0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

94 Aufrufe48 SeitenAug 19, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

94 Aufrufe

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Area+Under+the+curve+[Practice+Question].pdf
- performance assessment unit 3
- Using Online Learning Spiral Recurrent Neural Network for NN5 Data Prediction
- Advance Design Tutorial
- Form 4 Revision Questions
- Auto Pilot Design 2
- Transformation
- Air Data Calibration From Turning Flight-June1999[1]
- 3rd 1st Week
- Reference 1
- Autonomous Underwater Robot
- Project ARGUS - Fourth Newsletter (English)
- RPT MATH F2.doc
- 102notes3b.ppt
- Automation in Mining
- Transformations Exam
- 07095286
- 13 functions IB Q+A
- 1.7_Transformations.pdf
- Aula 05 Din & Cont Vei Espaciais_English

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 48

and

Aiding of INS solutions with GPS sensor

readings

Kunal Dhawan

Sophomore , Electronics and Communication Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology , Guwahati

Roll Number 150102030

k.dhawan@iitg.ernet.in

Problem Statement

using inertial sensors i.e. accelerometers and gyroscopes. This will be the

inertial navigation system (INS) output. Thereafter ,fuse this solution with GPS

readings ( available at much lower frequency) using Kalman Filter to improve

the accuracy of the final solution .

Introduction to Major Concepts

Navigation

known as Localization). This is distinct from Guidance (or Control) which is the

process of controlling a vehicle to achieve a desired trajectory. An autonomous

vehicular system generally must include these two basic competencies in order

to perform any useful task.

An Historical Perspective

position of the vehicle. Modern navigation techniques were introduced several

hundred years ago to aid vessels crossing the ocean. The first navigation

techniques were used to estimate the position of a ship through dead

reckoning, using observations of the ships speed and heading. With this

information, the trajectory of the ship was able to be predicted, albeit with

errors that accumulated over time. The heading of the ship was determined by

observing the position of the sun, or other stars. The velocity was found with a

log, compensating for the effects of local currents. Absolute information was

used to provide a position fix, to compensate for the errors accumulated

through dead reckoning. These fixes were obtained when well known natural or

artificial landmarks were recognized.

century. Even with the invention of the compass, dead reckoning was only

useful for short periods of time due to difficulties in obtaining accurate

measurements of velocity. The difficulties in compensating for local currents

made dead reckoning only useful for periods of a few hours. In the open sea,

natural landmarks are scarcely available, making an accurate position update

not possible. It was clear at that time that new methods, or new sensors, were

needed to obtain absolute position information.

This problem was of fundamental economic importance since many ships were

lost at sea due to total uncertainty in Longitude. Two approaches were mainly

investigated at this time. One method was based on accurate prediction and

observation of the moon. Difficulties in predicting the lunar orbit with enough

precision and accuracy required of the instrumentation made this approach

almost impossible to implement in standard ships at that time. The other

important approach was based on knowing the time with enough accuracy to

evaluate the Longitude.

A Modern Perspective

and Correction. Prediction can be considered to be the use of a model of some

description to provide dead reckoning information. Dead reckoning has the

property of accumulating position error with time. Correction is the process

whereby the observation of landmarks (either natural or artificial) can reduce

the location uncertainty inherent in dead reckoning. It may be argued that with

the advent of modern sensors such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) that

dead reckoning is no longer a necessary part of navigation. This assertion may

be readily refuted by the following statement: There is no such thing as a

perfect sensor. All sensors have some measure of error or uncertainty present

within every measurement. Similarly, if it were possible to perfectly model

vehicle motion, external sensors would not be needed. Therefore it is essential

to understand not only the sensors used for navigation, but also the model

used for prediction, as they both contribute to the fidelity of the position

solution. As both prediction and correction steps contain uncertainty, it is

useful to pose navigation as an Estimation problem. If the error in prediction

and the error in correction can be modeled as probability distributions then the

Kalman filter can be used to fuse all available information into a common

estimate that may then be used for guidance.

through the use of Kalman filtering and, for nonlinear systems, through the use

of the extended Kalman filter. The Kalman filter is a linear statistical algorithm

used to recursively estimate the states of interest. The states of interest will

usually consist of the vehicle pose and other relevant vehicle parameters. In

map building, the state vector can be augmented with feature positions, so that

they too may be estimated. To aid in the estimation of the states, the Kalman

filter requires that there be two mathematical models: the process model and

the observation model. The process model describes how the states evolve over

time, together with an estimate of the errors committed by the system. The

observation model explicitly describes the information supplied by a sensor as

a function of the state, together with a model of measurement noise. These

models correspond to prediction and correction respectively. For a linear

system subject to Gaussian, uncorrelated, zero mean measurement and process

noises, the Kalman filter is the optimal minimum mean squared error

estimator. An additional benefit of using the Kalman filter estimator is that it

keeps track of the uncertainties present in the system via the computation of a

covariance matrix. This is important in many applications where it is desired to

know how well (or how poorly) a system is performing.

Introduction to important Navigation Systems

sometimes known as an inertial navigation unit (INU), is a complete three-

dimensional dead-reckoning navigation system. It comprises a set of inertial

sensors, known as an inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with a

navigation processor. The inertial sensors usually comprise three mutually

orthogonal accelerometers and three gyroscopes aligned with the

accelerometers. The navigation processor integrates the IMU outputs to give the

position, velocity, and attitude. Inertial navigation system is a dead reckoning

type of navigation system that computes its position based on motion sensors.

Once the initial latitude and longitude is established, the system receives

impulses from motion detectors that measure the acceleration along three or

more axes enabling it to continually and accurately calculate the current

latitude and longitude. Its advantages over other navigation systems are that,

once the starting position is set, it does not require outside information, it is

not affected by adverse weather conditions and it cannot be detected or

jammed. Its disadvantage is that since the current position is calculated solely

from previous positions, its errors are cumulative, increasing at a rate roughly

proportional to the time since the initial position was input. Inertial navigation

systems must therefore be frequently corrected with a location 'fix' from some

other type of navigation system.

2) Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) : GNSS is the term for satellite

navigation systems that provide positioning with global coverage. A GNSS

allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude,

and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line

of sight by radio from satellites. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position

can also be used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific

Coordinate Frames Used in Navigation

not accelerate or rotate with respect to the rest of the Universe. The i frame is

centered at the Earths center of mass and oriented with respect to the Earths

spin axis and the stars. The z-axis always points along the Earths axis of

rotation from the center to the north pole (true, not magnetic). The x- and y-

axes lie within the equatorial plane.

thus all its axes remain fixed with respect to the Earth . The z-axis always

points along the Earths axis of rotation from the center to the North Pole (true,

not magnetic). The x-axis points from the center to the intersection of the

equator with the IERS reference meridian (IRM) or conventional zero meridian

(CZM), which defines 0 degree longitude. The y-axis completes the right-handed

orthogonal set, pointing from the center to the intersection of the equator with

the 90-degree east meridian

3) Local Navigation Frame (n) : It is also called the geodetic or geographic frame.

It is centered at the host vehicles center of mass and is the most preferred

frame for calculation of navigation solution . The z axis, also known as the

down (D) axis, is defined as the normal to the surface of Earth . The x-axis, or

north (N) axis, is the projection in the plane orthogonal to the z-axis of the line

from the user to the north pole. By completing the orthogonal set, the y-axis

always points east and is hence known as the east (E) axis.

Introduction to Inertial Navigation

An inertial navigation system (INS), sometimes known as an inertial navigation

unit (INU), is a dead-reckoning navigation system, comprising an inertial

measurement unit and a navigation processor. The IMU, incorporates a set of

accelerometers and gyros produces measurements of the specific force and

angular rate of the body frame with respect to inertial space in body-frame

axes.

could help us track the position , velocity and attitude of our ship / submarine

given the sensor readings from accelerometer and gyroscope . These equations

are called navigation equations .

1) Attitude update

2) Specific-Force Frame Transformation

3) Velocity update

4) Position update

figure : flow of navigation processor using the navigation equations at each step

equations (the version varied on the level of complexity and load for navigation

processor ) . All of them were implemented in the N frame as for all practical

purposes , the position and velocity solution are required in body frame of the

vehicle for the solutions to be comprehendible . The three versions of

Navigation equations were as follows :

2) Precision Navigation Equations

3) Differential Equations Navigation Equations

In the following section , I only mention the final equation that are

implemented . Link to full derivation will be provided in the references section .

Please NOTE : List of symbols and their meanings are provided at the end of the

report .

Linearized Navigation Equations

1)Attitude update

3) Velocity Update

4) Position Update

Precision Navigation Equations

1) Attitude update

3) Velocity Update

4) Position Update

Differential Equation implementation of Navigation

Equations

1) Attitude update

3) Velocity Update

This was done solving the following systems of ordinary differential equations-

This was achieved using the inbuilt function ODE45 of MATLAB . Snippets of

code for the same are as follows :

(some portion has been omitted fit the explanation of the method used to 2

pages)

Here:

dx(1)=North velocity

dx(2)=East velocity

dx(3)=Down velocity

dx(4)=Latitude

dx(5)=Height

GPS Aiding of Inertial Navigation Processor

hardware faults; provides high-bandwidth output at atleast 50 Hz; and exhibits

low short-term noise. It also provides effective attitude, angular rate, and

acceleration measurements, as well as position and velocity. However, the

accuracy of an inertial navigation solution degrades with time as the inertial

instrument errors are integrated through the navigation equations. GNSS

provides a high long-term position accuracy with errors limited to a few meters

(stand-alone). However, compared to INS, the output rate is low, typically

around 10 Hz, the short-term noise of a code-based position solution is high,

and standard GNSS user equipment does not measure attitude. GNSS signals are

also subject to obstruction and interference, so GNSS cannot be relied upon to

provide a continuous navigation solution. The benefits and drawbacks of INS

and GNSS are complementary, so by integrating them, the advantages of both

technologies are combined to give a continuous, high-bandwidth, complete

navigation solution with high long- and short-term accuracy. In an integrated

INS/GNSS, or GNSS/INS, navigation system, GNSS measurements prevent the

inertial solution drifting, while the INS smoothes the GNSS solution and bridges

signal outages.

Figure : Block Diagram for a general INS and GPS integration architecture

Integration of INS and GPS data available at different

rates

namely INS and GNSS so as to get a precise solution ? This problem is solved

with the help of Kalman Filter

real-time estimates of a number of parameters of a system, such as its position

and velocity, that may continually change. The estimates are updated using a

stream of measurements that are subject to noise. The measurements must be

functions of the parameters estimated, but the set of measurements at a given

time need not contain sufficient information to uniquely determine the values

of the parameters at the time. The Kalman filter uses knowledge of the

deterministic and statistical properties of the system parameters and the

measurements to obtain optimal estimates given the information available. To

do this, it must carry more information from iteration to iteration than just the

parameter estimates. Therefore, the Kalman filter also maintains a set of

uncertainties in its estimates and a measure of the correlations between the

errors in the estimates of the different parameters.

initial set of estimates and then operates recursively, updating its working

estimates as a weighted average of their previous values and new values

derived from the latest measurement data. By contrast, nonrecursive estimation

algorithms derive their parameter estimates from the whole set of

measurement data without prior estimates. For real-time applications, such as

navigation, the recursive approach is more processor efficient, as only the new

measurement data need be processed on each iteration. Old measurement data

may be discarded.

The five core elements of the Kalman filter are : the state vector and covariance,

the system model, the measurement vector and covariance, the measurement

model, and the algorithm:

states, which the Kalman filter estimates. Associated with the state vector is an

error covariance matrix. This represents the uncertainties in the Kalman filter's

state estimates and the degree of correlation between the errors in those

estimates.

model, describes how the Kalman filter states and error covariance matrix vary

with time. The system model is deterministic for the states as it is based on

known properties of the system.The variation in the true values of the states is

known as system noise, and its statistical properties are usually estimated in

advance by the Kalman filter designer.

properties of the system, which are functions of the state vector. Associated

with the measurement vector is a measurement noise covariance matrix, which

describes the statistics of the noise on the measurements.

function of the true state vector (as opposed to the state vector estimate) in the

absence of measurement noise. Like the system model, the measurement model

is deterministic, based on known properties of the system.

model, and system model to maintain optimal estimates of the state vector.

Implementation

The integrated navigation solution of an INS/GNSS integrated navigation system

is the corrected inertial navigation solution. In an integration architecture

using an error-state Kalman filter and separate inertial navigation processing,

correction may be either open-loop or closed-loop . These two ways differ in

their approach of feeding back of position , velocity and attitude values to the

INS processor ( remember INS is a dead reckoning system , hence it requires the

above mentioned values at previous time intervals so as to calculate the

solution at the next time instant )

errors are used to correct the inertial navigation solution within the integration

algorithm at each iteration but are not fed back to the INS.

errors are fed back to the inertial navigation processor, either on each Kalman

filter iteration or periodically, where they are used to correct the inertial

navigation solution itself. The Kalman filters position, velocity, and attitude

estimates are zeroed after each set of corrections is fed back. Consequently,

there is no independent uncorrected inertial navigation solution. In simple

words , we feed back the correct position and velocity values to the INS

processor for future calculations.

Currently , in literature and practice , Closed loop corrections is largely

preferred and there is no work available on open loop correction . This is

because performance of closed loop is much better as compared to open loop

corrections as we always feedback the corrected values to the INS processor

and hence the INS error increases very slowly over time .

my task was to design and implement the open loop correction algorithm which

will work in the given constraints .

which are listed as follows :

1) Loosely coupled integration of INS and GPS with closed loop correction (E

frame calculation)

2) Loosely coupled integration of INS and GPS with open loop correction (N

frame implementation)

3) Loosely coupled integration of INS and GPS with open loop correction (E

frame implementation)

Results for all the above are presented after the next section .

Working of Code ( Loosely coupled Integration of INS and

GPS sensor data with Open Loop Corrections)

Initialize the x(x vector) , P(error covariance matrix) , Q(system noise covariance

matrix) and R(measurement noise covariance matrix) matrices for working of

the Kalman filter

Generate the true Position , Velocity and Attitude values from the trajectory of

the vehicle

Now repeat the following steps for each epoch (ie each time we receive sensor

values from the IMU

Determine Position and Velocity of all the satellites present in the constellation

Generate GNSS measurements ( ie pseudo range and range rate values using the

above information )

Find the GPS values for object vehicle position and velocity using the range and

range rate values

Generate the accelerometer and gyro reading using the true trajectory and add

appropriate errors to the sensor readings

Find the INS values for vehicle position and velocity using the navigation

equations on the inertial sensor readings

Now run the Kalman filter function (Details of the same cant be revealed

currently as we are writing a paper on the same)

Next we store the calculated position , velocity and attitude values in a matrix

which helps us plot the trajectory . After this , we return to the next iteration of

the main for loop and wait of the INS sensor readings

Results and Plots

correction

Figure : Path followed by the vehicle ( shown in N frame )

24 Hour Simulation Results

Figure : Path followed by the vehicle ( shown in N frame )

48 Hour Simulation Results

Figure : Path followed by the vehicle ( shown in N frame )

B) Loosely Coupled Integration of INS and GPS with Open loop

correction

1) N frame implementation :

Figure : Path followed by the vehicle ( shown in N frame )

Comparison of the algorithm with simple INS solution for

the same trajectory

For comparing the results obtained from the algorithm implemented with the

case when no correction was provided by GPS integration , I plot the errors

accumulated by both the methods over a period of 1 hour when both the

algorithms are subjected to the same path and sensor errors . The plots have

plotted in the N frame .

Figure : Comparison plot for error in latitude reading introduced by all three algorithms

Figure : Comparison plot for error in longitude reading introduced by all three algorithms

Figure : Comparison plot for error in Height reading introduced by all three algorithms

Explanation of Working of Open Loop corrections :

In open loop integration of INS and GPS readings , the formulation of x vector (

for Kalman Filter ) is done is the following way ( for N frame ) :

Thus , using the X vector , we try to track the errors in the INS which integrate

with time and use this to correct the readings that we get from the IMU sensors

.

To show the working of my algorithm , I plot the x vector along with INS errors

across a duration of 1 hour . It can be seen that the algorithm is doing a good

job to approximate the INS errors

Figure : Plot showing the propagation of the latitude reading component of x vector and the

INS errors plot with time .

Figure : Plot showing the propagation of the longitude reading component of x vector and the

INS errors plot with time .

Figure : Plot showing the propagation of the height reading component of x vector and the INS

errors plot with time .

1) E frame implementation :

Figure : Path followed by the vehicle ( shown in N frame )

Comparison of the algorithm with simple INS solution for

the same trajectory

For comparing the results obtained from the algorithm implemented with the

case when no correction was provided by GPS integration , I plot the errors

accumulated by both the methods over a period of 1 hour when both the

algorithms are subjected to the same path and sensor errors . The plots have

plotted in the E frame .

Figure : Comparison plot for error in x position reading introduced by the two algorithms

Figure : Comparison plot for error in y position reading introduced by the two algorithms

Figure : Comparison plot for error in z position reading introduced by the two algorithms

Tracking Due to incorrect knowledge of lever arm

position to another on a vehicle, such as between an INS and a GPS antenna,

between an INS and the center of gravity, or between a reference and an

aligning INS. This is required because generally the GPS antenna and IMU

sensors are present at different locations on the vehicle . But when integrating

the position and velocity solutions from both together to a common solution ,

we need to convert the readings to a common frame so that they can be

appropriately added . This is done using the lever arm , which is a vector in 3

Dimension pointing from one frame to the other , thus it helps us in

transporting the solution to the required frame

Problem statement

Given the scenario that we would have multiple GPS receivers on board and

readings could be available from any of them without previous knowledge(ie we

dont know the algorithm via which the GPS receivers are chosen and hence we

cant incorporate that in the integration Kalman filter and get the correct lever

arm for whichever GPS is chosen). Thus we have the knowledge of only one

lever arm but the reading may not be coming from that GPS receiver , so we

have to estimate the error in the final position output due to this mismatch.

As the problem of lever arm affects the GPS readings, thus it only affects the

measurement model of the Kalman Filter . Specifically , it affects the z vector

and H matrix formation . The following equations highlight the affect of lever

arm on the above mentioned matrices

Z vector formation :

Measurement Matrix formulation :

Tested the code for 3 cases with incorrect lever arm of around 5 to 8 meters as

required. Used 3 random positions of the GPS antenna with respect to the INS

body axis origin .

[0;0;0] the basis case ; [5;5;5] norm = 8.66m ; [4.5,3.7,6.5] norm = 8.728m ;

[7.5;3;3.2] norm = 8.69m ; [3,3,3] norm = 5.196m ; [2.5;3.1;2.8] norm =

4.868m

Results and Plots

Figure plot showing variation of North Position Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned in the Key

Figure plot showing variation of East Position Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned in the Key

Figure plot showing variation of Down Position Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned in the Key

48 hours simulation results

Figure plot showing variation of North Position Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned with the plots

Figure plot showing variation of East Position Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned with the plots

Figure plot showing variation of Down Position Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned with the plots

Figure plot showing variation of North Velocity Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned with the plots

Figure plot showing variation of East Velocity Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned with the plots

Figure plot showing variation of Down Velocity Error with time for the different cases of lever

arm as mentioned with the plots

- Area+Under+the+curve+[Practice+Question].pdfHochgeladen vonAditya SanjayBoob
- performance assessment unit 3Hochgeladen vonapi-200659174
- Using Online Learning Spiral Recurrent Neural Network for NN5 Data PredictionHochgeladen vonjoegao1
- Advance Design TutorialHochgeladen vonGaiu Aurelian Bogdan
- Form 4 Revision QuestionsHochgeladen vonAdamDanialAkbar
- Auto Pilot Design 2Hochgeladen vonAlee K. Obeid
- TransformationHochgeladen vonamyryuzaini
- Air Data Calibration From Turning Flight-June1999[1]Hochgeladen vonRonald Jones
- 3rd 1st WeekHochgeladen vonJOHN MICHAEL
- Reference 1Hochgeladen vonMichaelSpencer
- Autonomous Underwater RobotHochgeladen vonAitzaz Hussain
- Project ARGUS - Fourth Newsletter (English)Hochgeladen vonProject ARGUS
- RPT MATH F2.docHochgeladen vonmiez17
- 102notes3b.pptHochgeladen vonAndrew Meyer
- Automation in MiningHochgeladen vonVladimir Flores Castillo
- Transformations ExamHochgeladen vonElaine Lau
- 07095286Hochgeladen vonAsepta Surya Wardhana
- 13 functions IB Q+AHochgeladen vonKatherine
- 1.7_Transformations.pdfHochgeladen vonRashid Davis
- Aula 05 Din & Cont Vei Espaciais_EnglishHochgeladen vonDiogo Martins
- Wheel Slip Angle Estimation RWD Vehicle With DriftHochgeladen vonJames 0'Six
- assignment 2 project - leah katavatis id 110147356 mbetHochgeladen vonapi-427817018
- elk-24-2-14-1309-60.pdfHochgeladen vonAndrew Fong
- 1st Long TestHochgeladen vonMarjo Celoso DeLa Cruz
- EMCORE-EN-150-1-3-5-IMUHochgeladen vonachmad fitrio spn
- The Battle Between MEMS and FOGs for Precision Guidance MS 2432Hochgeladen vonDeepa
- The Three-Dimensional Cartesian SpaceHochgeladen vonAedz Bayle
- Lect22Hochgeladen vonfastman94
- EKF QuaternionHochgeladen vonJosh Pilipovsky
- Chapter-22 Constructing and Interpreting Bar Graphs.pdfHochgeladen vonmacro soft

- presentation 2Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- btp meet 2 - copyHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- btp meet 2Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- btp meet 3Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- verilog final codeHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera lz9hplj95ph6Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- attentionHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- kunaldhawan-transcript-sem6Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera wx29vxacwe33Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera 4ukctxkbglegHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- projectreport-g15 tueHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera a6n52bwq2vkgHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera vtwwcbh3ae6wHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera vg79h67t6f58Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera kaxe2yuddqpyHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursera vgle3dsyt3keHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- coursesHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- cls v2 1 6Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- project report group1Hochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- project report-lgHochgeladen vonapi-332129590
- ps ipHochgeladen vonapi-332129590

- Pressure Vessel Quality Manual 2Hochgeladen vonNguyen Duc Dung
- Free WHMIS Awareness Power PointHochgeladen vonआशीष गौरव
- 3rdPartyToolsForBWHochgeladen vonsakthirobotic
- AI3 SearchHochgeladen vonAnindo Saka Fitri
- Contract for Civil Design and Consultancy Work of SGFL CFPHochgeladen vonArshad Sadat
- Whitepaper the Five Planes of UX DesignHochgeladen vonSandra Vega
- Electrical Hazard Risk Assessment 1-20-15Hochgeladen vonpecampbe
- Director Manager Accounts Payable in Tacoma WA Resume Patricia WilliamsHochgeladen vonPatriciaWilliams2
- Brochure Corporate ParkHochgeladen vonManancorporate
- Book Complete SS-YBHochgeladen vonshekry
- Cable Trays FRP-1Hochgeladen vonshilpa23581
- B.E. NAME 4th Year.pdfHochgeladen vonrajumj66
- Nit Doc 224_khagriaHochgeladen vonshyamkpatel
- Peugeot 207 Cc Brochure Range 1Hochgeladen vonUZNAPM
- Test Bank, Solution Manual, Ebook (2019, 2020 Editions)Hochgeladen vonsmtbportal
- Oilfield IndexHochgeladen vonEmad Ali
- ROLE OF CONTRACT MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRYHochgeladen vontusharrsangole
- FINAL - Mitel Analyst Day March 2017 - FINALHochgeladen vondisalina
- CIT06-0269Hochgeladen vonamirsagharichi
- Biofuels Industry ReportHochgeladen vonNirav
- Sealcon14Hochgeladen vonGreg Glisch
- arvyHochgeladen vonsngarv
- Inter Hemp Building ParticipantsHochgeladen vonjovmicic
- 74637757-CRJ-200-Flight-Planner-v1-0Hochgeladen vonAnish Shakya
- ISO 15614-12-2014.pdfHochgeladen vonAlex Rots
- GM Document 1Hochgeladen vonballaban8685
- 20 Saw Metro Dubai Low (1)Hochgeladen vonMayuresh Dash
- Prepration of ITP for Storage Tanks Fabrication & ErectionHochgeladen vonRamuAlagappan
- Initial Weight EstimationHochgeladen vonNono4138
- Transformerfactory[1]Hochgeladen vonglenysya

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.