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Article 1306.The contracting parties may establish such stipulations, clauses, terms and Article 1319.

ticle 1319.Consent is manifested by the meeting of the offer and the acceptance upon Article 1331. In order that mistake may invalidate consent, it should refer to the substance
conditions as they may deem convenient, provided they are not contrary to law, morals, the thing and the cause which are to constitute the contract. The offer must be certain and of the thing which is the object of the contract, or to those conditions which have
good customs, public order, or public policy. (AUTONOMY) the acceptance absolute. A qualified acceptance constitutes a counter-offer. principally moved one or both parties to enter into the contract.
Article 1308.The contract must bind both contracting parties; its validity or compliance Acceptance made by letter or telegram does not bind the offerer except from the time it Mistake as to the identity or qualifications of one of the parties will vitiate consent only
cannot be left to the will of one of them.(MUTUALITY) came to his knowledge. The contract, in such a case, is presumed to have been entered when such identity or qualifications have been the principal cause of the contract.
Article 1311.Contracts take effect only between the parties, their assigns and heirs, except into in the place where the offer was made.
in case where the rights and obligations arising from the contract are not transmissible by Article 1335.There is violence when in order to wrest consent, serious or irresistible force is
their nature, or by stipulation or by provision of law. The heiris not liable beyond the value Article 1347.All things which are not outside the commerce of men, including future things, employed.
of the property he received from the decedent. (RELATIVITY) may be the object of a contract. All rights which are not intransmissible may also be the There is intimidation when one of the contracting parties is compelled by a reasonable and
Refers to the rule so fundamental in all contracts that once a contract is perfected it shall object of contracts. well-grounded fear of an imminent and grave evil upon his person or property, or upon the
be of obligatory force upon both of the contracting parties. (OBLIGATORY) person or property of his spouse, descendants or ascendants, to give his consent.
Article 1350. In onerous contracts the cause is understood to be, for each contracting To determine the degree of intimidation, the age, sex and condition of the person shall be
party, the prestation or promise of a thing or service by the other; in remuneratory ones, borne in mind.
the service or benefit which is remunerated; and in contracts of pure beneficence, the A threat to enforce one's claim through competent authority, if the claim is just or legal,
mere liberality of the benefactor. does not vitiate consent.
Article 1336.Violence or intimidation shall annul the obligation, although it may have been
employed by a third person who did not take part in the contract.

Article 1337.There is undue influence when a person takes improper advantage of his
power over the will of another, depriving the latter of a reasonable freedom of choice. The
following circumstances shall be considered: the confidential, family, spiritual and other
relations between the parties, or the fact that the person alleged to have been unduly
influenced was suffering from mental weakness, or was ignorant or in financial distress. (n)

Article 1338.There is fraud when, through insidious words or machinations of one of the
contracting parties, the other is induced to enter into a contract which, without them, he
would not have agreed to.
Article 1356.Contracts shall be obligatory, in whatever form they may have been entered Article 1381.The following contracts are rescissible: Article 1403.The following contracts are unenforceable, unless they are ratified:
into, provided all the essential requisites for their validity are present. However, when the (1)Those which are entered into by guardians whenever the wards whom they represent (1)Those entered into in the name of another person by one who has been given no
law requires that a contract be in some form in order that it may be valid or enforceable, or suffer lesion by more than one-fourth of the value of the things which are the object authority or legal representation, or
that a contract be proved in a certain way, that requirement is absolute and indispensable. thereof; who has acted beyond his powers;
In such cases, the right of the parties stated in the following article cannot be exercised. (2)Those agreed upon in representation of absentees, if the latter suffer the lesion stated (2) Those that do not comply with the Statute of Frauds as set forth in this number. In the
in the preceding number; following cases an agreement hereafter made shall be unenforceable by action, unless the
Article 1358.The following must appear in a public document: (3)Those undertaken in fraud of creditors when the latter cannot in any other manner same, or some note or memorandum, thereof, be in writing, and subscribed by the party
(1)Acts and contracts which have for their object the creation, transmission, modification collect the claims due them; charged, or by his agent; evidence, therefore, of the agreement cannot be received
or extinguishment of real rights over immovable property; sales of real property or ofan (4)Those which refer to things under litigation if they have been entered into by the without the writing, or a secondary evidence of its contents:
interest therein are governed by articles 1403, No. 2, and 1405; defendant without the knowledge and approval of the litigants or of competent judicial (a)An agreement that by its terms is not to be performed within a year from the making
(2)The cession, repudiation or renunciation of hereditary rights or of those of the conjugal authority; thereof;
partnership of gains; (5)All other contracts specially declared by law to be subject to rescission. (b)A special promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another;
(3)The power to administer property, or any other power which has for its object an act (c) An agreement made in consideration of marriage, other than a mutual promise to
appearing or which should appear in a public document, or should prejudice a third person; Article 1390.The following contracts are voidable or annullable, even though there may marry;
(4)The cession of actions or rights proceeding from an act appearing in a public document. have been no damage to the contracting parties: (d)An agreement for the sale of goods, chattels or things in action, ata price not less than
All other contracts where the amount involved exceeds fivehundred pesos must appear in (1)Those where one of the parties is incapable of giving consent to a contract; five hundred pesos, unless the buyer accept and receive part of suchgoods and chattels, or
writing, even a private one. (2)Those where the consent is vitiated by mistake, violence, intimidation, undue influence the evidences, or some of them, of such things in action or pay at the time some part of
But sales of goods, chattels or things in action are governed by articles, 1403, No. 2 and or fraud. the purchase money; but when a sale is made by auction and entry is made by the
1405. These contracts are binding, unless they are annulled by a proper action in court. They are auctioneer in his sales book, at the time of the sale, of the amount and kind of property
susceptible of ratification. sold, terms of sale, price, names of the purchasers and person on whose account the sale is
made, it is a sufficient memorandum;
(e)An agreement for the leasing for a longer period than one year, or for the sale of real
property or of an interest therein;
(f ) A representation as to the credit of a third person.
(3)Those where both parties are incapable of giving consent to a contract.

Article 1409.The following contracts are inexistent and void from the beginning: Article 1244.The debtor of a thing cannot compel the creditor to receive a different one, Article 2148.Except when the management was assumed to save property or business from
(1)Those whose cause, object or purpose is contrary to law, morals, good customs, public although the latter may be of the same value as, or more valuable than that which is due. imminent danger, the officious manager shall be liable for fortuitous events:
order or public policy; In obligations to do or not to do, an act or forbearance cannot be substituted by another (1) If he is manifestly unfit to carry on the management;
(2)Those which are absolutely simulated or fictitious; act or forbearance against the obligee's will. (IDENTITY) (2) If by his intervention he prevented a more competent person from taking up the
(3)Those whose cause or object did not exist at the time of the transaction; Article 1248.Unless there is an express stipulation to that effect, the creditor cannot be management.
(4)Those whose object is outside the commerce of men; compelled partially to receive the prestations in which the obligation consists. Neither may
(5)Those which contemplate an impossible service; the debtor be required to make partial payments. Consensual contract are perfected by mere consent. Real contract, aside from consent
(6)Those where the intention of the parties relative to the principal object of the contract However, when the debt is in part liquidated and in part unliquidated, the creditor may contract is perfected by the delivery of the things. While Solem contracts are perfected by
cannot be ascertained; demand and the debtor may effect the payment of the former without waiting for the formalities required by law.
(7)Those expressly prohibited or declared void by law. liquidation of the latter. (INDIVISIBILITY)
These contracts cannot be ratified. Neither can the right to set up the defense of illegality Article 1233.A debt shall not be understood to have been paid unless the thing or service in Article 1898. If the agent contracts in the name of the principal, exceeding the scope of his
be waived. which the obligation consists has been completely delivered or rendered, as the case may authority, and the principal does not ratify the contract, it shall be void if the party with
be. (INTEGRITY) whom the agent contracted isaware of the limits of the powers granted by the principal. In
this case, however, the agent is liable if heundertook to secure the principal's ratification.

Article 1821.Notice to any partner of any matter relating to partnership affairs, and the
knowledge of the partner acting in the particular matter, acquired while a partner or then
present to his mind, and the knowledge of any other partner who reasonably could and
should have communicated it to the acting partner, operate as notice to or knowledge of
the partnership, except in the case of fraud on the partnership, committed byor with the
consent of that partner.

Article 1838. Where a partnership contract is rescinded on the ground of the fraud or
misrepresentation of one of the parties thereto, the party entitled to rescind is, without
prejudice to any other right, entitled:
(1)To a lien on, or right of retention of, the surplus of the partnership property after
satisfying the partnership liabilities to third persons for any sum of money paid by him for
the purchase of an interest in the partnership and for any capital or advances contributed
by him;
(2)To stand, after all liabilities to third persons have been satisfied, in the place of the
creditors of the partnership for any payments made by him in respect of the partnership
liabilities; and
(3)To be indemnified by the person guilty of the fraud or making the representation against
all debts and liabilities of the partnership
There are three overlapping sources of obligation. In a rescissible contract, all of the essential requisites of a contract exist and the contract is
Under the revised Penal code: valid, but by reason of injury or damage to either of the contracting parties or to third
The heirs of Ellaine and Sha can proceed against Alladin and his employer. The liability of persons, such as creditors, it may be rescinded.
alladin is Culpa Criminal, his liability is direct and primary. While the liability of the Voidable contracts may be defined as those in which all of the essential elements for
employer is subsidiary. However, the employer may raise the defense of diligence of a validity are present, although the element of consent is vitiated either by lack of legal
good father. capacity of one of the contracting parties, or by mistake, violence, intimidation, undue
Under the Civil Cide: influence, or fraud.
The heirs of Sha may proceed against to the employer or against alladin. The liability of Unenforceable contracts are those which cannot be enforced by a proper action in court,
alladin and his employer is Quasi-delict (culpa aquillana) their liability is direct and primary. unless they are ratified, because, either they are entered into without or in excess of
But the employer may raise the defense of dilligence of a good father. authority or they do not comply with the statute of frauds or both of the contracting
The heirs of ellaine (pasenger) may proceed against the employer only. The source of parties do not possess the required legal capacity.
liability is Culpa contractual. His liability is direct and primary. He cannot relived himself of Contracts which are void refer to those where all of the requisites of a contract are
proving diligence of a good father. present, but the cause, object or purpose is contrary to law, morals, good customs, public
order or public policy, or contract itself is prohibited or declared void by law. On the other
Article 1423.Obligations are civil or natural. Civil obligations give a right of action to compel hand, contracts which are inexistent refer to those where one or some or all of those
their performance. Natural obligations, not being based on positive law but on equity and requisites which are essential for the validity of a contract are absolutely lacking, such as
natural law, do not grant a right of action to enforce their performance, butafter voluntary those which are absolutely simulated or fictitious, or those where the cause or object did
fulfillment by the obligor, they authorize the retention of what has been delivered or not exist at the time of the transaction.
rendered by reason thereof. Some natural obligations are set forth in the following articles.
Article 1424. When a right to sue upon a civil obligation has lapsed by extinctive
prescription, the obligor who voluntarily performs the contract cannot recover what he has
delivered or the value of the service he has rendered.