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Computer-aided manufacturing

The use of computers in converting engineering designs into finished products. Computers assist
managers, manufacturing engineers, and production workers by automating many production tasks,
such as developing process plans, ordering and tracking materials, and monitoring production
schedules, as well as controlling the machines, industrial robots, test equipment, and systems that
move and store materials in the factory. Abbreviated CAM.

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer-aided design and drafting (CADD),

It is a form that helps designers to prepare drawings, specifications, parts lists, and other design-
related elements using special graphics- and calculations-intensive computer programs. The
technology is used for a wide variety of products in such fields as architecture, electronics, and
aerospace, naval, and automotive engineering. Although CAD systems originally merely automated
drafting, they now usually include three-dimensional modeling and computer-simulated operation of
the model. Rather than having to build prototypes and change components to determine the effects of
tolerance ranges, engineers can use computers to simulate operation to determine loads and

Numerical control

Control of a system or device by direct input of data in the form of numbers, letters, symbols, words,
or a combination of these forms. It is a principal element of computer-integrated manufacturing,
particularly for controlling the operation of machine tools. NC is also essential to the operation of
modern industrial robots. The two basic types of NC systems are point-to-point, in which a device is
programmed to perform a series of motions with fixed starting and stopping points, and continuous-
path, in which a point-to-point programmed device has sufficient memory to be aware of its former
actions and their results and to act in accordance with this information.

Computer numerical control

The method of controlling machines by the application of digital electronic computers and circuitry.
Machine movements that are controlled by cams, gears, levers, or screws in conventional machines
are directed by computers and digital circuitry in computer numerical control (CNC) machines.

Computer numerical control provides very flexible and versatile control over machine tools. Most
machining operations require that a cutting tool be fed at some speed against a workpiece. In a
conventional machine such as a turret lathe, the turning tool is mounted on a slide with hand-
operated infeed and crossfeed slides. The operator manually turns a crank that feeds the cutting tool
into the workpiece (infeed) to the desired diameter. Another crank then moves the turning tool along
the longitudinal axis of the machine and produces a cylindrical cut along the workpiece. The feed rate
of the turning tool is sometimes controlled by selecting feed gears. These gears move the axis slide at the
desired feed. A CNC machine replaces the hand cranks and feed gears with servomotor systems.
Computer numerical controls allow the desired cut depths and feed rates to be dialed in rather than controlled
by cranks, cams, and gears. This provides precise, repeatable machine movements that can be programmed
for optimal speeds, feeds, and machine cycles. All cutting-tool applications, whether on a lathe, drill press, or
machining center, have optimum speeds and feeds, which are determined by carefully weighing the economics
of tool life, required production rates, and operator attentiveness. With computer numerical control these
parameters are set once, and then they are repeated precisely for each subsequent machine cycle.

In computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), computers are used to assist in programming CNC machines. In
sophisticated CNC manufacturing operations, machined parts are first designed on computer-aided-design
(CAD) equipment. The same electronic drawing is then used to create the CNC part program automatically. A
less advanced version of CAM is the use of high-level part programming languages to write part programs.

Computer numerical control machines are used mainly when flexibility is required or variable and complex part
geometries must be created. They are used to produce parts in lot sizes of a few pieces to several thousand.
Extremely large manufacturing lot sizes frequently call for more product-specific machines, which can be
optimized for large production runs.

A machine tool that uses programs to automatically execute a series of machining operations. CNC
machines offer increased productivity and flexibility.


An offset used to adjust the location of every tool loaded in the machine. On the mill, the
work offset changes the position of the spindle in both the X- and Y-axes, and often the Z-axis as


An offset used on the mill that accounts for variations in tool length along the Z-axis. Each
tool requires its own offset, which is measured from the tip of the tool to the gage line.

Normal screen

Using jog mode make a

Turning on the
component and retract
the tool in the Z axis
Press tool param as

Indicated in picture

After pressing tool parm

Screen indicated in

Now press T-DATA

Softkey which is present
Below the screen
After pressing tool data
Screen indication
scroll the curser to the
required Tool number
for example no-3

Now press x and

Input the measured dia
which is observed on
component example

Press input calc

Now the machine has
automatically stored the
Diameter value,similarly
Input the face value in
z axis.

After pressing input the curser automatically jumps

To the next tool number. Care must be taken to give

the tool offset in the corresponding number

Metalworking lathes

In a metalworking lathe, metal is removed from the workpiece using a hardened cutting tool, which is
usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting, either a toolpost or a turret, which is then moved against
the workpiece using handwheels and/or computer controlled motors. These (cutting) tools come in a
wide range of sizes and shapes depending upon their application. Some common styles are diamond,
round, square and triangular.

The toolpost is operated by leadscrews that can accurately position the tool in a variety of planes. The
toolpost may be driven manually or automatically to produce the roughing and finishing cuts required
to turn the workpiece to the desired shape and dimensions, or for cutting threads, worm gears, etc.
Cutting fluid may also be pumped to the cutting site to provide cooling, lubrication and clearing of
swarf from the workpiece. Some lathes may be operated under control of a computer for mass
production of parts (see "Computer Numerical Control").

Manually controlled metalworking lathes are commonly provided with a variable ratio gear train to
drive the main leadscrew. This enables different thread pitches to be cut. On some older lathes or more
affordable new lathes, the gear trains are changed by swapping gears with various numbers of teeth
onto or off of the shafts, while more modern or expensive manually controlled lathes have a quick
change box to provide commonly used ratios by the operation of a lever. CNC lathes use computers
and servomechanisms to regulate the rates of movement.

On manually controlled lathes, the thread pitches that can be cut are, in some ways, determined by the
pitch of the leadscrew: A lathe with a metric leadscrew will readily cut metric threads (including BA),
while one with an imperial leadscrew will readily cut imperial unit based threads such as BSW or UTS
(UNF,UNC). This limitation is not insurmountable, because a 127-tooth gear, called a transposing
gear, is used to translate between metric and inch thread pitches. However, this is optional equipment
that many lathe owners do not own. It is also a larger changewheel than the others, and on some lathes
may be larger than the changewheel mounting banjo is capable of mounting.

The workpiece may be supported between a pair of points called centres, or it may be bolted to a
faceplate or held in a chuck. A chuck has movable jaws that can grip the workpiece securely.

There are some effects on material properties when using a metalworking lathe. There are few
chemical or physical effects, but there are many mechanical effects, which include residual stress,
microcracks, workhardening, and tempering in hardened materials.

7 6
5 c3

4 2

20 20


Line1-----------> G28U0.W0.;
Line2-----------> T202;
Line3-----------> G97M4S2000;
Line4-----------> G0X29.Z4.;
Line5-----------> G71U0.5R0.5;
Line6-----------> G71P10Q15U0.25W0.1F0.1;
Line7-----------> N10G0X7.0;
Line8-----------> G1Z0.0;
Line9-----------> G1X10.0Z-3.0;
Line10-----------> G1Z-15;
Line11-----------> G2X16.0Z-20.0R3.0;
Line12-----------> G3X22.0Z-25.0R3.0;
Line13-----------> G1Z-40.0;
Line14-----------> N15G1X29.0;
Line15-----------> G70P10Q15F0.05;
Line16-----------> G0Z10.0M5;
Line17-----------> G28U0.W0.;
Line18-----------> M30;

6 5
3 c4

30 1

20 20

G codes used in CNC machines

G00 Fast positioning
G01 Linear interpolation
G02 CW circular interpolation
G03 CCW circular interpolation
G10/G11 Data writing / Data write cancel
G17 X-Y plane selection
G18 X-Z plane selection
G19 Y-Z plane selection
G20 Programming in inches
G21 Programming in mm
G28 Return to home position
G31 Skip function (used for probes and tool length measurement )
G33 Constant pitch threading
G34 Variable pitch threading
G40 Tool radius compensation off
G41 Tool radius compensation left
G42 Tool radius compensation right
G90 Absolute programming
G91 Incremental programming
G94/G95 Inch per minute/Inch per revolution feed
G96/G97 Constant cutting speed (Constant surface speed) Constant rotation speed (constant RPM)


G00 Positioning

G01 Linear interpolation

G02 Circular interpolation CW

G03 Circular interpolation CCW

G04 Dwell

G05 High-speed continuous cutting

G07 SINE interpolation

G09 Exact stop check

G10 Offset value setting / work zero offset setting

G17 XY plane selection

G18 ZX plane selection

G19 YZ plane selection

G20 Inch data input

G21 Metric data input

G22 Stored stroke limit on

G23 Stored stroke limit off

G27 Zero return check

G28 Automatic Zero Return

G29 Return from reference point

G30 Return to 2nd/3rd/4th reference point

G31 Skip cutting

G33 Thread cutting

G40 Cutter compesation cancel

G41 Cutter compensation left side

G42 Cutter compensation right side

G43 Tool length offset (+)

G44 Tool lenght offset (-)

G45 Tool offset increase

G46 Tool offset decrease

G47 Tool offset double increase

G48 Tool offset double decrease

G49 Tool lenght offset cancel

G54 Work coordinate system 1

G55 Work coordingte system 2

G56 Work coordinate system 3

G57 Work coordinate system 4

G58 Work coordinate system 5

G59 Work coordinate system 6

G60 Single direction positioning

G61 Exact stop check mode

G62 Automatic corner override effective

G64 Cutting mode

G65 Custom macro simple call

G66 Custom macro modal call

G67 Custom macro modal call cancel

G73 Peck drilling cycle

G74 Counter tapping cycle

G76 Fine boring cycle

G80 Canned cycle cancel

G81 Drilling cycle

G82 Drilling cycle/counter boring

G83 Peck drilling cycle

G84 Tapping cycle

G85 Boring cycle

G86 Boring cycle

G87 Back boring cycle

G88 Boring cycle

G89 Boring cycle

G90 Absolute programming

G91 Incremental programming

G92 Programming of absolute zero point

G94 Feed per minute

G95 Feed per revolution

G98 Return to initial point level in canned cycle

G99 Return to R point level in canned cycle


M00 Program Stop

M01 Optional (Planned) Stop

M02 End of Program

M03 Spindle CW

M04 Spindle CCW

M05 Spindle OFF

M06 Tool Change

M07 Coolant No. 2 ON

M08 Coolant No. 1 ON

M09 Coolant OFF

M10 Clamp

M11 Unclamp
M12 Unassigned

M13 Spindle CW & Coolant ON

M14 Spindle CCW & Coolant ON

M15 Motion +

M16 Motion -

M17 Unassigned

M18 Unassigned

M19 Oriented Spindle Stop

M20-29 Permanently Unassigned

M30 End of Tape

M31 Interlock Bypass

M32-35 Unassigned

M36-39 Permanently Unassigned

M40-45 Gear Changes if Used, Otherwise Unassigned

M46-47 Unassigned

M48 Cancel M49

M49 Bypass Override

M50-89 Unassigned

M90-99 Reserved for User