Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

StandardGainHornAntenna

StandardGainHornupto110GHz,GainValue:10,15,20,25dB,WGandCoaxialInputGotovectortele.com

DigitalTV TowerLocator Reception Antennas Amplifiers Cables Installation Frequency Networks

TelevisionReceptionFactors
PAGECONTENTSAntennaAngle/Frequency|TerrainLoss/Masking|GroundClutter|RadioHorizon|Attic/Indoor|Summary

Belowlistlossfactorsthatmayexplainwhyasignalisweakerthanexpected.

ANTENNAANGLEBEAMLOSS
Beamlossoccurswhenthereceiveantennaisnotdirectlyalignedtothebroadcastsignal.Signalsaligned
directly(0)totheantennagetthemaximumgain.Gaindecreasesslightlywithangleuptothebeamedge.
Atthebeamedgegainisdownby3dB.Pastthebeamedgegaindropsdramatically.Thebeamedgefor
anoutsideantennawithmoderategainisabout45offcenter(a90beam).Alowergainantennacould
haveabeamaswideas120.Ahighgainantennacouldhaveabeamasnarrowas30.Alsoseenext
sectionAntenna/GainandBeam.

ANTENNAFREQUENCYVARIATION
Antennagainisnotconstantandvaries,upordown,withfrequency.Advertisedgainsareusuallytheaveragegainoverthefrequencyband,someare
themaximumgain.Thegainspreadcanbeaslowas2dB,orashighas6dBormore,4dB(2dB)istypicalforamoderategainantenna.

ANTENNAPOLARIZATIONLOSS
Mosttelevisionstationstransmitasignalwithhorizontalpolarization.Somestationstransmitrighthandcircularelliptical(mainaxisinhorizontalplane)
forbetterpropagationinhillyandclutteredareas.Mostreceiveantenna'saredesignedforhorizontalpolarization,andhavea1or2dBpolarization
lossforellipticalsignals.

TERRAINLOSS
Theareabetweenthebroadcastandreceiveantenna'sshouldbeclearofallobstructionsforbestreception,thefreespaceregion.Theregionis
shapedlikeanellipsoid,oracartooncigarshape.Neareitherantennatheregion'sradiusisacoupleofwavelengths,orabout4to30feetradius
(UHFtoVHF).Theareanearandallaroundeitherantennashouldbeclear.Atthemidpointtheellipsoidradius(r)islargest,anddependson
frequency(f)anddistance(d)betweenantennas.Thelowerthefrequencyandthegreaterthedistance,thelargertheradius.Manytimesground
terrain,(hills,mountains,nearradiohorizon,antennaclosetotheground)willgetintothefreespaceregion,causingasignalreduction(terrainloss).
Thelosscanvaryfrom412dBormore.

FreeSpaceEllipsoid


rmeters=273.85(dkm/fMHz)0.5

CalculateEllipsoidMidPointRadius
RFBandorChannel: UHF(RF1469)average
Range: 50 Miles

EllipsoidMidPointRadiusinfeetandmeters.

CalculateorRecalculate

TERRAINMASKING
Terrainmaskingisalwaysaconcern,butisespeciallyproblematicforUHFchannels.Terrain,andrelativelycloselargestructures,cancompletely
block(mask)asignal.BroadcasttowerAntennaMSL(heightaboveMeanSeaLevel)isusedtotracesignalpathforterraininterference.Inthebelow
illustrationthebroadcastantennaislistedas1200metersMSL.Elevatedterrain(amountain)blocksadirectpathtothereceiveantenna.Thereis
somesignalreductionandfringingpastthemountain,butnotenoughfringingforUHFchannels.AVHFchannelmaybereceivable.
TerrainMasking

ThetowerantennaheightAboveGroundLevel(AGL)isantennaMSL(1200meters)minusgroundMSL(900meters),or300meters(984feet)AGL.

GROUNDCLUTTER
Largerelativelyclosestructurescouldcausesignificantsignalloss,structuresinthedistancewillcauselessloss.Treeswillreduceasignal,thelonger
thedistancethesignaltravelsthroughatreeormultipletrees,thegreatertheloss.Treeswithoutfoliage(inwinter)mayhaveslightlylessloss(about1
dB)atUHFfrequencies.

FOLIAGELOSS
Distance VHF UHF
feet dB dB
20' 3 4
40' 4 6
60' 5 8
80' 6 9
100' 7 11
120' 8 12
140' 8 13
160' 9 14
180' 10 15
200' 10 16

Kowloon, Tm ev/daire, 3 yatak, 6... Sai Kung, Tm ev/daire, 3 yatak, 6... Hong Kong, Tm ev/daire, 3 yatak,...
111 355 476

airbnb.com.tr

RADIOHORIZON
Thebroadcasttowergroundelevationandtowerheight(abovegroundlevel)determinetheradio
horizon,locationsoutsidethehorizondon'tgetasignal.Theradiohorizonisgreaterthanthevisual
(optical)horizon.Intheatmosphereradiowavesbendslightlyupwardincreasingtherange,lightwaves
donotbend(verymuch).Inafreespacevacuumradioandlightwavespropagateinastraightline.

UsingaSmoothEarthModel(overwaterat0metersMSL)theradiohorizonvariesfromabout10
milesfora15meters(50feet)towertoover60milesfora600meters(about2000feet)tower.
Broadcasttowersareusuallylocatedonthehighestgroundpossible,increasinghorizonrange.
Elevatingthereceiveantennacanincreasereceptionrange,ifthesignalisstrongenough.

RadioHorizonCalculators
UsingaSmoothEarthModel
CalculateRadioHorizon CalculateAntennaHeight
AntennaHeight(htorhr) RadioHorizon
30 feet 70 Miles

Horizon AntennaHeight
Optical feet
Radio meters

CalculateorRecalculate CalculateorRecalculate

Radiohorizoncalculationsarebasedonlineofsightequationsusingalargerearthradius(the4/3'searthradiusmodel).

ATTICMOUNT
Atticmountlossisatleast3dBfora3/4inchplywoodroofcoveredwithroofingpaperandonelayerof3tabasphaltshingles.Metalbacked
insulationintheatticorwallsandmetalexhaustventsandairductsallblocksignals.

INDOORANTENNA
Walls,floors,ceilings,roofs,doors,windows,appliances,furniture,andpartitionswillreduceasignal.Wallinsulationwithoutametalbackinghasa
minorloss,afractionofadB.Metalbackedinsulation,metalsiding,awnings,doors.screens,airducts,andwaterpipeswillblock/reflectasignal.An
outsidewallwithvinylsiding,oraninsidewall,willhavealossofabout6dBormore,Abrickwalllossisabout8dBormore.

SignalLoss
Attic Brick
AsphaltShingleRoof 3dB 3.5 in.thick 3dB
Glass 7 in.thick 5dB
0.25 in.thick 1dB 10.5 in.thick 6dB
0.5 in.thick 2dB 7.5in.Brick/Concrete 13dB
GlassBlock 6dB CinderBlock
Wood 8 in.wide 11dB
Plywood 2dB 16 in.wide 15dB
WoodDoor 3dB 24 in.wide 25dB
Walls Concrete
Plasterboard 2dB 4 in.thick 11dB
Drywall 3dB 8 in.thick 21dB
Marble 4dB 12 in.thick 32dB

LossestimatesareforUHFfrequencies.VHFislesslossy,by1or2dBormore.

Wireormetalmesh(wiredglasswindow,chickenwire,chainlinkfence,etc.)willcompletelyblockasignalifthelargestopenspaceinthemeshis
equaltoorlessthanaquarterwavelength(OpeningQuarterWave).Themeshactsexactlylikesolidmetalforsignalsthatareaquarterwavelength
orlonger(lowerfrequency).Televisionbroadcastquarterwavelengths'varyfrom3.7inchesforRFchannel69to4.3feetforRFchannel2(93mmto
1.3meters).

CalculateWavelength&QuarterWave
RFChannel: 14

RFCh,Frequency,Band
Wavelength(EnglishandMetricUnits)
QuarterWave(EnglishandMetricUnits)

CalculateorRecalculate

SUMMARY
Anantennamounted30feetabovethegroundinaflatopenfieldwithaclearlineofsightanddirectlyalignedtothebroadcasttowercouldreceivea
signalnearorgreaterthanexpected.Inpracticea36dBadditionallossisnotuncommon.Signalpathclutterandindoorantenna'swillhavegreater
loss.Terraincouldintroducemoreloss.

SourceandApproximateLoss
SOURCE LOSS(dB)
AntennaBeamLoss:
MainBeam(045) 03
SideLobe(45to90) 1020
BackLobe(90to180) 30
AntennaGainVariation: 2
PolarizationLoss: 01
AtticMount: 3
IndoorAntenna: 111
GroundClutter: 315
TerrainLoss: 412
TerrainMasking: NoSignal
OutsideRadioHorizon: NoSignal

Beamloss,terrainmasking,andradiohorizonlosscanbeestimated.Atticmountandindoorantennalossaremoredifficulttopredict.Groundclutter,
terrainloss,andantennagainvariationareoftendifficultorimpossibletoestimate.

Top

DigitalTV TowerLocator Reception Antennas Amplifiers Cables Installation Frequency Networks


TelevisionReceptionFactors
otadtv.com/reception
Copyright2017,AllRightsReserved.