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Art Instruction | Figure Drawing

When the Proportions Are Right, $19.95 U.S. $21.95 Canada

the Drawing Looks Right! Figure It Out! Figure It Out!

HumanProportions Human
I n Figure It Out! Human Proportions,
bestselling author Christopher Hart
gives artists the tools they need to
draw the head and figure right every time.
This comprehensive book provides all the
Proportions
Draw the Head and Figure
Right Every Time
essential information for artists at all Many artists dont have the opportunity to draw
skill levels, demonstrating proportional directly from models. Knowing the correct
proportions of the human figure, which can be
relationships of the head and body from learned quickly and applied immediately, can
all anglesfront, side, and backfor improve artists understanding of the head and

FigureItOut! Human Proportions


Christopher Hart is the body and their drawings.
both men and women, making it all easy
leading author of art
instruction books in the U.S., to understand and use.
In Figure It Out! Human Proportions, bestselling
with more than 3.5 million art instruction author Christopher Hart offers:
copies sold domestically.
NTS
His books also have a huge CONTE The basics as well as more subtle
international audience, having d
f the Hea
refinements so artists at every level of
been translated into more o r tio ns o
Prop Face experience can correct, improve, or fine-tune
than 20 languages. In his Fe a tu r e s of the their drawings
more than 50 titles, he offers

y - S te p Tutorials:
Step-b
artists accessible, generously The Head Quick-check illustrations and in-depth step-
illustrated, and clearly written by-step demonstrations
step-by-step instruction on a
wide variety of how-to-draw
Organization for easy reference, with
subjects, including manga, important proportion facts summarized in
ll
human anatomy, cartooning,
T he B o dy: Overa Key Points sidebars
comics, and animals. ents
Measurem
rso
The To gs
ms and Le $19.95 U.S. $21.95 Canada
The Ar
ck
The Ba
ISBN: 978-1-936096-73-2
eet
Th e H a nds and F 51995
rials:
te p- by - Step Tuto
www.sixthandspringbooks.com S
re
The Figu
PRINTED IN CHINA
9 781936 096732

Draw the Head and Figure Right Every Time


HumanProportions_001-009_1 11/5/13 3:41 PM Page 2
HumanProportions_001-009_1 11/5/13 3:41 PM Page 3

Figure It Out!
Human
Proportions
DRAW THE HEAD AND FIGURE RIGHT EVERY TIME

NEW YORK
HumanProportions_001-009_1 11/5/13 3:41 PM Page 4

An imprint of Sixth&Spring Books


161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013
sixthandspringbooks.com

Editorial Director Vice President


JOY AQUILINO TRISHA MALCOLM

Developmental Editor Publisher


LISA SILVERMAN CARRIE KILMER

Design & Production Production Manager


STUDIO2PT0, INC. DAVID JOINNIDES

Editorial Assistant President


JOHANNA LEVY ART JOINNIDES

Copyeditor Chairman
ALISA GARRISON JAY STEIN

Proofreader
ANDREA CURLEY

Copyright 2014 by Cartoon Craft, LLC

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced ISBN-13: 978-1-936096-73-2 (pbk.)
or used in any form or by any meansgraphic, electronic, or ISBN-10: 1-936096-73-0
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or information 1. Figure drawingTechnique. 2. Head in art. I. Title.
storage-and-retrieval systemswithout written permission of the NC765.H188 2014
publisher. 743.4'9dc23
2013034431
The written instructions, photographs, designs, projects, and patterns
are intended for the personal, noncommercial use of the retail Manufactured in China
purchaser and are under federal copyright laws; they are not to be
reproduced in any form for commercial use. Permission is granted 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2
to photocopy only for the personal use of the retail purchaser.
First Edition
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hart, Christopher, 1957
Figure it out! human proportions : draw the head and figure right
every time / by Chris Hart. First Edition.
pages cm
Summary: From bestselling art instruction author Chris Hart, a
fresh new approach to teaching the fundamentals of human
proportion to artists who are learning how to accurately draw the
human head and figure that also serves as a refresher or quick
reference for more experienced artists Provided by publisher.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
HumanProportions_001-009_1 11/5/13 3:41 PM Page 5

For the readers who have


written to say that my work
inspires them: You inspire
me as well.
HumanProportions_001-009_1 11/5/13 3:41 PM Page 6

Contents
Preface 8 The Mouth 38
Mouth Width 39
Proportions of the Head 10 The Depth of the Mouth in Profile 40
The Angle of the Jaw 41
The Outline of the Head 12
Where the Jawline Starts 42
Guidelines and the T 13
The Ears 43
The Planes of the Head 14
The Ear, Side View 44
Height and Width 15
Quick Check: Simplified Proportions of the
The Side View and Asymmetry 16
Head and Face 45
The Effects of Head Tilts on Proportions 46

Step-by-Step Tutorials:
The Head 48
Neutral Front View 50
Front View, Slight Up Tilt 52
Profile 54
Drawing the 34 Angle, Facing Left 57
Drawing the 34 Angle, Facing Right 59
3
4 View, Down Tilt 60
Features of the Face 18
Simplifying the Eye and the Eyebrow 20
The Eyebrow and the Temporal Ridge 21
Eye Length and the Width of the Head 22
The Distance Between the Eyes 23
Where the Eyes Go 24
The Cornerstone of Correct Eye Placement 25
Eye Placement in Action 26
Eye Level Variations 27
Age and the Eye Line 28
The Eye in Profile 30
Front View vs. Side View 31
Aligning the Eye 32 The Body:
Eye Placement Variations 33 Overall Measurements 62
The Nose 34 Height and Proportions:
Nose Length in Profile 35 Male/Female Comparison 64
Using the Nose to Size the Head 36 Using Height to Convey Stature 66
Nose Width 37 Variations in Height 67
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The Back 100


The Shoulder Blades 102
The Height of the Shoulder Blades,
Side View 104
The Length of the Shoulder Muscles,
Body Length 68 Rear View 105
The Halfway Point 69
Head and Body Width 70 The Hands and Feet 106
Exceptions to the 3-Heads Rule 71 The Hand: Overall Size 108
Posture and Proportions 72 The Fingers 110
Shoulder-to-Hip Ratio 73 The Length of the Thumb and
Other Details 111
The Torso 74 The Foot 112

Neck Width 76
The Adams Apple 77
The Angle of the Neck 78
The Chest 79
The Shape and Size of the
Chest Muscles 81
The Chest and Rib Cage 82
The Hollow of the Rib Cage 83
Placement of the Navel 84
The Two Essential Landmarks
Step-by-Step Tutorials:
of the Torso 86 The Figure 114
The Widest Point of the Lower Body 87 Quick Check: Simplified Proportions
of the Body 116
The Arms and Legs 88 The Effects of Age on the Body 117
Arms and Legs: Overview 90 The Torso, Hands on Hips 119
Arm Proportions With and The Torso, Arms Up 122
Without the Hand 91 The Torso, 34 Rear View 125
The Level of the Elbow 92 Standing Pose, Front View 128
The Elbow in Different Positions 93 Standing Pose, Side View 131
What to Do When the Arm Is Bent 94 Bending Pose, Side View 134
The Wrist 95 Bending Pose: Cheating a Side View 137
The Effect of Motion on Twisting the Torso and Hips,
Wrist Placement 96 Rear View 140
The Legs 97
The Calf 98 Index 143
HumanProportions_001-009_1 11/5/13 3:41 PM Page 8

Preface
Proportions are simple measurements
that allow you to self-check your work and
to make the necessary adjustments.
Proportions exist for almost every part of
the body, and are surprisingly consistent
from person to person. Until now, you
probably relied on intuition to draw the
facial features and the body. Sometimes
intuition worked, but sometimes it didnt.
And sometimes, it may have looked right
when, in fact, the proportions were off.

Figure It Out! Human Proportions will


give you the tools to draw the correct figure
every time. No more guesswork. Here
plainly written and clearly illustratedis that takes time to learn. Proportions, on the
all the essential information for artists at other hand, can be applied immediately.
all levels, demonstrating the proportional Some artists use photographs for reference.
relationships of the head and body from all But that only works if youre drawing the
angles: front, side, and back. same pose as in the photo. If you alter
the pose, the reference material may no
Why waste time worrying if you drew longer apply.
an arm too long or too short, or if the ears
are too high or too low? Its better to know Proportions have typically been
than to guess. Knowing the correct taught with complex diagrams and
proportions allows you to feel confident measurements of questionable usefulness.
and can greatly accelerate your learning But if youre looking for a practical guide,
curve in figure drawing. then this is the book to own. It prioritizes
information to focus solely on whats
This essential guidebook to human relevant to drawing the human figure. And
proportions takes a fresh approach. The its organized for easy reference, beginning
study of anatomy is, of course, important with the head and working its way down
and recommended. But its also a subject the body.

8
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This guide will give you many it looks right, it is right. And so it is
aha! moments, in which the correct with proportionswithin reason. Not
proportions make sense to you at a gut every drawing requires perfect
level. When that happens, youll never accuracy. My goal has been to provide
forget what youve learned, because it some practical answers for the
becomes a part of you. aspiring or more experienced artist. If
your drawing looks off, and you
believe you should make an
adjustment, now you know where to
turn for answers.

Thank you for the privilege of


allowing me to be, in some small way,
a part of your creative journey.

A professional illustrator I knew


was giving advice to young artists.
After demonstrating some established
rules to be followed, he closed with
this final thought: Just remember, if

9
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HumanProportions_010-017_1 11/4/13 7:26 PM Page 11

Proportions
of the Head
M
ost of us have struggled at some point
to draw the head, never considering
that perhaps we were using too much
effort rather than too little. In this chapter, you
will see that the key is to start out with the
correct shape and the correct placement of the
facial features. With this approach, everything
else falls into place astonishingly quickly, with
relative ease. Some of these proportions may
challenge your long-held assumptions. Not all
proportions are intuitive; as well discover,
simply depending on your intuition for accuracy
isnt a reliable approach.

11
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Simplifying the Eye


and the Eyebrow
T he proportions of the eye are simple and
straightforward; it divides into 3 equal parts:

B C
A

A Inner : white of eye


1
3

B Middle : iris and pupil


1
3

C Outer : white of eye


1
3

D The eyebrow extends


past the eye on both ends.

D D

E The eyebrows arch can vary, but


generally, the highest point falls
over the outer edge of the iris.

20
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Features of the Face


The Eyebrow and the
Temporal Ridge
T
he average persons eyebrow takes a sharp
downward turn at the outer edge of the forehead.
The spot where this occurs is a part of the skull
called the temporal ridge. It marks a shift in angle from
the frontal plane of the head (the face) to the lateral
plane of the head. Put simply, the eyebrow is literally
wrapped around two planes of the head, which is why
you notice that sudden shift in its angle.

A
A The temporal ridge marks the point where the
front plane of the face ends and the lateral
plane of the head begins. The cranial muscles
on the sides of the head are separated by a
ridge of bonethats the temporal ridge.

B The temporal ridge is visible in


many poses and at many angles.

21
HumanProportions_062-073_1 11/4/13 7:58 PM Page 66

Using Height to
Convey Stature
1
I
llustrators often exaggerate the
height of a figure to give it a
commanding presence or a stylish
flair. Rarely, though, is the height
2 decreased below 712 heads tall as a
stylistic choice.

8 Heads Tall
This heroic height is often found in
comics and fantasy illustrations.
9 Heads Tall
Figures in fashion drawings are typically 9 to 12
heads tall. The point isnt to be realistic but to show
long lines, which give the image a stylish look.

66
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The Body: Overall Measurements


7 Heads

612 Heads
1 6 Heads

Variations in Height
F
rom the examples, you can see that as you
shorten the proportions from the average 712
heads tall to 7 heads tall, not too much
appears to change; however, as you continue down
to 612 heads and finally to 6 heads, the figure
becomes more modest in appearance.

67
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The Hand: Overall Size


F
rom the tip of the middle finger to the bottom of the wrist, the hand is
approximately the same length as the face (measured from the hairline
to the bottom of the chin). Dont some people have longer hands and
fingers while others have shorter ones? Absolutely. But this is the established
average. As such, it makes a reliable starting point, whether youre drawing a
person with long fingers or short ones.
The fingers themselves are placed somewhat off-center on the hand. If they
were divided evenly, two fingers would be left of center and two fingers right
of center. But the mass of the thumb and the thumb heel of the palm act as a
counterbalance to the fingers. To find the true center of the hand, draw a line
from the tip of the middle finger to the center of the base of the palm.

A B

C
D

A Tip of tallest finger C Base of palm


B Hairline D Bottom of chin

108
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The Hands and Feet


A

B
Diagram of
A Middle finger is center of hand
Digit Segments
B Base of palm

C
The row of knuckles closest to
the wrist is the halfway point
of the hand lengthwise.

A Base of hand
B Ridge of knuckleshalfway point
C Middle fingertip
109
HumanProportions_114-143_1 11/5/13 4:06 PM Page 142

Proportion Hints

B B

A
A

A joint
The great tronchanter (the ball-and-socket
where the thigh attaches to the pelvis)
is the widest part of the female body.

B The near shoulder blade is drawn inside of


the outline of the back, while the far shoulder
blade, due to the effects of perspective, There are numerous proportions that affect
appears as part of the outline of the back. this and all other poses. Please dont drive
yourself crazy by trying to follow all of them
as if youre assembling a piece of machinery.
Instead, use this book to familiarize yourself
with the basic proportions, and to self-check
your work for more detailed proportions.

142
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Index
Abdominal muscles, 85 Face length of, 34
Adam's apple, 77 features of, 1947 length of, in profile, 35
Age position of eyes on, 24 and size of head, 36
effects on body, 117118 simplified proportions of, 45 tilt of, 61
eye line and, 2829 T shape in the center of, 13 width of, 37
Arch of the eyebrow, 20 Faceplate, 44
Arm, 8996 Feet, 107, 112113 Older adults, 118
bent, 94 Female proportions, 65
compared to lower leg, 99 Fingers, 110 Planes of the head, 1415
proportions of, 91 Forehead, hairline and, 25 Posture, 72
Profile
Back, 101105 Hairline, forehead and, 25 the depth of the mouth in, 40
Bending pose Hands, 107111 the eye in, 30
cheating a side view, 137139 on hips, torso with, 119121 the head in, 1517, 5455
side view, 134136 overall size of, 108109 the length of the nose in, 35
Body Head Proportions, 89, 49
age effects on, 117118 crown of, 34 of the arm, 91
halfway point of, 69 front view, slight up tilt, 5253 of the body, 116
length of, 68 length of the eye and of the chest, 80
lower, widest point of, 87 width of, 22 of the eye, 20
overall measurements, 6373 neutral front view, 5051 of the head, 1117
proportions of, 116 outline of, 1213 head tilt effects on, 4647
width of, 7071 planes of, 1415 Pupils of the eye, 20
in profile, 1517, 5455 width of, 39
Calf, 98 proportions of, 1117
Center line, 12 side view of, 1617 Rib cage
Chest, 7983 simplified proportions of, 45 chest and, 82
proportions of, 80 size of, nose and, 36 hollow of, 83
ribcage and, 82 width of, 7071
Chest muscles, 81 Head tilt, effects on Shading, 51
Children, 117 proportions, 4647 Shoulder blades, 102103
Chin, 38 Heel, 113 height of, 104
Crest of the ilium, 86 Height Shoulder muscles, length of, 105
Crown of the head, 34 male/female comparison, 6465 Shoulder-to-hip ratio, 73
stature and, 6667 Standing pose
Ear, 43 Height line, 128 front view, 128130
side view, 44 Hips, twisting, 140142 side view, 131133
Ear canal, 44 Stature, height and, 6667
Ear cartilage, 44 Irises, 20
Eardrum, 44 width of, 39 T shape in the center of the face, 13
Elbow Tear ducts, 23, 37
in different positions, 93 Jaw, 12 Temporal ridge, 21
level of, 92 angle of, 41 Three-quarters angle, 5661
Eye line, 12 Jawline, 42 down tilt, 6061
age and, 28 29 facing left, 5758
Eyeball, tilted, 31 Legs, 89, 90, 9799 facing right, 59
Eyebrow, 21 lower, arms compared to, 99 Thumb, length of, 111
arch of, 20 Lips, 38 Torso, 7587
Eyes essential landmarks of, 86
aligning, 32 Male proportions, 64 three-quarters rear
of children, 28 Mouth, 3840 view, 125127
correct placement of, 2526 depth of, in profile, 40 twisting, 140142
distance between, 23 width of, 39 with arms up, 122124
front view versus side view, 31 with hands on hips, 119121
length of, and width Navel, 120
of the head, 22 placement of, 8485 White of the eye, 20
of older adults, 29 Neck Wrist, 95
position of, on the face, 24 angle of, 78 placement of, 96
in profile, 30 width of, 76
proportions of, 20 Nose, 3437
variations in level of, 27 bottom of, 43
variations in placement of, 33 bridge of, 24

143
CH_HumanProportions_cover_FINAL-kb 11/12/13 3:10 PM Page 1

Art Instruction | Figure Drawing

When the Proportions Are Right, $19.95 U.S. $21.95 Canada

the Drawing Looks Right! Figure It Out! Figure It Out!

HumanProportions Human
I n Figure It Out! Human Proportions,
bestselling author Christopher Hart
gives artists the tools they need to
draw the head and figure right every time.
This comprehensive book provides all the
Proportions
Draw the Head and Figure
Right Every Time
essential information for artists at all Many artists dont have the opportunity to draw
skill levels, demonstrating proportional directly from models. Knowing the correct
proportions of the human figure, which can be
relationships of the head and body from learned quickly and applied immediately, can
all anglesfront, side, and backfor improve artists understanding of the head and

FigureItOut! Human Proportions


Christopher Hart is the body and their drawings.
both men and women, making it all easy
leading author of art
instruction books in the U.S., to understand and use.
In Figure It Out! Human Proportions, bestselling
with more than 3.5 million art instruction author Christopher Hart offers:
copies sold domestically.
NTS
His books also have a huge CONTE The basics as well as more subtle
international audience, having d
f the Hea
refinements so artists at every level of
been translated into more o r tio ns o
Prop Face experience can correct, improve, or fine-tune
than 20 languages. In his Fe a tu r e s of the their drawings
more than 50 titles, he offers

y - S te p Tutorials:
Step-b
artists accessible, generously The Head Quick-check illustrations and in-depth step-
illustrated, and clearly written by-step demonstrations
step-by-step instruction on a
wide variety of how-to-draw
Organization for easy reference, with
subjects, including manga, important proportion facts summarized in
ll
human anatomy, cartooning,
T he B o dy: Overa Key Points sidebars
comics, and animals. ents
Measurem
rso
The To gs
ms and Le $19.95 U.S. $21.95 Canada
The Ar
ck
The Ba
ISBN: 978-1-936096-73-2
eet
Th e H a nds and F 51995
rials:
te p- by - Step Tuto
www.sixthandspringbooks.com S
re
The Figu
PRINTED IN CHINA
9 781936 096732

Draw the Head and Figure Right Every Time