any equation that can be written in the
form

ax2  bx  c  0 a0 Standard Form

where x is a variable and a, b, and c are constants.


1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications 59

Now that we have discussed the complex number system, we will use complex
numbers when solving equations. Recall that a solution of an equation is also called
a root of the equation. A real number solution of an equation is called a real root,
and an imaginary number solution is called an imaginary root. In this section we
develop methods for finding all real and imaginary roots of a quadratic equation.

Solution by If ax2  bx  c can be written as the product of two first-degree factors, then the
Factoring quadratic equation can be quickly and easily solved. The method of solution by fac-
toring rests on the zero property of complex numbers, which is a generalization of
the zero property of real numbers reviewed in Section A-1.

Zero Property

If m and n are complex numbers, then

mn0 if and only if m  0 or n  0 (or both)

EXAMPLE 1 Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring

Solve by factoring:

(A) 6x2  19x  7  0 (B) x2  6x  5  4 (C) 2x2  3x

Solutions (A) 6x2  19x  7  0


(2x  7)(3x  1)  0 Factor left side.

2x  7  0 or 3x  1  0
x 7
2 x   13
The solution set is { 13, 72}.
(B) x2  6x  5  4
x2  6x  9  0 Write in standard form.

(x  3)  02
Factor left side.

x3
The solution set is {3}. The equation has one root, 3. But since it came from
two factors, we call 3 a double root.
(C) 2x2  3x
2x2  3x  0
x(2x  3)  0
x0 or 2x  3  0
x  32
Solution set: {0, 32}
60 1 Equations and Inequalities

Matched Problem 1 Solve by factoring:

(A) 3x2  7x  20  0 (B) 4x2  12x  9  0 (C) 4x2  5x

CAUTION 1. One side of an equation must be 0 before the zero property can be
applied. Thus

x2  6x  5  4
(x  1)(x  5)  4

does not imply that x  1  4 or x  5  4. See Example 1B for the


correct solution of this equation.
2. The equations

2x2  3x and 2x  3

are not equivalent. The first has solution set {0, 23}, while the second has
solution set {32}. The root x  0 is lost when each member of the first equa-
tion is divided by the variable x. See Example 1C for the correct solution of
this equation.

Do not divide both members of an equation by an expression containing


the variable for which you are solving. You may be dividing by 0.

Solution by We now turn our attention to quadratic equations that do not have the first-degree
Square Root termthat is, equations of the special form

ax2  c  0 a0

The method of solution of this special form makes direct use of the square root
property:

Square Root Property

If A2  C, then A  C.
1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications 61

EXPLORE-DISCUSS 1 Determine if each of the following pairs of equations is equivalent or not. Explain
your answer.

(A) x2  4 and x  2


(B) x2  4 and x  2
(C) x  4 and x  2
(D) x  4 and x  2

The use of the square root property is illustrated in the next example.

Note: It is common practice to represent solutions of quadratic equations informally


by the last equation rather than by writing a solution set using set notation. From now
on, we will follow this practice unless a particular emphasis is desired.

EXAMPLE 2 Using the Square Root Property

Solve using the square root property:

(A) 2x2  3  0 (B) 3x2  27  0 (C) (x  12)2  54

Solutions (A) 2x2  3  0


x2  32
6 6 6
x  32 or 
2
Solution set:  2
,
2 
(B) 3x2  27  0
x2  9
x  9 or 3i Solution set: {3i, 3i }

(C) (x  1 2
2)  5
4

x   54
1
2

1 5
x 
2 2
1  5

2

Matched Problem 2 Solve using the square root property:

(A) 3x2  5  0 (B) 2x2  8  0 (C) (x  13)2  29


62 1 Equations and Inequalities

EXPLORE-DISCUSS 2 Replace ? in each of the following with a number that makes the equation valid.

(A) (x  1)2  x2  2x  ? (B) (x  2)2  x2  4x  ?


(C) (x  3)2  x2  6x  ? (D) (x  4)2  x2  8x  ?

Replace ? in each of the following with a number that makes the trinomial a per-
fect square.

(E) x2  10x  ? (F) x2  12x  ? (G) x2  bx  ?

Solution by The methods of square root and factoring are generally fast when they apply; how-
Completing ever, there are equations, such as x2  6x  2  0 (see Example 4A), that cannot
the Square be solved directly by these methods. A more general procedure must be developed to
take care of this type of equationfor example, the method of completing the square.
This method is based on the process of transforming the standard quadratic equation

ax2  bx  c  0

into the form

(x  A)2  B

where A and B are constants. The last equation can easily be solved by using the
square root property. But how do we transform the first equation into the second? The
following brief discussion provides the key to the process.
What number must be added to x2  bx so that the result is the square of a first-
degree polynomial? There is a simple mechanical rule for finding this number, based
on the square of the following binomials:

(x  m)2  x2  2mx  m2
(x  m)2  x2  2mx  m2

In either case, we see that the third term on the right is the square of one-half of the
coefficient of x in the second term on the right. This observation leads directly to the
rule for completing the square.

Completing the Square

To complete the square of a quadratic of the form x2  bx, add the square of
one-half the coefficient of x; that is, add (b/2)2. Thus,

x2  bx x2  5x

b2   x  2b 
2 2

2   x  2 
2 2
5 5
x2  bx  x2  5x 
1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications 63

EXAMPLE 3 Completing the Square

Complete the square for each of the following:

(A) x2  3x (B) x2  bx

Solutions (A) x2  3x

32  ; that is, 94.


2
x2  3x  94  (x  32)2 Add

(B) x2  bx

 
b2 b 2

b2  ; that is, b4 .


2 2
x2  bx   x Add
4 2

Matched Problem 3 Complete the square for each of the following:

(A) x2  5x (B) x2  mx

It is important to note that the rule for completing the square applies only to qua-
dratic forms in which the coefficient of the second-degree term is 1. This causes lit-
tle trouble, however, as you will see. We now solve two equations by the method of
completing the square.

EXAMPLE 4 Solution by Completing the Square

Solve by completing the square:

(A) x2  6x  2  0 (B) 2x2  4x  3  0

Solutions (A) x2  6x  2  0
x2  6x  2
x2  6x  9  2  9 Complete the square on the left side, and
add the same number to the right side.
(x  3)2  11
x  3  11
x  3  11
(B) 2x  4x  3  0
2

x2  2x  32  0 Make the leading coefficient 1 by dividing by 2.

x  2x 
2
 32
x2  2x  1   32  1 Complete the square on the left side and
add the same number to the right side.
64 1 Equations and Inequalities

(x  1)2   12 Factor the left side.

x  1    12
x  1  i12
2
1 i Answer in a  bi form.
2

Matched Problem 4 Solve by completing the square:

(A) x2  8x  3  0 (B) 3x2  12x  13  0

Solution by Now consider the general quadratic equation with unspecified coefficients:
Quadratic Formula
ax2  bx  c  0 a0

We can solve it by completing the square exactly as we did in Example 4B. To make
the leading coefficient 1, we must multiply both sides of the equation by 1/a. Thus,

b c
x2  x   0
a a

Adding c/a to both sides of the equation and then completing the square of the left
side, we have

b b2 b2 c
x2  x  2  2 
a 4a 4a a

We now factor the left side and solve using the square root property:

 
b 2
b2  4ac
x 
2a 4a2
b2  4ac

b
x 
2a 4a2
b b2  4ac
x  See Problem 75 in Exercise 2-6.
2a 2a
b  b2  4ac

2a

We have thus derived the well-known and widely used quadratic formula:
1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications 65

Theorem 1 Quadratic Formula

If ax2  bx  c  0, a  0, then

b b2  4ac
x
2a

The quadratic formula should be memorized and used to solve quadratic equations
when other methods fail or are more difficult to apply.

EXAMPLE 5 Using the Quadratic Formula

Solve 2x  32  x2 by use of the quadratic formula. Leave the answer in simplest rad-
ical form.

Solution 2x  32  x2
4x  3  2x2 Multiply both sides by 2.

2x  4x  3  0
2
Write in standard form.

b  b2  4ac
x a  2, b  4, c  3
2a
(4)  (4)2  4(2)(3)

2(2)
4  40 4  210 2  10
  
4 4 2

CAUTION 1. 42  (4)2 42  16 and (4)2  16

10 2  10 10 4  10


2. 2   2 
2 2 2 2

4  210 4  210 2(2  10) 2  10


3.  210  
4 4 4 2

Matched Problem 5 Solve x2  52  3x by use of the quadratic formula. Leave the answer in simplest
radical form.

EXAMPLE 6 Using the Quadratic Formula with a Calculator

Solve 5.37x2  6.03x  1.17  0 to two decimal places using a calculator.


66 1 Equations and Inequalities

Solution 5.37x2  6.03x  1.17  0


6.03  (6.03)2  4(5.37)(1.17)
x
2(5.37)
 0.25, 0.87

Matched Problem 6 Solve 2.79x2  5.07x  7.69  0 to two decimal places using a calculator.

We conclude this part of the discussion by noting that b2  4ac in the quadratic
formula is called the discriminant and gives us useful information about the corre-
sponding roots as shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1 Discriminant and Roots


Discriminant Roots of ax2  bx  c  0
b2  4ac a, b, and c real numbers, a  0

Positive Two distinct real roots


0 One real root (a double root)
Negative Two imaginary roots, one the conjugate of the other

For example:

(A) 2x2  3x  4  0 has two real roots, since

b2  4ac  (3)2  4(2)(4)  41


0

(B) 4x2  4x  1  0 has one real (double) root, since

b2  4ac  (4)2  4(4)(1)  0

(C) 2x2  3x  4  0 has two imaginary roots, since

b2  4ac  (3)2  4(2)(4)  23 0

Applications We now consider several applications that make use of quadratic equations. First, the
strategy for solving word problems, presented earlier in Section 1-1, is repeated below.

Strategy for Solving Word Problems

1. Read the problem carefullyseveral times if necessarythat is, until you


understand the problem, know what is to be found, and know what is given.
1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications 67

2. Let one of the unknown quantities be represented by a variable, say x, and


try to represent all other unknown quantities in terms of x. This is an impor-
tant step and must be done carefully.
3. If appropriate, draw figures or diagrams and label known and unknown parts.
4. Look for formulas connecting the known quantities to the unknown
quantities.
5. Form an equation relating the unknown quantities to the known quantities.
6. Solve the equation and write answers to all questions asked in the problem.
7. Check and interpret all solutions in terms of the original problemnot just
the equation found in step 5since a mistake may have been made in set-
ting up the equation in step 5.

EXAMPLE 7 Setting Up and Solving a Word Problem


13
The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 6. Find all such numbers.

Solution Let x  the number; then:

1 13
x 
x 6

1 13
(6x)x  (6x)  (6x) Multiply both sides by 6x. [Note: x  0.]
x 6

6x2  6  13x A quadratic equation

6x  13x  6  0
2

(2x  3)(3x  2)  0
2x  3  0 or 3x  2  0
x  32 x  23
3
Thus, two such numbers are 2 and 23.

Check
3
2  23  13
6
2
3  32  13
6

Matched Problem 7 The sum of two numbers is 23 and their product is 132. Find the two numbers. [Hint:
If one number is x, then the other number is 23  x.]
68 1 Equations and Inequalities

EXAMPLE 8 A DistanceRateTime Problem

An excursion boat takes 1.6 hours longer to go 36 miles up a river than to return. If
the rate of the current is 4 miles per hour, what is the rate of the boat in still water?

Solution Let

x  Rate of boat in still water


x  4  Rate downstream
x  4  Rate upstream

Time
upstream 

downstream 
Time
 1.6

36 36 D
  1.6 T , x  4, x  4
x4 x4 R

36(x  4)  36(x  4)  1.6(x  4)(x  4)


36x  144  36x  144  1.6x2  25.6
1.6x2  313.6
x2  196
x  196  14

The rate in still water is 14 miles per hour.

[Note: 196  14 must be discarded, since it doesnt make sense in the prob-
lem to have a negative rate.]

D 36
Check Time upstream    3.6
R 14  4
D 36
Time downstream   2
R 14  4
1.6 Difference of times

Matched Problem 8 Two boats travel at right angles to each other after leaving a dock at the same time.
One hour later they are 25 miles apart. If one boat travels 5 miles per hour faster than
the other, what is the rate of each? [Hint: Use the Pythagorean theorem,* remember-
ing that distance equals rate times time.]

c
a *Pythagorean theorem: A triangle is a right triangle if and only if the square of the length of the longest
b side is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two shorter sides: c2  a2  b2.
1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications 69

EXAMPLE 9 A QuantityRateTime Problem

A payroll can be completed in 4 hours by two computers working simultaneously.


How many hours are required for each computer to complete the payroll alone if the
older model requires 3 hours longer than the newer model? Compute answers to two
decimal places.

Solution Let

x  Time for new model to complete the payroll alone


x  3  Time for old model to complete the payroll alone
4  Time for both computers to complete the payroll together

Then,

1 1
 Rate for new model Completes of the payroll per hour
x x

1 1
 Rate for old model Completes of the payroll per hour
x3 x3

  
Part of job Part of job
completed by completed by
  1 whole job
new model in old model in
4 hours 4 hours
1 1
(4)  (4) 1 x  0, x  3
x x3
4 4
 1
x x3
4(x  3)  4x  x(x  3) Multiply both sides by x(x  3).

4x  12  4x  x2  3x
x2  5x  12  0
5  73
x
2
5  73 5  73
x 6.77 1.77 is
2 2
discarded since x
cannot be negative.

x  3  9.77

The new model would complete the payroll in 6.77 hours working alone, and the
old model would complete the payroll in 9.77 hours working alone.
70 1 Equations and Inequalities

1 1
Check (4)  (4) 1
6.77 9.77
1.000 259 1

Note: We do not expect the check to be exact, since we rounded the answers to two
decimal places. An exact check would be produced by using x  (5  73)/2.
The latter is left to the reader.

Matched Problem 9 Two technicians can complete a mailing in 3 hours when working together. Alone,
one can complete the mailing 2 hours faster than the other. How long will it take each
person to complete the mailing alone? Compute the answers to two decimal places.

Answers to Matched Problems


1. (A) x  4, 35 (B) x  32 (a double root) (C) x  0, 54
2. (A) x  3 or 15/3
5
(B) x  2i (C) x  (1  2)/3
3. (A) x2  5x  25
4  (x  2 )
5 2
(B) x2  mx  (m2/4)  [x  (m/2)]2
4. (A) x  4  19 (B) x  (6  i3)/3 or 2  (3/3)i 5. x  (3  19)/2
6. x  2.80, 0.98 7. 11 and 12 8. 15 and 20 miles per hour 9. 5.16 and 7.16 hours

EXERCISE 1-6 Leave all answers involving radicals in simplified radical form unless otherwise stated.

A B
In Problems 16, solve by factoring. In Problems 2734, solve by completing the square.
1. 2x  8x
2
2. 2y  5y  3
2
27. x 2  4x  1  0 28. y 2  4y  3  0
3. 4t 2  9  12t 4. 3s2  6s 29. 2r2  10r  11  0 30. 2s2  6s  7  0
5. 3w  13w  10
2
6. 16x  9  24x
2
31. 4u2  8u  15  0 32. 4v 2  16v  23  0
In Problems 718, solve by using the square root property. 33. 3w 2  4w  3  0 34. 3z 2  8z  1  0
7. m2  25  0 8. n2  16  0
In Problems 3552, solve by any method.
9. c2  9  0 10. d 2  36  0
35. 12x2  7x  10 36. 9x2  9x  4
11. 4y2  9  0 12. 9x2  25  0
37. (2y  3)2  5 38. (3m  2)2  4
13. 25z 2  32  0 14. 16w 2  27  0
39. x2  3x  1 40. x2  2x  2
15. (s  1)2  5 16. (t  2)2  3
41. 7n2  4n 42. 8u2  3u  0
17. (n  3)2  4 18. (m  4)2  1
8 4 2 3
In Problems 1926, solve using the quadratic formula. 43. 1   44.  1
x2 x u u2
19. x2  2x  1  0 20. y 2  4y  7  0
24 24 1.2 1.2
21. x2  2x  3  0 22. y2  4y  1  0 45. 1 46.  1
10  m 10  m y1 y
23. 2t2  8  6t 24. 9s2  2  12s 2 4 1 3 2 4
47.   48.  
25. 2t 2  1  6t 26. 9s 2  7  12s x2 x3 x1 x1 x3 x2
1-6 Quadratic Equations and Applications 71

x2 x2 x1 74. Can a quadratic equation with real coefficients have one
49.  2 1 real root and one imaginary root? Explain.
x3 x 9 3x
11 x  3 2x  3 75. Show that if r1 and r2 are the two roots of ax2  bx  c  0,
50.   then r1r2  c/a.
x2  4 2  x x2
51. 3u  2  u2 52. 12  7x  x2 76. For r1 and r2 in Problem 75, show that r1  r2  b/a.
77. In one stage of the derivation of the quadratic formula, we
In Problems 5356, solve for the indicated variable in terms
replaced the expression
of the other variables. Use positive square roots only.
53. s  12gt2 for t 54. a2  b2  c2 for a (b2  4ac)/4a2
55. P  EI  RI 2 for I 56. A  P(1  r)2 for r
with
Solve Problems 5760 to two decimal places using a
calculator. b2  4ac/2a
57. 2.07x2  3.79x  1.34  0
What justifies using 2a in place of 2a?
58. 0.61x2  4.28x  2.93  0
78. Find the error in the following proof that two arbitrary
59. 4.83x2  2.04x  3.18  0 numbers are equal to each other: Let a and b be arbitrary
numbers such that a  b. Then
60. 5.13x2  7.27x  4.32  0
61. Consider the quadratic equation (a  b)2  a2  2ab  b2  b2  2ab  a2
(a  b)2  (b  a)2
x2  4x  c  0
abba
where c is a real number. Discuss the relationship between
2a  2b
the values of c and the three types of roots listed in Table 1.
ab
62. Consider the quadratic equation

x2  2x  c  0
APPLICATIONS
where c is a real number. Discuss the relationship between
the values of c and the three types of roots listed in Table 1. 79. Numbers. Find two numbers such that their sum is 21 and
their product is 104.
Use the discriminant to determine whether the equations in
Problems 6366 have real solutions. 80. Numbers. Find all numbers with the property that when the
number is added to itself the sum is the same as when the
63. 0.0134x2  0.0414x  0.0304  0 number is multiplied by itself.
64. 0.543x2  0.182x  0.003 12  0 81. Numbers. Find two consecutive positive even integers
65. 0.0134x  0.0214x  0.0304  0
2 whose product is 168.
10
66. 0.543x2  0.182x  0.0312  0 82. Numbers. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 3.
Find the number.
83. Geometry. If the length and width of a 4- by 2-inch rectan-
C gle are each increased by the same amount, the area of the
new rectangle will be twice that of the original. What are
Solve Problems 6770 and leave answers in simplified radi-
the dimensions of the new rectangle (to two decimal
cal form (i is the imaginary unit).
places)?
67. 3x2  82x  43 68. 22x  3  3x2
84. Geometry. Find the base b and height h of a triangle with
69. x2  2ix  3 70. x2  2ix  3 an area of 2 square feet if its base is 3 feet longer than its
height and the formula for area is A  12bh.
In Problems 71 and 72, find all solutions.
85. Business. If $P are invested at an interest rate r com-
71. x3  1  0 72. x4  1  0
pounded annually, at the end of 2 years the amount will be
73. Can a quadratic equation with rational coefficients have A  P(1  r)2. At what interest rate will $1,000 increase to
one rational root and one irrational root? Explain. $1,440 in 2 years? [Note: A  $1,440 and P  $1,000.]
72 1 Equations and Inequalities

86. Economics. In a certain city, the pricedemand and feet wide and 400 feet long (see the figure). Find the di-
pricesupply equations for CDs are mensions of the building if its cross-sectional area is 15,000
square feet. [Hint: Use Euclids theorem* to find a relation-
75,000 ship between the length and width of the building.]
p Demand equation
q 94. Architecture. An architect is designing a small A-frame
cottage for a resort area. A cross section of the cottage is an
p  0.0005q  12.5 Supply equation isosceles triangle with an area of 98 square feet. The front
wall of the cottage must accommodate a sliding door that is
where q represents quantity and p represents the price in 6 feet wide and 8 feet high (see the figure). Find the width
dollars. Find the equilibrium price. and height of the cross section of the cottage. [Recall: The
87. Puzzle. Two planes travel at right angles to each other after area of a triangle with base b and altitude h is bh/2.]
leaving the same airport at the same time. One hour later
they are 260 miles apart. If one travels 140 miles per hour
faster than the other, what is the rate of each?
88. Navigation. A speedboat takes 1 hour longer to go 24 miles
up a river than to return. If the boat cruises at 10 miles per
hour in still water, what is the rate of the current?
89. Engineering. One pipe can fill a tank in 5 hours less than
another. Together they can fill the tank in 5 hours. How long 8 feet
would it take each alone to fill the tank? Compute the an-
swer to two decimal places.
90. Engineering. Two gears rotate so that one completes 1 6 feet
more revolution per minute than the other. If it takes the
smaller gear 1 second less than the larger gear to complete 95. Transportation. A delivery truck leaves a warehouse and
1
5 revolution, how many revolutions does each gear make in travels north to factory A. From factory A the truck travels
1 minute? east to factory B and then returns directly to the warehouse
91. Physics Engineering. For a car traveling at a speed of v (see the figure). The driver recorded the trucks odometer
miles per hour, under the best possible conditions the short- reading at the warehouse at both the beginning and the end
est distance d necessary to stop it (including reaction time) of the trip and also at factory B, but forgot to record it at
is given by the empirical formula d  0.044v2  1.1v, factory A (see the table). The driver does recall that it was
where d is measured in feet. Estimate the speed of a car that further from the warehouse to factory A than it was from
requires 165 feet to stop in an emergency. factory A to factory B. Since delivery charges are based on
distance from the warehouse, the driver needs to know how
92. Physics Engineering. If a projectile is shot vertically far factory A is from the warehouse. Find this distance.
into the air (from the ground) with an initial velocity of 176
feet per second, its distance y (in feet) above the ground t
seconds after it is shot is given by y  176t  16t2 (ne-
glecting air resistance). Factory A Factory B
(A) Find the times when y is 0, and interpret the results
physically.
(B) Find the times when the projectile is 16 feet off the
ground. Compute answers to two decimal places.
93. Construction. A developer wants to erect a rectangular
building on a triangular-shaped piece of property that is 200

Warehouse

200 feet

15,000 square feet *Euclids theorem: If two triangles are similar, their corresponding
sides are proportional:
a c c
a a b c
400 feet  
b b a b c
1-7 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Form 73

enclose an area of 100,000 square feet. Find the length of


Odometer Readings the straightaways and the diameter of the semicircles to the
Warehouse 5 2 8 4 6 nearest foot. [Recall: The area A and circumference C of a
circle of diameter d are given by A  d2/4 and C  d.]
Factory A 5 2 ? ? ?
Factory B 5 2 9 3 7
Warehouse 5 3 0 0 2
100,000 square feet
96. Construction. A 14-mile track for racing stock cars consists
of two semicircles connected by parallel straightaways (see
the figure). In order to provide sufficient room for pit crews,
emergency vehicles, and spectator parking, the track must

SECTION 1-7 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Form


Equations Involving Radicals
Equations Involving Rational Exponents

Equations In solving an equation involving a radical like


Involving Radicals
x  x  2

it appears that we can remove the radical by squaring each side and then proceed to
solve the resulting quadratic equation. Thus,

x2  (x  2)2
x2  x  2
x2  x  2  0
(x  2)(x  1)  0
x  2, 1

Now we check these results in the original equation.

Check: x  2 Check: x  1
x  x  2 x  x  2
2 2  2 1 1  2
2 4 1 1
22 1  1

Thus, 2 is a solution, but 1 is not. These results are a special case of Theorem 1.