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INTRODUCTION TO BASIC DATA STRUCTURES

Problem solving techniques and examples-Abstract Data Type (ADT)-The list ADT Arrays-
Stacks and Queues: Implementation and Application, Circular Queues

1. PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES

What is problem solving?


The act of finding a solution to a perplexing, distressing, vexing, or unsettled question

How to solve a problem?


An algorithm is a clearly specified set of simple instructions to be followed to solve a
problem. Once an algorithm is given for a problem and decided (somehow) to be correct, an
important step is to determine how much in the way of resources, such as time or space, the
algorithm will require. An algorithm that solves a problem but requires a year is hardly of
any use.

There are Six-Steps of Problem-Solving Process. They are given below


Step 1. Identify and Select the Problem
The objective of this step is to identify the problem. That sounds simple enough, but
problems usually are tied to very emotional issues. Egos are usually connected to the
problem or the possible solution. Because the emotions are a part of the process, people can
miss reading the problem. So, the first step for everyone involved is to step back from the
issue and use the STAR method. The individual or group involved should take a look at
what is really causing the difficulty. This should be thoroughly thought through and agreed
upon so everyone is on the same page.
Consensus: This is a good time to bring up an agreement process that helps to bring
everyone to the same page of agreement, but that isnt easy. Consensus simply means
everyone is in agreement or they can live with the agreement. If they cannot live with the
agreement, the group or team has not reached consensus. Then, more discussion,
understanding each others point of view, and keeping an open mind are required. This
process requires cooperation, good intentions, and a willingness to be flexible about personal
feelings and issues. So consensus has these three elements:
1. I agree.
2. I dont fully agree, but I can live with and support the agreement.
3. I dont agree, and I cannot live with or support the agreement.
This process will become increasingly important as the group or team moves closer and
closer to selecting a solution to a problem. Using the process from the beginning brings the
whole group along at every step.

Step 2. Analyze the Problem


Now that the problem is defined, analyze it to see what is the real bottom-line. line root
cause. Often people get caught up in symptoms or effects of problem or issue and never get
down to the real cause. They get mad at someones attitude, anger, or actions, which are not
the cause of the problem. The key here is to focus everyones efforts on analyzing the
problem for the real cause. Once the cause is found, plans can be made to fix it

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Step 3.Generate Potential Solutions
Now that the problem has been analyzed, the group can begin to develop possible solutions.
This is a creative as well as practical step where every possible solution or variation is
identified.
In this step use the brainstorming process that has been used in class before to generate as
many solutions as possible. There are no wrong answers here, and judgments should not be
passed on another persons suggestions.

Step 4. Select and Plan the Solution


Now that there are a wide variety of possible solutions, it is time to select the best solution to
fix the problem given the circumstances, resources, and other considerations. Here the group
is trying to figure out exactly what would work best given who they are, what they have to
work with, and any other considerations that will effect the solution.

Step 5. Implement the Solution


This is the DO stage of PDSA. Make sure the solution can be tracked to have information to
use in the STUDY stage. This may seem to be an easy stage, but it really requires a scientific
approach to observing specifically what is going on with the solution.

Step 6. Evaluate the Solution


This final step is the STUDY stage of PDSA. Did the solution work? If notwhy not? What
went right, and what went wrong? What adjustments does the group have to make to make
the solution work better?
This is a careful analysis stage that improves upon the best solution using the information
gathered during the DO stage.
After this analysis the group is ready to ACT upon their findings and the problem should be
solved or better under control.

PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES

1. Problem Definition Phase


Its a preliminary phase. In other words, we must analyze what must be done rather
than how to do it.
2. Getting Started on a problem
There are many ways of problem solving methods. it reviews the framework within
which computer science and the study of algorithms and data structures must fit, in
particular, the reasons why we need to study these topics and how understanding these
topics helps us to become better problem solvers.
3. The use of specific examples
In this technique, problem solver can pick specific example of a general problem we
wish to solve.
Eg: Finding Maximum of a set of numbers
4. Similarities among problem
By this technique we can bring as much past experience as possible to solve the problem.
Eg: Newtons relativity Law can be applied in varieties of problem.
5. Working backwards from the solution
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In some cases, assume that we already know the solutions. This kind of problem may
solve by working backwards to the solutions.
Eg: Square root of 8
6. General Problem solving strategies
Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. Some of the well known
strategies are:
Divide and Conquer
Greedy Method
Dynamic Programming
Backtracking
Branch and Bound

Data Object: A data object is a set of instances or values.


For example,
Boolean = {false, true }
Digit = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 }
Letter = { A, B, C,Z, a, b, c..z }

Data Structure: A Data Structure is a data object together with the relationships that exist
among the instances and among the individual elements that compose an instance. In other
words, we define Data Structure as a way of organizing data that considers not only the items
stored but also their relationship to each other.

Once a data structure has been chosen for a particular application, they have to be
handled in an efficient way. Hence there comes the necessity of studying Algorithms.
The two categories data structures are,
1. Linear Data Structures
2. Non-linear Data Structures
Linear data structures are those in which the elements form a sequence whereas non-linear data
structures are those in which the elements do not form a sequence.

2. ABSTRACT DATA TYPES (ADT)

Abstract Data Type (ADT): An Abstract Data Type is a representation in which we provide a
specification of the instances as well as of the operations that are to be performed. More
precisely,
An Abstract Data Type is a data type that is organized in such a way that the
specification of the object and the specification of the operation on the object are separated from
the representation of the object and the implementation of the operation.

Hence an Abstract Data Type representation separates the implementation of the


operations from their specification, thus leading the way to object oriented programming.

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Formula Based Representation:
In this method we use an array to represent the instances of an object. Each position of
array is called a cell or a node. Individual elements of an instance are located in the array using a
mathematical formula as shown.

Location (i) = i - 1 ith element is in position i-1 (if array starts with position zero)
(or)
Location (i) = i ith element is in position i (if array starts with position one)

A Linear list may be specified as an abstract data type (ADT) in which we provide a
specification of the instances as well as of the operations that are to be performed.

AbstractDataType LinearList
{
instances
ordered finite collection of zero or more elements
operations
Create( ): Create an empty linear list.
Destroy( ): Erase the list.
IsEmpty( ): Return true if the list is empty, false otherwise.
Length( ): Return the list size.
Find(k, x): Return kth element of the list in x and return false if not found.
Search(x): Return the position of x in the list otherwise return -1 if not found.
Delete(k): Delete the kth element.
Insert(k, x): Insert x just after kth element
Display( ): Display all elements of the list
}

LINEAR DATA STRUCTURES

There are two methods by which we can construct a linear data structure. They are,
Method 1: By using a sequence of memory locations. These are implemented using arrays.
Method 2: By using pointers or links. These are implemented using linked lists.

The different types of linear data structures are:


1. Lists
- The list can be implemented using arrays these are called linear lists or
ordered lists.
- The list can be implemented using pointers these are called linked lists.
2. Stacks
- The stacks can be implemented using arrays.
- The stacks can be implemented using linked.
3. Queues
- The queue can be implemented using arrays.
- The queue can be implemented using linked lists.
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LIST ADT

Linear List: A Linear list is a data object whose instances are of the form ( e 1, e2, en), where n
is a finite natural number.
ei Element of the list.
n length of the list.
s size of the element.

For example a list of names, list of marks, etc.


The operations that are performed on a linear list are,

1. Create a list.
2. Delete a list.
3. Determine whether the list is empty.
4. Determine the length of the list.
5. Find the kth element.
6. Search for a given element.
7. Delete the kth element
8. Insert a new element.
9. Display all elements.
It can be implemented by two ways 1.Using Array 2. Using Linked List

LINKED LIST

Linked List: A Linked list is a collection of elements called nodes, each of which stores two
items called info and link. Info is an element of the list and a link is a pointer to the next element.
The linked list is also called a chain.

The different types of Linked lists are,

1. Singly linked list.


2. Doubly linked list
3. Circular linked list

SINGLY LINKED LIST

Singly Linked List: A singly linked list is a linked list in which each node contains only one link
pointing to the next node in the list.

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In a singly linked list, the first node always pointed by a pointer called HEAD. If the link of the
node points to NULL, then that indicates the end of the list.

Operations on a singly linked list are,


1. Count the number of elements.
2. Add an element at the beginning of the list.
3. Add an element at the end of the list.
4. Insert an element at the specified position in the list.
5. Delete an element from the list.
6. Search x in the list.
7. Display all the elements of the list.

The Abstract Data Type of the linked list may be written as shown.

Addatbeg( x )

The operation Addatbeg( x ), adds the element k at the beginning of the existing list.
First a temporary pointer is created and made to point to the node where head is pointing. The
given element K is stored in a new node. Check if the list is empty. If so make link of new node
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point to NULL and make Head to point to new, making it the first element of the list. If the list is
not empty, then the link of new is made to point to the first element of the existing list and Head
is made to point to the new node.

ADD AT BEGINING
lst()
Begin
head=NULL
ct=0
End

Function create()
Begin
temp=new node
Write"Enter the data:"
Read temp->data
End

Function insert_begin()
Begin
Call create()
temp->link=head
head=temp
ct=ct+1
End
Addatend( x )

The operation Addatend( x ), adds the given element x at the end of the existing list.
Initially it is checked whether the list is empty or not. If the list is empty then create a new node

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New and add the value x to the info part of the node. The link part is made to point to NULL.
Then the Head is made to point this new node making it the first node. If the list already has
some nodes and now a new node is to be added to the end of the list, then create a temporary
pointer called Temp and make it to point to the Head initially. Then move the pointer the last
node and now create a new node with value x. Make the link part point to NULL. Now the link
of temp is made to point to the new node, thus making the new node as the last node of the list.

Function append()
Begin
if(head=NULL)
then

insert_begin()
else
create()
temp->link=NULL
prev=head
while(prev->link< >NULL)
Do
prev=prev->link
End while
prev->link=temp
ct=ct+1
End if
End
Insert In the middle at the given position

The operation Insert inserts the given element x in the k th position. A temporary pointer
Temp is created and made to point to Head. Now the Temp pointer is moved to the k 1 th node.
A new node with value x is created and the link of the new node is made to point to the position
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where the link of temp is pointing. Then the link of temp is made to point to the new node. Thus
the given element is inserted in the position k.

Function insertin_mid()
Begin
Write "Enter the position:"
Read pos;
If head->link=NULL AND pos=1
then
Call insert_begin()
End if
If head->link==NULL AND pos=2
then
Call append()
End if
Else if pos>=2 AND pos<=ct
then
prev=head
for I = 2 to pos - 1 step +1
do
prev=prev->link
END FOR
next=prev->link

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temp=new node
WriteEnter the data:"
Read temp->data
temp->link=next
prev->link=temp
ct=ct+1
else
Write "Enter a valid position & try again"
End if
End

Delete ()
The function Delete() deletes the node at the given position. The node previous which is the
previous node of the given postion is selected first. The next node connected to the previous is
the link of the positon to be deleted, thereby removing the node at the given position.

Function del()
Begin
if(head= NULL)
then
Write Empty list"
else
Write Enter the position:"
Read pos
if(pos==1)
then

next=head->link
head=next
ct=ct-1
else
if((pos>=2)&&(pos<=ct))
prev=head
for(int i=2;i<=pos-1;i++)
Do
prev=prev->link
End FOR
temp=prev->link
next=temp->link
prev->link=next
ct=ct-1
End if
End If
End

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Search( x )
The operation Search( x ), searches the given value x in the list. If found returns the node
position where it is found. A temporary pointer Temp is created and made to point to the Head.
Now info part of Temp is compared with the value x. If the value matches the node position
number is returned otherwise Temp pointer is moved to the next node. This is repeated till the
end of the list is reached or till the element to be searched is found.
Function search()
Begin
flag=0
if(head=NULL)
then
Write Empty list"
else
Write Enter the element to be searched:"
Read e
cur=head
FOR I = 1 to ct Step +1
Do
if(cur->data= e)
then
pos=I
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flag++
break
else
cur=cur->link
End if
ENDFOR
If (flag =1)
then
Write "Element found in position:" pos
else
Write Element not found"
End if

End Search

Display( )
The operation Display( ), displays all the value in each node of the list. A temporary
pointer is created and made to point to Head initially. Now info part of Temp is printed and
Temp is moved to the next node. This is repeated till the end of the list is reached.
Function display()
Begin
cur=head
cout<<"\nNo.of nodes is:"<<ct
cout<<"\nThe data is:"
while (cur< >NULL)
Do
Write "["<<cur->data<<"]->"
cur=cur->link
End while
End

Program
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<process.h>
class lst
{
private:
int ct,pos;
struct node
{
int data;
node *link;
}*temp,*next,*prev,*head,*cur;
public:
lst()
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{
head=NULL;
ct=0;
}
void create()
{
temp=new node;
cout<<"Enter the data:";
cin>>temp->data;
}
void insert_begin()
{
create();
temp->link=head;
head=temp;
ct++;
}
void display()
{
cur=head;
cout<<"\nNo.of nodes is:"<<ct;
cout<<"\nThe data is:";
while(cur!=NULL)
{
cout<<"["<<cur->data<<"]->";
cur=cur->link;
}
cout<<"NULL";
}

void insertin_mid();
void append();
void del();
void search();
};
void lst::search()
{
int flag=0,e;
if(head==NULL)
{
cout<<"Empty list";
}
else
{
cout<<"Enter the element to be searched:";
cin>>e;
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cur=head;
for(int i=1;i<=ct;i++)
{
if(cur->data==e)
{
pos=i;
flag++;
break;
}
else
{
cur=cur->link;
}
}
if(flag==1)
{
cout<<"Element found in position:"<<pos;
}
else
{
cout<<"Element not found";
}
}
}
void lst::del()
{
if(head==NULL)
{
cout<<"Empty list";

}
else
{
cout<<"Enter the position:";
cin>>pos;
if(pos==1)
{
next=head->link;
head=next;
ct=ct-1;
}
else
{
if((pos>=2)&&(pos<=ct))
{
prev=head;
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for(int i=2;i<=pos-1;i++)
{
prev=prev->link;
}
temp=prev->link;
next=temp->link;
prev->link=next;
ct=ct-1;
}
}
}
}
void lst::append()
{
if(head==NULL)
{
insert_begin();
}
else
{
create();
temp->link=NULL;
prev=head;
while(prev->link!=NULL)
{
prev=prev->link;
}
prev->link=temp;
ct=ct+1;

}
}
void lst::insertin_mid()
{
cout<<"Enter the position:";
cin>>pos;
if((head->link==NULL)&&(pos=1))
{
insert_begin();
}
if((head->link==NULL)&&(pos=2))
{
append();
}
else if((pos>=2)&&(pos<=ct))
{
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prev=head;
for(int i=2;i<=pos-1;i++)
{
prev=prev->link;
}
next=prev->link;
temp=new node;
cout<<"Enter the data:";
cin>>temp->data;
temp->link=next;
prev->link=temp;
ct=ct+1;
}
else
{
cout<<"Enter a valid position & try again";
}
}
void main()
{
int ch;
clrscr();
lst i;
do
{
cout<<"\nMenu:\n"<<"1.Insertion in beginning\n"<<"2.Insertion at append\n"<<"3.Insertion in
the middle\n"<<"4.Delete a node\n"<<"5.Searching a node\n"<<"6.Display\n"<<"7.quit\n";
cout<<"\nEnter the choice:";
cin>>ch;

switch(ch)
{
case 1:
i.insert_begin();
break;
case 2:
i.append();
break;
case 3:
i.insertin_mid();
break;
case 4:
i.del();
break;
case 5:
i.search();
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break;
case 6:
i.display();
break;
default:
exit(0);
}
}while(ch<=6);
getch();
}

SAMPLE INPUT AND OUTPUT


Menu: 1.Insert at beginning 2.Display 3.Insert middle 4.Append 5.Delete
Enter the choice 1
Enter the data 10
Menu: 1.Insert at beginning 2.Display 3.Insert middle 4.Append 5.Delete
Enter the choice 4
Enter the data 15
Menu: 1.Insert at beginning 2.Display 3.Insert middle 4.Append 5.Delete
Enter the choice 3
Enter the position 2
Enter the data 12
Menu: 1.Insert at beginning 2.Display 3.Insert middle 4.Append 5.Delete
Enter the choice 2
No of nodes = 3
10 -> 12-> 15 ->

CIRCULAR LINKED LIST

Circular Linked List: Circular linked list is a linked list which consists of collection of nodes
each of which has two parts, namely the data part and the link part. The data part holds the
value of the element and the link part has the address of the next node. The last node of list has
the link pointing to the first node thus making the circular traversal possible in the list.
Logical representation of the circular linked list:

STACKS

The data structures seen so far, allows insertion and deletion of elements at any place.
But sometimes it is required to permit the addition and deletion of elements only at one end that
is either at the beginning or at the end.
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Stacks: A stack is a data structure in which addition of new element or deletion of an existing
element always takes place at the same end. This end is often known as top of stack. When an
item is added to a stack, the operation is called push, and when an item is removed from the
stack the operation is called pop. Stack is also called as Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) list.

Operations on Stack:

There are two possible operations done on a stack. They are pop and push operation.

Push: Allows adding an element at the top of the stack.


Pop: Allows removing an element from the top of the stack.

The Stack can be implemented using both arrays and linked lists. When dynamic
memory allocation is preferred we go for linked lists to implement the stacks.

ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STACK

Push operation:

If the elements are added continuously to the stack using the push operation then the
stack grows at one end. Initially when the stack is empty the top = -1. The top is a variable
which indicates the position of the topmost element in the stack.

PUSH(x)

If top = MAX 1
Then
Print Stack is full
Return
Else
Top = top + 1
A[top] = x
End if
End PUSH( )
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Pop operation:

On deletion of elements the stack shrinks at the same end, as the elements at the top get
removed.

POP( )

If top = -1
Then
Print Stack is empty
Return
Else
Item = A[top]
A [Top] = 0
Top = top 1
Return item
End if
End POP( )

If arrays are used for implementing the stacks, it would be very easy to manage the
stacks. However, the problem with an array is that we are required to declare the size of the
array before using it in a program. This means the size of the stack should be fixed. We can
declare the array with a maximum size large enough to manage a stack.
As result, the stack can grow or shrink within the space reserved for it. The following program
implements the stack using array.

Program:

// Stack and various operations on it

#include <iostream.h>
#include <conio.h>

const int MAX=20;


class stack
{
private:
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int a[MAX];
int top;
public:
stack();
void push(int x);
int pop();
void display();

};

stack::stack()
{
top=-1;
}

void stack::push(int x)
{
if (top==MAX-1)
{
cout<<"\nStack is full!";
return;
}
else
{
top++;
a[top]=x;
}
}

int stack::pop()
{
if (top==-1)
{
cout<<"\nStack is empty!";
return NULL;
}
else
{
int item=a[top];
top--;
return item;
}
}

void stack::display()
{
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int temp=top;
while (temp!=-1)
cout<<"\n"<<a[temp--];
}
void main()
{
clrscr();
stack s;
int n;
s.push(10);
s.push(20);
s.push(30);
s.push(40);
s.display();
n=s.pop();
cout<<"\nPopped item:"<<n;
n=s.pop();
cout<<"\nPopped item:"<<n;
s.display();
getch();
}

Output:

40
30
20
10
Popped item:40
Popped item:30
20
10

LINKED LIST IMPLEMENTATION OF STACK

Initially, when the stack is empty, top points to NULL. When an element is added using
the push operation, top is made to point to the latest element whichever is added.

Push operation:

Create a temporary node and store the value of x in the data part of the node. Now make
link part of temp point to Top and then top point to Temp. That will make the new node as the
topmost element in the stack.

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PUSH(x)

Info(temp) = x
Link(temp) = top
Top = temp
End PUSH( )

Pop operation

The data in the topmost node of the stack is first stored in a variable called item. Then a
temporary pointer is created to point to top. The top is now safely moved to the next node below
it in the stack. Temp node is deleted and the item is returned.

POP ( )

If Top = NULL
Then
Print Stack is empty
Return
Else
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Item = info (top)
Temp = top
Top = link (top)
Delete temp
Return item
End if
End POP( )

The following program implements the stack using linked lists.

Program:

// Stack implemented using linked list


#include <iostream.h>
#include <conio.h>
class stack
{
private:
struct node
{
int data;
node *link;
};
node *top;
public:
stack();
~stack();
void push(int x);
int pop();
void display();
};
stack::stack()
{
top=NULL;
}
stack::~stack()
{
node *temp;
while (top!=NULL)
{
temp=top->link;
delete top;
top=temp;
}
}
void stack::push(int x)
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{
node *temp;
temp=new node;
temp->data=x;
temp->link=top;
top=temp;
}
int stack::pop()
{
if (top==NULL)
{
cout<<"\nStack is empty!";
return NULL;
}
node *temp=top;
int item=temp->data;
top=temp->link;
delete temp;
return item;
}
void stack::display()
{
node *temp=top;
while (temp!=NULL)
{
cout<<"\n"<<temp->data;
temp=temp->link;
}
}
void main()
{
clrscr();
stack s;
int n;
s.push(10);
s.push(20);
s.push(30);
s.push(40);
s.display();
n=s.pop();
cout<<"\nPopped item:"<<n;
n=s.pop();
cout<<"\nPopped item:"<<n;
s.display();
getch();
}
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Output:
40
30
20
10
Popped item:40
Popped item:30
20
10

APPLICATION OF STACKS

Conversion of Infix Expression to Postfix Expression

The stacks are frequently used in evaluation of arithmetic expressions. An arithmetic


expression consists of operands and operators. The operands can be numeric values or numeric
variables. The operators used in an arithmetic expression represent the operations like addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation.
The arithmetic expression expressed in its normal form is said to be Infix notation, as
shown:

A+B

The above expression in prefix form would be represented as follows:

+ AB

The same expression in postfix form would be represented as follows:

AB +

Hence the given expression in infix form is first converted to postfix form and then evaluated to
get the results.

The function to convert an expression from infix to postfix consists following steps:

1. Every character of the expression string is scanned in a while loop until the end of the
expression is reached.
2. Following steps are performed depending on the type of character scanned.
(a) If the character scanned happens to be a space then that character is skipped.
(b) If the character scanned is a digit or an alphabet, it is added to the target string
pointed to by t.

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(c) If the character scanned is a closing parenthesis then it is added to the stack by
calling push( ) function.
(d) If the character scanned happens to be an operator, then firstly, the topmost
element from the stack is retrieved. Through a while loop, the priorities of the
character scanned and the character popped opr are compared. Then following
steps are performed as per the precedence rule.
i. If opr has higher or same priority as the character scanned, then opr is
added to the target string.
ii. If opr has lower precedence than the character scanned, then the loop is
terminated. Opr is pushed back to the stack. Then, the character scanned
is also added to the stack.
(e) If the character scanned happens to be an opening parenthesis, then the operators
present in the stack are retrieved through a loop. The loop continues till it does
not encounter a closing parenthesis. The operators popped, are added to the target
string pointed to by t.
2. Now the string pointed by t is the required postfix expression.

Pseudocode:
CONVERSION(INFIX)
Begin
Read infix
L=Length(infix)
J=1
For i=1 to L
Do
C=infix(i)
If C is a number OR Alphabet Then
Postfix[j]= c
j=j+1
if C= ( Then
Push ( C )
if C= * || /|| + || || %
If top = 0 then
Push( C )
Else If Priority ( C ) < Priority (Stack[top] Then
Postfix[j]= pop()
J=j+1
Push( C )
Else
Push ( C )
if C= )
Then
Repeat
postfix[j]=pop()
j=j+1
Until (stk[top]< >'(')
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pop()
End if
End For
Repeat
postfix[j]=pop()
j=j+1
Until (top > = 0)
(*Print the resultant postfix string*)
Write postfix
END CONVERSION(INFIX)

FUNCTION PRIORITY(CHAR CH)


Begin
if (ch=='*'||ch=='/'||ch=='%') then
return 2
else if(ch=='+'||ch=='-') then
return 1
else return 0
END FUNCTION PRIORITY

FUNCTION PUSH(CHAR X)
Begin
Top=top+1
stk[top]=x
END FUNCTION PUSH

FUNCTION POP()
Begin
Top=top-1
return(stk[top])
END FUNCTION POP

Sample Output:

Enter an expression in infix form: 5^2-5

Stack is empty

Evaluation of Expression entered in postfix form

The program takes the input expression in postfix form. This expression is scanned
character by character. If the character scanned is an operand, then first it is converted to a
digit form and then it is pushed onto the stack. If the character scanned is a blank space, then
it is skipped. If the character scanned is an operator, then the top two elements from the

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stack are retrieved. An arithmetic operation is performed between the two operands. The
type of arithmetic operation depends on the operator scanned from the string s. The result is
then pushed back onto the stack. These steps are repeated as long as the string s is not
exhausted. Finally the value in the stack is the required result and is shown to the user.
EVALUATION ( POSTFIX )
Begin
Read postfix
L=Length(postfix)
For i=1 to L
Do
C=infix(i)
If C is a number OR Alphabet Then
(Get the value of C and store it in the stack)
Read n
Push(n)
Else if C= * || /|| + || || %
Then
Call eval(c)
End if
End for
(*Print the result *)
Result = pop()
Write Result
End EVALUATION ( POSTFIX )

FUNCTION EVAL(CHAR C)
Begin
x=pop()
y=pop()
SWITCH(C)
Begin
case '+': z=x+y
case '-': z=x-y
case '*': z=x*y
case '/': z=x/y
case '%': z=x%y
End SWITCH
push(z)
End EVAL

Sample Output:

Enter postfix expression to be evaluated : 53^5-


Result is: 120

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QUEUE

Queue: Queue is a linear data structure that permits insertion of new element at one end and
deletion of an element at the other end. The end at which the deletion of an element take place is
called front, and the end at which insertion of a new element can take place is called rear. The
deletion or insertion of elements can take place only at the front or rear end of the list
respectively.

The first element that gets added into the queue is the first one to get removed from the
list. Hence, queue is also referred to as First-In-First-Out list (FIFO). Queues can be represented
using both arrays as well as linked lists.

ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION OF QUEUE

If queue is implemented using arrays, the size of the array should be fixed maximum
allowing the queue to expand or shrink.

Operations on a Queue

There are two common operations one in a queue. They are addition of an element to the
queue and deletion of an element from the queue. Two variables front and rear are used to point
to the ends of the queue. The front points to the front end of the queue where deletion takes
place and rear points to the rear end of the queue, where the addition of elements takes place.
Initially, when the queue is full, the front and rear is equal to -1.

Add(x)

An element can be added to the queue only at the rear end of the queue. Before adding
an element in the queue, it is checked whether queue is full. If the queue is full, then addition
cannot take place. Otherwise, the element is added to the end of the list at the rear side.

ADDQ(x)

If rear = MAX 1
Then
Print Queue is full
Return
Else
Rear = rear + 1
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A[rear] = x
If front = -1
Then
Front = 0
End if
End if
End ADDQ( )

Del( )

The del( ) operation deletes the element from the front of the queue. Before deleting and
element, it is checked if the queue is empty. If not the element pointed by front is deleted from
the queue and front is now made to point to the next element in the queue.

DELQ( )

If front = -1
Then
Print Queue is Empty
Return
Else
Item = A[front]
A[front] = 0
If front = rear
Then
Front = rear = -1
Else
Front = front + 1
End if
Return item
End if
End DELQ( )

Program:

// Queues and various operations on it Using arrays

#include <iostream.h>
#include <conio.h>

30
const int MAX=10;
class queue
{
private:
int a[MAX], front, rear;
public:
queue();
void addq(int x);
int delq();
void display();
};

queue::queue()
{
front=rear=-1;
}

void queue::addq(int x)
{
if (rear==MAX-1)
{
cout<<"Queue is full!";
return;
}
rear++;
a[rear]=x;
if (front==-1)
front=0;
}

int queue::delq()
{
if (front==-1)
{
cout<<"Queue is empty!";
return NULL;
}
int item=a[front];
a[front]=0;
if (front==rear)
front=rear=-1;
else
front++;
return item;
}
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void queue::display()
{
if (front==-1)
return;
for (int i=front; i<=rear; i++)
cout<<a[i]<<"\t";
}

void main()
{
clrscr();
queue q;
q.addq(50);
q.addq(40);
q.addq(90);
q.display();
cout<<endl;
int i=q.delq();
cout<<endl;
cout<<i<<" deleted!";
cout<<endl;
q.display();
i=q.delq();
cout<<endl;
cout<<i<<" deleted!";
cout<<endl;
i=q.delq();
cout<<i<<" deleted!";
cout<<endl;
i=q.delq();

getch();
}

Output:
50 40 90
50 deleted!
40 90
40 deleted!
90 deleted!
Queue is empty!

32
LINKED LIST IMPLEMENTATION OF QUEUE

Queue can be represented using a linked list. Linked lists do not have any restrictions on
the number of elements it can hold. Space for the elements in a linked list is allocated
dynamically; hence it can grow as long as there is enough memory available for dynamic
allocation. The queue represented using linked list would be represented as shown. The front
pointer points to the front of the queue and rear pointer points to the rear of the queue.

Addq(x)
In linked list representation of queue, the addition of new element to the queue takes
place at the rear end. It is the normal operation of adding a node at the end of a list.

ADDQ(x)

If front = NULL
Then
Rear = front = temp
Return
End if
Link(rear) = temp
Rear = link(rear)
End ADDQ( )

Delq( )
The delq( ) operation deletes the first element from the front end of the queue. Initially it
is checked, if the queue is empty. If it is not empty, then return the value in the node pointed by
front, and moves the front pointer to the next node.

DELQ( )

If front = NULL
Print Queue is empty
Return
Else
While front NULL
Temp = front
Front = link(front)
Delete temp
End while
End if

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End DELQ( )

Program:

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<process.h>
class queue
{
private:
struct node
{
int data;
node*link;
}*head,*temp,*rear;
public:
queue()
{
head=NULL;
}
void create()
{
rear=new node;
cout<<"Enter the data:";
cin>>rear->data;
}
void insert();
void del();
void display();
};
void queue::insert()
{
create();
if(head==NULL)
{
rear->link=head;
head=rear;
}
else
{
temp=head;
while(temp->link!=NULL)
{
temp=temp->link;
}
rear->link=temp->link;
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temp->link=rear;
}
}
void queue::del()
{
temp=head;
head=head->link;
}
void queue::display()
{
temp=head;
cout<<"\nThe data is:";
while(temp!=NULL)
{
cout<<"["<<temp->data<<"]->";
temp=temp->link;
}
cout<<"NULL";
}
void main()
{
int ch;
clrscr();
queue q;
do
{
cout<<"\nMenu:\n"<<"1.Insertion\n"<<"2.Deletion\n"<<"3.Display\n"<<"4.Quit\n";
cout<<"\nEnter the choice:";
cin>>ch;
switch(ch)
{
case 1:
q.insert();
break;
case 2:
q.del();
break;
case 3:
q.display();
break;
default:
exit(0);
}
}while(ch<=3);
getch();
}
35
CIRCULAR QUEUE (Application of the Queue)

Implementation of Circular queue for Round Robin Algorithm


In a Round Robin algorithm, the list is traversed in only one direction. The traversal can
be from one value to the next. But when the last value is reached, the control goes to the first
value and the process repeats. This Round Robin algorithm can be implemented using circular
queue as shown.

CIRCULAR QUEUE USING ARRAYS


Algorithm:
//Initialization
quearr()
Begin
front=rear=ct=0;
Repeat FOR i=0 TO Max-1
que[i]=0;
End

Enqueue()
Begin
if(front==(rear+1)%MAX AND ct< >0)
then Write "que is full
else

Read x
rear=(front+ct)%MAX
que[rear]=x
ct=ct+1
End if
End Enque

deque()
Begin
if(front==rear AND ct==0)
then Write "queue empty"

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else

Write "Element dequeued is" que[front]


que[front]=0;
ct=ct-1
front=(front+1)%MAX;
End if
End deque

disp()
Begin
if(ct>0)
then
for i = 0 to MAX -1
do
Write que[i]
Write No. Of elements : ct
END FOR
End disp

C++ code for circular queue implementation using arrays


#include<iostream.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define MAX 2
class quearr
{
int x,front,rear,i,que[10],ct;
public:
quearr()
{
front=rear=ct=0;
for(int i=0;i<MAX;i++)
que[i]=0;
}
void enque();
void deque();
void disp();
};

void quearr::enque()
{
if(front==(rear+1)%MAX&&ct!=0) cout<<"que full"<<endl;
else
{

37
cin>>x;
rear=(front+ct)%MAX;
que[rear]=x;
ct++;
}
}

void quearr::deque()
{
if(front==rear&&ct==0) cout<<"queue empty"<<endl;
else
{
cout<<"Element dequeued is"<<que[front]<<endl;
que[front]=0;
ct--;
front=(front+1)%MAX;
}
}
void quearr::disp()
{
if(ct>0)
{
for(i=0;i<MAX;i++)
{
cout<<que[i]<<"\t";
}
cout<<"\nThere are "<<ct<<" elements in the queue";
}
}

void main()
{
quearr o;
clrscr();
int ch;
do
{
cout<<"\nMenu 1.enque 2.deque 3. display enter your choice: ";
cin>>ch;
switch(ch)
{
case 1: o.enque();
break;
case 2: o.deque();
break;
case 3: o.disp();
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break;
default: exit(0);
}
}while(ch<=3);
getch();
}

Circular Queue using Linked List


Program:
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<process.h>
class queque
{
private:
struct node
{
int data;
node *link;
};
node *front, *rear;
int count;
int max;
public:
queque();
void enq();
void dq();
void display();
};

queque::queque()
{
front=rear=NULL;
count=0;
cout<<"Enter the maximum limit of the queque\n";
cin>>max;
}

void queque::enq()
{
if(count<max)
{
node *temp;
temp=new node;
cout<<"Enter the value : ";
cin>>temp->data;
39
if(front==NULL)
{
front=rear=temp;
rear->link=front;
}
else
{
temp->link=front;
rear->link=temp;
rear=temp;
}
count++;
}
else
{
cout<<"\nQueque overflow\n";
}
}

void queque::dq()
{ node *temp;
if(count==0)
{ cout<<"Queque is empty!\n"; }
else
{
cout<<"Element dequed is "<<front->data;
front=front->link;
count--;
}
}

void queque::display()
{ if(count>0)
{
node *temp;
temp=front;
int repeat =count;
do {
repeat--;
cout<<temp->data<<"\t";
temp=temp->link;
}while((temp!=front)&&(repeat>0));
}
}
void main()
{
40
int choice;
clrscr();
queque q;
do
{
cout<<"\nSelect your choice from the menu printed below\n";
cout<<"1. Enque\n";
cout<<"2. Deque\n";
cout<<"3. Display\n";
cout<<"4. Exit\n";
cin>>choice;
switch(choice)
{
case 1:
q.enq();
break;
case 2:
q.dq();
break;
case 3:
q.display();
break;
case 4:
exit(0);
}
}while(choice!=4);
getch();
}

*********************************

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