Paper on A Prying Action Force and Contact Force Estimation Model for a T-Stub Connection with High-Strength Bolts

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Paper on A Prying Action Force and Contact Force Estimation Model for a T-Stub Connection with High-Strength Bolts

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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High-Strength Bolts

1

Professor, Department of Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Inha University, Korea

2

Graduate Student, Department of Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Inha University, Korea

Abstract

A T-stub connection with high-strength bolts under tensile force is affected by prying action force and

the contact force, among others, between members. If a design equation that does not consider such prying

action force and contact force between members is not proposed, the T-stub under tensile force is liable to

be fractured under a strength lower than the estimated design strength. To prevent this, many studies have

proposed contact force estimation equations between members as well as the prying action force of the

T-stub connection with high-strength bolts. However, no design equations based on such research have been

proposed in South Korea. Therefore, this study aims to propose an estimation model for more accurate prying

action force and contact force, and to improve on previously proposed estimation models by implementing

three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element analysis.

Keywords: prying action force; contact force; design strength; connection stiffness

1. Introduction force acquired from the action test. Assuming that the

Bolted connections under tensile force are liable to central line of the axial bolt force moves by the contact

be fractured under a strength lower than the estimated force between members, Swanson (1999, 2002)

design strength due to the prying action force or proposed an estimation model, which improved the

contact force between members. Thus, there have estimation model by Struik and Back. However, the

been many studies on estimating such prying action application of the estimation model has become more

force and contact force between members, which have complex. Jaspart and Maquoi (1995) observed the

proposed various estimation models. change in contact force between connection members

Douty and McGuire (1965) estimate prying according to bolt pretension, and showed that such

action force based on elastic analysis. In proposing a change affects the tensile stiffness of connections

an estimation model, they considered the material under tensile force. Faella et al. (1996, 1998) observed

properties of high-strength bolts and connecting the change in contact force between connection

members as well as the geometric shape of connections. members according to the change in the stiffness ratio

Similarly, Agerskov (1976) estimated prying action () between the flexural stiffness of the connecting

force based on elastic analysis. Agerskov's estimation member flanges and the axial tensile stiffness of high-

model considered the deformation of T-stub flanges strength bolts, and estimated the change in the axial

connected with high-strength bolts and shear tensile stiffness of the connections.

deformation, but did not consider non-linearity based This study aimed to improve the previous contact

on flange yielding. Struik and Back (1969) estimated force estimation models between members and the

the prying action force of connections that have prying action force. Toward this end, it performed the

generally geometric shapes based on the combination three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis.

of high-strength bolts and T-stub flanges. Struik and The feasibility of the proposed estimation model was

Back's estimation model, which is most widely used, verified after a comparison and review of the analysis

however, offers a value larger than the prying action results of other researchers.

*Contact Author: Jae-Guen Yang, Professor, Department of Analysis Modeling of Connections with High-

Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Strength Bolts

Inha University, #253 Young Hyun-Dong, Nam-Ku, The prying action force of the connection with high-

Incheon, 402-751, South Korea strength bolts and the contact force between members

Tel: +82-32-860-7588 Fax: +82-32-866-4624 were estimated by the three-dimensional non-linear

E-mail: jyang@inha.ac.kr finite element analysis. Generally, the contact effect of

( Received October 10, 2012 ; accepted July 23, 2013 ) the members and the prying action is largest when the

connecting flange is thinnest, and the gauge distance

between high-strength bolts is largest. Based on Kulak's

research, Thornton (1985) and Astaneh (1985) proposed

parameter ', as in Eq. (1), to determine the effect of

prying action. In proposing Eq. (1), , the parameter

that shows the effect of the bolt hole for high-strength

bolts on the elements under prying action force, is the

ratio between the net section area of the flange and the

gross sectional area, and is the ratio of the distance

Fig.1.Fig. 1. Geometric shape of the connection

Geometric Shape ofthethe Connection

between the central line of the axial load of the high- Fig. 1. Geometric shape of connection

the axial load of the high-strength bolt to the T-stub stem

surface. The prying action effect is highly likely to occur

when ', which is affected by the geometric shape of the

connection, the pretension force of the high-strength bolts,

and the material properties of the connection are larger

than 1.0. Therefore, as shown in Fig.1. and Table 1., this

study selected the geometric shape of the connection with

two ' values such as ' > 1.0 and 0 < ' < 1.0, respectively.

The steel material used in the connection is SS400, and as

shown in Fig.2., the material properties are in a bilinear Fig.

Fig. 2.2.Stress-deformation

Stress-deformationcurve

curve of

of steel

steel material

material

Fig.2. Stress-Strain Curve of Steel Material

model, which is described by the regression analysis in

Table 2. F10T-M20 high-strength bolts were idealized as The connection with high-strength bolts was modeled

having been connected by 165kN pretension. by ABAQUS (ver. 6.9.2). The T-stub that comprises the

t 2

connection is a C3D8R (eight-node brick element with

1 c

' 1 (1) reduced integration) member element. In performing

1 t f

the three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis,

where

the effect of the contact and bearing between members

as well as the pretension of the high-strength bolts were

8B0b ' considered. The frictional coefficient between members

tc (2)

pFy was set to 0.5. This frictional coefficient was applied under

the assumption that the faying surfaces between members

b' are unpainted, blast-cleaned steel surfaces. The Korean

(3)

a' Building Code (KBC2009) only provides the case of = 0.5.

For high-strength bolts used in the T-stub analytical model,

d' the horizontal movement was restrained by inserting the

1 (4)

p plate, which is 1.5 times thicker than the T-stub flange

between the lower T-stub and the upper T-stub. As shown in

db Fig.3., the overall connection analysis model consists of a

a ' a (5)

2 total of 40,716 elements and 55,376 nodes, and the analysis

of each model lasted about 240 minutes. In modeling the

db connection with high-strength bolts, the applied ABAQUS

b ' b (6)

2 options are as shown in Table 3.

Table 1. Geometric Variables of the T-Stub Analytical Model (Unit: mm)

Analytical model bf tw tf gt r a b bT p e lT '

Q

G260-T15-B350 ' 350 b' 15 15 260 22 45 122.5 100 100 50 400 7.58

(7)

T Struik & Back (1 ') 400

G310-T15-B400 a' 15 15 310 22 45 147.5 100 100 50 400 8.14

G260-T19-B350 350 12 19 260 20 45 124 100 100 50 400 4.59

G310-T19-B400 400 12 19 310 20 45 149 100 100 50 400 4.96

G260-T21-B350

EA 350 13 21 260 22 45 123.5 100 100 50 400 3.67

kb 1.6 b

G310-T21-B400 400 13 21 310 (8)22 45 148.5 100 100 50 400 3.98

Lb

G110-T28-B200 200 18 28 110 22 45 46 100 100 50 400 0.58

G140-T28-B230

where 230 18 28 140 22 45 61 100 100 50 400 0.98

G110-T35-B200 200 20 35 110 22 45 45 100 100 50 400 0.08

G140-T35-B230 t230

n th 20 35 140 0.37

Lb tT ,top t fl ,col ' n 2twh (9)22 45 60 100 100 50 400

2

Table 2. Material Properties of the T-Stub Specimen

Fy (N/mm2) Fu (N/mm2) y u E (N/mm2) Eh (N/mm2)

347.33 518.78 0.001612 0.094512 215,446.40 1,814.04

b'

b' d ' (3)

1aa'' (3)

(4)

p

d'

1 dd' (4)

a ' 1ap b (4)

(5)

p2

a ' a dbb db (5)

a 'applied

b 'a b 2 to the end of the flange. However, as pointed

(5)

(6)

2 2

out by Kulak et al. (2001), Eq. (7) results in excessive

prying daction force.

b ' b db (6)

b ' b 2b (6)

2

Q ' b '

(7)

(7)

T

Struik & Back (1 ') a '

Q ' b '

QKulak

et al. ' b'

proposed (7)

the axial tensile force on the

T

Struik & Back (1 ') a ' (7)

high-strength ') aof

T Struik & Back (1bolts ' the connection under tensile

EA

force,

kb 1.6 as bin the following Eq. (8). The coefficient 1.6 in (8)

Lb

Eq. (8) includes the effect of prying action force.

EA

kb 1.6 EAbb

where (8)

(a) G260-T15-B350 analysis model kb 1.6 Lb (8)

(8)

Lb

t t

L

where t t fl ,col ' n 2twh n h (9)

where

b

where

T ,top

2

t t

Lb tT ,top t fl ,col ' n 2twh tnn thh (9)

(9)

Lb tT ,top t fl ,col ' n 2twh 2 (9)

2

Fig. 3. Finite element analysis model of the connection with high-strength bolts

Fig.4. Prying Action

Fig. 4. Prying Force

action forceEstimation Model

estimation model by Struik

by Struik and Backand Back

Fig.3. Finite Element Analysis Model of the Connection with

High-Strength Bolts

Faella et al. assumed that, as in Fig.5., the contact

Table 3. ABAQUS Options for Finite Element Analysis force between the high-strength bolt head and the

Contact surface Command Option connection flange at an angle of 45 would occur due

Washer contact to the pretension of the high-strength bolt. Also, they

Constraints Tie

surface

Allow Adjust only proposed K p /K b, the ratio of the high-strength bolt

Finite stiffness to the connection flange stiffness under such

T-stub T-stub Contact separation to remove

sliding

after contact over closure contact force, as in Eq. (10), which offers similar

Allow Adjust only values to those of the equations proposed by Agerskov

T-stub High- Finite

Contact separation to remove

strength bolt sliding

after contact over closure

and Bursi (1990). In the application of Eq. (10), Kp can

Adjust only be obtained through the application of deformability

Nut - High-

strength bolt

Contact Small sliding to remove characteristics by decompression. The value, A(z),

over closure used in Eq. (11) signifies the area of the T-stub flange

3. Estimation of the Prying Action Force on the compressed by the axial force of high-strength bolts.

Kp tp

Connection with High-Strength Bolts and the Fig. 5. 4.10

KContact 3.25

force tp

distribution (10)bolt

characteristics due to the pretension of the high-strength

K

p

4.10 3.25 db (10)

Contact Force between Members b

Kb db

(10)

In the case of axial tensile force on the connection where

with high-strength bolts, as shown in Fig.4., Struik and where

where

Back proposed the ratio Q/T, as in Eq. (7), where Q is 1

K p t p twh 1 (11)

the prying action force, and T is the axial tensile force. K p t p twh 1 (11)

(11)

2 1 dz

In using Eq. (7), if ' is larger than 1.0, that is, the 2 0 EA( z) dz

connection is fractured by the plastic deformation after 0

EA ( z)

the flexural yielding of the flange due to the prying 4. Three-Dimensional

Q ' b 'm Nonlinear Finite Element

action force, ' is set to 1.0. On the other hand, if ' is Q RResult

Analysis ' bon ' the Connection with High- (12)

m T R(1 ') a 'mm ,

Yang Bolts (12)

between 0 and 1, that is, the connection is fractured by Strength

m T Yang (1 ') a 'm ,

partial yielding of the flange followed by bolt failure, If a connection with ' > 1.0, linked with the high-

B ' b 'm Q

' is set to the value directly obtained from Eq. (1). strength

B bolts,

1 R is ' under 1the

b ' axial

Q tensile force, the

(13)

T Yang

m 1 R (1 ') a 'mm

1 m T Yang , (13)

T Yang

m (1 ') a 'm m T Yang ,

where,

where,R

2.05 if ' 1.0

JAABE vol.12 no.2 September 2013 R 2.05 ifif 0 ' 1.0

0.42 ' 1.0 Jae-Guen Yang 311

R 0.42 if 0 ' 1.0

Fig. 4. Prying action force estimation model by Struik and Back

< ' < 0.98. Such concentrated stress shows the plastic

hinge line in a beam pattern, as predicted by Faella et

al. as well as Ballio and Mazzolani (1994), and results

in a fracture.

Shown in Fig.7. is the applied load-bolt force

relationship curves of the T-stub connection, resulting

from the three-dimensional non-linear finite element

analysis result, which shows very similar behavioral

characteristics to those of the same curve from Struik

and Back's test. In other words, with the increase

in the applied load, the axial bolt force of the high-

strength bolt also gradually increases, and after the

reference load, such an increase of the axial bolt force

accelerates, resulting in the failure of the high-strength

Fig.Fig.5. Contact

5. Contact Forcecharacteristics

force distribution Distribution Characteristics

due to the pretension of theDue to thebolt

high-strength bolt. Such a rapid increase of the axial bolt force of the

Pretension of the High-Strength Bolt axial bolt force on the high-strength bolt is believed to

be due to the prying action effect.

connection is fractured by plastic deformation after the

According to the three-dimensional non-linear finite

flexural yielding of the flange. Whereas a connection is

element analysis result, the average increase rate of

fractured by partial yielding of the flange followed by

the axial bolt force on the high-strength bolt due to the

bolt failure if the connection with 0 < ' < 1.0. Shown in

prying action effect is 228.2% when 3.67 < ' < 8.14,

Fig.6. is the stress distribution on the connection when

as shown in Table 4., resulting in 3.282 of the axial

the applied load reaches the reference load, which, as

bolt force ratio of the high-strength bolt to the applied

defined by Richard et al. (1988), is the value at which

load. This ratio is much larger than that referred to by

the slope of the region that shows the strain hardening

Eq. (8). That is, the prying action effect is excessive

symptom of the connection meeting the y-axis and the

since each connection with 3.67 < ' < 8.14 has much

load axis. As shown in Fig.6.(a), the flexural yielding

thinner flange thickness and larger bolt gauge distance

occurs by the concentrated stress in the area, which is

than the connection with ' = 1.0. On the other hand,

at a certain distance from the T-stub fillet and the area

the average increase rate of the axial bolt force on

at which the end of the interior of the high-strength

the high-strength bolt due to the prying action effect

bolt head and the T-stub flange meet when 3.67 < '

is 11.4% when 0.08 < ' < 0.98, as shown in Table 5.

< 8.14. On the other hand, as shown in Fig.6.(b), the Therefore, the following Eq. (12) was proposed by

flexural yielding only occurs by the concentrated stress

applying a revised parameter to Eq. (7), which offered

in the area at which the end of the interior of the high-

excessive Q/T, based on the three-dimensional finite

strength bolt head and the T-stub flange meet when 0.08

(a) T0=383.3kN, G260-T15-B350 analysis model (b) T0=1,958.1kN, G140-T28-B230 analysis model

(c) Tfinal=770.3kN, G260-T15-B350 analysis model (d) Tfinal=1,970.5kN, G140-T28-B230 analysis model

Fig. 6. Connection stress distribution under reference load

Fig.6. Connection Stress Distribution Under Reference Load

T Yang

m

m

Yang

(1 ') a 'mm ,

Q ' b 'm

R (12)

m T (1 ')''a 'mbb''m,

1 R

BBYang QQ

T Yang 1 R (1 ') a 'm

m

11 T ,

(13)

(13)

m T (1 ') a 'm

m Yang m T Yang ,

m Yang

B T0=1,958.1kN,

(b) b 'm

' G140-T28-B230 Q analysis model

where, 1 R 1 (13)

where,

m T Yang (1 ') a 'm m T Yang ,

R 2.05 if

R 2.05 if ' 1.0 ' 1.0

element analysis result. In addition, if the equilibrium

where

R 0.42 if 0

R 0.42 if 0 ' 1.0 ' 1.0

where,

equation (B = T + Q) among T, the applied load, B, the R 2.05 if ' 1.0

axial force of high-strength bolts, and Q, the prying R 0.42 if 0 ' 1.0

action force, is applied, the correlation between the

(a) T0=383.3kN, kkG260-T15-B350 22 model EEbbAAbb

analysis

2

(b) T20=1,958.1kN,EEbbAAbbG140-T28-B230 analysis model

b,Yang

applied load and the axial force of high-strength bolts b,Yang

1 R ' b 'mm Lbb 1 Q LLbb

' b ' L Q

(14)

(14)

(14)

is summarized in Eq. (13). As shown in Eq. (13), the 1 R (12 ') a 'm Eb Ab 1 m2T Yang Eb Ab

kb,Yang (1 ') a 'm m T Yang

above-mentioned value of 3.282 is the sum of 2.282, ' b 'm Lb Q Lb (14)

1 R 1

the average increase in the ratio of the prying action where where (1 ') a 'm

where

m T Yang

force, as summarized in Table 4., and 1.0. As shown

(c) Tfinal=770.3kN, G260-T15-B350 analysis model (d) Ta''m =1,970.5kN,

aa0.3

0.3ddb G140-T28-B230 analysis model (15)

(15)

in the following Eq. (14), the tensile stiffness of high- where afinal m b (15)

Fig. 6. Connection stress distribution underb ' b reference

0.3 d load (16)

(16)

strength bolts is summarized from the correlation b 'mm b 0.3dbb (16)

a 'm a 0.3db (15)

b 'm b 0.3analysis

(c) Tfinal=770.3kN, G260-T15-B350 db model (16) analysis model

(d) Tfinal=1,970.5kN, G140-T28-B230

Kp Fig.

6. Connection stress distribution

t under reference load

K 0.642 t pp

3.893 0.642

K

p 3.893

(17)

(17)

m b, pretension Yang

Kb, pretension Yang ddbb

m

Kp tp

3.893 0.642 (17)

K d

m b, pretension Yang b

(a) G310-T21-B400 analysis model (b) G110-T28-B200 analysis model

Fig. 7. Applied load vs. axial bolt force relationship

Fig. 7. curve on

Applied the

load vs. high-strength

axial bolt of the

bolt force relationship T-stub

on theconnection

Fig.7. Applied Load vs. Axial Bolt Force Relationship Curve on the High-Strength Bolt of curve

the T-Stub high-strength

Connectionbolt of the T-stub connection

bolts and the axial force of high-strength bolts. That is,

the tensile stiffness of a couple of high-strength bolts

is affected by the prying action force, as shown in Eq.

(14), and it is reflected in the value, 1.6, the coefficient

mentioned in Eq. (8). In implementing Eq. (15) and

Eq. (16), a'm and b'm are defined as the distance from

the central line of the axial force of the high-strength

bolt to the end of the flange and the distance from the

central line of the axial force of the high-strength bolt

to the stem, respectively. As the load acting on T-stub Fig.8. Stress

Fig. 8.Distribution of the

Stress distribution Axial

of the axial Load

load onon

thethe High-Strength

high-strength bolt Bolt

increases, the stress that occurs in the shank of high- Table 4. Prying Action Effect Coefficient from the T-Stub

strength bolts moves from the centroid point of the

Fig. 8. Stress distribution of the axial Connection Analysis Result

load on the high-strength bolt when 3.67 < ' < 8.14

shrank of high-strength bolts to the right, as shown in Average increase ratio of the axial load

Fig.8., showing non-uniform distribution. In this case, Analytical model

on high strength bolt (%)

K

the

Kpp axial force ttp of high-strength bolts is assumed to G260-T15-B350 233.2

4.10

4.10 3.25 d 3.25 p (10)

(10)

K

be

Kbb acting on the

db

b centroid point of non-uniform stress G310-T15-B400 314.6

distribution. The centroid point of non-uniform stress G260-T19-B350 197.6

where

where

distribution obtained from the stress distribution that G310-T19-B400 247.5

occurred 11in the shank of high-strength bolts of each G260-T21-B350 160.6

KKpp tt tt (11) G310-T21-B400 215.4

analytical

p

p

wh

wh model

11 was the point that moved as much (11)

0 EA

as an22 average

EA ((zz))

dz

dzof 0.3d b from the central axis of high- Average increase ratio 228.2

strength0 bolts. Table 5. Prying Action Effect Coefficient from the T-Stub

Connection Analysis Result when 0.08 < ' < 0.98

Q

Q '' bb''m

RR(1 ') a ' m , (12)

(12)

(12) Analytical model

Average increase ratio of the axial load

m T Yang (1 ') a 'mm ,

m T Yang on high strength bolt (%)

G110-T28-B200 11.8

B

B '' bb''m 1 Q

Q G140-T28-B230 27.5

11 R

R (1 ') a ' m

1 T ,

(13)

(13)

(13) G110-T35-B200 1.4

T

m T Yang (1 ') a 'mm m T

Yang

m Yang m Yang ,

G140-T35-B230 4.9

where,

where, Average increase ratio 11.4

RR 2.05 if

2.05 if '' 1.0

1.0

RR 0.42 if 00

0.42 if '' 1.0

1.0

22 E

EbbA

Abb 22 E

EbbA

Abb

kkb,Yang

b,Yang ' b' L

Q LLb (14)

1 R ' b 'mm Lb 1 Q b (14)

b

Kp tp

4.10 3.25 (10)

Kb db

where

1

Kp t p twh

(11)

1

2

0

EA( z)

dz

Q ' b 'm

R (12)

m T Yang (1 ') a 'm ,

B (a) G260-T15-B350

' b 'm analysis

Q model (b) G110-T28-B200 analysis model

9.Contact R

1 force 1 (13)

Fig.

m T Yang (1 distribution

') a ' characteristics

T , by the pretension of the high-strength bolt, resulting from the finite element analysis

Fig.9.mContactm

ForceYang

Distribution Characteristics by the Pretension of the High-Strength Bolt,

result

where, Resulting from the Finite Element Analysis Result

R 2.05 if ' 1.0

TheR ratio of 0the

0.42 if 'contact

1.0 force between members to to estimate the prying action effect, the normalizing

the stiffness of the connection flange and the high- factor * should be obtained by performing a finite

strength bolt is affected by such stress distribution. element analysis for each connection. The test

According to Fig.9., 2 theEcontact

b Ab

force

2 between Eb Ab the head performed the three-dimensional non-linear finite

kb,Yang

of the high-strength

' b 'm bolt

L b

and

the connection

Q Lb flange element analysis again by applying the identical

(14)

R

occurs1at 9. 1 geometric shape, material properties, boundary

(1 ') a 'm m T Yang

As described in Table 6. and Table 7., the contact conditions, and loading conditions to the T-stub finite

force is exerted at a stress distribution angle, which

where element analysis model by Hantouche, shown in

results from the finite element analysis result, and is Fig.10.(a) and 10.(b). The stress distribution of the

smallera 'm than

a 0.3that

db proposed by Faella et al. Based (15) on T-stub model, resulting from the re-performed finite

such ba'm stress

b 0.3ddistribution

b angle, the stiffness ratio (16) ofelement analysis, is shown in Fig.11. As shown in

the connection flange to the high-strength bolt can be Fig.12., the prying action effect of the high-strength

expressed as Eq. (17). bolt, resulting from the re-analysis of the T-stub by

Kp tp

Yang, offers a very similar prying action effect to that

3.893 0.642 (17)

(17) of the high-strength bolt by Hantouche. Although

K db

m b, pretension Yang Yang's analysis model showed a slightly larger Q/T

Table 6. Stress Distribution Angle Resulting from the T-Stub value than Hantouche's analysis model for the W24x76

Connection Analysis Result when 3.67 < ' < 8.14 analysis model, the Q/T from Yang's analysis model

Analytical model Angle () offered a value close to that of Hantouche's analysis

G260-T15-B350 10 model. Therefore, it is determined that using Yang's

G260-T15-B350 10 analysis model is feasible. In addition, it is much easier

G260-T19-B350 7 to estimate the prying action effect of a connection

G310-T19-B400 10

a) Hantouches T-stub since Yang's analysis

(b) Hantouches T-stub model does not need to use the

G260-T21-B350 8

specimen with continuity normalizing

specimen without

(a) G260-T15-B350

factor

continuity

analysis model

*. The normalizing factor *

(b) G110-T28-B200 analysis model

G310-T21-B400 9

plates can

Fig. 9. Contact only

force distributionbe obtained

characteristics

plates by performing

by the pretension a complex

of the high-strength bolt, resulting from thefinite

finite element analysis

result

Average angle 9 10. Hantouches T-stub

Fig. element specimenanalysis.

Table 7. Stress Distribution Angle Resulting from the T-Stub

Connection Analysis Result when 0.08 < ' < 0.98

Analytical model Angle ()

G110-T28-B200 1

G140-T28-B230 1

G110-T35-B200 1

G140-T35-B230 2

Average angle 1

proposed estimation of the prying action effect, was

assessed by comparing and reviewing the result from

that of the T-stub analysis, in Fig.10., which was

conducted by Hantouche (2011). In the development

of Hantouche's model, a normalizing factor * was a) Hantouches T-stub

specimen with continuity

(b) Hantouches T-stub

specimen without continuity

used to relate the primary prying strength model to the plates plates

Fig. 10. Hantouches T-stub specimen

primary prying finite element model. That is, in order Fig.10. Hantouche's T-Stub Specimen

(a) With continuity plates (b) Without continuity plates

(a) With continuity

Fig. 11.plates (b) Without

Stress distribution from Yangs T-stub re-analysis continuity plates

result

Fig. 11.

Fig.11. Stress

Stress distribution

Distribution from

from Yangs

Yang's T-stubRe-Analysis

T-Stub re-analysis Result

result

(a) With continuity plates (b) Rigid Column

Fig. 12. Comparison of Hantouches analysis result for the W30x108 analytical model with tcf/tTf=0.76

Fig. 12. Comparison of Hantouches analysis result for the W30x108 analytical model with tcf/tTf=0.76

Fig.12. Comparison of Hantouche's Analysis Result for the W30x108 Analytical Model with tcf/tTf=0.76

Table 8. Comparison of the Analysis Result by Hantouche and the Analysis Model (With Continuity Plates)

W30x108 0.6 30.28 31.32 1.04

W36x150 0.72 23.69 22.09 1.60

Table 9. Comparison of the Analysis Result by Hantouche and the Analysis Model (Without Continuity Plates)

W30x108 0.6 30.28 40.70 10.42

W36x150 0.72 23.69 39.63 15.94

This study aimed to offer an improved analysis action effect is 3.282 when 3.67 < ' < 8.14. Hence,

model that could estimate the prying action force of it is recommended that the coefficient referred to by

the T-stub connection with high-strength bolts under Eq. (8) is set to 0.609 for a connection with 3.67 <

tensile force, as well as the contact force between ' < 8.14.

members. The study resulted in the following 2) The three-dimensional non-linear finite element

conclusions: analysis result showed that the contact force is

1) Based on the three-dimensional non-linear finite delivered at a maximum angle of 9, the angle of

element analysis, the ratio of the axial force on the the stress distribution between the head of the high-

strength bolt and the connection flange, which is 11) Richard et al. (1988) Derived moment-rotation curves for double-

framing angles. Comput & Struct, Elsevier Science Ltd., 3,

smaller than the angle proposed by Faella et al.

pp.485-494.

3) As shown in Table 8. and Table 9., in estimating 12) Struik, J. H. A., and de Back, J. (1969) Tests on Bolted T-stubs

Q/T of the T-stub, Yang's analysis model offered with Respect to Bolted Beam-to-Column Connections. Report

a closer value to the actual test than Hantouche's 6-69-13, Stevin Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Delft,

analysis model did. Therefore, it is determined The Netherlands.

13) Swanson, J. A. (1999) Characterization of the Strength, Stiffness,

that estimating Q/T of the T-stub by using Yang's

and Ductility Behavior of T-stub Connections. Ph. D. Dissertation,

analysis model is valid. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.

14) Swanson, J.A. (2002) Ultimate Strength Prying Models for Bolted

Acknowledgment T-Stub Connections. Engineering Journal, AISC, 39 (3), 3rd

The authors deeply appreciate the generous support Quarter, pp.136-147.

15) Thornton, W. A. (1985) Prying action: A general treatment.

of the National Research Foundation of Korea (under

Engineering Journal, AISC, 22, pp.67-75.

Research No. 2012047786).

List of Nomenclatures

db : Diameter of the bolt

d': Diameter of the bolt hole

kb: Axial tensile stiffness of the bolt

r: Radius of the fillet of the T-stub

B0 : Bolt pretension force used in the T-stub

B: Bolt force developed by the applied load

E: Young's modulus of steel

Eh: Secant modulus of steel

Fy: Yield strength of steel

Fu: Ultimate strength of steel

Q: Prying action force of the T-stub

T: Load applied to the T-stub

T0: Reference load of the T-stub

: Value that either maximizes the bolt's available tensile strength

for a given thickness or minimizes the thickness required for a

given bolt's available tensile strength

y: Yield strain of steel

u: Ultimate strain of steel

References

1) Agerskov, H. (1976) High strength bolted connections subject to

prying. Journal of Structural Engineering. Div., ASCE, 102(1),

pp.161-175.

2) Astaneh, A. (1985) Procedure For a Design and Analysis of

Hanger-Type Connections. Engineering Journal, AISC, 22(2),

pp.63-66.

3) Ballio, G., Mazzolani, F.M. (1994) Strutture in A cciaio. Hoepli,

Milan.

4) Bursi, O. (1990) Behaviour of High strength Bolts in Bolted

Beam-to-Column connections, Proc. Of Applied Stress Analysis

Conference, Nottingham.

5) Douty, R. T. and McGuire, W. (1965) High Strength Bolted

Moment Connections. J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 91(2), pp.101-128.

6) Faella, C., Piluso, V., Rizzano, G. (1996) Some Proposals to

Improve EC3-Annex J Approach for Predicting the Moment-

Rotation Curve of Extended End Plate Connections, Costruzioni

Metalliche, No. 4.

7) Faella, C., Piluso, V., Rizzano, G. (1998) Experimental Analysis

of Bolted Connections: Snug versus Preloaded Bolts. Journal of

Structural Engineering, ASCE, 124(7), pp.765-774.

8) Hantouche, EG. (2011) Behavioral characterization of built-up

T-stub connections for use in moment resisting frames. Ph.D.

dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA.

9) Jaspart, J. P. and Maquoi, R. (1995) Effect of Bolt Preloading

on Joint Behaviour. Steel Structures, Eurosteel '95, edited by

Kounadis, Balkema.

10) Kulak, G. L., Fisher, J. W. and Struik, J. H. A. (2001) Guide To

Design Criteria For Bolted and Riveted Joints 2nd Ed. New York:

American Institute of Steel Construction.

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