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Chapter 1.

Introduction
1.1 Content of Theory of Elasticity
1.2 Important Concept in Theory of
Elasticity
1.3 Basic Assumptions
1.4 Problems

1.1 Contents of Theory of Elasticity

Theory of Elasticity is the branch of Solid Mechanics


which deals with the stress and displacements in elastic
solids produced by external forces or changes in
temperature.

The purpose of study is to check the sufficiency of


the strength, stiffness and stability of structural and machine
elements.

Solid Mechanics I ---- bar


(Mechanics of Materials)

Solid Mechanics II ---- bar system


(Structure Mechanics)
bars
plates
Solid Mechanics Solid Mechanics III ---- blocks
(Theory of Elasticity) dams
shells



Solid Mechanics VIII
(Theory of Plasticity)
beam mech. of mater.

For example
beam theory of
elasticity

plate mech of mater.

For example

plate theory of elast.

Joint application of the above three branches of solid


mechanics

------------- Finite Element Method (FEM)


1.2 Some important concepts in theory of elasticity

External forces

Stresses (internal force)

deformations --- strains and displacement

There are two kinds of external forces that act on the


bodies

gravitational force
(1) Body forces inertia forces (in motion)

definition of body force:


Q
F = lim (vector quantity)
V 0 V

Component of F --- X, Y, Z, the projections of F


on x, y, z axis

Dimension is [force][length] 3 , e.x., N/m 3 .

Fig. 1.2.1

pressure (in water, atmosphere)


(2) Surface force
contact force

Q
definition: F lim [force] [length] 2
S 0 S

Components of F along x, y, z axes denoted by X,Y , Z

Fig. 1.2.2

(3) The internal forces produced by external forces


Q
Stress at a point: definition S = lim
A0 A

s-- normal stress (normal component)

t -- shear stress (shear component )

(4) The stress state at a point

Definition of the stress component and its sign


( Note : differences with the definition in solid mechanics II)

Relations between shear stresses

t yz t zy, t zx t xz, t xy t yx
We will show that the stress state on any section through the
point can be calculated if we know the 6 stress components,
i.e., the 6 stress components completely define the stress
state at a point.

(5) Deformation: By deformation we mean the change of


shape of a body

6 strain components x , y , z , xy , yz , xz
completely define the deformation condition (or strain
condition) at that point
(6) Displacement: By displacement (unit: length) we
mean the change of position, the displacement components in
the x, y, z axes are denoted by u, v, w respectively.

All the above s ij , ij, ui at a point vary with the


position of the point considered, so they are functions of
coordinates in space.

1.3 Basic assumptions in theory of elasticity

(1) The body is continuous, so s ij , ij, ui can be


expressed by continuous functions in space

(2) The body is perfectly elastic---- wholly obeys


Hook's law of elasticity ---- linear relations between
stress components and strain components.
(3) The body is homogeneous , i.e., the elastic
properties are the same throughout the body--
elastic constants will be independent of the
location in the body.

(4) The body is isotropic so that the elastic properties


are the same in all directions, thus the elastic
constants will be independent of the orientation
of coordinate axes.

example: polycrystalline ceramics and steels

wood and fiber reinforced composite


(5) The displacements and strains are small, i.e., the
displacements components of all points of the body
during deformation are very small compared with
its original dimensions.

Problems (Exercise):
1.1.4, 1.1.2, new:

Chapter 2 Theory of Plane Problems


2.1 Plane Stress and Plane Strain

spatial problems

plane problem ---- plane stress and plane strain problems

(1) plane stress problem (2) Plane strain problem


and plane stress condition and plane strain
condition
s x f1 ( x , y ) x f1 ( x , y )
s y f2 ( x , y ) y f2 ( x , y )
t xy f3 ( x , y ) xy f3 ( x , y )
sz 0 z 0
t xz t yz 0 xz yz 0

Example: thin plate Example: dam

2.2 Equation of Equilibrium in Plane Problems