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LESSON

2.2 Name Class Date

Creating and Solving 2.2 Creating and Solving Equations


Equations Essential Question: How do you use an equation to model and solve a real-world problem?

Resource
Locker
Common Core Math Standards
Explore Creating Equations from Verbal
The student is expected to:
Descriptions
A-CED.1
You can use what you know about writing algebraic expressions to write an equation that represents a real-world
Create equations and inequalities in one variable including ones with situation.
absolute value and use them to solve problems. Also A-CED.3, A-REI.3 Suppose Cory and his friend Walter go to a movie. Each of their tickets costs the same amount, and they share a
frozen yogurt that costs $5.50. The total amount they spend is $19.90. How can you write an equation that describes
Mathematical Practices the situation?


MP.5 Using Tools Identify the important information.
is
Language Objective The word tells you that the relationship describes an equation.

Explain to a partner how to solve an equation with the variable on both The word total tells you that the operation involved in the relationship is
addition .
sides. What numerical information do you have? The frozen yogurt costs $5.50,
and the total amount spent is $19.90.

ENGAGE What is the unknown quantity? the cost of each ticket

Essential Question: How do you use  Write a verbal description.


cost
an equation to model and solve a Choose a name for the variable. In this case, use c for .
a ticket
real-world problem? The verbal description is: Twice the cost of plus the cost
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Use a verbal description or a table to write an of the frozen yogurt equals the total amount .


equation, solve the equation, then check that your To write an equation, write a numerical or algebraic expression for each quantity
answer makes sense. 2c + 5.50 = 19.90
and insert an equal sign in the appropriate place. An equation is: .

Reflect
PREVIEW: LESSON
1. How can you use a verbal model to write an equation for the situation described?
PERFORMANCE TASK
Use the information to write the model
View the Engage section online. Discuss the various
ways savings can be invested to make more money. Twice the cost Cost of frozen Total cost
+ =
Then preview the Lesson Performance Task. of a ticket (dollars) yogurt (dollars) (dollars)

Module 2 es must be
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EDIT--Chang
DO NOT y=NL-B;CA-B
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Essential
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A-CED.1 Create solve problems. Also
to
on to model

ities in one
variable includin
A-CED.3, A-REI.3
s from Verb
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absolute value
Resource
Locker

HARDCOVER PAGES 4554


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1. How model Total cost


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(dollars) Lesson 2
of a ticket

55

11:01 PM
14/05/14
Module 2

55 Lesson 2.2
%0/05&%*5$IBOHFTNVTUCFNBEFUISPVHIi'JMFJOGPw %0/05&%*5$IBOHFTNVTUCFNBEFUISPVHIi'JMFJOGPw
$PSSFDUJPO,FZ/-"$"" $PSSFDUJPO,FZ/-"$""

2. Could you write a different equation to describe the situation? Explain your reasoning.
Yes; you could write a different but equivalent equation, such as 19.90 - 2c = 5.50, or
c + c + 5.50 = 19.90.
EXPLORE
Explain 1 Creating and Solving Equations Involving
Creating Equations from Verbal
the Distributive Property Descriptions
When you create an equation to model a real-world problem, your equation may involve the Distributive Property.
When you solve a real-world problem, you should always check that your answer makes sense.
INTEGRATE TECHNOLOGY
Example 1 Write and solve an equation to solve each problem.
Students may complete the Explore activity either in
Aaron and Alice are bowling. Alices score is twice the the book or online.
difference of Aarons score and 5. The sum of their scores
is 320. Find each students bowling score.

Write a verbal description of the basic situation.


CONNECT VOCABULARY
The sum of Aarons score and Alices score is 320.
The word equation begins with the root equa-. Have
Choose a variable for the unknown quantity and write an
equation to model the detailed situation.
students think of some other words that begin with
equa-. Discuss what all these words have in common.
Let a represent Aarons score. Then 2(a - 5) represents
Alices score.

a + 2(a - 5) = 320
QUESTIONING STRATEGIES
Solve the equation for a.
What words in a verbal description could be
a + 2(a - 5) = 320 )PVHIUPO.JGGMJO)BSDPVSU1VCMJTIJOH$PNQBOZt*NBHF$SFEJUT%JHJUBM
represented by the equal sign in an
a + 2a - 10 = 320 Distributive Property
equation? equals, is, is equal to, is the same as
3a - 10 = 320

3a - 10 + 10 = 320 + 10 Addition Property of Equality

3a = 330
_
3a _
=
330
Division Property of Equality
EXPLAIN 1
3 3
a = 110
Creating and Solving Equations
So, Aarons score is 110 and Alices score is 2(a - 5) = 2(110 - 5) = 2(105) = 210.
Involving the Distributive Property
7JTJPO(FUUZ*NBHFT

Check that the answer makes sense.

110 + 210 = 320, so the answer makes sense.


QUESTIONING STRATEGIES
 Mari, Carlos, and Amanda collect stamps. Carlos has five more stamps than Mari, and
What is the first step in solving an equation
Amanda has three times as many stamps as Carlos. Altogether, they have 100 stamps. Find
the number of stamps each person has. that contains parentheses? Remove the
Write a verbal description of the basic situation. parentheses by distributing any factor in front of
The total of the numbers of stamps Mari, Carlos, and Amanda have is 100. the parentheses to all terms within the parentheses.
Module 2 56 Lesson 2

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AVOID COMMON ERRORS


Students may try to multiply a coefficient in front of
Math Background
parentheses by only one of the enclosed terms.
In this lesson, students will use the Distributive Property along with the properties Remind students to multiply the coefficient by every
of equality (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to solve equations. term within the parentheses.
Solving equations involves using inverse operations to get the variable alone on
one side of the equation and the solution on the other side of the equation.
Ateach step of the solving process, students use properties to derive equivalent
equations, or equations with the same solution set.

Creating and Solving Equations 56


Choose a variable for the unknown quantity and write an equation to model the detailed
situation.

Let s represent the number of stamps Mari has. Then Carlos has s+5 stamps,

and Amanda has


3(s + 5) stamps.

s+ s+5 +3 ( s+5 )= 100

Solve the equation for s.

s+ s+5 +3 ( s+5 )= 100

s + s + 5 + 3s + 15 = 100 Distributive Property

5s + 20 = 100 Combine like terms

5 s= 80 Subtraction Property of Equality

s= 16 Division Property of Equality

So, Mari has 16 stamps, Carlos has 21 stamps, and Amanda

has 63 stamps.

Check that the answer makes sense.

16 + 21 + 63 = 100
; the answer makes sense.
100 = 100

Reflect
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3. Would a fractional answer make sense in this situation?


No; a fractional number of stamps does not make sense.

4. Discussion What might it mean if a check revealed that the answer to a real-world problem did not
make sense?
Possible answers: The equation may have been written incorrectly; the equation may have
been correct, but been solved incorrectly; there may not be any solution to the problem.

Module 2 57 Lesson 2

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
Whole Class Activity
Give each student a card with an expression such as 2x + 4 or 3x 7 written on it.
Have students pair up and solve the equation that is formed by setting their
expressions equal to each other. Students should pair up with as many students as
time allows.
Peer-to-Peer Activity
Have students work in pairs. Give each pair an equation to solve. Have each
student solve the equation and write an explanation next to each step of the
solution, then have students compare their steps.

57 Lesson 2.2
Your Turn

Write and solve an equation to solve the problem. (w + 8) feet EXPLAIN 2


5. A rectangular garden is fenced on all sides with 256 feet of fencing.
The garden is 8 feet longer than it is wide. Find the length and width
of the garden.
w feet Creating and Solving Equations with
Variables on Both Sides
2w + 2(w + 8) = 256
2w + 2w + 16 = 256 Distributive Property
4w + 16 = 256 Combining like terms QUESTIONING STRATEGIES
4w = 240 Subtraction Property of Equality
What words or phrases in a word problem tell
w = 60 Division property of Equality
Width = 60 ft, length = 60 + 8 = 68 ft you what the variable in your equation should
represent? how many, what number of

Explain 2 Creating and Solving Equations with Variables Why should you use the original form of the
on Both Sides equation to check your solution? It is possible
In some equations, variables appear on both sides. You can use the properties of equality to collect the variable terms that you made a mistake while transforming the
so that they all appear on one side of the equation.
equation. If you use the original equation, you wont
Example 2 Write and solve an equation to solve each problem. repeat the same error.

Janine has job offers at two companies. One company offers a starting salary of $28,000
with a raise of $3000 each year. The other company offers a starting salary of $36,000 with
a raise of $2000 each year. In how many years would Janines salary be the same with both AVOID COMMON ERRORS
companies? What will the salary be?
When students have a variable on both sides of an
Write a verbal description of the basic situation. equation, they often forget to pay attention to the
Let n represent the number of years it takes for the salaries to be equal. sign of the coefficient of the variable. To avoid this
Base Salary A plus $3000 per year raise = Base Salary B + $2000 per year raise error, encourage students to add and subtract variable
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28,000 + 3000n = 36,000 + 2,000n terms so that the result is a positive coefficient. Often
28,000 + 3000n - 2000n = 36,000 + 2,000n - 2000n Subtraction Property of Equality this means to subtract the variable term with the
28,000 + 1000n = 36,000 Combine like terms. lesser coefficient on both sides. For example, for the
28,000 + 1000n - 28,000 = 36,000 - 28,000 Subtraction Property of Equality
first step in solving 3x + 2 = x + 10, subtracting x,
rather than 3x, from both sides will result in an
1000n = 8000
_ equation with a positive coefficient for x.
= _
1000n 8000
Division Property of Equality
1000 1000
n=8

28,000 + 3,000(8) = 36,000 + 2,000(8) INTEGRATE TECHNOLOGY


52,000 = 52,000 A graphing calculator can be used to check the
In 8 years, the salaries offered by both companies will be $52,000. solution to an equation with variables on both
sides. For example, to solve 3x + 2 = x + 10, enter
Module 2 58 Lesson 2
Y1 as 3x + 2 and Y2 as x + 10. Graph both lines,
adjusting the window if necessary. Then select the
DIFFERENTIATE INSTRUCTION intersect feature to determine the intersection point
Manipulatives of the two lines. Point out that the x-coordinate of the
intersection point, which is 4, is the solution.
Put 7 pencils in a closed container. Have one student hold the container in one
hand and 5 pencils in the other hand. Have another student hold 12 pencils. Tell
the class that both students have the same number of pencils. Ask how they can
figure out the number of pencils in the container without opening it. Give or take
pencils away from each student as suggestions are made. When the class has
arrived at an answer, check by counting the number of pencils in the container.
Relate this activity to solving the equation x + 5 = 12.

Creating and Solving Equations 58


 One moving company charges $800 plus $16 per hour. Another moving company charges
$720 plus $21 per hour. At what number of hours will the charge by both companies be the
same? What is the charge?

Write a verbal description of the basic situation. Let t represent the number of hours that the move takes.

Moving Charge A plus $16 per hour = Moving Charge B plus $21 per hour

800 + 16 t = 720 + 21 t

800 + 16 t - 16 t = 720 + 21 t - 16 t Subtraction Property of Equality

800 = 720 + 5 t

800 - 720 = 720 + 5 t - 720 Subtraction Property of Equality

80 = 5 t

80 5
_ = _t Division Property of Equality
5 5

t = 16

The charges are the same for a job that takes 16 hours.

Substitute the value 16 in the original equation.

800 + 16t = 720 + 21t

800 + 16 ( 16 ) = 720 + 21( 16 )


800 + 256 = 720 + 336

1056 = 1056
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After 16 hours, the moving charge for both companies will be $1056 .

Reflect

6. Suppose you collected the variable terms on the other side of the equal sign to solve the equation. Would
that affect the solution?
No; the solution of the equation is the value that makes it true. The solution method does
not change the solution.

Module 2 59 Lesson 2

LANGUAGE SUPPORT
Visual Cues
Encourage students to break down a written description of a real-world problem
by identifying and highlighting key parts of the description. For example, they
might highlight the unknown quantity in one color and highlight each of the
given quantities in a different color. Then they can look for a phrase meaning is
equal to and identify the two quantities that are equal to one another.

59 Lesson 2.2
Your Turn

Write and solve an equation to solve each problem.


7. Claire bought just enough fencing to enclose either a 8. A veterinarian is changing the diets of
EXPLAIN 3
rectangular garden or a triangular garden, as shown. The two animals, Simba and Cuddles. Simba
two gardens have the same perimeter. How many feet of
fencing did she buy?
currently consumes 1200 Calories per day.
That number will increase by 100 Calories
Constructing Equations from an
each day. Cuddles currently consumes Organized Table
3230 Calories a day. That number will
(2x - 1) (2x - 1) decrease by 190 Calories each day. The
(3x - 3) patterns will continue until both animals
(x - 3) are consuming the same number of QUESTIONING STRATEGIES
2x Calories each day. In how many days will
that be? How many Calories will each When you create a table to represent the
2(3x - 3) + 2(x - 3) = (2x - 1) + (2x - 1) + 2x animal be consuming each day then?
6x - 6 + 2x - 6 = 2x - 1 + 2x - 1 + 2x
information in a real-world problem, what do
8x - 12 = 6x - 2 1200 + 100n = 3230 - 190n the rows and columns represent? Possible answer:
2x = 10 n=7 Each row might represent a different person in the
x=5 1200 + 100(7) = 3230 - 190(7)
problem, and each column represents the situation
Substitute the value 5 in the original equation. 1900 = 1900
at different times.
2(3(5) - 3) + 2(5 - 3) = (2(5) - 1) + (2(5) - 1) + 2(5) In 7 days, each animal will be
consuming 1900 Calories per day.
28 = 28
Claire bought 28 feet of fencing.
AVOID COMMON ERRORS
Explain 3 Constructing Equations from an Organized Table
When a problem asks for several related quantities,
You can use a table to organize information and see relationships.
such as the ages of three people, students may
Example 3 Construct and solve an equation to solve the problem. become confused and forget which quantity the
Kim works 4 hours more each day than Jill does, and Jack works 2 hours less each day than Jill does. Over 2
days, the number of hours Kim works is equal to the difference of 4 times the number of hours Jack works
variable represents. Constructing a table is especially
and the number of hours Jill works. How many hours does each person work each day? helpful in solving this type of problem, because it
Analyze Information forces students to write out how each quantity is
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Identify the important information. related to the variable.


r Kim works 4 hours more per day than Jill does.

r Jack works 2 hours less per day than Jill does.

Formulate a Plan
Make a table using the information given. Let x be the number of hours Jill works in one day.
Hours Worked Per Day Hours Worked Over 2 Days
Kim x+4 2(x + 4)
Jill x 2x
Jack x-2 2(x - 2)
Over 2 days, the number of hours Kim works is equal to the difference of 4 times the number of
hours Jack works and the number of hours Jill works.
2(x + 4) = 4 2(x - 2) - 2x

Module 2 60 Lesson 2

Creating and Solving Equations 60


Solve
ELABORATE 2(x + 4) = 4 2(x - 2) - 2x

INTEGRATE MATHEMATICAL 2(x + 4) = 8 (x - 2) - 2x Simplify.


PRACTICES 2x + 8 = 8x - 16 - 2x Distributive Property
Focus on Patterns
2x + 8 = 6 x - 16
MP.8 Discuss with students how to use inverse
2x + 8 + 16 = 6x - 16 + 16 Addition Property of Equality
operations to solve an equation.
2x + 24 = 6x

2x + 24 - 2 x = 6x - 2 x Subtraction Property of Equality


AVOID COMMON ERRORS
Make sure students understand that they must keep 24 = 4 x

an equation balanced by adding/subtracting or 4


24 = _
_ x
multiplying/dividing on both sides of the equation, Division Property of Equality
4 4
not just one side.
6 =x

Jill works 6 hours per day, Kim works 10 hours per day, and Jack works 4
QUESTIONING STRATEGIES hours per day.
How is the process of solving an equation with
Justify and Evaluate
a leading coefficient of 1 different from
Substitute x = 6 into the original equation.
solving an equation with a leading coefficient not
2(6 + 4) = 4 2(6 - 2) - 2x
equal to 1? After the variable term is isolated, you
must divide by the leading coefficient if it is not 1.
2( 10 ) = 8( 4 ) - 2( 6 )
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20 = 20

SUMMARIZE THE LESSON Your Turn

Write and solve an equation to solve the problem.


How do you know if a solution to a real-world
9. Lisa is 10 centimeters taller than her friend Ian. Ian is 14 centimeters taller than Jim. Every month, their
problem is correct? You verify that
heights increase by 2 centimeters. In 7 months, the sum of Ians and Jims heights will be 170 centimeters
the original equation was written correctly by more than Lisas height. How tall is Ian now?
re-reading the problem, and then substitute your
Height now Height after 7 months
answer for the variable in the original equation. Lisa h + 10 (h + 10) + 14
lan h h + 14
Jim h - 14 (h - 14) + 14
(h + 14) + (h - 14) + 14 = (h + 10) + 14 + 170; h = 180; Ian is 180 cm tall now.

Module 2 61 Lesson 2

61 Lesson 2.2