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- The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of Nike
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- The Little Book of Hygge: Danish Secrets to Happy Living
- Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On It
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Yes Please
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- John Adams
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Principles: Life and Work
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

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Equations Essential Question: How do you use an equation to model and solve a real-world problem?

Resource

Locker

Common Core Math Standards

Explore Creating Equations from Verbal

The student is expected to:

Descriptions

A-CED.1

You can use what you know about writing algebraic expressions to write an equation that represents a real-world

Create equations and inequalities in one variable including ones with situation.

absolute value and use them to solve problems. Also A-CED.3, A-REI.3 Suppose Cory and his friend Walter go to a movie. Each of their tickets costs the same amount, and they share a

frozen yogurt that costs $5.50. The total amount they spend is $19.90. How can you write an equation that describes

Mathematical Practices the situation?

MP.5 Using Tools Identify the important information.

is

Language Objective The word tells you that the relationship describes an equation.

Explain to a partner how to solve an equation with the variable on both The word total tells you that the operation involved in the relationship is

addition .

sides. What numerical information do you have? The frozen yogurt costs $5.50,

and the total amount spent is $19.90.

cost

an equation to model and solve a Choose a name for the variable. In this case, use c for .

a ticket

real-world problem? The verbal description is: Twice the cost of plus the cost

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Use a verbal description or a table to write an of the frozen yogurt equals the total amount .

equation, solve the equation, then check that your To write an equation, write a numerical or algebraic expression for each quantity

answer makes sense. 2c + 5.50 = 19.90

and insert an equal sign in the appropriate place. An equation is: .

Reflect

PREVIEW: LESSON

1. How can you use a verbal model to write an equation for the situation described?

PERFORMANCE TASK

Use the information to write the model

View the Engage section online. Discuss the various

ways savings can be invested to make more money. Twice the cost Cost of frozen Total cost

+ =

Then preview the Lesson Performance Task. of a ticket (dollars) yogurt (dollars) (dollars)

Module 2 es must be

made throu

gh File info 55 Lesson 2

EDIT--Chang

DO NOT y=NL-B;CA-B

CorrectionKe

Date

Class

s

g Equation

and Solvin

Name

Creating

m?

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2.2

a real-wo

and solve

Essential

Question:

How do you

use an equati

equations

and inequal

A-CED.1 Create solve problems. Also

to

on to model

ities in one

variable includin

A-CED.3, A-REI.3

s from Verb

g ones with

al

absolute value

Resource

Locker

and use them

Equation

Creating

rld

nts a real-wo

Explore ripti ons an equatio n that represe

Desc ic express

ions to write a

writing algebra they share

you know about same amount, and n that describes

what the

You can use tickets costs you write an equatio

Each of their can

situation. to a movie. spend is $19.90. How

Walter go

t they

and his friend total amoun

Suppose Cory that costs $5.50. The

frozen yogurt

n?

the situatio equation. es an

information. ship describ

important the relation addition .

Identify the is tells you that ship is

in the relation

The word involved $5.50,

operation yogurt costs

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total tells

The word have?

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What numer nt spent

is $19.90 of each ticket

total amou the cost

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What is the

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Write a verbal

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description.

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the variabl

e. In this

case, use

c for

a ticket

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hardcover student

edition.

name for

Choose a the cost of

is: Twice amount .

description the total

The verbal y

yogurt equals for each quantit

the frozen

algebraic expression

g Company

of = 19.90 .

ical or 2c + 5.50

write a numer is:

equation, equation

To write an place. An

Publishin

appropriate

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an equal

and insert

Mifflin Harcourt

ed?

n describ

for the situatio

equation

Reflect

model to write an

a verbal

can you use

Houghton

write the

ation to

Use the inform Cost of frozen = (dollars)

cost rs)

Twice the +

yogurt (dolla

(dollars) Lesson 2

of a ticket

55

11:01 PM

14/05/14

Module 2

55 Lesson 2.2

%0/05&%*5$IBOHFTNVTUCFNBEFUISPVHIi'JMFJOGPw %0/05&%*5$IBOHFTNVTUCFNBEFUISPVHIi'JMFJOGPw

$PSSFDUJPO,FZ/-"$"" $PSSFDUJPO,FZ/-"$""

2. Could you write a different equation to describe the situation? Explain your reasoning.

Yes; you could write a different but equivalent equation, such as 19.90 - 2c = 5.50, or

c + c + 5.50 = 19.90.

EXPLORE

Explain 1 Creating and Solving Equations Involving

Creating Equations from Verbal

the Distributive Property Descriptions

When you create an equation to model a real-world problem, your equation may involve the Distributive Property.

When you solve a real-world problem, you should always check that your answer makes sense.

INTEGRATE TECHNOLOGY

Example 1 Write and solve an equation to solve each problem.

Students may complete the Explore activity either in

Aaron and Alice are bowling. Alices score is twice the the book or online.

difference of Aarons score and 5. The sum of their scores

is 320. Find each students bowling score.

CONNECT VOCABULARY

The sum of Aarons score and Alices score is 320.

The word equation begins with the root equa-. Have

Choose a variable for the unknown quantity and write an

equation to model the detailed situation.

students think of some other words that begin with

equa-. Discuss what all these words have in common.

Let a represent Aarons score. Then 2(a - 5) represents

Alices score.

a + 2(a - 5) = 320

QUESTIONING STRATEGIES

Solve the equation for a.

What words in a verbal description could be

a + 2(a - 5) = 320 )PVHIUPO.JGGMJO)BSDPVSU1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZt*NBHF$SFEJUT%JHJUBM

represented by the equal sign in an

a + 2a - 10 = 320 Distributive Property

equation? equals, is, is equal to, is the same as

3a - 10 = 320

3a = 330

_

3a _

=

330

Division Property of Equality

EXPLAIN 1

3 3

a = 110

Creating and Solving Equations

So, Aarons score is 110 and Alices score is 2(a - 5) = 2(110 - 5) = 2(105) = 210.

Involving the Distributive Property

7JTJPO(FUUZ*NBHFT

QUESTIONING STRATEGIES

Mari, Carlos, and Amanda collect stamps. Carlos has five more stamps than Mari, and

What is the first step in solving an equation

Amanda has three times as many stamps as Carlos. Altogether, they have 100 stamps. Find

the number of stamps each person has. that contains parentheses? Remove the

Write a verbal description of the basic situation. parentheses by distributing any factor in front of

The total of the numbers of stamps Mari, Carlos, and Amanda have is 100. the parentheses to all terms within the parentheses.

Module 2 56 Lesson 2

Students may try to multiply a coefficient in front of

Math Background

parentheses by only one of the enclosed terms.

In this lesson, students will use the Distributive Property along with the properties Remind students to multiply the coefficient by every

of equality (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to solve equations. term within the parentheses.

Solving equations involves using inverse operations to get the variable alone on

one side of the equation and the solution on the other side of the equation.

Ateach step of the solving process, students use properties to derive equivalent

equations, or equations with the same solution set.

Choose a variable for the unknown quantity and write an equation to model the detailed

situation.

Let s represent the number of stamps Mari has. Then Carlos has s+5 stamps,

3(s + 5) stamps.

has 63 stamps.

16 + 21 + 63 = 100

; the answer makes sense.

100 = 100

Reflect

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

No; a fractional number of stamps does not make sense.

4. Discussion What might it mean if a check revealed that the answer to a real-world problem did not

make sense?

Possible answers: The equation may have been written incorrectly; the equation may have

been correct, but been solved incorrectly; there may not be any solution to the problem.

Module 2 57 Lesson 2

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING

Whole Class Activity

Give each student a card with an expression such as 2x + 4 or 3x 7 written on it.

Have students pair up and solve the equation that is formed by setting their

expressions equal to each other. Students should pair up with as many students as

time allows.

Peer-to-Peer Activity

Have students work in pairs. Give each pair an equation to solve. Have each

student solve the equation and write an explanation next to each step of the

solution, then have students compare their steps.

57 Lesson 2.2

Your Turn

5. A rectangular garden is fenced on all sides with 256 feet of fencing.

The garden is 8 feet longer than it is wide. Find the length and width

of the garden.

w feet Creating and Solving Equations with

Variables on Both Sides

2w + 2(w + 8) = 256

2w + 2w + 16 = 256 Distributive Property

4w + 16 = 256 Combining like terms QUESTIONING STRATEGIES

4w = 240 Subtraction Property of Equality

What words or phrases in a word problem tell

w = 60 Division property of Equality

Width = 60 ft, length = 60 + 8 = 68 ft you what the variable in your equation should

represent? how many, what number of

Explain 2 Creating and Solving Equations with Variables Why should you use the original form of the

on Both Sides equation to check your solution? It is possible

In some equations, variables appear on both sides. You can use the properties of equality to collect the variable terms that you made a mistake while transforming the

so that they all appear on one side of the equation.

equation. If you use the original equation, you wont

Example 2 Write and solve an equation to solve each problem. repeat the same error.

Janine has job offers at two companies. One company offers a starting salary of $28,000

with a raise of $3000 each year. The other company offers a starting salary of $36,000 with

a raise of $2000 each year. In how many years would Janines salary be the same with both AVOID COMMON ERRORS

companies? What will the salary be?

When students have a variable on both sides of an

Write a verbal description of the basic situation. equation, they often forget to pay attention to the

Let n represent the number of years it takes for the salaries to be equal. sign of the coefficient of the variable. To avoid this

Base Salary A plus $3000 per year raise = Base Salary B + $2000 per year raise error, encourage students to add and subtract variable

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

28,000 + 3000n = 36,000 + 2,000n terms so that the result is a positive coefficient. Often

28,000 + 3000n - 2000n = 36,000 + 2,000n - 2000n Subtraction Property of Equality this means to subtract the variable term with the

28,000 + 1000n = 36,000 Combine like terms. lesser coefficient on both sides. For example, for the

28,000 + 1000n - 28,000 = 36,000 - 28,000 Subtraction Property of Equality

first step in solving 3x + 2 = x + 10, subtracting x,

rather than 3x, from both sides will result in an

1000n = 8000

_ equation with a positive coefficient for x.

= _

1000n 8000

Division Property of Equality

1000 1000

n=8

52,000 = 52,000 A graphing calculator can be used to check the

In 8 years, the salaries offered by both companies will be $52,000. solution to an equation with variables on both

sides. For example, to solve 3x + 2 = x + 10, enter

Module 2 58 Lesson 2

Y1 as 3x + 2 and Y2 as x + 10. Graph both lines,

adjusting the window if necessary. Then select the

DIFFERENTIATE INSTRUCTION intersect feature to determine the intersection point

Manipulatives of the two lines. Point out that the x-coordinate of the

intersection point, which is 4, is the solution.

Put 7 pencils in a closed container. Have one student hold the container in one

hand and 5 pencils in the other hand. Have another student hold 12 pencils. Tell

the class that both students have the same number of pencils. Ask how they can

figure out the number of pencils in the container without opening it. Give or take

pencils away from each student as suggestions are made. When the class has

arrived at an answer, check by counting the number of pencils in the container.

Relate this activity to solving the equation x + 5 = 12.

One moving company charges $800 plus $16 per hour. Another moving company charges

$720 plus $21 per hour. At what number of hours will the charge by both companies be the

same? What is the charge?

Write a verbal description of the basic situation. Let t represent the number of hours that the move takes.

Moving Charge A plus $16 per hour = Moving Charge B plus $21 per hour

800 + 16 t = 720 + 21 t

800 = 720 + 5 t

80 = 5 t

80 5

_ = _t Division Property of Equality

5 5

t = 16

The charges are the same for a job that takes 16 hours.

800 + 256 = 720 + 336

1056 = 1056

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

After 16 hours, the moving charge for both companies will be $1056 .

Reflect

6. Suppose you collected the variable terms on the other side of the equal sign to solve the equation. Would

that affect the solution?

No; the solution of the equation is the value that makes it true. The solution method does

not change the solution.

Module 2 59 Lesson 2

LANGUAGE SUPPORT

Visual Cues

Encourage students to break down a written description of a real-world problem

by identifying and highlighting key parts of the description. For example, they

might highlight the unknown quantity in one color and highlight each of the

given quantities in a different color. Then they can look for a phrase meaning is

equal to and identify the two quantities that are equal to one another.

59 Lesson 2.2

Your Turn

7. Claire bought just enough fencing to enclose either a 8. A veterinarian is changing the diets of

EXPLAIN 3

rectangular garden or a triangular garden, as shown. The two animals, Simba and Cuddles. Simba

two gardens have the same perimeter. How many feet of

fencing did she buy?

currently consumes 1200 Calories per day.

That number will increase by 100 Calories

Constructing Equations from an

each day. Cuddles currently consumes Organized Table

3230 Calories a day. That number will

(2x - 1) (2x - 1) decrease by 190 Calories each day. The

(3x - 3) patterns will continue until both animals

(x - 3) are consuming the same number of QUESTIONING STRATEGIES

2x Calories each day. In how many days will

that be? How many Calories will each When you create a table to represent the

2(3x - 3) + 2(x - 3) = (2x - 1) + (2x - 1) + 2x animal be consuming each day then?

6x - 6 + 2x - 6 = 2x - 1 + 2x - 1 + 2x

information in a real-world problem, what do

8x - 12 = 6x - 2 1200 + 100n = 3230 - 190n the rows and columns represent? Possible answer:

2x = 10 n=7 Each row might represent a different person in the

x=5 1200 + 100(7) = 3230 - 190(7)

problem, and each column represents the situation

Substitute the value 5 in the original equation. 1900 = 1900

at different times.

2(3(5) - 3) + 2(5 - 3) = (2(5) - 1) + (2(5) - 1) + 2(5) In 7 days, each animal will be

consuming 1900 Calories per day.

28 = 28

Claire bought 28 feet of fencing.

AVOID COMMON ERRORS

Explain 3 Constructing Equations from an Organized Table

When a problem asks for several related quantities,

You can use a table to organize information and see relationships.

such as the ages of three people, students may

Example 3 Construct and solve an equation to solve the problem. become confused and forget which quantity the

Kim works 4 hours more each day than Jill does, and Jack works 2 hours less each day than Jill does. Over 2

days, the number of hours Kim works is equal to the difference of 4 times the number of hours Jack works

variable represents. Constructing a table is especially

and the number of hours Jill works. How many hours does each person work each day? helpful in solving this type of problem, because it

Analyze Information forces students to write out how each quantity is

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

r Kim works 4 hours more per day than Jill does.

Formulate a Plan

Make a table using the information given. Let x be the number of hours Jill works in one day.

Hours Worked Per Day Hours Worked Over 2 Days

Kim x+4 2(x + 4)

Jill x 2x

Jack x-2 2(x - 2)

Over 2 days, the number of hours Kim works is equal to the difference of 4 times the number of

hours Jack works and the number of hours Jill works.

2(x + 4) = 4 2(x - 2) - 2x

Module 2 60 Lesson 2

Solve

ELABORATE 2(x + 4) = 4 2(x - 2) - 2x

PRACTICES 2x + 8 = 8x - 16 - 2x Distributive Property

Focus on Patterns

2x + 8 = 6 x - 16

MP.8 Discuss with students how to use inverse

2x + 8 + 16 = 6x - 16 + 16 Addition Property of Equality

operations to solve an equation.

2x + 24 = 6x

AVOID COMMON ERRORS

Make sure students understand that they must keep 24 = 4 x

24 = _

_ x

multiplying/dividing on both sides of the equation, Division Property of Equality

4 4

not just one side.

6 =x

Jill works 6 hours per day, Kim works 10 hours per day, and Jack works 4

QUESTIONING STRATEGIES hours per day.

How is the process of solving an equation with

Justify and Evaluate

a leading coefficient of 1 different from

Substitute x = 6 into the original equation.

solving an equation with a leading coefficient not

2(6 + 4) = 4 2(6 - 2) - 2x

equal to 1? After the variable term is isolated, you

must divide by the leading coefficient if it is not 1.

2( 10 ) = 8( 4 ) - 2( 6 )

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

20 = 20

How do you know if a solution to a real-world

9. Lisa is 10 centimeters taller than her friend Ian. Ian is 14 centimeters taller than Jim. Every month, their

problem is correct? You verify that

heights increase by 2 centimeters. In 7 months, the sum of Ians and Jims heights will be 170 centimeters

the original equation was written correctly by more than Lisas height. How tall is Ian now?

re-reading the problem, and then substitute your

Height now Height after 7 months

answer for the variable in the original equation. Lisa h + 10 (h + 10) + 14

lan h h + 14

Jim h - 14 (h - 14) + 14

(h + 14) + (h - 14) + 14 = (h + 10) + 14 + 170; h = 180; Ian is 180 cm tall now.

Module 2 61 Lesson 2

61 Lesson 2.2

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