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EW609

Pocket Welding Guide


A Guide to Better Welding

30th Edition Revised


All Rights Reserved
including the right to reproduce this book or
portions thereof in any form
by
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
400 Trade Square East
Troy, OH 45373 USA

Filler metal information courtesy


Hobart Brothers Company, Troy, Ohio, USA.

State Board of Career Colleges and Schools


Registration No. 70-12-0064HT

Accrediting Commision of Career Schools


and Colleges of Technology No. 000403

2010 Hobart Institute of Welding Technology

ISBN: 978-1-936058-28-0

Cover photo: Hobart Institute Instructor Luke Bailey welding pipe.

1
INTRODUCTION
The Pocket Welding Guide began as a 30-page booklet
with 3.5 x 5.5-inch dimensions that would actually fit
into a shirt pocket. In fact, the early title of the book
was Hobart Vest Pocket Guide to Better Welding.

The booklet contained three types of electrodes, four


essentials of proper welding procedures, types of joints
and welding positions, early welding symbols, some of
the early build your own Hobart welding generators,
and a page of the early Practical Arc Welding training
books.

The up-to-date welding training was, at that time,


being provided at the Hobart Trade School. It is stated
on the cover, Thousands of men and women have
received thorough training at the Hobart Trade School,
and have immediately stepped into high paying jobs.

It goes on to indicate that the training was being


offered to those interested in preparing for steady
employment in post-war industry. And that training
was fully accredited under the G.I. Bill.

With each new edition, more information was added.


More welding symbols were developed, welding terms
have been standardized and added and today, in its
30th edition, the book is 146 pages in length. It has
been completely revised and improved. The Pocket
Welding Guide is a great addition to any welders
toolbox. It remains a quick and ready reference.

3
FOREWORD
This 30th edition of the Pocket Welding Guide is
dedicated to all those who are interested in and work
with any aspect of welding. It covers a wide variety
of subjects that are essential for the student or
beginner and are of interest to the veteran welders,
draftsmen, instructors, supervisors, foremen,
technicians, and engineers.

You are encouraged to strive for the perfect weld.


Putting every effort forth to attain it will make you
more valuable as a welder. No matter what your
task may be, you can do no better than to try for
perfection.

2
Contents
Welding & Cutting Processes...........................................................................6
5 Essentials for Good Welding...................................................................... 16
Examples of Good & Bad Beads................................................................... 18
Common Welding Problems, Causes and Cures.................................... 30
Checkpoints for Quality Welding................................................................ 33
Welding Positions............................................................................................. 35
Types of Joints.................................................................................................... 37
Welding Symbols.............................................................................................. 38
General Welding Safety.................................................................................. 44
Welding Metals.................................................................................................. 48
Steel Available for Welding........................................................................... 49
Identification of Metals................................................................................... 50
Typical Preheating for Various Metals....................................................... 52
AISI-SAE Designation System for
Carbon and Alloy Steels............................................................................. 53
Cost Saving Hints.............................................................................................. 54
8 Factors to Consider When Selecting Electrodes................................ 56
Metal Cored Wire............................................................................................... 57
Oven Storage & Reconditioning of Filler Metals.................................... 59
How To Calculate Filler Metal Consumption........................................... 60
Shielding Gases & Their Uses........................................................................ 62
AWS Electrode Classifications & Comparative Indices........................ 63
GMAW Short Circuiting Transfer Welding
Parameters & Shielding Gases................................................................ 74
GMAW Spray Transfer Welding Parameters
& Shielding Gases....................................................................................... 75
Hobart Filler Metals.......................................................................................... 79
Mild & Low Alloy Steel Electrodes......................................................... 79
Stainless Steel Electrodes......................................................................... 92
Mild Steel Solid Wires................................................................................ 95
Tubular Wires................................................................................................ 99
Metal Cored Wires.....................................................................................109
Hard Surfacing...........................................................................................113

4
Filler Guide for Welding Aluminum..........................................................114
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels.........................115
Welding Terms & Definitions......................................................................136
Metric Conversion Tables.............................................................................140
HIWT Training & Certification Services....................................................143
HIWT Training Materials...............................................................................144
Index....................................................................................................................145

5
Welding & Cutting Processes

SMAW
Shielded Metal Arc Welding, also called Stick welding and Manual Metal
welding is an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence of
metals by heating them with an arc between a covered consumable metal
electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of
the electrode covering. The process is normally manually applied and is
capable of welding thin and thick steels and some nonferrous metals in all
positions. The process requires a relatively high degree of welder skill.

GMAW
Gas Metal Arc Welding, also known as MIG welding, CO 2 Welding,
Micro Wire Welding, short arc welding, dip transfer welding, wire weld-
ing, etc., is an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence
of metals by heating them with an arc between a solid, continuous,
consumable electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from an
externally supplied gas or gas mixture. The process is normally applied
semiautomatically; however, the process may be operated automatically
and can be machine operated. The process can be used to weld thin and
fairly thick steels and some nonferrous metals in all positions. A relatively
low degree of welding skill is required for the process.

FCAW
Flux Cored Arc Welding, also known as Dual-Shielded, Inner-shield, Self
Shield, FabCO, etc., is an electric arc welding process that produces co-
alescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous
flux filled electrode wire and the work. Shielding is obtained through
decomposition of the flux within the tubular wire. Additional shield-
ing may or may not be obtained from an externally supplied gas or gas
mixture. The process is normally applied semi-automatically, but can
be applied automatically or by machine. It is commonly used to weld
medium to thick steels using large diameter electrodes in the flat and hori-
zontal position and small electrode diameters in all positions. The process
is used to a lesser degree for welding stainless steel and for overlay work.
The skill level required for FCAW is similar to GMAW.

6
Protective Gas From
Electrode Coating
Molten Weld
Electrode Wire
Metal
Slag
Electrode Coating
Arc
Solidified
Weld Metal Metal Droplets

Base Metal

Shielding Gas Nozzle

Electrode
Molten Weld Metal
Solidified
Weld Metal Arc
Base Metal

Gas (Optional)
Nozzle (Optional)
Molten Metal

Solidified
Weld Metal
Molten Flux Cored
Slag Electrode
Slag

Arc

Base Metal

7
Welding & Cutting Processes

SAW
Submerged Arc Welding, also known as Union Melt, Hidden Arc, Welding
Under Powder, etc., is an arc welding process that produces coalescence
of metals by heating them with an arc or arcs between a bare electrode or
electrodes and the work. The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular flux
on the work. The process is normally applied by machine or automatically,
but is used on a limited basis semi-automatically. It is used to weld medium
to thick steel in the flat and horizontal position only. Manual welding skill
is not required; however, a technical understanding of the equipment and
welding procedures is necessary to operate the process.

GTAW
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, also known as TIG welding, Heliarc Welding,
Heli-Welding, Argon-Arc Welding and Tungsten Arc Welding, is an electric
arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them
with an arc between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the work.
Filler may or may not be used. Shielding is obtained from an inert gas or an
inert gas mixture. The process is normally applied manually and is capable
of welding steels and nonferrous metals in all positions. The process is com-
monly used on thin metals and for the root and hot pass on tubing and pipe.
Requires a relatively high degree of welder skill.

PAW
Plasma Arc Welding, sometimes referred to as Needle Arc and Micro Plasma, is
an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heat-
ing them with a constricted arc between a tungsten electrode and the work
(transferred arc) or the electrode and the constricting nozzle (non-transferred
arc). Shielding is obtained from the hot ionized gas issuing from the orifice.
An auxiliary inert shielding gas or mixture of inert gases may supplement the
system. The process is commonly applied manually, but may be automatic
to increase welding speeds. It can be used to weld almost all metals and
can be all position at lower currents. Normally used on thinner metals, the
process requires a slightly lesser degree of welder skill than Gas Tungsten
Arc Welding, but a greater knowledge of equipment set-up.

8
Electorde From Flux
Slag Molten Flux Hopper
Flux Blanket

Solidified Molten Arc Path Base Metal


Weld Metal Weld Metal

Welding Torch
Shielding Gas

Tungsten Electrode
Molten Weld
Metal
Arc

Solidified
Weld Metal
Filler Rod

Base Metal

Coolant

Tungsten
Orifice to Constrict Arc Electrode

Plasma Stream

Shielding Gas
Solidified Filler Metal
Metal
Base Metal

Molten Weld Metal

9
Welding & Cutting Processes

CAW
Carbon Arc Welding, is an electric arc welding process that produces a
coalescence of metals by heating with an arc between a carbon electrode
and the work. No shielding is used. A variation of the process uses two
carbon electrodes with an arc between them. The process is normally ap-
plied manually and is capable of welding thin metals. The process is also
commonly used for brazing. It requires a relatively high degree of welding
skill. This process has limited industrial popularity.

ESW
Electroslag Welding, also known as Porta-Slag or Slag Welding, is a welding
process that produces a coalescence of metals with molten slag which melts
the filler metal and the surface of the work to be welded. The molten weld
pool is shielded by a slag covering which moves along the joint as welding
progresses. The process is not an arc welding process, except that an arc is
used to start the process. After stabilization the molten slag provides the
necessary heat for welding. The process is always applied automatically. It is
a limited application process used only for making vertical welds on medium
to heavy thickness of mild steel. Manual welding skill is not required, but a
techincal knowledge of the process is required to operate the equipment.

EGW
Electrogas Welding, also known as Verti-Matic and Automatic Vertical Airco-
matic, is an arc welding process that produces a coalescence of metals by
heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable)
electrode and the work. Molding shoes are used to confine the molten
weld metal for vertical position welding. The electrode may be either flux
cored or solid. Shielding may or may not be obtained from an externally
supplied gas or gas mixture. The process is always applied automatically. It is
a limited application process used only for making vertical welds on medium
to heavy thickness mild steel. Manual welding skills are not required, but
like electroslag welding, a technical knowledge of the process is required
to operate the equipment.

10
Electrode
Arc Stream Arc Flame

Arc Core
Base Metal
Filler Rod

Electrode
Base Metal Consumable Guide Tube

Base Metal

Molten Flux

Molten Weld Metal

Solidified Weld Metal

Electrode Conduit

Shielding Gas
Electrode Wire
(Tubular or Solid) Welding Head

Shielding Gas Shielding Gas

Water Out Water Out


Molten Weld Metal

Water In Water In

Solidified Weld Metal

11
Welding & Cutting Processes

SW
Stud Welding, also known as Arc Stud Welding, is a special purpose arc weld-
ing process used to attach studs to base metal. Partial shielding is obtained
by a ceramic ferrule surrounding the stud. It is a machine welding process,
using a specialized gun that holds the stud and makes the weld. The process
is normally used on steels in the flat and horizontal position. A low degree
of welding skill is required for stud welding operation.

OAW
Oxyacetylene Welding, sometimes referred to as Gas Welding, Oxy-Fuel Gas
Welding, and Torch Welding, is an oxy-fuel gas process that produces a coales-
cence of metals by heating them with a gas flame or flames obtained from
the combustion of acetylene with oxygen. The process may be used with
or without filler metal. It can be used on thin to medium thickness metals
of many types, steels and nonferrous in all positions. The process is applied
manually and requires a relatively high degree of welding skill.

TB
Torch Brazing, sometimes called Gas Brazing, is similar to Oxyacetylene
Welding, except the base metal is not melted, and the filler metal is usually a
nonferrous metal. The filler metal flows into the joint by capillary attraction.
Brazing can be done in all positions on most metals and is especially popular
for repair work on case iron. The process is normally applied manually and
requires a relatively high degree of brazer skill.

12
A B C D

Welding Torch Tip

Inner Cone

Acetylene Feather
Filler Rod
Molten Weld Metal

Solidified
Weld Metal

Base Metal

Welding
Torch Tip

Base Metal Inner Cone


Acetylene Feather

Brazing
Filler Metal
Deposited
Braze Metal

13
Welding & Cutting Processes

OC
Oxygen Cutting, also known as Oxygen Fuel Gas Cutting, Acetylene Cut-
ting, Gas Cutting and Burning, is a thermal process used to sever metals by
heating the metal with a flame to an elevated temperature and using pure
oxygen to oxidize the metal and produce the cut. Different fuel gases can
be used including: acetylene, natural gas, propane and various trade-name
gases. The process is normally applied manually with hand-held torches
or by machine with highly accurate tracing devices and multi-torches for
cutting simultaneous shapes. It is used to cut thin to very thick metals,
primarily steels; however, with various arrangements it can be used on
other metals. Manual oxygen cutting requires a fairly high degree of
flamecutter skill.

PAC
Plasma Arc Cutting, sometimes called Plasma Burning and Plasma Machin-
ing, is an arc cutting process which severs metal by melting a localized
area with a constricted arc and removing the molten material with a high
velocity jet of hot ionized gas issuing from the orifice. It can be used with
a hand held torch manually or by machine cutting in extremely accurate
machines with special tracing devices. It is used for cutting steels and non
ferrous metals in thin to medium thicknesses. The process requires a lesser
degree of cutter skill than oxygen cutting except the equipment is much
more complex for manual operation.

AAC
Air Carbon Arc Cutting and Gouging is a process in which metals to be cut
are melted by the heat of a carbon arc and the molten metal is removed by
a blast of air. Normally, it is a manual operation used in all positions, but
may also be operated automatically. The process can be used on steels and
some nonferrous metals. The process is commonly used for back gouging
welds, for gouging out defective welds and repairing castings. The process
requires a relatively high degree of cutting skills.

14
Cutting Tip

Preheat Flames
Oxygen Jet Base Metal

Slag

Plenum Chamber
Shielding Water Orifice Gas
Nozzle Nozzle
Tungsten Electrode Shielding Gas
Outer Gas Cup Shielding Water
Constricting Orifice
Base Metal
Arc

Hand Held Electrode Holder

Carbon Electrode
Air Stream
Work Lead

Base Metal

15
5 Essentials for
Good Welding
1. Correct Electrode Size
2. Correct Current
3. Correct Arc Length
4. Correct Travel Speed
5. Correct Electrode Angle

Besides the steady sizzling sound that a correct arc produces,


the shape of the molten pool and the movement of the metal
at the rear of the pool serve as a guide in checking weld qual-
ity. In a correctly made deposit the ripples produced on the
bead will be uniform and the bead will be smooth, with no
overlap or undercut.
1. Correct Electrode Size
The correct choice of electrode size involves consideration
of a variety of factors, such as the type, position, and
preparation of the joint, the ability of the electrode to carry
high current values without injury to the weld metal or
loss of deposition efficiency, the mass of work metal and
its ability to maintain its original properties after welding,
the characteristics of the assembly with reference to effect
of stresses set up by heat application, the practicability of
heat treatment before and/or after welding, the specific
requirements as to welding quality and the cost of achiev-
ing the desired results.
2. Correct Current
If current on equipment is too high or too low, you are
certain to be disappointed in your weld. If too high, the
electrode melts too fast and your molten pool is large and
irregular. If too low, there is not enough heat to melt the
base metal and your molten pool will be too small, will
pile up, look irregular.

16
3. Correct Arc Length
If the arc is too long or voltage too high the metal melts
off the electrode in large globules which wobble from
side to side as the arc wavers, giving a wide, spattered
and irregular bead with poor fusion between original
metal and deposited metal. If the arc is too short, or volt-
age too low, there is not enough heat to melt the base
metal properly and the electrode quite often sticks to the
work, giving a high, uneven bead, having irregular ripples
with poor fusion.
4. Correct Travel Speed
When your speed is too fast your pool does not last long
enough, impurities and gas are locked in. The bead is
narrow and ripples pointed. When speed is too slow the
metal piles up, the bead is high and wide, with a rather
straight ripple.
5. Correct Electrode Angle
The electrode angle is of particular importance in fillet
welding and deep groove welding. Generally speaking,
when making a fillet weld, the electrode should be held so
that it bisects the angle between the plates (as shown at
right) and is perpendicular to the line of weld. If undercut
occurs in the vertical member, lower the angle of the arc
and direct the arc toward the vertical member.

17
Examples of Good and Bad Beads

Good Bad Bad


Proper Current Welding Current Welding Current
Voltage & Speed Too Low Too High

Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018 SMAW 7018 SMAW 7018

A smooth, regular, Excessive piling up of Excessive spatter


well-formed weld bead. weld metal. to be cleaned off.

No undercut, over-lap or Slow up progress. Undercutting along


pile up edges weakens joint.

Wasted filler metal


Uniform in cross- and time. Irregular deposit.
section.

Excellent weld at Wasted filler metal


minimum material and time.
and labor cost.

18
Shielded metal arc welding
AWS E7018 - General Purpose Electrode

Bad Bad Bad


Arc Too Long Welding Speed Welding Speed
(Voltage Too High) Too Fast Too Slow

Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018 SMAW 7018 SMAW 7018

Weld bead very irregular Weld bead too small, with Excessive piling up
with poor penetration. irregular contour. of weld metal..

Weld metal not Not enough weld Too much time


properly shielded. metal in the cross-section. consumed.

Wasted electrodes
An inefficient weld. Weld not strong and productive time.
enough.

Wasted filler metal Wasted filler metal


and time. and time.

19
Examples of Good and Bad Beads

Good Bad Bad


Proper Current Welding Current Welding Current
Voltage & Travel Amp Too Low Amp Too High

Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010 SMAW 6010 SMAW 6010

Smooth, regular, Excessive piling up Excessive spatter to be


well formed bead. of weld metal. cleaned off.

No undercut, over-lap or Slow up progress. Undercuting along


pile up. edges weakens joint.

Wasted filler metal


Uniform in cross- and time.. Irregular deposit..
section.

Wasted filler metal


Excellent weld at and time.
minimum material
and labor cost.

20
Shielded metal arc welding
AWS E6010 - General Purpose Electrode

Bad Bad Bad


Arc Too Long Welding Speed Welding Speed
(High Voltage) Too Fast Too Slow

Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010 SMAW 6010 SMAW 6010

Weld bead very Weld bead too small, Excessive bead width.
irregular with poor with irregular contour.
penetration..
Too much time
consumed.
Weld metal not Not enough weld metal
properly shielded. in the cross-section.
Wasted filler metal
and time.
An inefficient weld. Weld not strong
enough.

Wasted filler metal and


time.. Wasted filler metal
and time.

21
Examples of Good and Bad Beads

Good Bad Bad


Proper Current Welding Current Welding Current
Voltage & Travel Too Low Too High
(High Voltage) (Low Voltage)

Cross-section Fillet Cross-section Fillet

Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding FCAW Self-shielding FCAW Self-shielding

Smooth, regular,
well formed bead. Excessive spatter Weld bead excessively
and porosity. convex and narrow.

No undercut,
overlap or pile up Weld bead excessively Difficult slag removal.
wide and flat.
Uniform in cross- Wasted filler metal
section. Undercutting along edges and time.
weakens joint.
Excellent weld at
minimum material
and labor cost. Irregular weld bead contour.

22
Flux cored arc welding -- self shielding

Bad Bad Bad


Welding Speed Welding Speed Stick-out
Too Fast Too Slow Too Short

Cross-section Fillet Cross-section Fillet Cross-section Fillet

Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding FCAW Self-shielding FCAW Self-shielding

Weld bead too small Excessive weld bead width. Excessive spatter
with irregular contour. and porosity.

Fillet with
Not enough weld metal unequal legs. Weld bead very irregular
in cross-section. with poor penetration.

Wasted filler metal


Poor mechanical and time. Weld metal not
properties. properly shielded.

Undercut at toe Wasted filler metal


lines of fillet. and time.

23
Examples of Good and Bad Beads

Good Bad Bad


Proper Current Welding Current Welding Current
Voltage & Travel Too Low Too High
(High Voltage) (Low Voltage)

Cross section fillet Cross section fillet Cross section fillet

Cross section weld bead Cross section weld bead Cross section weld bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas FCAW with shielding gas FCAW with shielding gas

Smooth, regular, Excessive spatter Weld bead excessively


well formed bead. and porosity. convex and narrow.

No undercut, Weld bead excessively Difficult slag removal.


overlap or pile up wide and flat.

Wasted filler metal


Uniform in cross- Undercutting along edges and time.
section. weakens joint.

Excellent weld at Irregular weld bead contour.


minimum material
and labor cost.

24
Flux cored arc welding -- with shielding gas

Bad Bad Bad


Welding Travel Welding Travel Insufficient Shielding
Speed Too Fast Speed Too Slow Gas Coverage

Cross section fillet Cross section fillet Cross section fillet

Cross section weld bead Cross section weld bead Cross section weld bead

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas FCAW with shielding gas FCAW with shielding gas

Weld bead too small Excessive weld bead width. Excessive spatter and porosity.
with irregular contour.

Overlapping without Weld bead very irregular with


Not enough weld metal penetration at edges. poor penetration.
in cross-section.

Fillet with Weld metal not properly


Poor mechanical unequal legs. shielded.
properties.

Wasted filler metal Wasted filler metal and time..


Undercut at toe and time.
lines of fillet.

25
Examples of Good and Bad Beads
Bad
Good Bad Welding Current
Proper Current Welding Current Too High
Voltage & Travel Too Low (Low Voltage)

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding Gas metal arc welding Gas metal arc welding

Smooth, regular, Excessive spatter Weld bead excessively


well formed bead. and porosity. convex and wide.

No undercut, Excessive piling up of weld Difficult slag removal.


overlap or pile up metal.

Wasted filler metal


Uniform in cross- Undercutting along edges and time.
section. weakens joint.

Excellent weld at Irregular weld bead


minimum material contour.
and labor cost.

26
Gas Metal Arc Welding

Bad Bad Bad


Welding Speed Welding Speed Insufficient Shielding
Too Fast Too Slow Gas Coverage

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding Gas metal arc welding Gas metal arc welding

Weld bead too small Excessive weld bead Excessive spatter


with irregular contour. width. and porosity.

Not enough weld metal Fillet with Weld bead very irregular
in cross-section. unequal legs. with poor penetration.

Poor mechanical Wasted filler metal Weld metal not properly


properties. and time. shielded.

Undercut at toe Wasted filler metal


lines of fillet. and time..

27
Examples of Good and Bad Beads

Bad
Good Bad
Welding Current
Proper Current Welding Current
Too High
Voltage & Travel Too Low
(Low Voltage)

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


Metal core welding Metal core welding Metal core welding

Smooth, regular, Excessive spatter Weld bead excessively


well formed bead. and porosity. convex and narrow.

No undercut, Weld bead excessively Wasted filler metal


overlap or pile up wide and flat. and time.

Uniform in cross- Undercutting along edges


section. weakens joint.

Excellent weld at Irregular weld bead contour.


minimum material
and labor cost.

28
Metal Cored Welding

Bad Bad Bad


Welding Speed Welding Speed Insufficient Shielding
Too Fast Too Slow Gas Coverage

Weld Bead Face Weld Bead Face


Metal core welding Metal core welding

Excessive spatter
Weld bead too small Excessive weld bead width. and porosity.
with irregular contour.

Overlapping without Weld bead very irregular


Not enough weld metal penetration at edges. with poor penetration.
in cross-section.

Fillet with Weld metal not properly


Poor mechanical unequal legs. shielded.
properties.

Wasted filler metal Wasted filler metal


Undercut at toe and time. and time..
lines of fillet.

29
Common Arc Welding Problems: Causes and Cures

porous welds
Why
1. Excessively long or short arc
length. What to do
2. Welding current too high. 1. Maintain proper arc length.
3. Insufficient or damp 2. Use proper welding current.
shielding gas. 3. Increase gas flow rate and
4. Too fast travel speed. check gas purity.
5. Base metal surface covered 4. Reduce travel speed.
with oil, grease, moisture, rust, 5. Properly clean base metal
mill scale, etc. prior to welding.
6. Wet, unclean or damaged 6. Properly maintain and store
electrode. electrode.

cracked welds
Why
1. Insufficient weld size.
2. Excessive joint restraint.
3. Poor joint design and/or What to do
preparation. 1. Adjust weld size to part
4. Filler metal does not match thickness.
base metal. 2. Reduce joint restraint through
5. Rapid cooling rate. proper design.
6. Base metal surface covered with 3. Select the proper joint design
oil, grease, moisture, rust, dirt or 4. Use more ductile filler.
mill scale. 5. Reduce cooling rate through
preheat.
6. Properly clean base metal
prior to welding.

undercutting
Why
1. Faulty electrode manipulation.
2. Welding current too high.
3. Too long an arc length.
4. Too fast travel speed. 3. Use proper welding current for
5. Arc blow. electrode size and welding
What to do position.
1. Pause at each side of the 4. Reduce arc length.
weld bead when using a 5. Reduce travel speed.
weaving technique. 6. Reduce effects of arc blow
2. Use proper electrode angles.
30
distortion
Why
1. Improper tack welding and/
or faulty joint preparation.
2. Improper bead sequence.
3. Improper set-up and
fixturing. 2. Use proper bead sequencing.
4. Excessive weld size. 3. Tack or clamp parts securely.
What to do 4. Make welds to specified size.
1. Tack weld parts with
allowance for distortion.

spatter
Why
1. Arc blow.
2. Welding current too high.
3. Too long an arc length.
4. Wet, unclean or damaged of arc blow.
electrode. 2. Reduce welding current.
3. Reduce arc length.
What to do 4. Properly maintain and store
1. Attempt to reduce the effect electrodes.

lack of fusion
Why
1. Improper travel speed.
2. Welding current too low.
3. Faulty joint preparation. 2. Increase welding current.
4. Too large an electrode 3. Weld design should allow
diameter. electrode accessibility to all
5. Magnetic arc blow. surfaces within the joint.
6. Wrong electrode angle. 4. Reduce electrode diameter.
5. Reduce effects of magnetic
What to do arc blow.
1. Reduce travel speed. 6. Use proper electrode angles.

overlapping
Why
1. Too slow travel speed.
2. Incorrect electrode angle.
What to do
1. Increase travel speed.
3. Too large an electrode.
2. Use proper electrode angles.
3. Use a smaller electrode size.
31
Common Welding Problems: Causes and Cures
poor penetration
Why
1. Travel speed too fast.
2. Welding current too low.
3. Poor joint design and/or 1. Decrease travel speed.
preparation. 2. Increase welding current.
4. Electrode diameter too large. 3. Increase root opening or
5. Wrong type of electrode. decrease rootface.
6. Excessively long arc length. 4. Use smaller electrode.
5. Use electrode w/deeper
penetration characteristics.
6. Reduce arc length.
What to do

magnetic arc blow

Why
1 Unbalanced magnetic field
during welding.
2. Excessive magnetism in What to do
parts or fixture. I. Use alternating current.
2. Reduce welding current and
arc length.
3. Change the location of the
work connection on the
workpiece.

inclusion
Why
1. Incomplete slag removal
between passes. What to do
2. Erratic travel speed. 1. Completely remove slag
3. Too wide a weaving motion. between passes.
4. Too large an electrode. 2. Use a uniform travel speed.
5. Letting slag run ahead of arc. 3. Reduce width of weaving
6. Tungsten spitting or sticking. technique.
4. Use a smaller electrode size for
better access to joint.
5. Increase travel speed or
change electrode angle or
reduce arc length.
6. Properly prepare tungsten and
use proper current.

32
Check-Points for Quality Welding
The future of welding and the future of the welders security rest upon quality weld-
ing. Public confidence in welding has been built up through the satisfactory service
of millions and millions of welds. Public confidence can quickly be destroyed by a
catastrophe that could be caused by a defective weld. Adherence to the following
rules will insure quality welds and the future of the welding industry as well as
your own job security.

1. Use only high quality welding machines, electrodes end welding


accessories.
2. Know the base material that you are working on.
3. Select the proper welding process to give the highest quality welds on the
base material to be used.
4. Select the proper welding procedure to meet the service requirement of the
finished weldment.
5. Select the correct electrode for the job in question. See additional information
concerning this elsewhere in this booklet.
6. When preheating is specified or required make sure that the temperature
requirements are met. In any case do not weld on material below 32 F, without
first preheating.
7. Clean the base metal of all slag, paint, grease, oil, moisture, and any other
foreign materials.
8. Remove weld slag and thoroughly clean each bead prior to making the next
bead or pass.
9. Do not weld over cracks or porous tack welds. Defective tack welds shoud be
removed prior to welding.
10. Be particularly alert to obtain root fusion on the first pass of fillet and groove
welds.
11. When root gaps of groove welds are excessive, build up one side of the joint
prior to welding the pieces together.
12. When the root gap is excessive in fillet welding, be sure to increase the size
of the fillet weld the amount of the root gap in order to maintain the strength
requirement. In some cases it is an advantage to make a groove weld in order to
avoid extremely large fillets.
13. Inspect your work and immediately remove any defective weld and replace
it.
14. Observe the size requirement for each weld and make sure that you meet or
slightly exceed the specified size.
15. Make sure that the finished appearance of the weld is smooth and that overlaps
and undercuts have been properly repaired. Remember that many people judge
the strength of a weld merely by its external appearance.

33
Troubleshooting Guide for Semiautomatic Wire Welding
34

Welding Arc Welding Travel Nozzle Stick-out or Wire Gas


Change Variable Voltage Current * Speed Angle Tip-to-work Size Type
Required (see footnote) Distance
1 3 2 5 4
Deeper
Increase Trailing Decrease Smaller* CO2
Penetration Max. 25
1 3 2 5 4
Shallower
Decrease Leading Increase Larger* AR + CO2
Penetration
1 2 3
Larger Increase Decrease Increase*
Bead Bead
1 2 3
Height Smaller Decrease Increase Decrease*
and Bead
1 3 3
bead Higher Decrease Trailing Increase
width Narrower Bead
1 2 3
Flatter Increase 90 or Decrease
Wider Bead Leading
1 2 3
Faster
Increase Increase* Smaller
Deposition Rate
1 2 3
Slower
Decrease Decrease* Larger
Deposition Rate
Key: (1) First Choice, (2) Second Choice, (3) Third choice, (4) Fourth Choice, (5) Fifth Choice
Note: Same adjustment is required for wire feed speed.
* When these variables are changed, the wire feed speed must be adjusted so that the welding current remains constant.
See deposition rate of welding variables section.
This change is especially helpful on materials 20 gage and smaller in thickness.
Types of joints

Butt Corner Lap

Edge T-Joint

Types of Welds

Plug Slot

Groove
Arc Seam
Edge

Surfacing Fillet

Variations of grooves

Square Single-J Single-Bevel

Single-V Single-U

Flare-V Flare-Bevel

35
Welding Positions
Flat Horizontal
(1F) throat of weld (2F)
vertical axis of weld
fillet horizontal
vertical
weld plate

axis of weld
horizontal horizontal
plate

plates and axis


plates and axis of of pipe vertical
groove pipe horizontal

weld pipe shall be rolled


while welding
(1G) (2G) test position
horizondal

test position flat

Welding Codes and Qualification of Welders

Before a welder can begin work on any job covered by a welding code, qualification
under the code that applies is required. Many different codes are in use and it is
required that the specific code is referred to when taking qualification tests. In
general the following type of work is covered by codes: pressure vessels and pressure
piping, highway and railway bridges, public buildings, tanks and containers that will
hold flammable or explosive materials, cross country pipelines, aircraft, ordinance
material, ships and boats, and nuclear facilities. A qualified welding procedure is
normally required.
Qualification is obtained differently under the various codes. Qualification un-
der one code will not necessarily qualify a welder to weld under a different code.
Qualification for an employer will not allow the welder to work for another employer
(except in cases where welders are qualified by an association of employers). If the
welder uses a different process or if the welding procedure is altered drastically,
requalification is required. In most codes, if the welder is continually welding with
the qualified procedure, welding requalification is not required, providing the work
performed meets the quality requirement. An exception is the military aircraft code
which requires periodical requalification.
Qualification tests may be given by responsible manufacturers or contractors.
The welding procedure must be qualified before the welders can be qualified.
To become qualified, the welder must make specified welds using the qualified
welding procedure.
36
Vertical Overhead
axis of vetical plate (4F)
(3F)
horizontal
plate
vertical vertical axis of weld
plate plate horizontal

(3G)
plates
vertical
axis of weld
vertical (4G)
plates
horizontal

(6G)

(5G)
pipe shall not be 45
turned or rolled while welding

The welding procedures include information such as : process, base metal,


thickness, electrode type position and joint design. In government specifications,
a government inspector may witness the making of weld specimens. Specimens
must be properly identified and prepared for testing.
The most common test is the guided bend test. In some cases radiographic
(x-ray) examinations, fracture test or other tests are employed. Satisfactory comple-
tion of test specimens, providing they meet acceptability standards, will qualify the
welder for specific types of welding. The welding allowed depends on the particular
code. In general, the code indicates the range of thicknesses and the alloys which
may be welded, and the positions which may be employed.
The qualification of welders is an extremely technical subject and cannot be
adequately covered in this short publication. The actual code must be obtained
and studied prior to taking the test.
The most widely used codes are: Structural Welding Code - AWS D1.1; Welding
and Brazing Qualifications - Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code; Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities - API 1104; American
National Standard Code for Pressure Piping - ANSI B31.1; American Bureau of
Shipping; Federal and Military Specifications. These codes can be obtained from
the sponsoring association.

37
Welding Symbols
AWS welding symbols are the shorthand of welding. They
enable the engineer and draftsman to convey complete
instructions-for-welding to the welder on blueprints and
drawings.
Company-wide use of welding symbols will result in the fol-
lowing advantages:

1. Control of specific design instruction to


the shop regarding weld sizes and plate edge
preparation, eliminating the tendency for over-
welding or under welding (resulting in either
increased production costs or unsafe fabrica-
tion) because of lack of definite information.

2. Elimination of unnecessary details on draw-


ings when such detail is for the sole purpose of
indicating weld sizes and specifications. Welding
notes will be minimized.

3. Establish a common understanding of design


intent and requirements between engineering,
shop, inspection, customers representatives
and code inspection authorities. The benefits
of this advantage are readily apparent.

4. Standardization, not only within the com-


pany but industry-wise as well. AWS welding
symbols are a national standard and are used
worldwide.

The symbols shown on the following pages are


from Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing,
and Nondestructive Examination, A2.4, pub-
lished by the American Welding Society.

38
Location of Information on Welding Symbols
39
Welding Symbols No Arrow
Side or
Arrow Other Both Other Side
Type of Weld Side Side Sides Significance

Fillet not used

Plug not used not used

Spot or Projection not used

Stud not used not used not used

Seam not used

Groove Groove
Weld Symbol Weld Symbol
Back or Backing not used not used

Surfacing not used not used not used

Edge not used

G Square
r
o V not used
o
v Bevel not used
e
U not used
W
e J not used
l
d
Flare-V not used
s
Flare-Bevel not used

Scarf for not used


Brazed Joint

40
Typical Welding Symbols

Unequal double fillet


welding symbol size (length
of leg)

Desired Weld Symbol

Chain locate welds


at ends of Joint
length of segments

intermittent pitch (distance


fillet welding between centers)
of segments
symbol
Desired Weld Symbol

Staggered locate welds


at end of joint
length of segments

intermittent pitch (distance


fillet welding between centers) of
segments
symbol
Desired Weld Symbol

Single V-groove
welding symbol
root opening
groove angle
root opening
Desired Weld Symbol

depth of
Single V-groove preparation
(5/8) weld size
welding
symbol indicating groove angle
depth of preparation Desired Weld Symbol

41
Supplementary Welding Symbols
Weld All Field Melt- Consumable Backing
Around Weld thru Insert Spacer

Contour
Flush or Convex Concave
Flat

Omission of size
groove angle root dimen-
Double-bevel opening sion indicates
a total depth
groove welding of chamfering
equal to
symbol thickness of
members
Desired Weld Symbol

1/2 1/2
depth of filling in
Plug welding size (diameter of 45 inches
hole at root)
symbol included angle of
countersink

Desired Weld Symbol

depth of filling in
Slot welding orientation
inches

symbol must be included angle of


shown in countersink
drawing
Desired Weld Symbol
Size (diameter of weld)
GTAW strength in lb. per weld
may be used instead
Spot welding Process reference must be
used to indicate process
symbol desired
Pitch (distance between
center) of welds
Desired Weld Symbol Number of welds

42
Typical Welding Symbols
Groove weld made before
welding other side
Symbol to indicate
single-pass back weld
back weld
Desired Weld Symbol

Note: Material and dimension


of spacer as specified
Double-V-groove
See Note
weld indicating a
spacer is to be used spacer
Desired Weld Symbol

Single V-groove weld


indicating a backing R

strip is to be used R = Removed


after welding
backing strip
Desired Weld Symbol

Size of surface
built up by welding
/32
1

Size (thickness
of a surfacing 1
/32
weld)
Desired Weld Symbol

Symbols with multiple First operation


shown on refer-
reference lines 1st ence line nearest
arrow. Second
2nd
operation or
3rd supplementary
data.
Third operation or
Desired Weld Symbol text information.

Edge weld symbol


1/8
1/8

Edge weld size


Desired Weld Symbol

43
General Welding Safety
Essentially, welding is not a hazardous occupation if proper precautionary
measures are always observed. This requires continuous awareness of
possibilities of danger and habitual safety precaution by the welders.
They have an obligation to learn safe practices, to obey safety rules
and regulations, and to work in a safe manner. It is the responsiblity of
supervisors to enforce safety rules and regulations set forth in ANSI Z49.1
available from http://www.aws.org.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that
employers must have a comprehensive hazard communication program
to inform employees about hazardous substances that might be used in
the workplace. The purpose of the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
is to explain the hazards involved in handling/using products such as
welding consumables and the precautionary measures which must be
put in place for safe welding.

For Goggles or Helmet


Operation Shade Number Operation Shade Number
Soldering 2 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW, MIG) 11
Torch Brazing 3 or 4 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32 inch electrodes
Oxygen Cutting up: to 1 inch 3 or 4 Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
1 to 6 inches 4 or 5 Ferrous Metal Welding
6 inches and over 5 or 6 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW, TIG)
Gas Welding up to 1/8 inch 4 or 5 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW, MIG) 11
1/8 to 1/2 inch 5 or 6 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32 inch electrodes
1/2 inch or over 6 or 8 Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW, Stick)
1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32, inch electrodes 10 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW, Stick)
1/16, 7/32, 1/4 inch electrodes 12
Nonferrous Metal Welding
5/16, 3/8 inch electrodes 14
Gas Megal Arc Welding (GTAW, TIG) 11

Safety Precautions for Arc Welding

1. Make sure your arc welding equipment is installed properly and


grounded and is in good working condition.
2. Always wear protective clothing suitable for the welding to be done.
3. Always wear proper eye protection when welding, cutting, or grinding.
Do not look at the arc without peoper eye protection.
4. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above the arc.
5. Keep your work area clean and free of hazards. Make sure that no
flammable, volatile, or explosive materials are in or near the work area.
6. Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. keep caps on
when not in use.

44
7. Make sure that compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall or
other structural supports.
8. When compressed gas cylinders are empty, close the valve and mark
the cylinder empty.
9. Do not weld in a confined space without taking special precautions.
10. Do not weld on containers that have held combustibles without tak-
ing special precautions.
11. Do not weld on sealed containers or compartments without providing
vents and taking special precautions.
12. Use mechanical exhaust at the point of welding when welding lead,
cadmium, chromium, manganese, brass, bronze, zinc, or galvanized steel,
and when welding in a confined space.
13. When it is necessary to weld in a damp or wet area, wear rubber boots
and stand on a dry, insulated platform.
14 Do not use cables with frayed, cracked or bare spots in the insula-
tion.
15 When the electrode holder is not in use, hang it on brackets provided.
Never let it touch a compressed gas cylinder.
16. Dispose of electrode stubs in proper containers since stubs on the
floor are a safety hazard.
17. Shield others from the light rays produced by your welding arc.
18. Do not weld near degreasing operations.
19. When working above ground, make sure that scaffold, ladder or work
surface is solid and properly secured.
20. When welding in high places, use a safety belt or lifeline.

Safety Precautions for Oxyacetylene Welding and Cutting

1. Make sure that all gas apparatus shows UL or FM approval, is installed


properly, and is in good working condition. Make sure that all connections
are tight before lighting the torch. Do not use a flame to inspect for tight
joints. Use soap solution to detect leaks.
2. Always wear protective clothing suitable for welding or flame cut-
ting.
3. Keep work area clean and free from hazardous materials. When flame
cutting, sparks can travel 30 to 40 feet (10 to 15 m). Do not allow flame
cut sparks to hit hoses, regulators, or cylinders.
4. Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. Keep cylinder
caps on when not in use.
5. Make sure that all compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall
or to other structural supports. Keep acetylene cylinders in the vertical
position.

45
6. Store compressed gas cylinders in a safe place with good ventilation.
Acetylene cylinders and oxygen cylinders should be kept apart.
7. When compressed gas cylinders or fuel gas cylinders are empty, close
the valve and mark the cylinder empty.
8. Use oxygen and acetylene or other fuel gases with the appropriate
torches and only for the purpose intended.
9. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above the flame.
10. Never use acetylene at a pressure in excess of 15 psi (103.4 K Pa). Higher
pressure can cause an explosion.
11. Never use oil, grease, or any material on any apparatus or threaded
fittings in the oxyacetylene or oxyfuel system. Oil and grease in contact
with oxygen may cause spontaneous combustion..
12. Do not weld or flame cut in a confined space without taking special
precautions.
13. When assembling apparatus, crack gas cylinder valve before attaching
regulators (cracking means opening the valve on the cylinder slightly, then
closing.) This blows out any accumulated foreign material. Make sure that
all threaded fittings are clean and tight.
14. Always use this correct sequence and technique for lighting a torch:
(a) Open acetylene cylinder valve.
(b) Open acetylene torch valve 1/4 turn.
(c) Screw in acetylene regulator, adjusting valve handle to working
pressure.
(d) Turn off acetylene torch valve (you will have purged the acetylene
line).
(e) Slowly open oxygen cylinder valve all the way.
(f ) Open oxygen torch valve 1/4 turn.
(g) Screw in oxygen regulator screw to working pressure.
(h) Turn off oxygen torch valve (you will have purged the oxygen line).
(i) Open acetylene torch vlave 1/4 turn and light with lighter (use friction-
type lighter or special provided lighting device only).
(j) Open oxygen torch valve 1/4 turn.
(k) Adjust to neutral flame.
15. Always use this correct sequence and technique of shutting off a
torch:
(a) Close acetylene torch valve first. Then close oxygen torch valve.
(b) Close cylinder valves -- the acetylene valve first, then the oxygen
valve.
(c) Open torch acetylene and oxygen valves (to release pressure in the
regulator and hose).
(d) Back off regulator adjusting valve handle until no spring tension is
felt.
(e) Close torch valves.
46
16. Use mechanical exhause when welding or cutting lead, cadmium,
chromium, manganese, brass, bronze, zinc, or galvanized steel.
17. If you must weld or flame cut with combustible or volatile materials
present, take extra precautions, make out hot work permit, and provide
for a lookout, etc.
18. Do not weld or flame cut on containers that have held combustibles
without taking special precautions.
19. Do not weld or flame cut into sealed container or compartment without
providing vents and taking special precautions.
20. Do not weld or cut in a confined space without taking special precau-
tions.

There must be continual vigilance over safety conditions and safety haz-
ards. Safety meetings should be held regularly. The safety rules should be
reissued annually and they must be completely understood and enforced.
Safety rules and precautions should be posted in the welding shop.

47
Welding Metals
Almost every metal known can be welded by one process or an-
other. The arc welding processes used primarily for steels include
Shielded Metal Arc Welding(SMAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding(GMAW)
and Flux Cored Arc Welding(FCAW). Welding electrodes should
be selected based on the composition of the steel to be welded.
Steels are manufactured and specified in many different ways. In
general, steels are classified according to the carbon content, that
is, low carbon, medium carbon or high carbon steels. In addition
they are also classified according to the type of alloy employed,
such as chrome moly, nickel, manganese, etc. Steels are also sold
under many trade names and specifications. The following is a brief
listing of some of the specifications in use.

ASTM The American Society for Testing and Materials sponsors


specifications covering many different types of steels. Their speci-
fications may be prefixed by their acronym of ASTM.

API The American Petroleum Institute specifies steels usually


employed in pipe.

ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers speci-


fies steels but in general utilize the same numbers as the ASTM
specifications.

Military and Federal Specification The Government specifications


are usually indicated by the letters MIL or QQ.

SAE and AISI The Society of Automotive Engineers and the Ameri-
can Iron and Steel Institute have a very complete listing of steels
using code numbers that indicate the steel composition. Stainless
steels are covered by the AISI numbers.

48
Steel Available for Welding
Steel warehouses located in most larger cities carry stocks of the popular sizes and shapes of
mild steel. Large requirements can be obtained direct from steel mills. The following is a listing
of the various shapes, sizes and types usually available.
Shapes
(Composition usually to ASTM Specs)
American Standard Beams 6 to 24
Specified: Depth by wt. per foot
Wide Flange Shapes 6 to 36 Specified: Depth by wt. per foot
American Standard Channels 3 to 18
Specified: Depth by wt. per foot
Angles (equal and unequal legs) 1 x 1 to 8 x 8
leg by leg by thickness
Structural Tees-These are split beams or wide flange shapes.
Misc. Light and Junior Sections Lighter and thinner than above.
Misc. Sections such as Zees, pilings, rails, etc.

Bars
(Composition usually to AISI or SAE Specs)
Flats thickness 1/4 to 4 by width 3/8 to 8
Square 1/4 sq.: to 2 3/4 sq. Special 1/2 sq. to 6 square.
Rounds 3/16 dia. to 2 7/8 dia. Special 3/8 dia. to 9 1/2 dia.
Half Rounds 1/2 to 3 (across diameter)
Hexagons 1/2 to 1 3/8 (across flats)

Tubular
(Composition usually to ASTM or API Specs)
Pipe Specified by nominal pipe diameter in inches.
Wall thickness specified by Schedule Number or by Standard,
Extra Strong or Double Extra Strong
Round Tubing Seamless Mechanical
3/16 dia. O.D. wall thickness 24 gage to 16 gage to 10 dia. O.D. wall
thickness 1/4 to 1 1/8.
Round Tubing Welded Mechanical
3/8 dia. O.D. wall thickness 22 gage to 16 gage, to 6 dia.
O.D. wall thickness 11 gage to 1/4
Square Tubing Mechanical and Structural Welded or Seamless
1/2 to 1/2 wall thickness 20 gage to 16 gage, to 4 x 4 wall thickness
11 gage to 3/16.
Rectangular Tubing Welded Mechanical
1 1/2 x 1 wall thickness 14 gage, to 4 x 2 wall thickness 3/16.

Sheet and Plates


(Composition usually to ASTM or chemistry for end use)
Widths beyond 8 inches are considered sheet or plate thickness above 3/16
considered plates. Sheets specified by gage thickness. Plates specified by thickness
in inches or weight per square foot.

Misc.
Warehouses offer many other forms of steeel such as dished heads for tanks, reinforc-
ing rods, etc. and flame cutting service.
Note Trade names are often used to identify steel compositions.

49
Identification of Metals
Metal Low carbon Medium High carbon High sulphur
50

steel carbon steel steel


Test
steel
Dark grey Dark grey
appearance Dark grey Dark grey

Strongly magnetic Strongly magnetic Strongly magnetic


magnetic Strongly magnetic
Continuous chip, Continuous chip,
Continuous chip,
chisel smooth edges, Hard to chip, Smooth edges,
smooth edges,
chips easily Can be continuous Chips easily
chips easily
Very light grey Very light grey Bright grey,
Bright grey
fracture Fine grain

Melts fast, becomes Melts fast, becomes Melts fast, becomes


flame Melts fast, becomes
bright red before bright red before bright red before
bright red before
melting melting melting
melting

spark*

* For best results, use at least 5,000


surface feet per minute on grinding
equipment. Long Yellow Carrier Yellow lines Yellow Lines Bright Burst
Cir. x R.P.M. Sprigs Very Plain Now Very Clear Numerous Star Swelling Carrier Lines
= S.F. per minute Lines (Approx. 20%
12 (Approx. .20% to .45% Burst (approx. .45% Cigar Shape
carbon or below)
carbon) carbon and above)
Identification of Metals
Metal Manganese Stainless Cast Wrought
Test steel steel iron iron

appearance Dull cast surface Bright, Silvery, Dull grey, Evidence Light grey,
Smooth of sand mold Smooth

magnetic Nonmagnetic Depends on Strongly Strongly


exact analysis magnetic magnetic
chisel Extremely Continuous chip, Small chips about Continuous chip
hard to chisel Smooth, 1/8 in., Not east to Smooth edges, Soft,
Bright color chip, Brittle Easily cut & chipped
fracture Course grained Depends on type, Brittle Bright grey,
Bright Fibrous appearance

flame Melts fast, Melts fast, Melts slowly, Melts fast,


Becomes bright Becomes bright Becomes dull Becomes bright
red before melting red before melting red before melting red before melting

Spark*

*For best results, use at


least 5,000 surface feet
per minute on grinding 1. Nickel-black shape
close to wheel; 2. Moly-short Long straw color lines
equipment.
Bright white arrow shape tongue (only); 3. Red carrier lines (practically free of
51

Cir. x R.P.M. = S.F. per minute fan-shaped burst Vanadium-long spearpoint, (very little carbon exists) bursts or sprigs)
12 tongue(only).
Typical Preheat for Various Metals
52
AISI-SAE Designation System for Carbon and Alloy Steels
53
Cost Saving Hints
Welding is the most economical method of joining metals. However, we should all
be on the lookout for ways to save time and materials to make welding the most
advantageous. The following hints will help to lower arc welding costs.
Material Select an easily weldable material that will not require expensive elec-
trodes or complicated welding procedures.
Joint Design On heavier
material, double bevel and vee joints
save considerable weld material. Of
course, it is necessary to be able to
weld both sides.
Rolled Sections and Forming Use bends and rolled angle channels, etc., to
reduce the number of weld joints required.
Distortion Control Use wandering or back step sequence to reduce warpage
and keep material in line to reduce the machining necessary.
Proper Fit-up Wide gaps between pieces to be welded waste weld metal. Fil-
lets must be increased by the amount of gap to maintain strength.

Fillet Weld Size Fillet weld size must


be closely controlled. Doubling the size
of a fillet requires four times as much
weld metal.

Overwelding and Reinforcement Extra re-


inforcement and unequal legged fillets waste
weld metal. The crown or reinforcement adds
little to the strength of the weld.
Positioning Position the job for flat welding if at all possible. This is the most
efficient position. It allows use of larger electrodes. It is easier and more comfort-
able for the welder.
Arc Length Keep a short arc or low voltage. This will concentrate all of the welding
current in the joint and will minimize spatter.
Electrode Type Select the higher production type electrode for cost savings. See
description in electrode section of booklet.

54
Use Largest Size Electrode Possible

electrode
size 5 10 15 20 25 30
3/8
feet 3/32

of joint 1/8

welded 5/32
3/16
Butt Weld
per hour
1/4
(approx.)
5/16

Electrode Size Use the largest size electrode possible. Large size stick electrodes cost less
and increase the welding speed. This is generally true in wire electrodes.
Stub Ends
Burn electrodes to a 2 inch length or use the continuous wire electrodes.
Machine Efficiency Match the welding machine to the job. Too small a machine is inef-
ficient since it may be operated beyond its capacity. Machines should be checked
periodically for loose connections, wire, etc.
Cable Size and Length Too small welding cable will heat up. Heat produced in the cable
is wasteful. It is not doing useful work. Cables that are too long waste power, and causes
a voltage drop at the holder. Excessive cable wrapped in coils is also very wasteful. Use
the proper size cable and keep cable to reasonable lengths for efficiency.
Loose Connections Check cables, connectors, electrode holders for hot spots. Loose
connections or broken wire will show up as hot spots which waste power. Correct
them when found.

Welding Current (amps.) Cable Size (No.)


recommended 100 4
minimum 150 2
cable sizes 200 2
250-300 1/0
300-450 2/0
500 3/0
600 4/0

55
8 Factors to Consider
When Selecting Electrodes

1. Base Metal Strength Properties
2. Base Metal Composition
3. Welding Position
4. Welding Current
5. Joint Design and Fit-up
6. Thickness and Shape of Base Metal
7. Service Condition And/Or Specifications
8. Production Efficience and Job Conditions

1. Base Metal Strength Properties


Know and match mechanical properties. Mild steel generally E-60XX or E-70XX
electrodes match base metal. Low alloy steel select electrodes that match base
metal properties.
2. Base Metal Composition
Know and match composition. Mild steel any E-6OXX or E-70XX electrode is
satisfactory. Low alloy steel select electrode that most closely matches base
metal composition.
3. Welding Position
Match electrode to welding position encountered.
4. Welding Current
Match power supply available. Some electrodes are designed for direct current (DC);
others, alternating current (AC); some, either. Observe correct polarity.
5. Joint Design and Fit-up
Select for penetration characteristic digging, medium, or light. No beveling or
tight fit-up use digging. Thin material or wide root opening light, soft arc.
6. Thickness And Shape of Base Metal
To avoid weld cracking on thick and heavy material of complicated design, select
electrode with maximum ductility. Low hydrogen processes or electrodes are
recommended.
7. Service Condition And/Or Specifications
Determine service conditions low temperature, high temperature, shock loading
match base metal composition, ductility and impact resistance. Use low hydrogen
process. Also, check welding procedure or specification for electrode type.
8. Production Efficiency And Job Conditions
For high deposition and most efficient production under flat position requirements,
select high iron powder types or large diameter wires: For other conditions, you
may need to experiment with various electrodes and sizes.

56
Metal Cored Wire
Edited from an article by Steve Barhorst and
used with permission from Hobart Brothers Company.

Metal cored wire is a tubular electrode that consists of a


metal sheath and a core of various powdered materials,
primarily iron. The core contributes almost entirely to the
deposited weld metal.

WHAT APPLICATIONS BENEFIT FROM METAL-CORED


WIRE?
Solid wire in the flat and horizontal positions where spray
transfer is being used.
Many gas shielded, flux cored, and some submerged arc
applications.
Multiple-pass robotic and automatic welding
Other applications determined by weld cost calculations
or quality issues (compensating for poor fit-up, bead
appearance, burn-through).

WHY USE METAL CORED WIRE?


Can save $100 to $200 for every 100 pounds of weld
metal deposited.
High deposition rates and travel speeds.
No slag; almost no spatter.
Little or no post-weld cleanup or cleaning between
passes.
Excellent side-wall fusion and root penetration.
Ability to bridge part gaps without burn-through.
Ability to weld thin materials at high amperages without
burn-through.
Capability to weld out-of-position with pulsed spray or
short-circuit transfer.
Compliance with ABS, DNV, API, LRS, ANSI, and AWS
standards.

57
METAL CORE WIRE

SOLID WIRE
Metal Core lacks deeper penetration.
58
Oven Storage and Reconditioning of Filler Metals

Storage of
Item Designation Contents of Open Cartons Reconditioning
Pipemaster 60, 70, 80, 90, 335A, 333C Dry at room temperature Not recommended

12, 1139, 447A, 447C, 14A, 27, 24 125F 250F, 1 hour

718,716C, 18AC, 418, 718MC, 7018C1, 8018C2, 8018C3, 8018B2, 80182L 300F 575F, 1 hour

9108M, 9018B3, 9018B3L, 10018M, 10018D2, 10018M, 12018M 300F 600F, 1 hour

Smootharc, and Smootharc Plus Stainless Stick Electrodes 250F 500F, 1 hour

Cast Iron electrodes 150F 250F, 1 hour

Excel-Arc, FacCOR, GSF, FabCO, Fabshield, Fabloy, Formula XL Dry at room temperature Not recommended
* Be sure that electrodes or wires are properly removed from packaging that may be damaged.
Welding electrodes and wires may be spray, or humidity. Only hermetically-sealed
damaged by atmospheric moisture. The cans are safe against these conditions. The instruction, Dry at Room Temperature
following table recommends proper storage in the table signifies that the humidity
conditions, and time and temperature Damaged cartons permit entry of damp should be below 70% and the temperature
for reconditioning electrodes that have air which may be picked up by the product should be within the limits 40 to 120F.
absorbed excessive moisture. and lower its quality. Humidity below 50%
Notes: Pallets and unopened cartons of should be avoided for XX10, XX11, XX12,
electrodes and wires should be stored and XX13 covered electrodes. At no time
59

away from exposure to water in the form should these classes of electrodes be stored
of rain, snow, in an oven above 130F.
How to Calculate Filler Metal Consumption
60

The following tables will help you estimate 1-L unreinforced welds.
electrode quantity and cost for a variety W = Weight of electrodes required These figures are based on the efficiency of
of joints. The bases for the tabulations are the process used. On square and V groove
explained below. D = Weight of steel deposited
joints, the figures are based on stick electrode
Should you encounter a variation in conditions L = Total efficiency. For tubular wire results, divide steel
or joint preparation that is not shown in the electrode losses deposit weight by .80, and for solid wire, divide
tables, substitute appropriate figures in the To arrive at the weight of steel deposited, it by .90.
W=D/(1-L) formula and calculate it. is necessary to calculate first the volume of
Electrode requirements have been calculated deposited metal (area of the groove multiplied
as follows: by the length). Then this volumetric value is
W = D converted to weight by the factor 0.283 pounds
per cubic inch for steel. Where weld reinforcement
is involved, it is added to the requirements for net,

Horizontal Fillet Weld Size of fillet


L
Steel deposited
per linear foot
Pounds of electrodes required
per linear foot of weld (approx.)
(in inches) of weld (lbs.) Stick* (SMAW) Tubular (FCAW) Solid (GMAW)
1/8 0.027 .049 .034 .03
3/16 0.063 .114 .079 .07
1/4 0.106 .193 .133 .118
5/16 0.166 .302 .208 .184
L 3/8 0.239 .434 .298 .265
1/2 0.425 .773 .531 .472
5/8 0.663 1.205 .829 .737
L
3/4 0.955 1.736 1.194 1.061
1 1.698 3.087 2.123 1.890
*Includes scrap end and spatter loss.
Joint dimensions Steel deposited per linear Pounds of electrodes required
Square Groove Butt Joints (inches) foot of weld (lbs.) per linear foot of weld* (approx.)
welded one side Metal Bead Root With With
R=0.07 Thickness Width Open Without reinforcement Without reinforcement
B T B G reinforcement (R**=0.07) reinforcement
(R**=0.07)
T 3/16 3/8 0 0.088 0.16
1/16 0.020 0.109 0.04 0.20
welded two sides 1/4 7/16 1/16 0.027 0.129 0.05 0.23
if root of top weld is chipped or flame gouged and 3/32 0.039 0.143 0.07 0.26
welded, add 0.07 lb. to steel deposited (equivalent 5/16 1/2 1/16 0.033 0.153 0.06 0.27
to approx. 0.13 lb. of electrodes). 3/32 0.050 0.170 0.09 0.30
R=0.07 1/8 1/4 0 0.119 0.21
B 1/32 0.013 0.132 0.03 0.24
T
3/16 3/8 1/32 0.020 0.199 0.04 0.36
1/16 0.040 0.218 0.07 0.39
R=0.07 G 1/4 7/16 1/16 0.053 0.261 0.10 0.47
3/32 0.080 0.288 0.14 0.53

V Groove Butt Joint Joint dimensions Steel deposited per linear Pounds of electrodes required
(inches) foot of weld (lbs.) per linear foot of weld* (approx.)
60
Metal Bead Root With With
R=.008 B Thickness Width Open Without reinforcement Without reinforcement
T B G reinforcement (R**=0.08) reinforcement
T (R**=0.08)
1/8
1/4 0.207 1/16 0.085 0.143 0.15 0.25
G 5/16 0.311 3/32 0.173 0.258 0.31 0.46
3/8 0.414 1/8 0.282 0.394 0.50 0.70
1/2 0.558 1/8 0.489 0.641 0.87 1.15
Material Bead Root 5/8 0.702 1/8 0.753 0.942 1.35 1.68
Thickness Width Openings 3/4 0.847 1/8 1.088 1.320 1.94 2.35
T B G
61

1 1.138 1/8 1.930 2.240 3.45 4.00


*Includes scrap end and spatter loss. **R=Height of reinforcement.
Shielding Gases and Their Uses
Shielding Gas GMAW GTAW GTAW
Reaction and FCAW and PAW

Pure Gases

Argon, Ar Inert Nonferrous All Metals

Helium, He Inert Nonferrous Al, Mg, and Cu


and alloys

Carbon dioxide, CO2 Oxidizing Mild and low-alloy Not used


steels, some
stainless steels

Two-Component
Mixtures
Argon mixtures
Argon + 20-50% He Inert Al, Mg, and Cu Al, Mg, and alloys
and alloys

Argon + 1-2% CO2 Oxidizing Stainless and Not used


low-alloy steels

Argon + 3-5% CO2 Oxidizing Mild, low-alloy, Not used


and stainless
steels

Argon + 20-30% CO2 Slightly Mild and low-alloy Not used


Oxidized steels, some
stainless steels

Argon + 2-4% He Reducing Not used Nickel and alloy


and AustineticSS

Helium mixtures
Helium + 25% Ar Inert Al and alloys, Al and alloys,
Cu and alloys Cu and alloys

CO2 mixtures
CO2 + up to 20% O2 Oxidizing Mild and low-alloy Not used
steels (used in
Japan)

CO2 + 3-10% O2 Oxidizing Mild and low-alloy Not used


steels (used in Europe)

Three-Component
Mixtures
Helium mixtures
He + 75% Ar +
25% CO2 Inert Stainless steel and Not used
low-alloy steels

Argon mixtures Oxidizing Mild Steels Not used


Ar + 3-10% O2 +
15% CO2 (used in Europe)

62
AWS Electrode Classifications
& Comparative Indices
How AWS classifies mild steel covered electrodes,
SMAW process

E 7018-1 H4 R
Electrode
Tensile in ksi
Position
Type of coating and current
Meets lower temperature impact requirements
Hydrogen: H4=less than 4ml/100g
H8=less than 8 ml/100g
Meets requirements of absorbed moisture test

Position
1. Flat, Horizontal, Vertical, Overhead
2. Flat and Horizontal only
4. Flat, Horizontal, Vertical Down, Overhead

Types of coating and current


Digit Type of Coating Welding Current
0 cellulose sodium DCEP
1 cellulose potassium AC or DCEP
2 titania sodium AC or DCEN
3 titania potassium AC or DCEP or DCEN
4 iron powder titania AC or DCEN or DCEP
5 low hydrogen sodium DCEP
6 low hydrogen potassium AC or DCEP
7 iron powder iron oxide AC or DCEP or DCEN
8 iron powder low hydrogen AC or DCEP
E6020 iron oxide sodium AC or DCEP or DCEN

DCEP Direct Current Electrode Positive


DCEN Direct Current Electrode Negative

63
How AWS classifies low alloy covered electrodes

E 80 1 8 - B2
Electrode

Tensile in ksi
All Position
For AC or DCEP
Chemical composition of
weld metal deposit

Chemical composition of weld deposit


Suffix C Mn Si Ni Cr Mo Va
A1 .12 .40 -.65* .40-.80 .40-.65
B1 .12 .90 .60-.80 .40-.65 .40-.65
B2L .05 .90 .8-1.00* 1.00-1.50 .40-.65
B2 .12 .90 .60-.90 1.00-1.50 .40-.65
B3L .05 .90 .8-1.00* 2.00-2.50 .90-1.20
B3 .12 .90 .60-.80* 2.00-2.50 .90-1.20
B4L .05 .90 1.00 1.75-2.25 .40-.65
B9 .08-.13 1.25 .30 1.0 8.00-10.50 . 85-1.2 .15-.30
C1 .12 1.20 .60-.80* 1.00-2.75
C2 .12 1.20 * 3.00-3.75
C3 .12 .40-1.25 .80 .80-1.10 .15 .35 .05
D1 .12 1.25-1.75 .60-.80* .25-.45
D2 .15 1.65-2.00 .6-.8* .25-.45
G 1.0 Min .80 Min .50 Min .30 Min .20 Min .10 M
M** .10 .60-2.25* .60-.80* 1.40-2.50* .15-1.50* .25-55* .05

* Amount depends on electrode classification. Single values indicate


maximum, refer to AWS 5.5 for the different electrode classes.
** There are several different M classes. M classifications are intended to
conform to military specifications.

64
Pieces Per Pound Arc Welding Electrodes
Hobart Diameter: 3/32 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 3/16 1/4
Type Length: 10 14 14 14 14 18 18

Pipemaster 60, 70, 80 30 17 12 8

335A, 335C 25 15 11 7

447A, 447C 25 15 10 7

14A 24 13 9 6

24 (-1) 10 7 4 2

XX18 (Iron Powder) 32 15 10 7 3

Stainless 31 13 9 4 3

Comparative Index of Mild Steel & Low Hydrogen


AWS Class HOBART McKAY ESAB LINCOLN MUREX

E6010 Pipemaster Pro 60 ---- SW-10P PLUS 5P5P+

Pipemaster 60 6010 PM SW-10P 5P5P+

E6011 335A, 335C 6011 SW-14 FW 180, FW35 6011C

E6013 447A, 447C 6013 SW-15 FW 37 6013D

E6022 1139 FW 22

E7010-P1 Pipemaster 70 SW-710P SA HYP+

E7014 14A 7014 SW-14IP FW 47 7014

E7018 (AC) 18AC AA 7018AC 7018AC 7018AC

E7018-1 H4 418,718, 718MC SOFT-ARC 7018-1

E7018 H4R 418, 718, 718MC 7018 XLM AA 7018 Jetweld LH-70 7018MR

E7018-1H4R 418,718,718MC EX 7018-1MR,LH-75MR

E7018-1H4R(M) 718 MC AA 7018-M EX 7018M MR

E7024 Rocket 7024 7024 SW-24 Jetweld 3 7024

E8010-P1 Pipemaster 80 SW-810P Shield-Arc 80

65
Comparative Index of Low Alloy Electrodes
AWS Class HOBART ESAB LINCOLN

E7018-A1 HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


EXCALIBUR 7018 A1 7018-MO
7018-A1 MR

E8018-B2 HOBALLOY ATOM ARC Jet-LH


8018 B2 8018-CM 8018-B2
MR

E8018-B2L HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


8018B2L 8108 - B2L

E8018-C1 HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


EXCALIBUR
8018C1 8018-C1 8018-C1
MR

E8018-C2 HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


8018C2 8018-N

E8018-C3 HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


EXCALIBUR
8018C3 8018 8018-C3
MR

E9018-B3 HOBALLOY ATOM ARC JET-LH


9018B3 9018-CM 9018 B3
MR

E9018-B3L HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


9018B3L 9018-B3L

E9018-M HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


EXCALIBUR
9018M 9018 9018M
MR

E10018-D2 HOBALLOY ATOM ARC


10081D2 10018-MM

E11018-M HOBALLOY Atom Arc T


EXCALIBUR
11018M 11018M
MR

E12018-M HOBALLOY Atom Arc


12018M 12018

66
How AWS classifies stainless steel coated
electrodes, SMAW process

E 308 x-1 5
Electrode

Indicates what a weld made


by this electrode will have in it

Indicates any changes


to the original alloy
Position

Type of coating and current

Additional Requirements

Suffix Changes Made or Additional Requirements


L Has a lower carbon content
H Limited to the upper range on the carbon content
Mo Molybdenum added pitting resistance, creep
strength, ferrite increased
Cb (Nb) Columbium added prevents corrosion just outside
of the weld bead
Ni Nickel added high temperature strength, corrosion
resistance, added toughness
LR Low Residuals lower range for: C, Si, P, S narrower
range: Cb and Mn
Note: Nb(Niobium) is the European name for Columbium.

Dash Out of Bead Slag Spatter Transfer Operating Bead


Number Position Ripple Removal Level Type Current Profile
-x5 1(5/32) 3 3 3 Globular DCEP Convex
-x6 2(5/32) 2 2 2 Globular AC/DCEP Flat
-x7 3(3/16) 1 1 1 Spray AC/DCEP Concave

Ratings: 1 = the best, 3 = the least


67
How AWS classifies stainless steel
flux-cored wires

E 308 x T1 -1
Electrode

Indicates what a weld made


by this electrode will have in it
Indicates any changes
to the original alloy
Indicates that this is a
flux-core wire. Tubular

Position

Indicates the shielding gas, if any

Shielding Chart
Dash Number Shielding Gas Welding Current
-1 CO2 DCEP
-3 None DCEP
-4 75% Ar/25% CO2 DCEP

Additional Requirements
Suffix Changes Made or Additional Requirements
L Has a lower carbon content
H Limited to the upper range on the carbon content
Mo Molybdenum added pitting resistance, creep strength,
ferrite increased
Cb (Nb) Columbium added prevents corrosion just outside of
the weld bead
Ni Nickel added high temperature strength, corrosion
resistance, added toughness
Ti Titanium added prevents corrosion just outside of the
weld bead
K Specially formulated for cryogenic temperature service
(less than -238F)

Note: Nb (Niobium) is the European name for Columbium.


68
Stainless Electrodes for AISI Steels
Chemical Analysis Of Austenitic Stainless Steels (Percent)
AISI type Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Other elements Weld with
number percent maximum % percent percent percent percent type
201 0.15 Max 5.5/7.5 1.00 16.00/18.00 3.50/5.50 N2 0.25 Max 308
202 0.15 Max 7.5/10.0 1.00 17.00/19.00 4.00/6.00 N2 0.25 Max 308
301 0.15 Max 2.00 1.00 16.00/18.00 6.00/8.00 308
302 0.15 Max 2.00 1.00 17.00/19.00 8.00/10.00 308, 309
302B 0.15 Max 2.00 2.00/3.00 17.00/19.00 8.00/10.00 308
303 0.15 Max 2.00 1.00 17.00/19.00 8.00/10.00 S 0.15 Min 312*
304 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 18.00/20.00 8.00/12.00 308
304L 0.03 Max 2.00 1.00 18.00/20.00 8.00/12.00 308L, 347
305 0.12 Max 2.00 1.00 17.00/19.00 10.00/13.00 308
308 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 19.00/21.00 10.00/12.00 308
309 0.20 Max 2.00 1.00 22.00/24.00 12.00/15.00 309
309S 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 22.00/24.00 12.00/15.00 309
310 0.25 Max 2.00 1.50 24.00/26.00 19.00/22.00 310, 309
310S 0.08 Max 2.00 1.50 24.00/26.00 19.00/22.00 310
314 0.25 Max 2.00 1.50/3.00 23.00/26.00 19.00/22.00 310
316 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 16.00/18.00 10.00/14.00 Mo 2.00/3.00 316, 310Mo
316L 0.03 Max 2.00 1.00 16.00/18.00 10.00/14.00 Mo 2.00/3.00 316L
317 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 18.00/20.00 11.00/15.00 Mo 3.00/4.00 317
317L 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 18.00/20.00 11.00/15.00 Mo 3.00/4.00 317L
321 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 17.00/19.00 9.00/12.00 Ti5 2 C Min 321, 347
347 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 17.00/19.00 9.00/13.00 Cb + Ta 10 x C Min 347, 308L
69

348 0.08 Max 2.00 1.00 17.00/19.00 9.00/13.00 Cb + Ta 10 x C Min 347


Ta 0.10 Max
Comparative Index for Stainless Steel Electrodes
70

AWS Avesta ESAB Harris Lincoln McKay Murex Sandvik


Class Welco
E308-16 Arcaloy 308-16 Stainweld 308-16 308/308H 308/308H-16
E308H-16 308-16, 308H-16 Red Baron 308/308H MR Sterling AP
E308-16 Arcaloy 308L-16 Stainweld 308L-16 308/308L 308L-16
E308L-16 308 ELC-16 Red Baron 308L MR Sterling AP
E308-17 308-17 Blue Max 308/308H-17 Saffire 308/308H-16SA
E308H-17 308H-17 308/308L, AC-DC Sterling 18/8-308L Spray-Arc
E308L-17 308L-17 Arcaloy Blue Max 308/308L-17 nicrex 308L-16SA
308-17 Plus 308/308L Sterling 308/308L-17 Spray-Arc
E309-16 Arcaloy 309-16 Stainweld 309-16 309(H) 309-16
309-16 Red Baron 309/309L MR Sterling AP
E309-16 Arcaloy 309L-16 Red Baron 309/309L Bostrand 309L-16
E309L-16 309 ELC-16 309/309L MR Sterling AP 309LSi
E309-17 309-17 Blue Max 309-17 309-16SA
309/309L AC-DC Sterling Spray-Arc
E309L-17 309L-17 Arcaloy Blue Max 309/309L-17 309L-16SA
309-17 plus 309/309L AC-DC Sterling Spray-Arc
E310-16 Arcaloy 310-16 Stainweld 310-16 310 310-16
310-16 Red Baron 310 MR AC-DC
E312-16 Arcaloy 312-16 312 312-16
312-16 AC-DC
E316-16 Arcaloy 316-16 316-16 316/316H Saffore 316/316H-16
E316H-16 316H-16 Sterling AP 18/8/3 Mo
E316-16 Arcaloy 316L-16 Stainweld 316L-16 316/316L Nicrex 316L-16
E316L-16 316 ELC-16 Red Baron 316/316L MR Sterling AP 316 L-17
E316-17 316-17 Blue Max 316/316H-17 316/316H-16SA
E316H-17 316H-17 316/316L AC-DC Sterling Spray-Arc
E316L-17 316L-17 Arcaloy Blue Max 316/316L-17 316L-16SA
316L-17 Plus 316L AC-DC Sterling Spray-Arc
E347-16 Arcaloy 347-16 Stainweld 347-16 347 OK Tigrod 16.21 347-16
347-16 347-16 Red Baron 347 MR AC-DC
How AWS classifies mild
steel solid electrodes,
GMAW, GTAW and PAW

ER 70 S- 3
Electrode or rod

Tensile in ksi

Solid
Chemical composition &
shielding gas

Chemical compostion of solid wires using CO2 shielding gas


Yield Tensile % Elongation Impact strength
AWS Shielding Strength Strength min. in 2 Min.
classification gas KSi (MPa) KSi (MPa) (50 mm) ft-lbs at oF (J at oC)

ER70S-2 CO2 72 (500) 60 (420) 22 20 at -20 (27 at -29)


ER70S-3 CO2 72 (500) 60 (420) 22 20 at 0 (27 at -18)
ER70S-4 CO2 72 (500) 60 (420) 22
ER70S-5 CO2 72 (500) 60 (420) 22
ER70S-6 CO2 72 (500) 60 (420) 22 20 at -20 (27 at -29)
ER70S-7 CO2 72 (500) 60 (420) 22 20 at -20 (27 at -29)
ER80S-D2 CO2 80 (550) 68 (470) 17 20 at -20 (27 at -29)

Chemical Composition
C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Mo Cu Other

.07 .90-1.40 .40-.70 .025 .035 .50 Ti, Zr, Al


.06-.15 .90-1.40 .40-.70 .025 .035 .50
.07-.15 1.00-1.50. 65-.85 .025 .035 .50
.07-.19 .90-1.40 .30-.60 .025 .035 .50 Al
.07-.15 1.40-1.85 .80-.1.15 .025 .035 .50
.07-.15 1.50-2.00 .50-.80 .025 .035 .50
.07-.12 1.60-2.10 .50-.80 .025 .025 .15 .40-.60 .50

71
How AWS classifies metal-cored wires, GMAW
process (AWS A5.18)

E 70 C- 3 M
Electrode

Tensile lb ksi
Composite metal-cored
electrode

Impact: 3 = 20 ft.lbs @ 0F (27J @ -18C)


6 = 20 ft.lbs @ - 20F (27J @ -29C)
Shielding gas: C = CO2
M = 75% - 80% Ar, balance CO2

Position of welding, shielding, polarity, and application requirements


AWS Welding
Classification Positiona Shieldingb Currentc Applicationd
E70C-3X F and H 75-80% Ar/Balance CO2 DCEP M
or 100% CO2
E70C-6X F and H 75-80% Ar/Balance CO2 DCEP M
or 100% CO2
E70C-G(X) F and H (f ) DCEP M
E70C-GS(X) F and H (f ) DCEP S

Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld


Metal from Composite Electrodes
C Mn Si S P Ni Cr Mo V Cu

0.12 1.75 0.90 0.03 0.03 (e) (e) (e) (e) 0.50
0.12 1.75 0.90 0.03 0.03 (e) (e) (e) (e) 0.50
Not Specified for -Gg
Chemical Requirements not specified for -GSh
Notes:
a. The final X shown in the classification represents a C or M which corresponds to the shielding gas
with which the electrode is classified. The use of C designates 100% CO2 shielding, M designates
75-80% Ar/balance CO2. For E70C-G and E70C-GS, the final C or M may be omitted if these
gases are not used for classification.
b. F=Flat, H=Horizontal.
c. Use of a shielding gas other than that specified will result in different weld metal composition.
d. Single values are maximum weight percent.
e. To be reported if intentionally added; the sum of Ni, Cr, Mo, and V shall not exceed 0.50%.
f. Shielding gas shall be as agreed upon between purchaser and supplier.
g. Composition shall be reported; the requirements are those agreed to between purchaser and supplier.
h. The composition of weld metal from this classification is not specified since electrodes of this
classification are intended only for single pass welds. Dilution, in such welds, usually is quite high.
72
How AWS classifies
low alloy solid electrodes,
GMAW, GTAW and PAW

ER 80 S- D2
Electrode or rod

Tensile in ksi

Solid
Chemical composition

Typical shielding gas mixtures and their uses


Type of Gas Typical Mixtures Primary Uses

Argon Non-ferrous Metals


Helium Aluminum, Magnesium,
and Copper Alloys
Carbon Dioxide Mild and Low Alloy
Steel
Argon-Helium 20-80% He Aluminum, Magnesium,
Copper and Nickel
Alloys
Argon - Oxygen 1-2% O2 Stainless Steel
3-5 O2 Mild and Low Alloy
Steel
Argon-Cabon Dioxide 20-50% CO2 Mild and Low Alloy
Steels
Helium-Argon-Carbon 90He-7-1/2A-2-1/2 CO2 Stainless Steel
Dioxide 60-7He-25-36Ar-5 CO2 Low Alloy Steels
Nitrogen Copper Alloys

73
GMAW Short Circuiting Transfer Welding Parameters
74

Material thickness1 Electrode Welding Arc voltage Wire feed Travel Shielding
diameter current (electrode speed speed gas flow
size in. (decimal) mm in. mm amps-DC positive) ipm ipm CFH2
24 ga. 0.025 0.6 0.030 0.8 30-50 15-17 85-100 12-20 15-20
22 ga. 0.031 0.8 0.030 0.8 40-60 15-17 90-130 18-22 15-20
20 ga. 0.037 0.9 0.035 0.9 55-85 15-17 70-120 35-40 15-20
18 ga. 0.050 1.3 0.035 0.9 70-100 16-19 100-160 35-40 15-20
1/16 0.063 1.6 0.035 0.9 80-110 17-20 120-180 30-35 20-25
5/64 0.078 2.0 0.035 0.9 100-130 18-20 160-220 25-30 20-25
1/8 0.125 3.2 0.035 0.9 120-160 19-22 210-290 20-25 20-25
1/8 0.125 3.2 0.045 1.1 180-200 20-24 210-240 27-32 20-25
3/16 0.187 4.7 0.035 0.9 140-160 19-22 210-290 14-19 20-25
3/16 0.187 4.7 0.045 1.1 180-205 20-24 210-245 18-22 20-25
1/4 0.250 6.4 0.035 0.9 140-160 19-22 240-290 11-15 20-25
1/4 0.250 6.4 0.045 1.1 180-225 20-24 210-290 12-18 20-25
Note: Single-pass flat and horizontal fillet positions. Reduce current 10 to 15% for vertical and overhead welding.

1. For fillet and groove welds for fillet welds, size equals metal thickness; for square groove welds, the root opening should equal
1/2 the metal thickness.

2. Shielding gas is CO2, or 75% Ar/25% CO2.
Shielding Gases for Short Circuiting Transfer (GMAW)
Carbon steel CO2 Broad penetration; reduces chances of porosity.
75% Ar/25% CO2 High welding speeds without burn-through; minimum distortion and spatter.
Ar/5-10% CO2 Deeper penetration; faster welding speeds.
Low alloy steel 60-70% He/25-35% Ar/4-5% CO2 Minimum reactivity; excellent toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting characteristics, and
bead contour; little spatter.
75% Ar/25% CO2 Fair toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting characteristics and bead contour; little spatter.
GMAW Spray Transfer Welding Parameters

Electrode Welding Arc voltage Wire feed Travel 92% Ar/8% CO2
Material thickness Type of diameter current (electrode speed speed gas flow
size in.(decimal) mm weld
1
in. mm amps-DC positive) ipm ipm CFH
18 ga. 0.050 1.3 fillet 0.045 1.1 280 26 350 190 25
square groove 0.045 1.1 270 25 340 180 25
16 ga. 0.063 1.6 fillet 0.045 1.1 325 26 360 150 35
square groove 0.045 1.1 300 28 350 140 35
14 ga. 0.078 2.0 fillet 0.045 1.1 325 27 360 130 35
square groove 0.045 1.1 325 29 360 110 35
square groove 0.045 1.1 330 29 350 105 35
11 ga. 0.125 3.2 fillet 1/16 1.6 380 28 210 85 35
square groove 0.045 1.1 350 29 380 100 35
3/16 0.188 4.8 fillet 1/16 1.6 425 31 260 75 35
square groove 1/16 1.6 425 30 320 76 35
square groove 1/16 1.6 375 31 260 70 35
1/4 0.250 6.4 square groove 1/16 1.6 475 32 340 55 35
1
For mild carbon and low alloy steels on square groove welds, backing is required.

Shielding Gases for Spray Transfer (GMAW)


Carbon steel 95-98% Ar/2-5% O2 Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable puddle; good coalescence and bead contour;
minimizes undercutting; permits higher speeds than pure argon.
75

90-92% Ar/8-10% CO2 High-speed mechanized welding; low-cost manual welding; pulsed welding.
Low alloy steel 98% Ar/2% O2 Minimizes undercutting; provides good toughness.

How AWS classifies mild steel flux-cored
(tublular) wires, FCAW process
E 70 T - 10 M J H8
Electrode
Tensile x 10 ksi
Position
Flux-cored (tubular) electrode
Gas type, usability and
performance capabilities
Mixed Gas: 75% - 80% Ar, balance CO2
Impacts: -20 ft.lbs. @-40F
Hydrogen: H4 = less than 4 ml/100g, HB =
less than 8 ml/100g
Position of welding, shielding, polarity, and application requirements

AWS Welding
Classification Positiona Shieldingb Currentc Applicationd
E70T-1 H and F CO2 DCEP M

E70T-1M H and F 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M

E71T-1 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP M

E71T-1M H, F, VU, OH 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M

E70T-2 H and F CO2 DCEP S

E70T-2M H and F 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP S

E71T-2 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP S

E71T-2M H, F, VU, OH 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP S

E70T-3 H and F None DCEP S

E70T-4 H and F None DCEP M

E70T-5 H and F CO2 DCEP M

E70T-5M H and F 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M

E71T-5 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP or DCENe M

E71T-5M H, F, VU, OH 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP or DCENe M

E70T-6 H and F None DCEP M

E70T-7 H and F None DCEN M

E71T-7 H, F, VU, OH None DCEN M

E70T-8 H and F None DCEN M

E71T-8 H, F, VU, OH None DCEN M

76
Position of welding, shielding, polarity, and application requirements (cont.)

AWS Welding
Classification Positiona Shieldingb Currentc Applicationd
E70T-9 H and F CO2 DCEP M

E70T-9M H and F 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M

E71T-9 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP M

E71T-9M H, F, VU, OH 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M

E70T-10 H and F None DCEN S

E70T-11 H and F None DCEN M

E71T-11 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN M

E70T-12 H and F CO2 DCEP M

E70T-12M H and F 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M

E71T-12 H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP M

E71T-12M H, F, VU, OH 75-80% Ar/bal CO2 DCEP M

E61T-13 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN S

E71T-13 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN S

E71T-14 H, F, VD, OH None DCEN S

EX0T-G H and F Not Specified Not Specified M

EX1T-G H, F, VD or VU, OH Not Specified Not Specified M

EX0T-GS H and F Not Specified Not Specified S

EX1T-GS H, F, VD or VU, OH Not Specified Not Specified S

a. H = horizontal position; F = flat position; OH = overhead position;


VD = vertical position with downward progression; VU = vertical
position with upward progression
b. Properties of weld metal from electrodes that are used with external
gas shielding (EXXT-1, EXXT-1M, EXXT-2, EXXT-2M, EXXT-5,
EXXT-5M, EXXT-9, EXXT-9M, EXXT-12, and EXXT-12M) vary
according to the shielding gas employed. Electrodes classified with
the specified shielding gas should not be used with other shielding
gases without first consulting the manufacturer of the electrode.
c. The term DCEP refers to direct current electrode positive (dc,
reverse polarity).
The term DCEN refers to direct current electrode negative (dc,
straight polarity).
d. M = single- or multiple-pass; S = single-pass only
e. Some E71T-5 and E71T-5M electrodes may be recommended for use
on DCEN for improved out-of-position welding.

77
Comparative Index of Self-Shielded Tubular Wires
AWS Class Hobart Corex ESAB Lincoln
78

E70T-4 Fabshield 4 Self-Shield 4 Coreshield 40 Innershield NS-3M


E70T-7 Fabshield 7027 Coreshield 7 Innershield NR-311
E71T-8 Fabshield XLR-8 Coreshield 8 Innershield NR-203MP, NR-232, NR-203MP
E70T-10 Coreshield 10 Innershield NR-131
E71T-11 Fabshield 21B Self-Shield 11 Coreshield 11 Innershield NR-211-MP
E71T8-K6 Fabshield 3Ni1 Innershield NR-207, NR-203
E71T-GS Fabshield 23 Self-Shield 11 GS Coreshield 15 Innershield NR-151, NR-152, NR-157, NR-204-H
Comparative Index of Gas-Shielded Tubular Wires
AWS Class Hobart Corex ESAB Lincoln tri-mark
E70C-6M FabCOR 86R Metal-Cor 6, 6L Coreweld 70, Coreweld Ultra MC-710 Metalloy 70, 71, 76
E70T-1 FabCO RXR Flux-Cor 7 Dual Shield 111 A-C, R-70 Outershield 70 TM-11, TM-RX7
FabCO TR-70 Super-Cor
E70T-5 FabCO 85 Dual Shield T-75 Outershield 75 TM-55
E71T-1 (C O2 ) EXCEL-ARC 71 Verti-Cor I Dual Shield 7100 Ultra Outershield TM-711M, Triple 7
Versatile 71, 71M
E71T-1 EXCEL-ARC 71 Verti-Cor I Dual Shield 7000 Outershield 71, 71M TM-711M, Triple 7
(75 Ar/25 CO 2 ) Versatile Dual Shield 7100 Ultra
E71T-1 (CO2 ) FORMULA XL-550 Dual Shield II-71 Ultra Outershield 71M-H
Low H2 , J class
E71T-1(75 Ar/25 CO2 ) FORMULA XL-525 Verti-Cor 70 Dual Shield II-70 UltraCore 71 TM-770
Low H2 , J class Dual Shield II-70T12 Ultra
E81T1-Ni1 FORMULA XL8Ni1 Dual Shield II-80-Ni Outershield 81Ni1-H TM-81N1, TM-811N1
Dual Shield 8000C3
E81T1-Ni2 Verti-Cor 81Ni2 Dual Shield 8000-Ni2 TM-81N2, TM-811N2
E110T5-K4 FabCO 115 Dual Shield T-115 TM-115
Hobart Filler Metals
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
The information contained or otherwise referenced herein is presented only as typical
without guarantee or warranty, and Hobart Brothers Company expressly disclaims any liability
incurred from any reliance theron. Typical data are those obtained when welded and tested in
accordance with AWS specifications. Other tests and procedures may produce different results.
No data is to be construed as a recommendation for any welding condition or technique
not controlled by Hobart Brothers Company.

Pipemaster 60 Pipemaster 70
AWS A5.1 - E6010 AWS A5.5 - E7010-P1
You can rely on the performance of the The Pipemaster 70, an all-position cel-
Pipemaster 60 for quick starting, excellent lulosic mild steel electrode, is excellent for
arc stability, superior arc drive (penetra- producing X-ray quality welds. Its quick
tion), light slag, and excellent wash-in. An starting with excellent arc stability, superior
all-position cellulosic mild steel electrode, penetration, light slag and excellent wash-
it outdoes itself in producing X-ray quality in. Pipemaster 70 can also help you handle
welds. vertical down welding on all passes with 5L,
5LX and X52 through X65 pipe.
Typical applications:
Construction and shipbuilding, general- Typical applications:
purpose fabrication, maintenance welding, Drill platforms, pipeline welding using
out-of-position X-ray welds, pipe welding, downhill travel, shipbuilding, storage tanks,
vertical and overhead plate welding welding of high-yield pipe steels

Typical weld metal properties (Chem Typical weld metal properties


Pad): (Chem Pad):
Carbon................................. .06 AWS Spec
Manganese...................... .40 Carbon................................. .10 .20
Silicon.................................. .20 Manganese........................ .85 1.20
Silicon.................................. .40 .60
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Nickel................................... .55 1.00
AWS Spec Molybdenum.................... .10 .50
Tensile Strength (psi) 76,000 60,000 Phosphorus....................... .01 .03
Yield Strength (psi) 61,000 48,000 Sulphur................................ .01 .03
Elongation % in 2 26% 22% Chromium.......................... .02 .30
Reduction of Area 64% Vanadium........................... . .10

Typical Charpy V-notch impact values Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec
(AW):
Avg. at -20F 34 ft.lb. Tensile Strength (psi) 87,000 70,000
Yield Strength (psi) 71,000 60,000
Available diameter and Elongation % in 2 26% 22%
recommended operating ranges: Reduction of Area 63%
3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 40-70 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................65-130 amps Typical Charpy V-notch impact values
5/32 (4.0 mm).............................90-175 amps (AW):AWS Spec
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................140-225 amps Avg. at -20F 35 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
Avg. at -40F 25 ft.lb.
Type of current: DCEP
Available diameter and recommended
operating ranges:
1/8(3.2 mm)....................................70-140 amps
5/32(4.0 mm)..................................80-190 amps
3/16(4.8 mm)................................120-230 amps
Type of current: DCEP
79
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Pipemaster 80 Pipemaster Pro-60
AWS a5.5 - E8010-P1 AWS A5.1 - E6010
With features like quick starting, excellent arc Pipemaster Pro-60 is a quick-starting, cel-
stability, superior penetration, light slag, and lulosic mild steel electrode that provides you
excellent wash-in, the Pipemaster 80 is great with outstanding arc stability, penetration
for a variety of jobs. This all-position cellulosic and wash-in. Its ideal for welding in all posi-
mild steel electrode gets a handle on vertical tions and produces an X-ray quality weld with
down welding on all passes with X56 through light slag thats easy to remove. Pipemaster
X70 pipe. And with good low-temperature im- Pro-60 can be used to weld the following API
pact properties, it can be used on pipe steels 5L steels: Grade A, B. X42, X46, X52, X56 and
with relatively high silicon (up to .30). for the root pass on material up to X80. It
features enhanced weldability and increased
Typical applications:
physical properties.
Drill platforms, pipe welding using
downhill travel, shipbuilding, storage tanks, Typical applications:
welding of high-yield pipe steels Pipes, plates, construction, shipbuilding,
and general purpose fabrication and
Typical weld metal properties
maintenance welding.
(Chem Pad):
Typical weld metal properties
AWS Spec
Carbon................................. .13 .20 (Chem Pad):
Manganese........................ .53 1.20 Carbon................................. .15
Silicon.................................. .12 .60 Manganese........................ .45
Nickel................................... .65 1.00 Silicon.................................. .15
Molybdenum.................... .10 .50 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Phosphorus....................... .01 .03 AWS Spec
Sulphur................................ .01 .03 Tensile Strength (psi) 72,000 60,000
Chromium.......................... .03 .30 Yield Strength (psi) 60,000 48,000
Vanadium................................ .10 Elongation % in 2 25% 22%
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Reduction of Area 55% not required
AWS Spec
Typical Charpy V-notch
Tensile Strength (psi) 92,000 80,000
Yield Strength (psi) 76,000 67,000 impact values (AW):
Elongation % in 2 23% 19% Avg. at -20F 35 ft.lbs. 20 ft.lbs.
Reduction of Area 60%
Available diameter and
Typical Charpy V-notch recommended operating ranges:
impact values (AW): 3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 40-70 amps
AWS Spec 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................65-130 amps
Avg. at -20F 30 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb. 5/32 (4.0 mm) ..........................90 - 175 amps
Avg. at -50F 25 ft.lb. 3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................140-225 amps
Available diameter and Type of current: DCEP
recommended operating ranges:
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................70-140 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm).............................80-190 amps For more information:
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................130-240 amps
http://www.hobartbrothers.com
Type of current: DCEP

80
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hobart 335A Hobart 335C
AWS A5.1 - E6011 AWS A5.1 - E6011
Stable arc characteristics and good penetra- Hobart 335C is an all-position, cellulosic
tion are what you can expect to get from Ho- electrode that delivers the ultimate in opera-
bart 335A electrode. Designed for use with AC tor appeal. Not only will you get a smooth,
power sources, Hobart 335A has high opera- stable arc that is easy to control, but you will
tor appeal and produces a fine spray transfer also have the ability to weld through paint,
that is ideal for all welding positions. mill scale or rust. Designed for use with AC
power sources, Hobart 335C provides excel-
Typical applications:
lent penetration, and heavier slag coverage
General fabrication, railroad cars, shipbuild-
than its closest relative, Hobart 335A.
ing, structural work, piping, galvanized steel
work. Typical applications:
General construction, light sheet metal
Typical weld metal properties
fabrication, maintenance and repair weld-
(Chem Pad): ing, shipyards, welding on galvanized steels,
Carbon................................. .14 welding through paint, mill scale, or rust
Manganese........................ .47
Silicon.................................. .18 Typical weld metal properties
Phosphorus....................... .009 (Chem Pad):
Sulphur................................ .009 Carbon................................. .10
Manganese........................ .50
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Silicon.................................. .20
AWS Spec
Phosphorus....................... .015
Tensile Strength (psi) 77,700 60,000 Sulphur................................ .020
Yield Strength (psi) 63,200 48,000
Elongation % in 2 25% 22% Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Reduction of Area 22-63% AWS Spec
Tensile Strength (psi) 82,000 60,000
Typical Charpy V-notch
Yield Strength (psi) 68,000 48,000
impact values (AW): Elongation % in 2 26% 22%
AWS Spec Reduction of Area 35-70%
Avg. at -20F 30 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
Typical Charpy V-notch
Available diameter and
recommended operating ranges: impact values (AW):
3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 60-90 amps Avg. at -20F 45 ft.lb. 20 ft.lbs.
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................80-125 amps Available diameter and recommended
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps operating ranges:
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-190 amps 3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 60-90 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................80-125 amps
Type of current: AC or DCEP 5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-190 amps
Type of current: AC or DCEP
For more information:
http://www.hobartbrothers.com

81
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hobart 447A Hobart 447C
AWS A5.1 - E6013 AWS A5.1 - E6013
When poor fit-up conditions exist, youll A soft arc AWS E6013 electrode, Hobart 447C
prefer the fast-freeze characteristics of Hobart is the best way to take control of poor fit-up
447A. Whether put to use with AC or DC power conditions. It has fast-freeze characteristics
sources, the 447A has a very stable arc and giving it preferred operator appeal. Its ver-
good bead appearance. satility extends to use with AC or DC power
sources and low open-circuit voltage AC
Typical applications:
machines.
General purpose fabrication, machine
parts, metal buildings and structures, shaft Typical applications:
buildup General-purpose fabrication, machine
parts, metal buildings and structures, shaft
Typical weld metal properties
buildup
(Chem Pad):
Carbon . .............................. .10 Typical weld metal properties
Manganese........................ .28 (Chem Pad):
Silicon.................................. .27 Carbon................................. .10
Phosphorus....................... .012 Manganese........................ .48
Sulphur................................ .016 Silicon.................................. .35
Phosphorus....................... .019
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Sulphur................................ .022
AWS Spec
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Tensile Strength (psi) 72,600 60,000
Yield Strength (psi) 61,300 48,000 AWS Spec
Elongation % in 2 26.5% 17% Tensile Strength (psi) 70,000 60,000
Reduction of Area 25-55% Yield Strength (psi) 65,000 48,000
Elongation % in 2 20-28% 17%
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values: Typical Charpy V-notch
Not applicable impact values:
Available diameter and Not applicable
recommended operating ranges: Available diameter and
3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 40-80 amps recommended operating ranges:
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................70-120 amps 3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 40-85 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................70-120 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................140-220 amps 5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps
Type of current: AC, DCEN Type of current: AC, DCEN
or DCEP or DCEP

82
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hobart 1139 Hobart 14A
AWS A5.1 - E6022 AWS A5.1 - E7014
When you want to get a handle on roof deck- When you are tackling jobs where higher
ing, you can rely on Hobart 1139. It is a very deposition and speed of travel is needed,
fluid electrode designed for welding roof the Hobart 14A is the electrode to choose. An
decking to support beams with burn-through all-position electrode, Hobart 14A is equipped
spot welds. You can also rely on the 1139 for with a rutile base and iron powder addition
rapid downhill welding when joining light- to increase deposition rates and give operator
gauge materials. appeal. This electrode offers outstanding slag
removal and bead appearance and can be
Typical applications:
operated with DCEN, DCEP or AC power.
Rapid downhill welding, roof decking ,
sheet metal Typical applications:
Frames, heavy sheet metal, machine bases
Typical weld metal properties
(Chem Pad): Typical weld metal properties
Carbon................................. .18 (Chem Pad):
Manganese........................ .25 AWS Spec
Silicon.................................. .15 Carbon .06
Phosphorus....................... .015 Manganese .54 1.25 max
Sulphur................................ .017 Silicon .35 .90 max
Phosphorus .026
Typical mechanical properties: Sulphur .013
Transverse tensile strength exceeds
60,000 psi Typical mechanical properties
Typical Charpy V-notch (AW):
AWS Spec
impact values:
Not applicable Tensile Strength (psi) 79,000 70,000
Yield Strength (psi) 68,100 58,000
Available diameter and Elongation % in 2 27.5% 17%
recommended operating ranges: Reduction of Area 33-55%
1/8 (3.2 mm)...........................110-150 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................150-180 amps Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values:
Type of current: DCEN or AC Not applicable
Available diameter and recommended
operating ranges
3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 70-90 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm)...........................120-145 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................140-210 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................180-280 amps
Type of current: AC, DCEN
or DCEP
For more information:
http://www.hobartbrothers.com

83
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hobart 24 Hobart 418
AWS A5.1 - E7024, E7024-1 AWS A5.1 - E7018-1 H4R
If you want speed, the Hobart 24 high-speed A general purpose electrode that allows you
electrode has it. Hobart 24 is exceptionally fast to tackle a wide variety of welding projects.
when used down hand in properly designed You will get superior weldability from this
weld joints or in horizontal fillet welds where low hydroge, mild steel electrode. It provides
equal leg fillets are desirable. It has excellent excellent start and restart capabilities and
operation on either AC or DCEN power with smooth and virtually spatter-free arc. It has
a drag welding technique. It also meets AWS a very flat bead shape with fine ripple ap-
E7024-1 impact requirements. pearance. Slag removal is one fo the best
and in many cases is self-peeling. Operates
Typical applications: smoothly, even on somewhat dirty or rusty
Earthmoving equipment, mining machinery, surfaces. A low-moisture absorbing product
plate fabrication, railroad cars, structurals, that can be exposed to higher temperatures
shipbuilding, and mobile trailers. and humidity over 8 hours and meet AWS
Typical weld metal properties requirements.
(Chem Pad): Typical applications:
AWS Spec Field erections, shipbuilding, structurals,
Carbon .06 offshore rigs, powerplants.
Manganese .81 1.25 max
Silicon .43 .90 max
Typical weld metal properties
Phosphorus .018 (Chem Pad):
Sulphur .019 AWS Spec
Carbon..................................02 .15
Typical mechanical properties Manganese........................ 1.06 1.60
(AW): Silicon ................. .50 .75
AWS Spec Phosphorus....................... .011 .035
Tensile Strength (psi) 82,000 70,000 Sulphur................................ .014 .035
Yield Strength (psi) 72,000 58,000 Nickel................................... .07 .30
Elongation % in 2 25% 22% Molybdenum.................... .01 .30
Reduction of Area 20-40% Chromium.......................... .01 .08
Mn+Ni+Cr+Mo+V ..........1.28 1.75
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values Typical mechanical properties
(AW) for E7024-1: (AW):
AWS Spec
AWS Spec
Tensile Strength (psi) 78,500 70,000
Avg. at 0F 42 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
Yield Strength (psi) 65,500 58,000
Available diameter and recommended Elongation % in 2 28% 22%
operating ranges: Reduction of Area 72%
1/8 (3.2 mm)...........................130-150 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................180-225 amps Typical Charpy V-notch impact values
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-280 amps
7/32 (5.6 mm)...........................250-320 amps
1/4 (6.4 mm)...........................300-360 amps
Type of current: DCEN or AC

84
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hobart 718MC
Hobart Rocket 7024
AWS A5.1 - E7018 H4R, E7018-1 H4R AWS A5.1 - E7024 (E4824)
Designed to provide improved deposition Hobart Rocket 7024 is a newly engineered
rates, bead appearance and operator appeal electrode dedsigned to provide the user with
over other electrodes of the same class when outstanding features in several important
welding in low-temperature environments areas. It is engineered with a slag system to
where low temperature impacts are impor- provide the easiest slag removal and in most
tant. Ideal for the welding of enameling steels, cases is self-peeling. Spatter levels are ex-
free machining steels, and low, medium or tremely low. It has a super smooth soft arc and
high carbon steels, Excellent moisture resis- is less harsh than other E7024 products.
tance, good out-of-position welding capabili-
Rocket 7024 is more forgiving than other
ties and X-ray quality weld deposit.
E7024 products when the material being
Typical applications: welded is moderately rusty or isnt as clean
Offshore rigs, shipbuilding, boiler code ap- as it should be. It can be used with a drag
plications, field erections, steel structures, welding technique and operates equally well
petro-chemical plants, power plants, railroad on either AC or DC-EN power.
and locomotive construction.
Typical weld metal properties Typical applications:
(Chem Pad): Plate fabrication, tank fabrication, barge
AWS Spec construction, construction, and earth mov-
Carbon................................. .04 .15 ing equipment.
Manganese........................ .98 1.60 Typical weld metal properties
Silicon.................................. .61 .75 (Chem Pad):
Phosphorus....................... .011 .035 AWS Spec
Sulphur................................ .010 .035 Carbon................................. .074
Nickel................................... .08 .30 Manganese........................ .680 1.25 max
Chromium.......................... .08 .20 Silicon.................................. .406 .90 max
Molybdenum.................... .02 .30 Phosphorus....................... .012
Vanadium........................... .01 .08 Sulphur................................ .014
Mn+Ni+Cr+Mo+V...........1.17 1.75
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Typical mechanical properties (AW):
AWS Spec AWS Spec
Tensile Strength (psi) 77,700 70,000 Tensile Strength (psi) 76,000 70,000
Yield Strength (psi) 62,100 58,000 Yield Strength (psi) 68,000 58,000
Elongation % in 2 30% 22% Elongation % in 2 19% 17%
Reduction of Area 68% Reduction of Area 30-40%
Typical Charpy V-notch Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (AW): impact values (AW):
AWS Spec AWS Spec Avg. at 0F (-18 C) 40 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F 123 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
Avg. at -50F 93 ft.lb. Available diameter and recommended
Available diameter and recommended operating ranges:
operating ranges: 1/8 (3.2 mm)...........................130-170 amps
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps 5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................180-245 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-165 amps 3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................125-220 amps 1/4 (6.4 mm)...........................300-380 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-300 amps Type of current: DCEN, AC or DCEP
1/4 (6.4 mm)...........................270-380 amps
Type of current: DCEP or AC
85
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hobart 18AC Hoballoy 7018A1
AWS A5.1 - E7018 H8 AWS A5.5 - E7018-A1 H4R
A low-hydrogen electrode, Hobart 18AC is Hoballoy 7018A1 is an outstanding welding
designed for welding low, medium, and high- electrode for welding the 0.50% molybdenum
carbon steels as well as some high-strength, steel and other low alloy steels. The coating
low-alloy steels. It is also excellent for skip is specially formulated to resist moisture pick-
or tack welds and is highly recommended up of high heat and humidity. The electrode
for applications using small 208/230V, single- offers resistance to moisture reabsorption
phase AC welders. Hobart 18AC produces which helps prevent hydrogen cracking
a smooth, stable arc and has outstanding and aids in elimination of starting porosity.
restriking capabilities. Although it is designed Definitely a preferred electrode with high
for use with AC power sources, Hobart 18AC operator appeal.
also works exceptionally well on DC utility-
type welders.
Typical applications:
Pressure vessel applications including
Typical applications: construction and maintenance of boilers,
Low, medium, and high carbon steels, skip or piping, and tubing.
tack welds, shops, farms and hobbyists, some
high-strength low alloy steels.
Typical weld metal properties
(Chem Pad):
Typical weld metal properties AWS Spec
(Chem Pad): Carbon................................. .04 .12 max
AWS Spec
Manganese........................ .72 .90 max
Carbon................................. .04 .15
Silicon.................................. .31 .80 max
Manganese........................ .67 1.60
Phosphorus....................... .014 .03 max
Silicon.................................. .29 .75
Sulphur................................ .011 .03 max
Phosphorus........................008 .035
Molybdenum.................... .54 .40 - .65
Sulphur.................................010 .035
Chromium.......................... .07 .20 Typical mechanical properties
Molybdenum.................... .01 .30 (stress relieve 1 hour @ 1150F):
Nickel................................... .08 .30 AWS Spec
Vanadium........................... .02 .03 Tensile Strength (psi) 89,000 70,000
Mn+Ni+Cr+Mo+V............85 1.75 Yield Strength (psi) 77,000 57,000
Elongation % in 2 27% 25%
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
AWS Spec
Typical Charpy V-notch
Tensile Strength (psi) 81,200 70,000
Yield Strength (psi) 73,100 58,000 impact values (AW):
Avg. at -20F 102 ft.lb.
Elongation % in 2 29.5% 22%
Avg. at -40F 42 ft.lb.
Reduction of Area 75%
Available diameter and
Typical Charpy V-notch recommended operating ranges:
impact values (AW): 3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
AWS Spec
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
Avg. at -20F 57 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
Available diameter and recommended
operating ranges: Type of current: DCEP or AC
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-165 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................125-220 amps
Type of current: AC, DCEN or DCEP

86
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hoballoy 8018B2 Hoballoy 8018B2L
AWS A5.5 - E8018-B2 H4R AWS A5.5 - E8018-B2L H4R
Hoballoy 8018B2 is an outstanding electrode Hoballoy 8018B2L is an outstanding electrode
for welding higher strength steels requir- for welding higher strength steels requiring
ing tensile strengths of 80,000 lbs. or more. tensile strengths greater than 80,000 lbs. It
Ideal for welding in conditions of high heat offers good arc characteristics and easy slag
or humidity, it features a specially formulated removal. The coating is specially formulated
coating thats designed to reduce moisture to resist moisture pick-up under condisions
pick-up and thus help keep hydrogen crack- of high heat and humditiy. This electrode,
ing and starting porosity to a minimum. with high operator appeal, offers resistance
Definitely a preferred electrode with high to moisture reabsorption which helps prevent
operator appeal. hydrogen cracking and aids in elimination of
starting porosity.
Typical applications:
Fabrication and maintenance of boilers and Typical applications:
associated piping, steels such as 1-1/4 Cr1/2 Fabrication and maintenance of
Mo and 1/2 Cr1/2 Mo areproperly welded boilers and associated piping and steels
with Hoballoy 8018B2. such as 1-1/4 Cr1/2 Mo and 1/2 Cr1/2 Mo.
Typical weld metal properties Typical weld metal properties
(Chem Pad): (Chem Pad):
AWS Spec AWS Spec
Carbon................................. .07 .12 max Carbon................................. .04 .05 max
Manganese........................ .71 .90 max Manganese........................ .65 .90 max
Silicon.................................. .62 .80 max Silicon.................................. .53 .80 max
Phosphorus....................... .010 .03 max Phosphorus....................... .011 .03 max
Sulphur................................ .009 .03 max Sulphur................................ .012 .03 max
Chromium.......................... 1.30 1.00-1.50 Chromium.......................... 1.36
Molybdenum.................... .55 .40 - .65 1.00-1.50
Molybdenum.................... .62 .40-.65
Typical mechanical properties
(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F): Typical mechanical properties
AWS Spec (stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F):
Tensile Strength (psi) 102,000 80,000 AWS Spec
Yield Strength (psi) 91,000 67,000 Tensile Strength (psi) 98,000 80,000
Elongation % in 2 21% 19% Yield Strength (psi) 84,000 67,000
Elongation % in 2 24% 19%
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (SR): Typical Charpy V-notch
Avg. at -20F 42 ft.lb. impact values (AW):
Avg. at -40F 35 ft.lb. Avg. at -20F 46 ft.lb.
Available diameter and recommended Avg. at -40F 30 ft.lb.
operating ranges: Available diameter and
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps recommended operating ranges:
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps 3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps 5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
Type of current: DCEP or AC
1/4 (6.4 mm)...........................300-400 amps
For more information: Type of current: DCEP or AC
http://www.hobartbrothers.com
87
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hoballoy 8018C1 Hoballoy 8018C3
AWS A5.5 - E8018-C1 H4R AWS A5.5 - E8018-C3 H4R
Hoballoy 8018C1 is a high-quality electrode This is an outstanding electrode that is de-
thats designed for applications of 2% nickel signed for 80,000 tensile strength applications
deposits. The outstanding characteristics of and also 1% nickel applications. It provides
this electrode provide good puddle control excellent puddle control with good wetting
with excellent wetting action and tie in. This action and tie in. The electrode offers good
electrode, with high operator appeal, of- arc characteristics and easy slag removal.
fers good arc characteristics and easly slag The coating is specially formulated to resist
removal. The Hoballoy 8018C1 will provide conditions of high heat and humidity. The
notch toughness of 20 ft.lbs. at -75F. electrode, with high operator appeal, offers
The coating is specially formulated to resist resistance to moisture reabsorption, helps
moisture reabsorption, helps retard hydrogen prevent hydrogen cracking and aids in elimi-
cracking and aids in elimination of starting nating starting porosity.
porosity.
Typical applications:
Typical applications: Commercial and military applications using
Welding of nickel-bearing steels for low 80,000, tensile steels.
temperature applications where toughness
Typical weld metal properties
of the weld metal is important, including
shipbuilding, storage, piping, and tanks (Chem Pad):
used in the storage of gases. AWS Spec
Carbon................................. .05 .12 max
Typical weld metal properties Manganese........................ 1.03 .40-1.25
(Chem Pad): Silicon.................................. .26 .80 max
AWS Spec Phosphorus....................... .012 .03 max
Carbon................................. .042 .12 max Sulphur................................ .009 .03 max
Manganese........................ .95 1.25 max Nickel................................... .96 .80-1.10
Silicon.................................. .36 .80 max Chromium.......................... .07 .15 max
Phosphorus....................... .010 .03 max Molybdenum.................... .010 .35 max
Sulphur................................ .011 .03 max Vanadium........................... .02 .05 max
Nickel................................... 2.43 2.00-2.75
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Typical mechanical properties AWS Spec
(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1150F): Tensile Strength (psi) 82,000 80,000
AWS Spec Yield Strength (psi) 70,000 68,000-
Tensile Strength (psi) 91,000 80,000 80,000
Yield Strength (psi) 80,000 67,000 Elongation % in 2 28% 24%
Elongation % in 2 26% 19%
Typical Charpy V-notch
Typical Charpy V-notch impact values (AW):
impact values (SR): AWS Spec
AWS Spec Avg. at -40F 95 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
Avg. at -75F 50 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb. Available diameter and
Available diameter and recommended operating ranges:
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
recommended operating ranges:
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps Type of current: DCEP or AC
Type of current: DCEP or AC
88
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hoballoy 9018B3 Hoballoy 9018B3L
AWS A5.5 - E9018-B3 H4R AWS A5.5 - E9018-B3L h4R
Hoballoy 9018B3 is an outstanding welding Hoballoy 9018B3L is an outstanding electrode
electrode for welding higher strength pip- for welding high-strength piping where crack-
ing, castings, and forgings. The coating is ing is a problem. It provides excellent notch
specially formulated to resist moisture pick-up toughness, 20 ft.-lbs minimum at 100 degrees
under conditions of high heat and humidity. F. The coating is specially formulated to re-
The electrode offers resistance to moisture duce moisture pick-up which makes it ideal
reabsorption which helps prevent hydrogen for conditions of high heat and humidity and
cracking and aids in elimination of starting for minimizing hydrogen cracking and start-
porosity. Definitely a preferred electrode ing porosity. Definitely a perferred electrode
with high operator appeal. This product has with high operator appeal.
excellent arc characteristics, low spatter and
Typical applications:
smoke level, and easy slag removal. It has a
Chrome-moly pipes, boiler work
stable, easy to control arc and is resistant to
hydrogen-induced cracking. Typical weld metal properties
Typical applications: (Chem Pad):
Chrome-moly pipes and boiler work AWS Spec
Carbon................................. .03 .05 max
Typical weld metal properties Manganese........................ .61 .90 max
(Chem Pad): Silicon.................................. .39 .80 max
AWS Spec Phosphorus....................... .02 .03 max
Carbon................................. .08 .05-.12 Sulphur................................ .01 .03 max
Manganese........................ .72 .90 max Chromium.......................... 2.10 2.00-2.50
Silicon.................................. .42 .80 max Molybdenum.................... .99 .90-1.20
Phosphorus....................... .014 .03 max Typical mechanical properties
Sulphur................................ .009 .03 max (stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F):
Chromium.......................... 2.28 2.00-2.50 AWS Spec
Molybdenum....................1.19 .90-1.20 Tensile Strength (psi) 102,000 90,000
Yield Strength (psi) 85,000 77,000
Typical mechanical properties Elongation % in 2 21% 17%
(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F):
AWS Spec Typical Charpy V-notch
Tensile Strength (psi) 112,000 90,000 impact values (AW):
Yield Strength (psi) 95,000 77,000 Avg. at -20F 25 ft.lb.
Elongation % in 2 21% 17%
Available diameter and
recommended operating ranges:
Typical Charpy V-notch 3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
impact values (AW): 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
Avg. at -40F 24 ft.lb. 5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
Available diameter and
recommended operating ranges: Type of current: DCEP or AC
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps For more information:
Type of current: DCEP or AC http://www.hobartbrothers.com

89
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hoballoy 9018M Hoballoy 10018D2
AWS A5.5 - E9018-M h4R AWS a5.5 - E10018-D2 h4R
Hoballoy 9018M is an outstanding electrode A high-quality electrode that is designed
thats designed for applications requiring for the welding of high tensile steels and
tensile strengths in excess of 90,000 psi. An manganese-molybdenum steels. It has high
ideal choice for conditions of high heat and operator appeal and offers a wide variety
humidity, The 9018M has a specially formu- of welding advantages including good arc
lated coating that reduces moisture pick-up characteristics, ductility, crack-resistance, easy
which helps to minimize hydrogen cracking slag removal, and low spatter and smoke. It is
and starting porosity. an ideal choice for conditions of high heat and
humidity because it features a special coating
Typical applications: thats designed to reduce moisture pick-up
Joining HY-90, HY-80, T-1, and other high-
which also helps to minimize hydrogen crack-
tensile steels.
ing and starting porosity.
Typical weld metal properties Typical applications:
(Chem Pad): M anganese-moly castings, alloy forgings,
AWS Spec structures, pressure vessel applications
Carbon................................. .054 .10 max in either the as welded or stress-relieved
Manganese........................ 1.10 .60-1.25 condition
Silicon.................................. .27 .80 max
Phosphorus....................... .012 .03 max Typical weld metal properties
Sulphur................................ .009 .03 max (Chem Pad):
Nickel................................... 1.64 1.40-1.80 AWS Spec
Chromium.......................... .07 .15 max Carbon................................. .11 .15 max
Molybdenum.................... .35 .35 max Manganese........................ 1.71 1.69-2.00
Vanadium........................... .012 .05 max Silicon.................................. .24 .80 max
Phosphorus....................... .014 .03 max
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Sulphur................................ .010 .03 max
AWS Spec Nickel................................... .09 .90 max
Tensile Strength (psi) 100,000 90,000 Molybdenum.................... .40 .25-.45
Yield Strength (psi) 89,000 78,000-
90,000 Typical mechanical properties
Elongation % in 2 24% 24% (stress relieve 1 hour @ 1150F):
AWS Spec
Typical Charpy V-notch Tensile Strength (psi) 104,000 100,000
impact values (AW): Yield Strength (psi) 88,000 87,000
Elongation % in 2 22% 16%
AWS Spec
Avg. at -60F 56 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
Typical Charpy V-notch
Available diameter and recommended
operating ranges: impact values (AW):
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps AWS Spec
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps Avg. at -60F 30 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.
5/32 (4.0 mm)..........................130-220 amps Available diameter and recommended
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps operating ranges:
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
Type of current: DCEP or AC
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
Type of current: DCEP or AC

90
Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Hoballoy 11018M Hoballoy 12018M
AWS A5.5 - E11018-m h4r AWS A5.5 - E12018-M h4r
Designed for military applications and Hoballoy12018M is designed for welding
other projects that require weld joints with high tensile steels requiring weld joints with
minimum tensile strength of 100,000 psi, this tensile strengths of 120,000 psi. It offers a
electrode provides excellent puddle control wide variety of welding advantages that
with good wetting action and tie in. It pro- include: good arc characteristics, ductility,
vides good arc characteristics and easy slag crack-resistance, easy slag removal, and low
removal, good ductility and crack resistance, spatter and smoke. The coating is specially
low spatter and smoke level, with a stable, formulated to resist conditions of high heat
easy to control arc. and humidity.The electrode offers resistance
to moisture reabsorption which helps retard
Typical applications: hydrogen cracking and aids in eliminating
Low-alloy steels including HY-80, HY-90, starting porosity.
HY-100 and T-1 Typical applications:
Low-alloy steels, forgings, castings, plate
Typical weld metal properties and pressure vessels.
(Chem Pad):
Typical weld metal properties
AWS Spec
(Chem Pad):
Carbon................................. .05 .10 max
AWS Spec
Manganese........................ 1.40 1.30-1.80
Silicon.................................. .028 .60 max Carbon................................. .06 .10 max
Nickel .................................. 1.85 1.25-2.50 Manganese........................ 1.91 1.30-2.25
Phosphorus....................... .014 .03 max Silicon.................................. .32 .60 max
Sulphur................................ .014 .03 max Phosphorus....................... .016 .03 max
Molybdenum.................... .33 .25-.50 Sulphur................................ .011 .03 max
Chromium.......................... .20 .40 max Nickel .................................. 2.34 1.75-2.10
Vanadium........................... .010 .05 max Molybdenum.................... .46 .30-.55
Chromium.......................... .66 .30-1.50

Typical mechanical properties (AW): Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec AWS Spec
Tensile Strength (psi) 110,000 110,000 Tensile Strength (psi) 138,000 120,000
Yield Strength (psi) 101,000 98,000- Yield Strength (psi) 116,000 108,000-
110,000 120,000
Elongation % in 2 21% 20% Elongation % in 2 21% 18%

Typical Charpy V-notch Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW): impact values (AW):
AWS Spec
AWS Spec
Avg. at -60F 52 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb. Avg. at -60F 47 ft.lb. 20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges: Available diameter and
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................75-115 amps recommended operating ranges:
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps 3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps 5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
1/4 (6.4 mm)...........................300-400 amps 3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
Type of current: DCEP or AC Type of current: DCEP or AC
91
Stainless Steel Electrodes
McKay 308/308H SterlingAP McKay 309H Sterling AP
AWS A5.4 - E308-16 & E308h-16 AWS A5.4 - E309-16
Excellent for use on Type 301, 302, 304, The moisture resistant, all-position 309 (H)
305 and 308 base metals, the 308/308H Sterling AP electrode is primarily designed
Sterling AP is specially formulated with for welding. Type 309 metal but can also be
more than .04 carbon to provide maximum used for 18-8 clad steels or dissimilar materials
elevated temperature strength. It has a if the alloy content is sufficiently high for a
smooth running arc that results in a uniform sound, ductile deposit. It yields a uniform weld
weld bead that is flat to slightly convex. It is bead that is flat to slightly convex. Note: Ac-
also ideal for use as an intermediate layer tual certs are included in every master carton
prior to the deposit of hard-facing materi- of stainless stick electrodes at no charge.
als. It yields a concave weld bead that is
smooth and refined. Note: Actual certs are Typical applications:
included in every master carton of stainless Food and beverage, petrochemical plants,
pulp and paper, other general fabrication on
stick electrodes at no charge.
stainless steel.
Typical applications: Typical weld metal properties
Food and beverage, petrochemical plants,
pulp and paper, other general fabrication on (Chem Pad):
stainless steel. E308-16
Carbon................................. .05 .08 max
Typical weld metal properties Manganese........................ 1.05 .5-2.25
(Chem Pad): Phosphorus....................... .020 .04 max
E308-16 Sulphur................................ .016 .03 max
Carbon................................. .06 .08 max Silicon.................................. .56 .90 max
Manganese........................ 1.00 .5-2.25 Copper................................. .10 .75 max
Phosphorus....................... .018 .04 max Chromium..........................23.50 22.0-25.0
Sulphur................................ .013 .03 max Nickel .................................. 13.00 12.0-14.0
Silicon.................................. .50 .90 max Molybdenum.................... .10 .75 max
Copper................................. .10 .75 max
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Chromium..........................19.50 18.0-21.0
AWS Spec.
Nickel .................................. 9.80 9.0-11.0
Molybdenum.................... .10 .75 max Tensile Strength (psi) 88,000 80,000
Yield Strength (psi) 67,000 not req.
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Elongation % in 2 37% 30%
E308-16 DeLong Ferrite Range 6-15 not req.
Tensile Strength (psi) 86,000 80,000
Yield Strength (psi) 65,000 not req. Available diameter and
Elongation % in 2 41% 35% recommended operating ranges:
DeLong Ferrite Range 4-10 not req. 3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps
Available diameter and 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
recommended operating ranges: 5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps 3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps 1/4 (6.4 mm)..................................180-225 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
Type of current: DCEP or AC
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps
1/4 (6.4 mm)..................................180-225 amps
Type of current: DCEP or AC Detailed data sheets may be found at
Note: Sterling is a registered trademark of
Hobart Brothers Company
www.hobartbrothers.com

92
Stainless Steel Electrodes
McKay 310 AC-DC McKay 312 AC-DC
AWS A5.4 - E310-16 AWS A5.4 - E312-16
The all position 310 AC-DC is ideal for Ideal for new fabrication or repair mainte-
welding base metal of similar composi- nance applications, 312 AC-DC is designed
tion, when the stainless base metal is of for welding dissimilar joints of Type 312
unknown composition, as well as for dis- metals. 312 AC-DC can be used on hard-
similar metals. Also excellent for welding enable steels, steel armor and generally
and building up parts for heat treatment and hardto weld steels, offering outstanding
case hardening furnaces, cement kilns and performance with a directional arc and
other burners subject to high temperature self-detaching slag. With capabilities con-
oxidation in a non-sulphurous atmosphere sidered equal to special maintenance
It has a smooth running arc that results in a electrodes, 312 AC-DC is available at much
uniform bead that is flat to slightly convex. less than the special maintenance price. It
Note: Actual certs are included in every has a smooth running arc that results in a
master carton of stainless stick electrodes uniform bead that is flat to slightly convex.
at no charge.
Typical applications:
Typical applications: Joining dissimilar steels or hard-to-weld
Fabrication of preheater tubes for pressure steels. Single and multiple pass DCEP, AC.
vessels and other high temperature ap-
plications. Typical weld metal properties
(Chem Pad):
Typical weld metal properties E308-16
(Chem Pad): Carbon................................. .07 .15 max
E308-16 Manganese........................ .80 .05-2.5
Carbon................................. .14 .08-.20 max Phosphorus....................... .015 .04 max
Manganese........................ 2.02 1.0-2.5 Sulphur................................ .017 .03 max
Phosphorus....................... .015 .03 max Silicon.................................. .40 .90 max
Sulphur................................ .015 .03 max Copper................................. .15 .75 max
Silicon.................................. .46 .75 max Chromium..........................28.50 28.0-32.0
Copper................................. .15 .75 max Nickel .................................. 9.10 8.0-10.5
Chromium..........................26.12 25.0-28.0 Molybdenum.................... .11 .75 max
Nickel .................................. 21.00 20.0-22.5
Molybdenum.................... .12 .75 max Typical mechanical properties
(AW):
Typical mechanical properties AWS Spec.
(AW): Tensile Strength (psi) 115,000 95,000
AWS Spec. Yield Strength (psi) 95,000 not req.
Tensile Strength (psi) 86,000 80,000 Elongation % in 2 25% 22%
Yield Strength (psi) 63,000 not req. DeLong Ferrite Range 25-80 not req.
Elongation % in 2 40% 35%
DeLong Ferrite Range 0 not req. Available diameter and
recommended operating ranges:
Available diameter and 3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps
recommended operating ranges: 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps 5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps 3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps Type of current: DCEP or AC
Type of current: DCEP or AC

93
Stainless Steel Electrodes
McKay 316/316H Sterling McKay 410 AC-DC
AP AWS A5.4 - E410-16
AWS A5.4 - E316-16 & E316H-16 An air-hardening stainless steel stick
electrode, 410 AC-DC is used extensively
316/316H SterlingAP is a fully alloyed
in welding 12 Cr material and requires
core wire electrode featuring a rutile basic
post-weld heat treatment. It has a smooth
coating. It is excellent for welding Type 316
running arc that results in a uniform bead
steel in applications requiring increased
that is flat to slightly convex. Note: Actual
corrosion resistance of molybdenum-
certs are included in every master carton
bearing steels. A carbon content of at least
of stainless stick electrodes at no charge.
.04 provides increased high temperature
strength. It has a smooth running arc that Typical applications:
results in a uniform weld bead that is flat Power generation, hydro electric plants, fabri-
to slightly convex. Note: Actual certs are cation of type CA-6NM castings and joining of
included in every master carton of stainless Type 409, 410, 410S, and 405 stainless steels.
stick electrodes at no charge. Typical weld metal properties
Typical applications: (Chem Pad):
Food and beverage, petrochemical plants, E316-16
pulp and paper, other general fabrication on Carbon................................. .09 .12 max
stainless steel. Manganese........................ .55 1.0 max
Phosphorus....................... .016 .04 max
Typical weld metal properties Sulphur................................ .017 .03 max
(Chem Pad): Silicon.................................. .29 .90 max
E316-16 Copper................................. .10 .75 max
Carbon................................. .05 .08 max Chromium..........................12.30 11.0-13.5
Manganese........................ 1.05 .5-2.25 Nickel .................................. -- .7 max
Phosphorus....................... .015 .04 max Molybdenum.................... .08 .75 max
Sulphur................................ .015 .03 max
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Silicon.................................. .50 .90 max
AWS Spec.
Copper................................. .20 .75 max
Chromium..........................18.50 17.0-20.0 Tensile Strength (psi) 93,500 75,000
Nickel .................................. 12.40 11.0-14.0 Yield Strength (psi) 79,000 not req.
Molybdenum.................... 2.21 2.0-3.0 Elongation % in 2 21% 20%
Available diameter and
Typical mechanical properties (AW): recommended operating ranges:
AWS Spec. 3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps
Tensile Strength (psi) 85,000 75,000 1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
Yield Strength (psi) 68,000 not req. 5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
Elongation % in 2 42% 30% 3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps
DeLong Ferrite Range 2-6 not req. Type of current: DCEP or AC
Available diameter and The information contained or otherwise referenced
recommended operating ranges: herein is presented only as typical withouth
3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps guarantee or warranty, and McKay expressly disclaims
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps any liability incurred from any reliance thereon.
5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps Typical data are obtained when welded and tested in
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps accordance with AWS specification. Other tests and
precedures may produce different results. No data is
to be construed as a recommendation for any welding
Type of current: DCEP or AC condition or technique not contolled by McKay.

94
Mild Steel Solid Wires
QuantumArc D2 HB-25
AWS A5.28 - ER80S-D2 AWS A5.28 - ER80S-D2
QuantumArc D2 is a high-strength, HB-25 is a mild steel, copper coated solid
copper-coated mild steel solid wire that wire formulated with silicon and manga-
provides X-ray quality welds when used on nese deoxidiers to produce high quality
carbon and low alloy steels. Ideal for single welds with virtually no porosity or slag. An
or multi-pass welding, it can be used with industry favorite, HB-25 can be used for a
CO2 gas - as well as with Ar/CO2 mixtures wide variety of general fabricationprojects.
- to produce a high quality weld that is virtu- It delivers excellent short circuit welding
ally porosity and slag free. performance with CO2 75% Ar/25% CO2
Typical applications: and other recommendedcommercially
Construction equipment, pipe, trailers, or available shielding gases. It can also be
any high quality, high strength application. used for spray transfer arc welding ap-
Root pass on open butt weld joints. plications.
Typical wire chemistry Typical applications:
(as manufactured): AWS Auto frames, railcars, sheet metal, metal
Spec furniture, storage bins and general fabrica-
Carbon................................. .09 .07 - .12 tion with wire feed speeds ranging
Manganese........................ 1.90 1.60 -2.10 from very slow to moderately fast.
Silicon.................................. .60 .50 -.80 Typical wire chemistry
Phosphorus....................... .015 .025 max (as manufactured):
Sulphur................................ .015 .025 max
AWS Spec
Molybdenum..................... .51 .40 - .60
Carbon................................. .09 .06 - .15
Nickel................................... .015 .15 max
Manganese........................ 1.22 .90 -1.40
Copper................................. .50 .50 max
Silicon.................................. .55 .45 -.75
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Phosphorus....................... .013 .025 max
CO2 Sulphur................................ .013 .035 max
Tensile Strength (psi) 80,000 Copper................................. .13 .50 max
Yield Strength (psi) 68,000
Elongation % in 2 17.0% Typical mechanical properties (AW):
CO2
Typical Charpy V-notch Tensile Strength (psi) 70,000
impact values (AW): Yield Strength (psi) 58,000
Avg. at 0F, CO2 55 ft.lb. Elongation % in 2 22.0%
Avg. at -20F, CO2 27 ft.lb. Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (AW):
Recommended welding procedures: Avg. at 0F, CO2 68 ft.lb.
(Short circuit Transfer) Wire Feed
Dia. Amps Volts Speed / Avg. at -20F, CO2 52 ft.lb.
ipm
1/16 (1.6 mm)........... 80-120 17-20 120-180 Recommended welding procedures:
5/64 (2.0 mm).........100-130 18-21 160-220 (Short circuit Transfer) Wire Feed
1/8 (3.2 mm).........120-175 19-22 210-290 Dia. Amps Volts Speed /
3/16 (4.7 mm).........140-175 19-22 150-225 ipm
1/4 (6.4 mm).........180-225 20-23 190-240 1/16 (1.6 mm)........... 80-120 17-20 120-180
5/64 (2.0 mm).........100-130 18-21 160-220
1/8 (3.2 mm).........120-175 19-22 210-290
For more information: 3/16 (4.7 mm).........140-175 19-22 240-290
1/4 (6.4 mm).........180-225 20-23 190-240
http://www.hobartbrothers.com

95
Mild Steel Solid Wires
HB-28 QCL-6
AWS A5.18 - ER70S-6
AWS A5.18 - ER70S-6
QCL-6 is a premium copperless, mild steel
HB-28 is copper coated, mild steel solid
wire, formulated to provide high quality welds
welding wire that is formulated with a high
and trouble-free performance in heavy-duty,
deoxidizer content to provide excellent weld-
high speed, spray-transfer applications to
ing performance with CO2 and argon-rich
light duty, low speed, short arc applications.
shielding gases. Ideal for short-circuit transfer
Even in the most difficult applications, QCL-6
general fabrication welding, HB-28 produces
produces a smooth, stable arc with low spat-
an exceptionally smooth and stable arc with
ter, producing a weld bead that ties in evenly
minimal spatter and offers good wetting char-
with the sides and has a smooth finished
acteristics that allow for uniform tie-in. Its a
appearance. QCL-6 has a high deoxidizer
great choice for welding light to moderately
content and can be used to weld light to
scaled, oily or rusty plates and spray transfer
moderately scaled or lightly rusted plate
applications.
without precleaning.
Typical applications: Typical applications:
Pressure vessels, pipe, shaft build-up, tanks,
Farm fabrication, automotive structures, farm
farm implements, steel castings, auto body
implements, construction equipment, pres-
collision repair, and very thin sheet metal.
sure vessels, pipe fabrication, railcar construc-
Excellent when welding wire feed speeds
tion and repqir, general fabrication, robotic,
ranging from very slow to moderately fast.
automatic, and semi-automatic applications.
Typical wire chemistry Typical wire chemistry
(as manufactured): (as manufactured): AWS Spec
AWS Spec Carbon................................. .088 .06-.15
Carbon................................. .09 .06 - .15 Manganese........................ 1.60 1.40-1.85
Manganese........................ 1.61 1.40 -1.85 Silicon.................................. .88 .80-1.15
Silicon.................................. .90 .80 -1.15 Phosphorus....................... .013 .025 max
Phosphorus....................... .010 .025 max Sulphur................................ .011 .025 max
Sulphur................................ .010 .025 max Copper ............................... .04 .50 max
Copper................................. .12 .50 max
Typical weld metal properties
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Chem Pad): 75% Ar 90% Ar
CO2
CO2 25% CO2 10% CO2
Tensile Strength (psi) 85,000
Carbon .09 .082 .083
Yield Strength (psi) 70,000
Manganese 1.01 1.06 1.22
Elongation % in 2 29%
Silicon .56 .61 .69
Typical Charpy V-notch Phosphorus .015 .015 .018
impact values (AW): Sulphur .014 .012 .013
Avg. at 0F, CO2 68 ft.lb. Copper .06 .06 .05
Avg. at -20F, CO2 52 ft.lb. Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Avg. at -40F, CO2 47 ft.lb. CO2 AWS Spec
Avg. at -60F, CO2 41 ft.lb. Tensile Strength (psi) 84,000 70,000
Yield Strength (psi) 67,300 58,000
Elongation % in 2 28.0% 22%
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (AW):
Avg. at 0F, CO2 90 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F, CO2 57 ft.lb.
Avg. at -40F, CO2 56 ft.lb

96
Mild Steel Solid Wires
QCL-3 QCL-D2
AWS A5.18 - ER70S-3 AWS A5.28 - ER80S-D2
QCL-3 is a premium copperless, mild steel QCL-D2 is a premium copperless, solid wire,
wire, with silicon and manganese levels suit- that includes1/2% molybdenum to provide
able for general purpose welding over clean increased strength for applications requiring
to light levels of rust and mill scale. QCL-3 tensile strengths of 80,000 to 90,000 psi. QCL-
has the flexibility to provide trouble-free D2 has higher levels of manganese and silicon
performance in heavy-duty, high speed, spray to control porosity, provide radiographic
or pulse applications to light duty, low speed, quality welds, and produce a smooth, flat
short arc applications. A smooth, stable arc bead. It will provide a smooth, stable arc
with lower spatter levels can be expected and trouble-free performance in a variety
even in the most difficult applications. of applications.
Typical applications: Typical applications:
Fabrication, farm, construction, mining, railcar, High-temperature service piping, construc-
and other industrial general purpose type ap- tion equipment, trailers, cranes, and high
plications. Outstanding performance through tensile strength applications. Root pass on
a wide range of wire feed speeds in robotic, open butt joints.
automatic, and semi-automatic applications.
Typical wire chemistry
Typical wire chemistry (as manufactured): AWS Spec
(as manufactured): AWS Spec Carbon................................. .095 .07-.12
Carbon................................. .089 .06-.15 Manganese........................ 1.95 1.60-2.10
Manganese........................ 1.20 .90-1.40 Silicon.................................. .65 .50- .80
Silicon.................................. .56 .45- .70 Phosphorus....................... .012 .025 max
Phosphorus....................... .013 .025 max Sulphur................................ .010 .025 max
Sulphur................................ .013 .035 max Molybdenum.................... .50 .40-.60
Copper ............................... .04 .50 max Nickel................................... .02 .15 max
Copper ............................... .08 .50 max
Typical weld metal properties
Chem Pad): 75% Ar 90% Ar Typical weld metal properties
CO2 25% CO2 10% CO2 Chem Pad): 75% Ar 90% Ar
Carbon .088 .083 .084 CO2 25% CO2 10% CO2
Manganese .91 .93 .98 Carbon .095 .095 .095
Silicon .34 .36 .41 Manganese 1.42 1.58 1.63
Phosphorus .012 .012 .012 Silicon .27 .51 .54
Sulphur .011 .011 .011 Phosphorus .012 .012 .012
Copper .06 .05 .05 Sulphur .010 .010 .010
Molybdenum .47 .53 .54
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
CO2 AWS Spec Nickel .02 .02 .02
Tensile Strength (psi) 75,000 70,000 Copper .07 .06 .06
Yield Strength (psi) 62,000 58,000 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Elongation % in 2 27.0% 22% CO2 AWS Spec
Reduction of Area 68% Tensile Strength (psi) 93,500 80,000
Yield Strength (psi) 82,000 68,000
Typical Charpy V-notch
Elongation % in 2 20.0% 17%
impact values (AW): CO2 Reduction of Area 60.0%
Avg. at 0F, CO2 74 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F, CO2 63 ft.lb. Typical Charpy V-notch
Avg. at -40F, CO2 48 ft.lb. impact values (AW): CO2
Avg. at 0F, CO2 60 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F, CO2 40 ft.lb.
Avg. at -40F, CO2 30 ft.lb.
97
Mild Steel Solid Wires
QUANTUM ARC 3
QUANTUM ARC 6
AWS A5.18 - ER70S-3 AWS A5.18 - ER70S-6
QUANTUM ARC 3 is copper-coated, mild QUANTUM ARC 6 is copper-coated, mild steel
steel solid wire with silicon and manganese solid wire that is ideal for general fabrication.
deoxidizer levels preferred most for gen- It is an excellent choice for welding light to
eral fabrication. It is recommended for both moderately scaled or lightly rusted plates
short-circuit and spray transfer applications. because its high deoxidizer content reduces
It features excellent, smooth feedability and the need for some pre-cleaning. In addition to
clean weld deposits. an exceptionally stable and smooth arc, it has
good wetting action plus good feedability,
Typical applications:
making it especially suitable for high-duty
Fabrication, light sheet metla fabrication,
cycle applications.
automotive frames, metal storage bins, metal
furniture, and railcrs. Excellent for robotic, au- Typical applications:
tomatic, and semiautomatic applications with Automotive frames, farm implements, con-
wire feed speeds ranging from moderately struction equipment, pressure vessels, pipe
slow to very fast. and railcars. Excellent for robotic, automatic,
and semiautomatic applications with wire
Typical wire chemistry
feed speeds ranging from moderately slow
(as manufactured): AWS Spec
to very fast.
Carbon................................. .09 .06-.15
Manganese........................ 1.22 .90-1.40 Typical wire chemistry
Silicon.................................. .55 .45- .75 (as manufactured): AWS Spec
Phosphorus....................... .013 .025 max Carbon................................. .10 .06-.15
Sulphur................................ .013 .035 max Manganese........................ 1.54 1.40-1.85
Copper ............................... .13 .50 max Silicon.................................. .92 .80- 1.15
Phosphorus....................... .013 .025 max
Typical weld metal properties
Sulphur................................ .013 .025 max
Chem Pad): 75% Ar 90% Ar
Copper ............................... .13 .50 max
CO2 25% CO2 10% CO2
Carbon .09 .09 .09 Typical weld metal properties
Manganese .90 .93 .95 Chem Pad): 75% Ar 90% Ar
Silicon .35 .38 .40 CO2 25% CO2 10% CO2
Phosphorus .011 .011 .011 Carbon .09 .09 .09
Sulphur .012 .012 .012 Manganese 1.13 1.15 1.22
Copper .13 .12 .12 Silicon .59 .65 .78
Phosphorus .011 .011 .011
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
CO2 AWS Spec Sulphur .012 .012 .012
Tensile Strength (psi) 77,000 70,000 Copper .13 .12 .12
Yield Strength (psi) 64,000 58,000 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Elongation % in 2 26.0% 22% CO2 AWS Spec
Reduction of Area 67.2% Tensile Strength (psi) 86,000 70,000
Yield Strength (psi) 69,000 58,000
Typical Charpy V-notch
Elongation % in 2 28.0% 22%
impact values (AW): CO2 Reduction of Area 68.0%
Avg. at 0F, CO2 72 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F, CO2 64 ft.lb. Typical Charpy V-notch
Avg. at -40F, CO2 50 ft.lb. impact values (AW): CO2
Avg. at -60F, CO2 42 ft.lb. Avg. at 0F, CO2 65 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F, CO2 50 ft.lb.
Avg. at -40F, CO2 45 ft.lb.
Avg. at -60F, CO2 43 ft.lb.

98
Tubular Wires
FabCOR 86R FabCO RXR
AWS A5.18 - E70C-6M H4 AWSA5.20 - E70T-1, E70T-9
Smooth and consistent, this metal-cored gas Designed for flat and horizontal lap, fillet and
shielded wire gives you the high deposition groove welding applications that require extra
rates of a flux-cored wire along with the deoxidation, FabCO RXR is a high-quality,
high efficiency of a solid wire. FabCOR86R is gas-shielded tubular wire that is formulated
designed to weld mild steels in either single with added deoxidizers to alloy you to weld
or multi-pass applications. It produces an through rust, mill scale and light oil without
extremely smooth arc with low spatter and the need for precleaning. Excellent for weld-
smoke levels and minimal slag coverage. ing clean plates, this offers a spray type trans-
Excellent choice for high production and fer which, combined with its high deposition
automatic applications. rate, promotes deep penetration of the weld
metal to produce a strong, low hydrogen weld
Typical applications: deposit with slag that is easy to remove. It
Steel structures, storage vessels, earthmoving
maintains high-operator appeal throughout a
equipment and railroad cars.
wide range of apmperage settings, is versatile
Typical diffusible hydrogen and suitable for single or multi-pass weldilng
(gas chromatography): of mild steels and some low-alloy steels.
75% Ar/25% CO2 - 1.48 ml/100 g Typical applications:
Typical weld metal properties (Chem Steel structures, storage vessels, earthmoving
Pad): equipment, heavy fabrication and railroad
75% Ar 90% Ar cars.
25% CO2 10% CO2
Carbon .033 .033 Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Manganese 1.44 1.61 Pad): 100% CO2
Silicon .67 .77 Carbon................................. .07
Phosphorus .008 .009 Manganese ....................... 1.47
Sulphur .015 .018 Silicon.................................. .59
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Phosphorus....................... .012
75% Ar 90% Ar Sulphur................................ .009
25% CO2 10% CO2
Tensile Strength(psi) 81,600 83,600 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Yield Strength(psi) 68,500 70,600 Tensile Strength (psi) 89,000
Elongation % in 2 30% 29% Yield Strength (psi) 73,000
Elongation % in 2 25%
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (AW): Typical Charpy V-notch
Avg. at -20F 74ft.lb. 63 ft.lb. impact values (AW):
Recommended welding procedures: Avg. at -0F 42 ft.lb.
Electrical Avg. at -20F 28 ft.lb.
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.045 (1.2 mm) 200-400 27-36 3/4
.052 (1.4 mm) 200-400 25-36 1 Recommended welding procedures:
1/16 (1.6 mm) 250-500 28-36 1 Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
045 (1.2 mm).........150-250 25-29 3/4
Shielding gas: 1/16 (1.6 mm).........200-375 25-29 3/4
75% Ar/25% CO2 or higher argon gas mixtures 5/64 (2.0 mm).........250-400 26-33 1
3/32 (2.4 mm).........350-550 26-36 1
Type of current: DCEP 7/64 (2.8 mm).........500-700 30-36 1
1/8 (3.2 mm).........600-800 32-38 1

Type of current: DCEP


99
Tubular Wires
FabCO TR-70 FabCO 85
AWS A5.20 - E70T-1 H8, E70T-9 H8 AWS A5.20 E70T-5J H4, E70T-5MJ H4
For general purpose welding with 100% FabCO 85 is a flux-cored wire that is designed
CO2 gas. Specially forumlated with added for welding low and medium carbon and
deoxidizers to alloy you to weld through rust, low alloy high strength steels. It is ideal for
mill-scale and light oil with minimal need for applications where the welding arc may be
precleaning. Primarily designed for single or exposed to drafts, such as outside construc-
multi-pass welding in the flat and horizontal tion work or whenever exceptionally low
positions, it welds mild steels and low alloy temperature impact values are required.
steels with very light spatter and particulate
Typical applications:
fume generation.
Low to medium carbon steels and some low
Typical applications: alloy high strength steels where properties of
Earthmoving equipment, heavy fabrica- FabCO 85 are appropriate.
tion, railroad cars, steel structures, storage Typical diffusible hydrogen (gas chromatog-
vessels. raphy):
Typical diffusible hydrogen CO2 80% Ar/20% CO2
1.10ml/100 g 1.61ml/100 g
(gas chromatography): 5.5 ml/100 g
Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Pad):
Pad): CO2 80% Ar/20% CO2
Carbon................................. .02
Manganese ....................... 1.50 Carbon..................... .06 .07
Silicon.................................. .57 Manganese ........... 1.18 1.47
Phosphorus ...................... .013 Silicon ..................... .60 .75
Sulphur................................ .010 Phosphorus .......... .009 .010
Sulphur .................. .013 .014
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Tensile Strength (psi) 86,600 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Yield Strength (psi) 73,100 Tensile Strength(psi) 79,000 90,000
Elongation % in 2 28% Yield Strength (psi) 63,000 76,000
Elongation % in 2 29% 24%
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (AW):
Avg. at 0F 38 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F 28 ft.lb. Typical Charpy V-notch
Recommended welding procedures: impact values (AW):
Electrical 100% CO2
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout Avg. at -40F 45 ft.lb.
.045 (1.2 mm).........150-280 24-30 1/2
.052 (1.4 mm).........150-350 24-32 3/4 80% Ar/20%CO2
1/16 (1.6 mm) .......170-350 25-34 1
5/64 (2.0 mm) .......250-550 26-34 1
Avg. at -40F 41 ft.lb.
3/32 (2.4 mm).........300-650 26-40 1
Shielding Gas: Recommended welding procedures:
100% CO2 Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
Type of Current: DCEP 5/64 (2.0 mm).........210-450 25.5-31 1
3/32 (2.4 mm).........240-540 26.5-32.5 1

Type of current: DCEP

100
Tubular Wires
Excel-Arc 71 Formula XL-525
AWS A5.20 - E71T-1, E71T-1M, E71T-9, AWS A5.20 - E71T-1M, E71T-12MJ H8
E71T-9M H8 Formula XL-525 is a tubular, all-position
Excel-Arc 71 is a flux cored wire that is wire that is designed for the welding of mild
designed for general purpose fabrication, and carbon steels, especially when good
welding in all positions. It can be used with impact toughness at subzero temperatures
eitner 100% CO2 or 75% Ar/25% CO2 shield- is required. Ideal for single- and multi-pass
ing gas, offering a spray-type transfer of weld applications, it delivers outstanding welding
metal. It provides good impact strength at performance and produces a high-quality,
low temperatures, has low spatter levels, and X-ray clear weld deposit with a bead contour
the slag is easy to remove. Excel-Arc is avail- that is flat to slightly convex.
able in .045, .052 and 1/16 diameters with Typical applications:
the optional H8 hydrogen designator. Other Shipbuilding, storage vessels, earthmoving
diameters which may be available do not carry equipment, piping
this optional designator.
Typical diffusible hydrogen
Typical applications: (gas chromatography):
Low-alloy steels, mild steels.
3.38 ml/100 g
Typical diffusible hydrogen
(gas chromatography): Typical weld metal properties (Chem
100% CO2 75% Ar/25% CO2 Pad):
80% Ar/20% CO2
5.0 ml/100 g 5.7 ml/100g Carbon................................. .04
Typical weld metal properties (Chem Manganese........................ 1.24
Pad): Silicon.................................. .29
CO2 75% Ar/25% CO2 Nickel................................... .37
Phosphorus....................... .010
Carbon..................... .021 .022
Sulphur................................ .015
Manganese............ 1.30 1.60
Silicon...................... .69 .82 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Phosphorus........... .015 .014 80% Ar/20% CO2
Sulphur.................... .011 .010 Tensile Strength (psi) 82,000
Yield Strength (psi) 73,000
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Elongation % in 2 29%
Tensile Strength (psi) 87,700 96,000
Yield Strength (psi) 79,100 85,800 Typical Charpy V-notch
Elongation % in 2 27.6% 25.6% impact values (AW):
Typical Charpy V-notch Avg. at 0F 100 ft.lb.
impact values (AW) Avg. at -40F 66 ft.lb.
Avg . at -0F 70 ft.lb. 59 ft.lb. Recommended welding procedures:
Avg . at -20F 51 ft.lb. 5 0 Electrical
ft.lb. Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.045 (1.2 mm).........195-230 24-26 1/2-1
Recommended welding procedures: 1/16 (1.6 mm).........230-280 24-27 1/2-1
Based on 100% CO2 Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout Shielding gas:
.035 (0.9 mm).........125-225 23-28 1/2 75-80% AR-20-25% CO2
.045 (1.2 mm).........170-260 23-27 1/2
.052 (1.4 mm).........170-300 24-28 3/4 Type of current: DCEP
1/16 (1.6 mm).........215-360 24-29 1

Type of current: DCEP

101
Tubular Wires
Formula XL-550 FabCO 115
AWSA5.20 - E71T-1, E71T-12J H8 AWS A5.29 - E110T5-K4
Formula XL-550 is formulated with added FabCO 115 is a high-strength, flux-cored wire
deoxidizers to allow you to weld through thats comparable to a low alloy E11018M
rust, mill scale and some primers with little electrode but with higher deposition rates. It is
or no pre-cleaning. Outstanding, all-position used primarily for welding A514, A517, HY100
Formula XL-550 is designed to weld mild and similar quenched and tempered high-
steels, producing a high-quality, X-ray clear strength, low alloy steels, producing a low
weld deposit that delivers high impact values hydrogen deposit with basic slag which helps
at low temperatures. Good wet-in action to minimize cracking. FabCO 115 has high im-
produces a bead contour thats flat to slightly pact values at low temperatures and provides
convex with light slag that keeps clean-up you with a modified globular metal transfer.
time to a minimum. For use with 100% CO2 shielding gas only.
Typical applications: Typical applications:
Ships, storage vessels, structures, earthmov- Mining equipment, earthmoving equipment,
ing equipment, piping off-the-road vehicles
Typical diffusible hydrogen Typical weld metal properties
(gas chromatography): (Chem Pad):
.045, .052 - 3.32 ml/100 g 100% CO2
Carbon................................. .04
Typical weld metal properties (Chem Manganese........................1.50
Pad): Silicon.................................. .41
100% CO2
Phosphorus........................012
Carbon................................. .05 Sulphur.................................014
Manganese........................1.17 Chromium...........................42
Silicon.................................. .25 Nickel................................... 2.37
Phosphorus....................... .012 Molybdenum.....................42
Sulphur................................ .014
Nickel................................... .50 Typical mechanical properties
(Aged 48 hours @ 220F):
Typical mechanical properties (AW): 100% CO2
100% CO2
Tensile Strength (psi) 126,000
Tensile Strength (psi) 84,000
Yield Strength (psi) 102,000
Yield Strength (psi) 77,300
Elongation % in 2 18%
Elongation % in 2 26.6%
Typical Charpy V-notch
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (AW):
impact values (AW):
Avg. at -60F 48 ft.lb.
Avg. at 0F 110 ft.lb.
Avg. at -40F 101 ft.lb. Recommended welding procedures:
Electrical
Recommended welding procedures: Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
Electrical .045 (1.2 mm).........120-220 22-27 1/2-1
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout 1/16 (1.6 mm).........190-350 22-30 1/2-1
.045 (1.2 mm).........195-230 23-26 3/4 3/32 (2.4 mm).........290-525 25-32
1/16 (1.6 mm).........230-280 23-27 3/4 3/4-1-1/4

Shielding gas: 100% CO2 Shielding gas: 100% CO2


Type of current: DCEP Type of current: DCEP
For more information:
http://www.hobartbrothers.com
102
Tubular Wires
Fabshield 21B Fabshield 23
AWS A5.20 - E71T-11 AWS A5.20 - E71T-GS
This self-shielding flux-cored wire is designed Fabshield 23 is an E71T-GS self-shielding
for single or multi-pass welding of thin gauge tubular wire designed for welding thin gauge
to 3/4 thick mild or galvanized steels. Great mild or galvanized steel. Suitable for single
for welding fillet or lap welds, you will find that pass applications, especially for filled and
this all-position wire has high operator appeal, lap welds, with outstanding welding perfor-
producing a smooth spray-like arc transfer mance, as Fabshield 23 produces a smooth
with low spatter levels, excellent weld bead spray arc type of transfer with good wetting
appearance, and easy-to remove slag. action. Great for outdoors or in drafty condi-
tions, this all-position wire also provides very
Typical applications: low spatter levels, resulting in a weld bead
General fabrication, light structurals, that is excellent in appearance.
machinery part fabrication, prefab construc-
tion, railroad car repair, short-assembly Typical applications:
welds, tanks Prefab building fabrication, tanks, ornamen-
tal iron, farm implement repairs and general
Typical weld metal properties fabrication.
(Chem Pad):
Carbon................................. .28 Typical weld metal properties
Manganese........................ .34 (Chem Pad):
Silicon.................................. .15 Carbon................................. .18
Phosphorus....................... .008 Manganese........................ .65
Sulphur................................ .003 Silicon.................................. .40
Aluminum.......................... 1.04 Phosphorus....................... .01
Sulphur................................ .01
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Aluminum.......................... 1.30
Tensile Strength (psi) 91,000
Yield Strength (psi) 62,000 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Elongation % in 2 22% Tensile Strength (psi) 83,000

Typical Charpy V-notch Recommended welding procedures:


Electrical
impact values: Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
Not applicable .030 (.8mm)................. 25-125 14-16 1/2
.035 (.9mm)................. 55-120 17-20 1/2
Recommended welding procedures: .045 (1.2 mm).........130-160 15-17 1/2
Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.035 ( .9 mm).......... 55-120 17-20 1/2 Type of current: DCEN
.045 (1.2 mm).........115-200 15-18 1/2
1/16 (1.6 mm).........160-260 18-20 3/4 FabCOR Inches per Pound of Wire
.068 (1.7 mm) ..........145-255 17-22 3/4
5/64 (2.0 mm).........215-315 19-22.5 1
Diameter in./lb.*
3/32 (2.4 mm).........250-300 18.5-21.5 1 .030 (0.8 mm).......................................... 5,910
.035 (0.9 mm).......................................... 4,350
Type of current: DCEN .045 (1.2 mm).......................................... 2,500
1/16 (1.6 mm).......................................... 1,300
5/64 (2.0 mm).............................................925
3/32 (2.4 mm)..............................................615
For more information:
7/64 (2.8 mm)..............................................550
http://www.hobartbrothers.com .120 (3.0 mm)..............................................420
* Approximate Values will vary with AWS
class and wire type. Please contact factory for specific
FabCOR values.

103
Tubular Wires
Fabshield 4 Fabshield 7027
AWS A5.20 - E70T-4 AWS A 5.20 - E70T-7
Fabshield 4 is an outstanding high-deposition, Fabshield 7027 is a high-deposition, self-
self-shielded tubular wire that is used to weld shielded tubular wire that is designed for use
mild and medium carbon steels. Ideal for on structural weldments where the physical
either single or multi-pass welding, it provides properties of the weld deposit need to match
you with outstanding performance with de- that of the application. It provides outstand-
position rates of up to 42 lbs./ hr. and deposi- ing performance through excellent arc stabil-
tion efficiencies of 85% or better. Fabshield ity adn high deposition efficience and can be
4 produces a globular type transfer with an used for either single or multi-pass welding in
arc that is not affected by drafts or moderate flat or horizontal positions.
wind. It is specially designed to desulphurize
Typical applications:
the weld metal and resist cracking.
Barges, structural steel fabrication, and
Typical applications: similar applications.
Machine fabrication, certain ship equipment,
Typical weld metal properties
industrial and heavy equipment repair.
(Chem Pad):
Typical weld metal properties (Chem Carbon................................. .33
Pad): Manganese........................ .28
Carbon................................. .27 Silicon.................................. .05
Manganese........................ .73 Phosphorus....................... .014
Silicon.................................. .30 Sulphur................................ .005
Phosphorus....................... .011 Aluminum.......................... 1.3
Sulphur................................ .005
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Aluminum.......................... 1.42
Tensile Strength (psi) 92,200
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Yield Strength (psi) 63,200
Tensile Strength (psi) 94,600 Elongation % in 2 23%
Yield Strength (psi) 62,600
Typical Charpy V-notch
Elongation % in 2 24%
impact values: Not applicable
Typical Charpy V-notch
Recommended welding procedures:
impact values: Electrical
Not applicable Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
5/64 (2.0 mm).........240-460 23-30 1-1/2
Recommended welding procedures: 3/32 (2.4 mm).........240-560 27-32 1-1/2
Electrical 7/64 (2.8 mm).........320-600 24-32 1-1/2
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
5/64 (2.0 mm)........ 290-370 29-31 1-3/4-2- Type of current: DCEN
1/4
3/32 (2.4 mm)........ 250-500 28-34 2-1/4-2-
3/4 FabCOR Inches per Pound of Wire
.120 (3.2 mm) . ...... 160-300 28-37 2-1/2-3
Diameter in./lb.*
Type of current: DCEP .035 (0.9 mm).......................................... 4,350
.045 (1.2 mm).......................................... 2,500
1/16 (1.6 mm).......................................... 1,300
5/64 (2.0 mm).............................................925
For more information: 3/32 (2.4mm)...............................................615
7/64 (2.8 mm)..............................................550
http://www.hobartbrothers.com .120 (3.0 mm)..............................................420
* Approximate Values will vary with AWS
class and wire type. Please contact factory for
specific FabCOR values.

104
Tubular Wires
Fabshield XLR-8 Fabshield 3Ni1
AWS E71T-8jd h8/e491t-8jd h8 AWS 5.20- E71T8-K6J
Fabshield XLR8 has been specifically de- An all-position, flux-cored wire that can be
signed for the demanding application of used for single or multi-pass welding of fillet,
structural steel erection. This outstanding lap and deep groove butt welds, providing
self-shielded, flux-cored wire produces a you outstanding performance with its fast-
stable arc within a wide range of parameters. freezing and easy to remove slag. Fabshield
It is capable of depositing X-ray quality welds 3Ni1 is a self-shielded, globular transfer wire
in all positions and is especially well suited for designed for applications requiring high
producing vertical-up welds at high current impact values at low temperatures.
levels for increased productivity. It is designed
Typical applications:
for single and multiple pass applications and
Storage, piping, transportation, offshore drill-
will produce flat weld beads with excellent
ing rigs, ships barges, construction, and other
slag removal. Fabshield XLR-8 will produce
types of structural and general fabrication.
welds with excellent mechanical properties
under a wide range of heat input. Designed Typical diffusible hydrogen
to be used with constant voltage (CV) power (gas chromatography)
sources. Less than 6.0 ml/100 g
Typical applications: Typical weld metal properties
Structural steel erection, heavy equipment (Chem Pad):
repair, bridge construction, ship and barge Carbon................................. .08
construction. Manganese........................ .84
Typical diffusible hydrogen Silicon.................................. .06
(gas chromatography) Phosphorus....................... .012
Less than 6.7 ml/100g Sulphur................................ .003
Nickel................................... .67
Typical weld metal properties Aluminum.......................... .62
(Chem Pad):
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Carbon................................. .19
Tensile Strength (psi) 79,700
Manganese........................ .51
Yield Strength (psi) 64,100
Silicon.................................. .17
Elongation % in 2 29%
Phosphorus....................... .009
Sulphur................................ .006 Typical Charpy V-notch
Aluminum.......................... .51 impact values:
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Avg. at -20oF 110 ft.lbs.
Tensile Strength (psi) 84,100 Recommended welding procedures:
Yield Strength (psi) 67,600 Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
Elongation % in 2 25% 5/64 (2.0 mm).........200-280 18.5-20 3/4
Typical Charpy V-notch 3/32 (2.4mm)...........250-500 28-34 1
impact values: Type of current: DCEN
As Welded
Recommended welding procedures:
Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
1/16 (1.6 mm)........150-3000 19-23 1
.072 (1.8mm)............160-350 18-23 1
5/64 (2.0mm)...........190-350 18-23 1.25 For more information:
Type of current: DCEN http://www.hobartbrothers.com

105
Tubular Wires
Formula XL-8Ni1 Tri-Mark Triple 7
AWS A5.29 - E81T1-Ni1J, E81T1-Ni1 AWS E71T-1C HB, E71T-1M H8
MJ Triple 7 is designed for the semi-automatic
Formula XL-8Ni1 is an all-position tubular wire gas-shielded welding of carbon steel and
that is designed fro welding medium carbon some higher strength steels where require-
and low alloy steels. Specifically formulated ments and conditions do not exceed its
to produce a high-quality, X-ray clear weld capabilities. It is intended for singleand
deposit that is flat to slightly convex in con- multiplepass welding in all positions and has
tour. Formula XL-8Ni1 provides you with good a fast-freezing slag that permits the welder
wet-in capabilities along with high impact to use higher current to deposit more metal
values at low temperatures. It allows you faster and still produce a flat bead in all posi-
weld over rust, mill scale, and some primers tions. The slag removes easily even from deep
without precleaning. groove weldments and spatter is low, so a
welder spends more time welding and less
Typical applications:
time cleaning up. The X-ray quality surpasses
Ships, storage vessels, structures, earth mov-
the radiographic specifications of AWS A5.20
ing equipment and piping.
and ASME SFA 5.20 when welded with the
Typical diffusible hydrogen recommended procedures.
(gas chromatography):
5.9 ml/100 g Typical applications:
Shipbuilding, railcar fabrication, general plate
Typical weld metal properties (Chem
fabrication,heavy gauge sheet metal, pressure
Pad): vessels, and certain pipe weldments.
75% Ar/25% CO2
Carbon................................. .008 Typical diffusible hydrogen
Manganese........................ 1.35 CO2 4.6 mls/100g
Silicon.................................. .40 Typical weld metal properties
Phosphorus....................... .014 (Chem Pad):
Sulphur................................ .011 Carbon................................. .03
Nickel................................... 1.06 Manganese........................ 1.27
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Silicon.................................. .56
75% Ar/25% CO2 Phosphorus....................... .013
Tensile Strength (psi) 96,300 Sulphur................................ .009
Yield Strength (psi) 86,500 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Elongation % in 2 24.5% Tensile Strength (psi) 90,000
Typical Charpy V-notch Yield Strength (psi) 79,000
Elongation % in 2 27%
impact values (AW):
Avg. at -20F 93.3 ft.lb. Typical Charpy V-notch
Avg. at -40F 85.3 ft.lb. impact values:
Avg. at -60F 63.3 ft.lb. 0F (-18C) 76 ft. lbs. (103J)
Recommended welding procedures: Recommended welding procedures:
Electrical Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.045 (1.2 mm).........175-340 21-32 3/4 .045 ......................100-325 23-34 1/2-3/4
1/16 (1.6 mm).........220-320 24-29 3/4 .052 ......................125-350 22-33 1/2-3/4
Shielding gas: 1/16 ......................150-450 23-35 1/2-3/4
75% Ar/25% CO2 Type of current: DCEP
Type of current: DCEP

106
Tubular Wires
Tri-Mark TM-811N1 Tri-Mark TM-991K2
AWS A5.29 - E81T1-Ni1CJ H8, E81T1- AWS A5.29 - E91T1-K2C H8, E91T1-
Ni1MJ H8 K2M H8
TM-811N1 is comparable to E8018-C3 TM-991K2 offers exceptional combination
covered electrodes in deposit composition of properties for an all-position wire,
and properties. In many applications, TM- with good low temperature toughness
811N1 is more economical to use than combined with tensile strength in the
stick electrodes. TM-811N1 offers good 90,000-110,000 psi range. TM-991K2
welder appeal, with excellent arc stability, is characterized by welder appeal, with
low spatter, fastfreezing slag to facilitate a smooth stable arc, low smoke and
all-position welding, and very easy slag spatter levels. The quick-freezing slag is
removal. It is recommended for single-and easily removed and bead geometry in all
multiple-pass welding in all positions using positions is excellent.
either CO2 or a 75% Ar/25% CO2 gas
mixture for shielding. Typical applications:
All-position work with many highstrength
Typical applications: low alloy steels such as A514, A710, and
Petro-chemical applications where deposit HY-80. It is recommended for single-and
nickel must be kept low for weathering- multiple-pass welding in all positions with
steel fabrication where color match is not 100% CO2 or 75% Ar/25% CO2 shielding
required. It is used for mining and earth gas.
moving equipment and other fabrication
where good low temperature
Typical diffusible hydrogen
impact values are needed.
3.8 mls/100g

Typical weld metal properties (Chem Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Pad): 75% Ar/25%C O2 Pad): 100%C O2
Carbon................................. .06 Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.40 Manganese........................ 1.04
Silicon.................................. .36 Silicon.................................. .19
Phosphorus....................... .015 Phosphorus....................... .009
Sulphur................................ .010 Sulphur................................ .014
Nickel................................... .096 Molybdenum.................... .01
Nickel................................... 1.92
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
75% Ar/25% CO2 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Tensile Strength (psi) 93,000 100% CO2
Yield Strength (psi) 85,000 Tensile Strength (psi) 92,000
Elongation 24.5% Yield Strength (psi) 80,000
Typical Charpy V-notch Elongation 27%
impact values (AW): Typical Charpy V-notch
-40F (-40C) 102 ft. lbs. (138J) impact values (AW):
Recommended welding procedures: 0F (-18C) 85 ft. lbs. (115J)
Electrical Recommended welding procedures:
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout Electrical
.045 ......................125-320 24-33 5/8+1/8 Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.052 ......................125-375 24-34 3/4+1/8 .045 ......................150-300 23-30 1/2
Type of current: DCEP .052 ......................175-375 23-32 1/2

Type of current: DCEP


107
Tubular Wires
Tri-Mark TM-911B3 Tri-Mark TM-101
AWS A5.29 - E91T1-B3C H4, E91T1- AWS A5.29 - E101T1-GM
B3M H4 TM-101 is an all position gas-shielded
TM-911B3 provides 2-1/4% chromium/1% flux-cored wire designed for welding of
molybdenum steel weld metal in high strength steels such as A514, A710,
combination with excellent welder appeal. and similar HSLA and Q&T steels. TM-
Bead geometry is good in all positions. 101 offers exceptional low temperature
TM-911B3 is recommended for the welding impact toughness with tensile strength
of 2-1/4% chromium/1% molybdenum in the 105,000-115,000 psi range. TM-
steels, specifically ASTM A387, Grade 101 provides excellent welder appeal by
21 and 22.TM-911B3 also provides offering a smooth stable arc, low spatter,
some corrosion resistance. The wire is low smoke generation, and smooth bead
recommended for single-and multiple-pass profile. The quick freezing slag is ideal for
welding in all positions using 100% CO2 or high deposition welding while maintaining
80% Ar/20% CO2 shielding gas. a flat bead profile.

Typical applications: Typical applications:


All position work requiring creep resistance It is recommended for single and multiple-
at elevated temperatures such as pressure pass welding in all positions with 75%
piping. Ar/25% CO2 shielding gas.

Typical diffusible hydrogen Typical diffusible hydrogen


C O2 3ml/100g 3.8mls/100g

Typical weld metal properties (Chem Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Pad): 100%C O2 Pad): 75%Ar/25%C O2
Carbon................................. .05 Carbon................................. .06
Manganese........................ .64 Manganese........................ 1.60
Silicon.................................. .27 Silicon.................................. .38
Phosphorus....................... .011 Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .013 Sulphur................................ .011
Molybdenum.................... .93 Molybdenum.................... .01
Chromium..........................2.04 Nickel...................................1.95

Typical mechanical properties (AW): Typical mechanical properties (AW):


100% CO2 75% Ar/25% CO2
Tensile Strength (psi) 100,000 Tensile Strength (psi) 110,000
Yield Strength (psi) 86,000 Yield Strength (psi) 102,000
Elongation 20% Elongation 20%

Typical Charpy V-notch Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW): impact values (AW):
Not required. 0F (-18C) 78 ft. lbs. (106J)
Recommended welding procedures:
Electrical Recommended welding procedures:
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout Electrical
.045 ......................115-325 20-30 1/2 - 3/4 Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.052 ......................125-375 21-32 1/2 - 3/4 .045 ......................150-300 22-28 3/4
1/16 ......................175-400 22-32 3/4-1
Type of current: DCEP
Type of current: DCEP

108
Metal Cored Wires
Tri-Mark Metalloy Vantage TM
Tri-Mark Metalloy Vantage TM

Ni1 D2
AWS A5.28 - E80C-ni1 H4 AWS A5.28 - E90C-D2
Metalloy Vantage Ni1 is a metal-cored Metalloy Vantage D2 is a gas-shielded
wire designed for single or multi-pass metal-cored wire that is equivalent to
welding of nickelmolybdenum steels. This ER80S-D2 solid wire. Metalloy Vantage
wire also incorporates patented formulation D2 offers improved welding performance
to reduce silicon island formation. Weld through higher deposition rates and better
bead toe lines and weld face are almost wet-in than solid wire. In addition, weld toe
completely free of silicon deposits, lines are almost completely free of silicon
eliminating cleanup time and effort. The deposits which will save time and money by
remaining islands of silicon are almost eliminating troublesome cleanup and part
self-peeling.With exceptionally low spatter preparation. Arc characteristics improve
rates, Metalloy Vantage Ni1 will save time with richer argon gases while spatter and
and money spent cleaning prior to painting, fume levels decrease.
coating, or plating. Typical applications:
Typical applications: Metalloy Vantage D2 was developed
Welding castings, equipment and those for high-strength, low alloy steels found
applications requiring touhness at sub-zero in heavy equipment and structural
temperatures. Suitable for joining HSLA applications. Recommended for single-
weathering steels in structural construction pass and multi-pass welding with Ar/CO2
applications where color match is not and Ar/O2 shielding gas.
required. Typical diffusible hydrogen
Typical diffusible hydrogen (gas chromatography):
(gas chromatography): 2.0ml/100g 98% AR/ 2% O2
2.05ml/100gr 75% AR/ 25% CO2
Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Typical weld metal properties (Chem Pad): 98% Ar/2% O2
Pad): 75% Ar/25% CO2 Carbon................................. .05
Carbon................................. .05 Manganese........................ 1.47
Manganese........................ 1.38 Silicon.................................. .48
Silicon.................................. .65 Molybdenum.................... .45
Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .013 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Nickel................................... 1.0 98% Ar/2% O2
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Tensile Strength (psi) 99,400
75% Ar/25% CO2 Yield Strength (psi) 91,600
Tensile Strength (psi) 92,000 Elongation 21.8%
Yield Strength (psi) 81,000 Typical Charpy V-notch
Elongation 25% impact values (AW):
Typical Charpy V-notch -20F (-29C) 50 ft. lbs. (68J)
impact values (AW): Recommended welding procedures:
-20F (-29C) 48 ft. lbs. (65J) Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
Recommended welding procedures: .045 ......................200-350 24-28 5/8+1/8
Electrical .052 ......................250-400 25-31 5/8+1/8
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.045 (1.2 mm).........200-400 27-35 5/8+1/8 Type of current: DCEP
1/16 (1.6 mm).........275-500 29-37 1+1/4

Type of current: DCEP


109
Metal Cored Wires
Tri-Mark Metalloy 76 Tri-Mark Metalloy Vantage
AWS E70C-6M H4 AWS E70C-6M H4
EN758 T46 4 M M 2 H5 Metalloy Vantage is a metal-cored wire
Metalloy 76 is a gas shielded metal cored wire with fewer silicon islands than other
that has higher manganese and silicon levels metal-cored wires, eliminating trouble-
than Metalloy 71 with slightly lower spatter some cleanup time and effort. Remaining
and higher strength. The increased deoxidiza- islands of silicon are almost self-peeling. With
tion level allows for more tolerance of mill exceptional low spatter rates, it will save time
scale, with fewer root pores than Metalloy 71. and money spent cleaning prior to painting,
Metalloy 76 is recommended for single-pass coating, or plating. Recommended for single-
and multi-pass welding in flat and horizontal pass and multi-pass welding in both the flat
positions with 75-95% Ar/CO2. The wetting and horizontal positions. Recommended
action is better than solid wire, minimizing shielding gas is a mixture of argon and carbon
cold lap on heavier sections of steel. dioxide, with a minimum of 75% argon and
PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS: a maximum of 95% argon.
Higher deoxidizer levels for improved per- PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS:
formance on mill scaled plate Exceptionally clean weld beads
Better wetting action than solid wire mini- Better wetting action than solid wire.
mizes cold lap Better gap bridging and reduced burn
Superb operator appeal through than solid wire.
Good choice to use for short-circuit or pulse Higher deposition rates and travel speeds
applications. thansolid wire.
Better side wall fusion than solid wire.
Typical diffusible hydrogen
Typical diffusible hydrogen (gas chromatography):
2.10 ml/100 g (75% AR/ 25% CO2) 2,05ml/100gr 75% AR/ 25% CO2
Typical weld metal properties Typical weld metal properties (Chem
(Chem Pad): 75% AR/ 25% CO2 Pad): 75% Ar/25% CO2
Carbon................................. .05 Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.58 Manganese........................ 1.38
Silicon.................................. .71 Silicon.................................. .65
Phosphorus....................... .012 Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .013 Sulphur................................ .013
Typical mechanical properties (AW): 75% Nickel................................... .40
AR/ 25% CO2 Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Tensile Strength (psi) 88,700 75% Ar/25% CO2
Yield Strength (psi) 78,200 Tensile Strength (psi) 90,200
Elongation % in 2 27% Yield Strength (psi) 80,000
Typical Charpy V-notch Elongation 25%
impact values: Typical Charpy V-notch
0F (-18C) 72 ft. lbs. (98J) impact values (AW):
Recommended welding procedures: 0F (-18C) 50 ft. lbs. (68J)
Electrical
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
Recommended welding procedures:
Electrical
.035 ......................200-260 26-30 1/2 +1/8
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout
.045 ......................200-350 27-34 5/8+1/8 .045 (1.2 mm).........200-400 26-31 5/8+1/8
.052 ......................250-400 28-34 5/8+1/8 1/16 (1.6 mm).........275-450 29-33 3/4+1/4

Type of current: DCEP Type of current: DCEP


110
Metal Cored Wires
Tri-Mark TM-1101K3-C Tri-Mark Metalloy 90
AWS A5.29 - E111T1-K3CJ H8 AWS A5.28 - E90C-K3
TM-1101K3-C offers excellent arc stability Metalloy 90 is a metal-cored wire designed
and low spatter with CO2 shielding gas. It for welding high-strength steels, par-
also has a fastfreezing slag for all-position ticularly those requiring high toughness at
welding. These features, along with rela- sub-zero temperatures. Metalloy 90 can be
tively low diffusible hydrogen levels, excel- used for both single and multipass welding
lent slag removal, good impact values and with either 98% Ar/2% O2 or 75% Ar/25%
high strength levels, make TM-1101K3-C a CO2 shielding gas.
superior choice for welding higher-strength
steels. It is recommended for single-and Typical applications:
multiple-pass welding in all Ideal for castings, pressure vessels and
positions using 100% CO2 shielding gas. other applications associated with building
ships and offshore platforms.
Typical applications:
Welding high-strength steels. Product Charactistics:
Suitable for welding high strength low
Typical diffusible hydrogen alloy steels.
Below 5.0ml/100g Single or multi-pass welding.
Higher deposition rates compared to
Typical weld metal properties (Chem solid wire.
High CVN at sub-zero temperatures.
Pad): 100%C O2
Carbon................................. .07
Manganese........................ 1.55 Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Silicon.................................. .34 Pad): 98% Ar/2% CO2
Phosphorus....................... .009 Carbon................................. .05
Sulphur................................ .017 Manganese........................ 1.32
Molybdenum.................... .37 Silicon.................................. .33
Chromium.......................... .03 Nickel...................................1.89
Nickel...................................1.97 Molybdenum.................... .37
Vanadium........................... .02
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
Typical mechanical properties (AW): 98% Ar/2% CO2
100% CO2 Tensile Strength (psi) 100,800
Tensile Strength (psi) 117,000 Yield Strength (psi) 91,400
Yield Strength (psi) 105,000 Elongation 25%
Elongation 22%
Typical Charpy V-notch
Typical Charpy V-notch impact values (AW):
impact values (AW): -60F (-51C) 25 ft. lbs. (34J)
-20F (-29C) 34 ft. lbs. (46J)
Recommended welding procedures:
Recommended welding procedures:
Electrical Deposition
Dia. Amps Volts Stickout Dia. Amps Volts Rate(lb/
.045 ......................125-325 24-31 1/2 - 3/4 hr)
.052 ......................150-375 24-32 1/2 - 3/4 .045 ......................200-350 27-35 5.9 - 15.2
1/16 ......................175-400 23-32 1/2 - 3/4 1/16 ......................300-450 29-34 11.2 - 20.9

Type of current: DCEP


For more information:
http://www.hobartbrothers.com
111
Metal Cored Wires
Tri-Mark Metalloy 100 Tri-Mark Metalloy 110
AWS A5.28 - E100C-K3 AWS A5.28 - E110C-K4
Metalloy 100 is a low alloy steel metal Metalloy 110 is a metal-cored, gas shield-
cored welding electrode designed to ed wire that is designed for the single and
produce weld metal with a minimum of multi-pass welding of quenched and tem-
100 ksi tensile strength. In addition to pered steels including T1-type, HY80 and
high tensile strength, the weld metal has HY100. For use with 75% Ar/25% CO2, it
excellent low temperature toughness to is also highly recommended for welding
-60XC. Metalloy 100 produces these high-strength steels.
properties over a wide heat input range.
Like most metal cored wires, Metalloy 100 Typical Applications:
has low diffusible hydrogen levels below Metalloy 110 can be used for welding cast-
4 ml/100g. ings, heavy equipment, and shipbuilding
projects.
Product Charactistics:
Single or multi-pass welding of high Product Charactistics:
strength low alloy steels, such as A514, Single or multi-pass welding of high
A517, T-1, HY-80, HSLA A80, A710 and strength low alloy steels.
many others. Higher deposition rates compared to
Higher deposition rates compared to solid wire.
solid wire. Recommended for welding quenched and
Designed for Ar/CO2 shielding gas tempered HSLA steels.
mixtures containing up to 10% CO2.
Shielding gas mixtures containing more
than 10% CO2 may be used but will result Typical weld metal properties (Chem
in tensile strength below 100 ksi. Pad): 75% Ar/25% CO2
Carbon................................. .07
Manganese........................ 1.63
Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Silicon.................................. .48
Pad): 90% Ar/10% CO2
Nickel...................................2.22
Carbon................................. .07 Chromium.......................... .21
Manganese........................ 1.50 Molybdenum.................... .59
Silicon.................................. .38
Nickel...................................1.58
Molybdenum.................... .34
Typical mechanical properties (AW):
75% Ar/25% CO2
Tensile Strength (psi) 119,900
Typical mechanical properties (AW): Yield Strength (psi) 95,000
90% Ar/10% CO2
Elongation 22%
Tensile Strength (psi) 113,300
Yield Strength (psi) 103,300 Typical Charpy V-notch
Elongation 21% impact values (AW):
-60F (-51C) 39 ft. lbs. (53J)
Typical Charpy V-notch
impact values (AW): Recommended welding procedures:
-60F (-51C) 49 ft. lbs. (66J)
Recommended welding procedures: Deposition
Deposition Dia. Amps Volts Rate(lb/
Dia. Amps Volts Rate(lb/ hr)
hr) .045 .....................200-4000 27-35 6.0 - 18.6
.045 ......................200-350 27-35 5.9 - 15.2 1/16 ......................300-450 28-34 11.2 - 20.9
.052 ......................250-400 28-34 9.0-21.5
1/16 ......................300-450 28-34 11.2 - 20.9

112
Hard Surfacing
Hobart FabTuf 960 Notice:
Overlay Actual use of the products may produce
varying results due to conditions and
With CO2 shielding, FabTuf 960 is the right welding techniques over which the
filler metal when you need a high-quality, producer has no control, including, but
uniform deposit thats porosity-free. Its ideal not limited to, plate chemistry, weldment
for CO2 welding in hard surfacing applica- design, fabrication methods, electrode size,
tions where moderate impact strength and welding procedure, service requirements
moderate abrasion resistance is required. It and environment. The purchaser is solely
is also an excellent choice for metal-to-metal responsible for determining the suitability
wear resistance applications. During welding, of any products for the purchasers own
the tubular steel sheath and metal powders use. Any prior representations shall not
of the core fuse together to form alloy steel be binding. The companies disclaim any
weld metal with almost no slag. Youll get a warranty of merchantability or fitness for
deposition efficiency equal to that of solid any particular purpose with respect to its
welding wires. FabTuf 960 can be used for products.
out-of-position welding.
Typical applications: The information contained or oth-
Coal conveyors, conveyor bucket lips, dredge
parts, extruder worms, ore drag lines erwise referenced herein is presented
Typical weld metal properties
only as typical without guarantee
(Chem Pad): or warranty, and Hobart Brothers
Carbon................................. .70 Company expressly disclaims any
Manganese........................ 2.00 liability incurred from any reliance
Chromium.......................... 8.00
Silicon.................................. 1.00
theron. Typical data are those ob-
tained when welded and tested in
Machinability: Possible by grinding
accordance with AWS specifica-
Flame cut: No tions. Other tests and procedures
Hardness: 55-60 Rc may produce different results. No
Wear index: 35 data is to be construed as a recom-
Type of current: DCEP mendation for any welding condi-
Available diameter and recommended tion or technique not controlled by
operating ranges: Hobart Brothers Company.
Dia. Amps Volts
.045 (1.2 mm)...............................120-210 20-28
1/16 (1.6 mm)...............................170-310 20-28 Caution:
Consumers should be thoroughly familiar
Recommended welding positions: with the safety precautions shown on the
Flat, Horizontal, and Vertical Warning Label posted on each shipment in
and in American National Standard Z49.1,
Safety in Welding and Cutting, published
by the American Welding Society, 550
NW LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126,
For more information: and OSHA Safety and Health Standards
29 CFR 1910, available from the U.S.
http://www.hobartbrothers.com Department of Labor, Washington, D.C.
20210.

113
Filler Guide for Welding Aluminum
114

319, 333 13, 43, 344, 7039 6061, 6063 1100


354, 355, 356, A356 214,A214 A612,C612 6101,6151 5154 5052 5005 3004 2014 3003 1060
Base Metal C355 A357,359 B214,F214 D612,7005k 6070 6201,6951 5456 5454 5254a 5086 5083 5652a 5050 Alc.3004 2219 2024 Alc.3003 EC
1060, EC ER414c,i ER4043i,f ER4043e,i ER4043i ER4043i ER4043i ER5356c ER4043e,i ER4043e,l ER356c ER5356c ER4043i ER1100c ER4043 ER4145 ER4145 ER1100c ER1260c
1100,3003 ER414c,i ER4043i,f ER4043e,i ER4043i ER4043i ER4043i ER5356c ER4043e,i ER4043e,l ER5356c ER5356c ER4043e,i ER4043e ER4043e ER4145 ER4145 ER1100c
Alclad 3003
2014,2024 ER4145g ER4145 ER4145 ER4145 ER4145g ER4145g
2219 ER4145g,c,i ER4145c,i ER4043i ER4043i ER4043f,i ER4043f,i ER4043 ER4043i ER4043i ER4043 ER4043 ER4043i ER4043 ER4043 ER2319c,f,i
3004 ER4043i ER4043i ER5654b ER5356e ER4043e ER4043b ER5356e ER5654b ER5654b ER5656e ER5356e ER4043e,i ER4043e ER4043e
Alclad 3004
5005, 5050 ER4043i ER4043i ER5654b ER5356e ER4043e ER4043b ER5356e ER5654b ER5654b ER5356e ER5356e ER4043e,i ER4043d,e
5052, 5652a ER4043i ER4043b,i ER5654b ER5356e,h ER5356b,c ER5356b,c ER5356b ER5354b ER5654b ER5356e ER5256e ER5654a,b,c
5083 ER5356c,e,i ER5356e ER5183e,h ER5356e ER5356e ER5183e ER5356e ER5356e ER5356e ER5183e
5086 ER5356c,e,i ER5356e ER5356e,h ER5356e ER5356e ER5356e ER5356b ER5356b ER5356e
5154, 5254a ER4043b,l ER5654b ER5356b,h ER5356b,c ER5356b,c ER5356b ER5656b ER5654a,b
Note 3: Filler metals designated with ER prefix are listed in AWS
5454 ER4043l ER4043b,l ER5654b ER5356b,h ER5356b,c ER5356b,c ER5356b ER5664c,e specifications A5.10.
5456 ER5356c,e,i ER5356e ER5556e,h ER5356e ER5356e ER5556e a Base metal alloys 5654 are used for hydrogen peroxide
6061,6063,6101 ER4145c,i ER4043b,i ER5356b,c ER5356b,c ER4043b,i ER4043b,i service. ER5654 filler metal is used for welding both alloys for
6201,6151,6951 b.c.h.i.
low-temperature service (150OF and below).
6070 ER4145c,l ER4043e,i ER5356c,e ER5356c,e,h,i ER4043e,i
b ER5183, ER5356, ER5554, ER5556 and ER5654 may be used.
7039 ER5356b,h ER5039e In some cases they provide (1) improved color match after
A612,C612 ER4043i ER4043b,h,i
D612,7005k anodizing treatment. (2) highest weld ductility, and (3) higher
214,A214 ER4043b,i ER5654b,d
weld strength. ER5554 is suitable for elevated temperature
B214,F214 service.
13,43,344 c ER4043 may be used for some applications
356,A356 ER4145c,i ER4043c,i
A357,359 d Filler metal with the same analysis as the base metal is
319,333
sometimes used.
ER4145d,c,i
354,355,C355 e ER5183, ER5356 or ER5556 may be used.
f ER4145 may be used for some applications.
g ER2319 may be used for some applications.
Note 1: Service conditions such as immersion in fresh or salt water, h ER5039 may be used for some applications.
exposure to specific chemical or a sustained high temperature (over i ER4047 may be used for some applications.
150oF) may limit the choice of filler metals. j ER1100 may be used for some applications.
Note 2: Recommendations in this table apply to gas shielded-arc welding k This refers to 7005 extrusions only.
processes. For gas welding, only R1100, R1260 and R4043 filler Note 4: Where no filler metal is listed, the base metal combination
metals are ordinarily used. is not recommended for wiring.
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A3 1, 2 Bars Steel 6012, 6013, 7014, 7024 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A27 All Castings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7,
71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A36 Structural Steel 6012, 6013, 7014, 7024, 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4,
7018 70T-7, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A53 A & B Pipe Steel 6010, 6011 80S-D2, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A82 Reinforcing Steel 7018, 7018-1 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-5, 70T-1, 70T-4,
71T-8, 71T-11, 70T-7,
71T-GS, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A105 Pipe Steel Same as A53
A106 A & B Pipe Steel
C Pipe Steel Same as A53 80S-D2, 70S-6
A109 Strip Steel 6012, 6013, 7024 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A123 Sheet, strip Steel 7018, 7018-1 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS, 70T-1, 71T-1,
71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A131 Structural Steel Same as A36
A134 Pipe Steel Same as A53
A135 A & B Pipe Steel Same as A53
A139 All Pipe Steel Same as A53
A148 80-40, 80-50 Castings Low alloy 8018-C3 80S-D2 71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
90-60 Castings Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
105-85 Castings Low alloy 11018-M 110T5-K4
120-95 Castings Low alloy 12018-M
A161 Tubes Steel 6010, 6011 70S-6, 80S-D2 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
115
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
116

SMAW GMAW FCAW


A167 304L Sheet, strip Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
309S, 309 Sheet, strip Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
310S, 310 Sheet, strip Stainless 310
316 Sheet, strip Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
316L, 317L Sheet, strip Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
317 Sheet, strip Stainless 317L
347, 348 Sheet, strip Stainless 347
XM-15 Sheet, strip Stainless 310
A176 429, 430 Sheet, strip Stainless 308
442, 446 Sheet, strip Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
A177 Sheet, strip Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
A178 A Tubes Steel 7018 80S-D2 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
C Tubes Steel Same as A53
A179 Tubes Steel Same as A53
A181 60 Pipe, fittings Steel Same as A53
70 Pipe, fittings Steel 7018 80S-D2 71T-8
A182 F1 Pipe, fittings C/Mo 7018-A1 80S-D2 110T5-K4
F2, F11, F12 Pipe, fittings Cr/Mo 8018-B2 8018-B2
F5, F5a, F21, F22 Pipe, fittings Cr/Mo 9018-B3
F304, F304H Pipe, fittings Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
F304L Pipe, fittings Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
F310 Pipe, fittings Stainless 310
F316L Pipe, fittings Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
F347H, F348, F348H Pipe, fittings Stainless 347
F10 Pipe, fittings Stainless 310
A184 40 Reinforcing Steel Same as A82 70T-5, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
50, 60 Reinforcing Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A185 Reinforcing Low alloy 7018 71T-8
A192 Tubes Steel 7018 80S-D2, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A199 T3b, T4, T22 Tubes Cr/Mo 9018-B3
T11 Tubes Cr/Mo 8018-B2
A200 Tubes Cr/Mo Same as A199
A202 A & B Pressure vessel Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
A203 All Pressure vessel Nickel steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A204 A & B Pressure vessel C/Mo 7018-A1 80S-D2 110T5-K4
C Pressure vessel Low alloy 10018-M
A209 Tubes Steel 7018 80S-D2, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A210 A-1 Tubes Steel Same as A161 80S-D2, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
C Tubes Steel 7018 71T-8
A211 Pipe Steel Same as A53
A213 T2, T11, T12, T17 Tubes Cr/Mo 8018-B2
T3b, T22 Tubes Cr/Mo 9018-B3
TP304, TP304H Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP304L Tubes Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
TP310 Tubes Stainless 310
TP316, TP316H Tubes Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
TP316L Tubes Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
TP347, TP347H, Tubes Stainless 347
TP348, TP348H
A214 Tubes Steel Same as A161
A216 WCA Castings Steel 6013, 7014, 7024, 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
117

WCB, WCC Castings Steel 7024, 7018 70S-3, 70S-6, 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
80S-D2 70C-3C, 70C-6M
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
118

A217 WC1 Castings Cr/Mo 7024, 7018 70S-3, 70S-6, 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
80S-D2 70C-3C, 70C-6M
WC4, WC5, WC6 Castings Cr/Mo 8018-B2 80S-D2
WC9 Castings Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A225 C Pressure vessel Low alloy 11018-M, 12018-M 110T5-K4
D Pressure vessel Low alloy 8018-C3 80S-D2 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A226 Tubes Steel Same as A161
A234 WPA, WPB, WPC Fittings Steel Same as A53
WP1 Fittings Cr/Mo 8018-B2 80S-D2
WP11, WP12 Fittings Cr/Mo 8018-B2
WP22 Fittings Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A236 C, D, E, F, G Forgings Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
H Forgings Low alloy 12018-M
A240 302, 304, 304H Pressure vessel Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
305 Pressure vessel Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
304L Pressure vessel Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
309S Pressure vessel Stainless 310
310S Pressure vessel Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
316H Pressure vessel Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
316L, 317L Pressure vessel Stainless 317L
317 Pressure vessel Stainless 347
347, 347H Pressure vessel Stainless 347
348, 348H Pressure vessel Stainless 310 310
A242 Types 1 & 2 Structural Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A249 304, 304H, 305 Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
304L Tubes Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
309 Tubes Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
310 Tubes Stainless 310
316, 316H Tubes Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
316L Tubes Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
317 Tubes Stainless 317L
321, 321H, 347, 347H Tubes Stainless 347
A250 Tubes Mo 7018-A1 80S-D2
A252 1, 2 Pipe Steel Same as A53
3 Pipe Steel 80S-D2
A266 1, 2, 3, 4 Forgings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A268 TP329 Tubes Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
A269 TP304 Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP304L Tubes Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
TP316 Tubes Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
TP316L Tubes Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
TP317 Tubes Stainless 317L
TP321, TP347 Tubes Stainless 347
A270 Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
A271 TP304 Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP304H Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP321 Tubes Stainless 347
TP321H Tubes Stainless 347
119

TP347 Tubes Stainless 347


TP347H Tubes Stainless 347
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
120

A273 C1010 thru C1020 Forgings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A276 302, 304, 305, 302B Bars Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
304L Bars Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
309, 309S Bars Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
310, 310S Bars Stainless 310
316 Bars Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
316L Bars Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
317 Bars Stainless 317L
321, 347, 348 Bars Stainless 347
TP446 Bars Stainless 309, 310
A283 A, B, C, D Structural Steel Same as A36
A284 C, D Structural Steel Same as A36
A285 A, B, C Pressure vessel Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6, 80S-D2 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A288 1 Forgings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
2 Forgings Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
3 Forgings Low alloy 11018-M
A289 A & B Forgings Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
A297 HF Castings Stainless 308, 308L 308LT-1
HH Castings Stainless 309 308L 308LT-1
HI, HK Castings Stainless 310 309 309LT-1
HE Castings Stainless 312
A299 Pressure vessel Low alloy 9018-M
A302 A, B, C, D Pressure vessel Low alloy 9018-M
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A312 TP304, TP304H Pipe Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP304L Pipe Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
TP309 Pipe Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
TP310 Pipe Stainless 310
TP316, TP316H Pipe Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
TP316L Pipe Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
TP317 Pipe Stainless 317L
TP321, TP321H, TP347, Pipe Stainless 347
TP347H, TP348, TP348H
A328 Piling Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A333 1 & 6 Pipe Low alloy 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
3, 4, 7, 9 Pipe Low alloy 8018-C2
A334 1 & 6 Tubes Low alloy 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
3, 7, 9 Tubes Low alloy 8018-C2
A335 P1, P15 Pipe C/Mo 7018-A1 80S-D2
P2, P11 P12 Pipe Cr/Mo 8018-B2
P22 Pipe Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A336 F1 Pressure vessel Low alloy 7018-A1
F22, F22a Pressure vessel Cr/Mo 9018-B3
F30 Pressure vessel Cr/Mo 8018-B2
F31 Pressure vessel Nickel steel 8018-C2
A336 F8, F82, F84 Pressure vessel Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
F8M Pressure vessel Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
F10, F25 Pressure vessel Stainless 310
121
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
122

ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A350 LF1, LF2 Fittings Nickel steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
LF3, LF4 Fittings Nickel steel 8018-C2
A351 CF8, CF8A, CF8C Castings Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
CF3, CF3A Castings Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
CF8M, CF10MC, CF3M, Castings Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
CF3MA
CH8, CH10, CH20 Castings Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
CK20, HK30, HK40 Castings Stainless 310
A352 LC2 Castings Nickel steel 8018-C1 81T1-Ni2
LC3 Castings Nickel steel 8018-C2
A356 1 Castings Steel Same as A27
2 Castings C/Mo 7018-A1 80S-D2
5, 6, 8 Castings Cr/Mo 8018-B2
10 Castings Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A358 304 Pipe Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
309 Pipe Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
310 Pipe Stainless 310
316 Pipe Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
321, 347, 348 Pipe Stainless 347
A361 Sheet Steel 7018 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS, 70T-1, 71T-8, 71T-1
A369 FP1 Pipe Low alloy 7018-A1 80S-D2
FP2, FP11, FP12 Pipe Cr/Mo 8018-B2
FP22, FP3B Pipe Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A369 FPA, FPB Pipe Low alloy 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A372 I Forgings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M, 110T5- K4
II, III Forgings Low alloy 9018-M
IV Forgings Low alloy 11018-M 110T5-K4
V Forgings Alloy steel 12018-M
VI Forgings Alloy steel 10018-D2 110T5-K4
A376 TP304, TP304H, Pipe Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP304N
TP316, TP316H, TP316N Pipe Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
TP321, TP321H, TP347, Pipe Stainless 347
TP347H, TP348
A381 Y35 thru Y50 Pipe Steel Same as A53
Y52, Y56 Pipe Steel 7010, 7018 80S-D2 71T8-K6, 71T-8
Y60, Y65 Pipe Low alloy 9018-M
A387 A, B, C Pressure vessel Cr/Mo 8018-B2
D, E Pressure vessel Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A389 C23 Castings Cr/Mo 8018-B2
A403 WP304, WP304H Fittings Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
WP304L Fittings Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
WP309 Fittings Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
WP310 Fittings Stainless 310
WP316, WP316H Fittings Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
WP317 Fittings Stainless 317L
WP321, WP321H, Fittings Stainless 347
123

WP347H, WP348
A405 P24 Pipe Cr/Mo 9018-B3
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
124

SMAW GMAW FCAW


A409 TP304, TP304L Pipe Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP309 Pipe Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
TP310 Pipe Stainless 310
TP316, TP316L Pipe Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
TP317 Pipe Stainless 317L
TP321, TP347, TP348 Pipe Stainless 347
A412 201, 202 Sheet, strip Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
A413 PC, BBB Chain Steel 7018 70S-3 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A414 A, B, C, D, E, F, G Sheet Steel 6012, 6013, 7014, 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4,70T-7,
7024-1 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A420 WPL6 Fittings Steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
WPL9 Fittings Nickel steel 8018-C1 81T1-Ni2
WPL3 Fittings Nickel steel 8018-C2
A423 1 Tubes Cr/Mo 8018-B2
2 Tubes Nickel steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A426 CP1, CP15 Pipe Cr/Mo 7018-A1 80S-D2
CP2, CP11, CP12 Pipe Cr/Mo 8018-B2
CP21, CP22 Pipe Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A430 FP304, FP304H, Pipe Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
FP304N
FP316, FP316H, FP316N Pipe Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
FP321, FP321H, Pipe Stainless 347
FP347, FP347H
A441 Structural Steel Same as A36
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A442 55, 60 Pressure vessel Nickel steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A447 Castings Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
A451 CPF8, CPF8C Pipe Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
CPH8, CPH20 Pipe Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
CPK20 Pipe Stainless 310
A452 TP304H Pipe Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP316H Pipe Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
TP347H Pipe Stainless 347
A455 Pressure vessel Low alloy 9018-M
A457 761 Sheet, strip Stainless 347
A469 1, 2 Forgings Nickel steel 8018-C2
A470 1, 2 Forgings Nickel steel 8018-C2
A479 302, 304, 304H Bars Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
304L Bars Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
310, 310S Bars Stainless 310
316, 316H Bars Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
316L Bars Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
321, 321H, 347, 347H, Bars Stainless 347
348, 348H
A486 70 Castings Steel 7014, 7024, 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
90 Castings Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
120 Castings Alloy steel 12018-M
A487 1N, 2N, 4N, 8N, 9N, 1Q, 2Q Castings Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
3Q, 4Q, 5Q, 4QA, 7Q, Castings Alloy steel 12018-M
8Q, 9Q, 10Q, 5N, 6N, 10N
125
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
126

SMAW GMAW FCAW


A493 302, 304, 305 Bar Stainless 308 308 308LT-1
316 Bar Stainless 316 316 316LT-1
321-347 Bar Stainless 347
A496 Reinforcing Low alloy 9018-M
A497 Reinforcing Low alloy 9018-M
A500 A, B, C Tubes Steel Same as A36
A501 Tubes Steel Same as A161
A508 1, 1a Forgings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
2, 3 Forgings Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
4, 5 Forgings Low alloy 11018-M 110T5-K4
5a, 4a Forgings Low alloy 12018-M
A511 MT302, MT304, MT305 Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
MT304L Tubes Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
MT309, MT309S Tubes Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
MT310, MT310S Tubes Stainless 310 310
MT316 Tubes Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
MT316L Tubes Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
MT317 Tubes Stainless 317L
MT321, MT347 Tubes Stainless 347
A512 MT1010 thru MT1020 Tubes Steel Same as A216
A513 1008 thru 1022 Tubes Steel Same as A161
A514 Plates Low alloy 11018-M, 12018-M 110T5-K4
A515 Pressure vessel Steel 7018 70S-3 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A516 Pressure vessel Steel 7018 70S-3 81T1-Ni2, 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4,
71T-8, 70T-7, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A517 Pressure vessel Low alloy 11018-M 110T5-K4
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A519 1008 thru 4130 Tubes Steel Same as A161
A521 CA, CC, CC1 Forgings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
AA, AB, CE, CF, AC, Forgings Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
AD, CF1, CG
AE Forgings Low alloy 11018-M 110T5-K4
A523 Pipe Steel Same as A53
A524 Pipe Steel Same as A53
A526 Sheet Galvanized 7018 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS
A527 Sheet Galvanized 7018 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS
A528 Sheet Galvanized 7018 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS
A529 Structural Steel Same as A36
A533 A1, B1, C1, D1 Pressure vessel Low alloy 9018-M 110T5-K4
A2, B2, C2, D2, A3, B3, Pressure vessel Low alloy 10018-M 110T5-K4
C3, D3
A537 1 Pressure vessel Steel 7018 70S-3 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8
2 Pressure vessel Nickel steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A539 Tubes Steel Same as A161
A541 1, 1a Forgings Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Forgings Cr/Mo 8018-B2
6A, 7, 7A, 8, 8A Forgings Low alloy 12018-M
A542 1, 2 Pressure vessel Cr/Mo 9018-B3
A543 A, B Pressure vessel Low alloy 12018-M
127
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
128

A554 MT301, MT302, Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1


MT304, MT305
MT304L Tubes Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
MT309, MT309S Tubes Stainless 309 309 309LT-1
MT310, MT310S Tubes Stainless 310
MT316 Tubes Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
MT316L Tubes Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
MT317 Tubes Stainless 317L
MT321, MT347 Tubes Stainless 347
A556 A2, B2 Tubes Stainless Same as A161
C2 Tubes Steel 7018 70S-6, 80S-D2 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M, 70T-1
A557 Tubes Steel Same as A556
A562 Pressure vessel Steel 7018 70S-3 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8, 71T-11, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A569 Sheet, strip Steel 6012, 6022, 6013, 7014 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS, 71T-1, 70T-1,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A570 30, 36, 40, 45 Sheet, strip Steel Any E60 or E70 electrode 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
50 Sheet, strip Steel 7018, 7024 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-4, 70T-7, 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A572 42 thru 55 Structural Steel Same as A36
60 thru 65 Structural Low alloy 8018-C2
A573 Structural Steel Same as A36
A587 Pipe Steel Same as A53
A588 Structural Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-8
A589 Pipe Steel Same as A53 71T8-K6
A591 Sheet Galvanized 7018 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS
A592 A, E, F Pressure vessel Low alloy 12018-M
A595 A, B, C Tubes Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A606 Sheet Low alloy 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-11,
71T-GS, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A607 45 Sheet Low alloy 6010, 6011, 6012, 70S-3, 70S-6, 71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
6013, 7014, 7024, 7018 80S-D2 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-11, 71T-GS
50 Sheet Low alloy 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 71T-11, 71T-GS
60 Sheet Low alloy 8018-C3 81T2-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
70 Sheet Low alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A611 A, B, C, D Sheet Steel Any E60 or E70 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
electrode 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
A611 E Sheet Steel 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A612 Pressure vessel Steel 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A615 40 Reinforcing Steel Same as A82
60 Reinforcing Low alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
75 Reinforcing Low alloy 10018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A616 50, 60 Reinforcing Low alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A617 40 Reinforcing Steel Same as A82
60 Reinforcing Low alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A618 1, 2, 3 Tubes Steel 7018 80S-D2 71T-8
A620 Sheet Steel 7014, 7024 70S-3 71T-11, 71T-GS, 71T-1
A621 Sheet, strip Steel 7018 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8
129
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
130

A632 TP304 Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1


TP304L Tubes Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
TP310 Tubes Stainless 310 310
TP316 Tubes Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
TP316L Tubes Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
TP317 Tubes Stainless 317L
TP321 Tubes Stainless 347
TP347 Tubes Stainless 347
TP348 Tubes Stainless 347
A633 A, B, C, D Structural High strength, 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
Low alloy 71T-11, 71T-GS, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
A642 Sheet Galvanized 7018 70S-6 71T-11, 71T-GS, 71T-8
A643 A Castings Steel 7018, 7024 70S-3, 70S-6, 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
80S-D2 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
B Castings Steel 10018-D2 110T5-K4
C Castings Steel 9018-B3
A651 TPXM8 Tubes Stainless 347
TP304 Tubes Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP316 Tubes Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
A656 1, 2 Structural Low alloy 10018-D2 110T5-K4
A659 1015, 1016, 1017, 1018, Sheet strip Steel Same as A607 70S-3, 70S-6, 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
1020, 1023 80S-D2 70T-4, 70T-7
A660 WCC, WCA, WCB Pipe Carbon steel pipe 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M
A662 A, B Pressure vessel C-Mn 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M,70T-470T-7
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A666 TP301 Sheet, strip Stainless 308 308L 308LT-1
TP316 Sheet, strip Stainless 316 316L 316LT-1
A669 Tubes Alloy steel 316L 316L 316LT-1
A672 B65 Pipe Steel 7018 70S-3 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
D80, E55, E60 Pipe Steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
H75, H80, J80, J90 Pipe Steel 9018-M 110T5-K4
J100 Pipe Steel 10018-M 110T5-K4
K75, K85 Pipe Steel 9018-M 110T5-K4
L65, L70 Pipe Steel 7018-A1 80S-D2 110T5-K4
L75 Pipe Steel 10018-M 110T5-K4
M70, M75, N75 Pipe Steel 9018-M 110T5-K4
A678 A Structural Carbon steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
A678 B Structural Carbon steel 9018-M 110T5-K4
C Structural Carbon steel 10018-M
A688 TP304 Tubes Stainless steel 308 308L 308LT-1
TP304L Tubes Stainless steel 308L 308L 308LT-1
TP316 Tubes Stainless steel 316 316L 316LT-1
TP316L Tubes Stainless steel 316L 316L 316LT-1
A691 CM65, CM70 Pipe C & Alloy steel 7018-A1 80S-D2 110T5-K4
CM75 Pipe C & Alloy steel 10018-M 110T5-K4
CMSH70 Pipe C & Alloy steel 7018 70S-3 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
CMS75 Pipe C & Alloy steel 9018-M 110T5-K4
CMSH80 Pipe C & Alloy steel 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
1/2CR Pipe C & Alloy steel 8018-B2
131

1CR, 1-1/4CR Pipe C & Alloy steel 8018-B2


2-1/4CR Pipe C & Alloy steel 9018-B3
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
132

A692 Tubes Cr/Mo 7018-A1 80S-D2 110T5-K4


A694 F42, F46, R48 Fittings C & Alloy steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
F56, F50, F52 Fittings C & Alloy steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
F60, F65 Fittings C & Alloy steel 8018-C3 80S-D2 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A696 B, C Bars Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
A699 1, 2, 3, 4 Plates, bars Low alloy 10018-D2 110T5-K4
A704 40 Reinforcing Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 71T-11, 71T-GS
60 Reinforcing Steel 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A706 Reinforcing Low alloy 8018-C3 80S-D2 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A707 L1, L2, L3 Flanges C & Alloy steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
L4 Flanges C & Alloy steel 8018-C1 80S-D2 81T1-Ni2
L5, L6 Flanges C & Alloy steel 8018-C3 80S-D2 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
L7, L8 Flanges C & Alloy steel 8018-C2 80S-D2
A709 36 Structural High strength, Low alloy 6012, 6013, 7014, 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
7024, 7018 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 71T-11, 71T-GS
50, 50W Structural High strength, Low alloy 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 E70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
100, 100W Structural High strength, Low alloy 11018-M 110T5-K4
A714 I, II, III, IV Pipe Low alloy 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
V Pipe Low alloy 8018-C1 81T1-Ni2
VI Pipe Low alloy 8018-C3 81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A715 50 Sheet, strip Steel 6012, 6013, 7024, 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
80S-D2 70T-4, 70T-7
60 Sheet, strip Steel 7018, 7024, 7014 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
70 Sheet, strip Steel 7018 80S-D2 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7
80 Sheet, strip Steel 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A724 A Pressure vessel Q & T steel 9018-M 110T5-K4
A732 1A, 2A, 3A Castings Steel 6012, 6013, 7024, 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
7014, 7018 70T-4, 70T-7
4A Castings Steel 9018-M 110T5-K4
5N, 6N Castings Steel 7024, 7018 70S-3, 80S-D2 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A734 A Pressure vessel Alloy & Low alloy 8018-B2
B Pressure vessel Alloy & Low alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A735 1, 2, 3 Pressure vessel Low C & Alloy steel 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
4 Pressure vessel Low C & Alloy steel 10018-D2 110T5-K4
A736 2 Pressure vessel Alloy 8018-B2
3 Pressure vessel Alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
B Pressure vessel Low alloy 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
A737 C Pressure vessel Low alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A738 Pressure vessel Alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
A744 CF-8 Castings Stainless 308 308
CF-8M Castings Stainless 316 316
CF-8C Castings Stainless 347
133

CF-3 Castings Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1


CG-8M Castings Stainless 316L, 317L 316L 316LT-1
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
134

A757 A2Q Castings Alloy steel 7018 71T-8


B2N, B2Q Castings Alloy steel 8018-C1 81T1-Ni2
B3N, B3Q Castings Alloy steel 8018-C2
C1Q Castings Alloy steel 10018-M
DNDQ Castings Alloy steel 9018-B3
E1Q Castings Alloy steel 11018-M
A765 1 Pressure vessel Low alloy 7018 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
2 Pressure vessel Low alloy 7018-1 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
A771 Tubing Stainless 316H
A782 Class 1 Pressure vessel High strength, 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
Mn-Cr-Mo
Class 2 Pressure vessel High Strength, 11018-M 110T5-K4
Mn-Cr-Mo
Class 3 Pressure vessel High strength, 12018-M
Mn-Cr-Mo
A808 Steel plate High strength, low alloy 7018-1 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
A812 65 Sheet High strength, low alloy 9018-M 80S-D2 110T5-K4
8 Sheet High strength, low alloy 11018-M, 10018-M 110T5-K4
Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels
ASTM No. Grade Product Type of Metal Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)
SMAW GMAW FCAW
A813 TP304 Pipe Stainless 308 308
TP304H Pipe Stainless 308H
TP304L Pipe Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
TP309S Pipe Stainless 309 309
TP310S Pipe Stainless 310
TP316 Pipe Stainless 316 316
TP316H Pipe Stainless 316H
TP316L Pipe Stainless 316L 316L 316LT-1
TP317 Pipe Stainless 317L
TP317L Pipe Stainless 317L
TP321 Pipe Stainless 347
TP347 Pipe Stainless 347
A814 Pipe Stainless Same as A813
A822 Tubing Steel 6010, 6011, 6013
A826 TP316 Tubes Stainless 316H
A830 Plates Steel 7018 70S-3, 70S-6 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A841 Pressure vessel Steel 7018 71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
A851 TP304 Tubes Stainless 308, 308H 308
TP304L Tubes Stainless 308L 308L 308LT-1
A873 Sheet, strip Steel 9018-B3, 9018-B3L
135
Welding Terms and Definitions
AC or Alternating Current Is that kind of electricity which reverses its direction
periodically. For 60 cycle current, the current goes in one direction and then in
the other direction 60 times in the same second, so that the current changes
its direction 120 times in one second.
Arc Blow The deflection of an arc from its normal path because of magnetic
forces.
Arc Length The distance from the tip of the welding electrode to the adjacent
surface of the weld pool.
Arc Voltage The voltage across the welding arc.
As-Welded Pertaining to the condition of weld metal, welded joints, and weld-
ments after welding, but prior to any subsequent thermal, mechanical or
chemical treatments.
Automatic Welding welding with equipment that requires only occasional or
no observation of the welding, and no manual adjustments of the equipment
controls.
Backing A material or device placed against the backside of the joint, or at both
sides of a weld in electroslag and electrogas welding, to support and retain
molten weld metal. The material may be partially fused or remain unfused
during welding and may be either metal or nonmetal.
Backstep Sequence A longitudinal sequence in which weld passes are made in
the direction opposite to the progress of welding.
Bare Electrode A filler metal electrode that has been produced as a wire, strip, or
bar with no coating or covering other than that incidental to its manufacture
or preservation.
Base Metal (material) The metal (material) that is welded, brazed, soldered, or
cut.
Butt Joint A joint between two members aligned approximately in the same
plane.
Concavity The maximum distance from the face of a concave fillet weld perpen-
dicular to a line joining the weld toes.
Convexity The maximum distance from the face of a convex fillet weld perpen-
dicular to a line joining the weld toes.
Covered Electrode A composite filler metal electrode consisting of a core of a bare
electrode or metal cored electrode to which a covering sufficient to provide a slag
layer on the weld metal has been applied. The covering may contain materials
providing such functions as shielding from the atmosphere, deoxidation, and
arc stabilization and can serve as a source of metallic additions to the weld.
Crater A depression in the weld at the termination of a weld bead.
Depth of Fusion The distance that fusion extends into the base metal or previous
bead from the surface melted during welding.
DC or Direct Current Electric current which flows only in one direction. In welding,
an arc welding process wherein the power supply at the arc is direct current.
Fillet Weld - A weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces ap-
proximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint or corner joint.
136
Fillet Weld Leg The distance from the joint root to the toe of the fillet weld.
Flat Welding Position The welding position used to weld from the upper side
of the joint at a point where the weld axis is approximately horizontal, and the
weld face lies in an approximately horizontal plane.
Flux A material used to hinder or prevent the formation of oxides and other
undesirable substances in molten metal and on solid metal surfaces, and to
dissolve or otherwise facilitate the removal of such substances.
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) An arc welding process that uses an arc between
a continuous filler metal electrode and the weld pool. The process is used
with shielding gas from a flux contained within the tubular electrode, with or
without additional shielding from an externally supplied gas, and without the
application of pressure.
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) An arc welding process that uses an arc
between a continuous filler metal electrode and the weld pool. The process is
used with shielding from an externally supplied gas and without the applica-
tion of pressure.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) An arc welding process that uses an arc be-
tween a tungsten electrode (nonconsumable) and the weld pool. The process
is used with shielding gas and without the application of pressure.
Groove Weld A weld made in a groove between the workpieces.
Heat-Affected Zone The portion of the base metal whose mechanical properties
or microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding, brazing, soldering,
or thermal cutting.
Horizontal Welding Position
Fillet Weld - The welding position in which the weld is on the upper side of an
approximately horizontal surface and against an approximately vertical sur
face.
Groove Weld The welding position in which the weld face lies in an
approximately vertical plane and the weld axis at the point of welding is ap-
proximately horizontal.
Joint Penetration The depth a weld extends from its face into a joint, exclusive
of reinforcement.
Lap Joint A joint between two overlapping members in parallel planes.
Machine Welding A nonstandard term when used for mechanized welding.
Manual Welding Welding with the torch, gun, or electrode holder held and
manipulated by hand. Accessory equipment, such as part motion devices and
manually controlled filler material feeders may be used.
Melting Rate The weight or length of electrode, wire, rod, powder melted in a
unit of time.
Open Circuit Voltage The voltage between the output terminals of the power
source when no current is flowing to the torch or gun.
Overhead Welding Position The welding position in which welding is performed
from the underside of the joint.
Overlap The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root.
Peening The mechanical working of metals used impact blows.
Porosity Cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidifica-
tion or in a thermal spray deposit.
137
Postheating The application of heat to an assembly after welding, brazing, solder-
ing, thermal spraying or thermal cutting operation.
Preheat The heat applied to the base metal or substrate to attain and maintain
preheat temperature.
Radiography The use of radiant energy in the form of X-rays or gamma rays for
the non-destructive examination of metals.
Reverse Polarity A nonstandard term for direct current electrode positive.
Root Opening A separation at the joint root between the workpieces.
Root Penetration The distance the weld metal extends into the joint root.
Semiautomatic Welding Manual welding with equipment that automatically
controls one or more of the welding conditions.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) An arc welding process with an arc between
a covered electrode and the weld pool. The process is electrode and the weld
pool. The process is used with shielding from the decomposition of the elec-
trode covering, without the application of pressure, and with filler metal from
the electrode.
Slag A nonmetallic product resulting from the mutual dissolution of flux and
nonmetallic impurities in some welding and brazing processes.
Spatter The metal particles expelled during fusion welding which do not form
a part of the weld.
Straight Polarity A nonstandard term for direct current electrode negative.
Stress Relief Heat Treatment Uniform heating of a structure or a portion thereof
to a sufficient temperature to relieve the major portion of the residual stresses,
followed by uniform cooling.
Stringer Bead A type of weld bead made with appreciable weaving motion.
Tack Weld A weld made to hold parts of a weldment in proper alignment until
the final welds are made.
Throat of a Fillet Weld
Theoretical Throat The distance from the beginning of the joint root
perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be
inscribed within the cross section of a fillet weld. This dimension is based
on the assumption that the root opening is equal to zero.
Actual Throat The shortest distance between the weld root and the face of
a fillet weld.
Effective Throat The minimum distance minus any convexity between the
weld root and the face of a fillet weld.
Tungsten Electrode A non-filler metal electrode used in arc welding or cutting,
made principally of tungsten.
Underbead Crack A crack in the heat-affected zone generally not extending to
the surface of the base metal.
Undercut A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld
root and left unfilled by weld metal.
Vertical Welding Position The welding position in which the weld axis, at the point
of welding, is approximately vertical, and the weld face lies in an approximately
vertical plane.

138
Weave Bead A type of weld bead made with transverse oscillation.
Weld - A localized coalescence of metals or non-metals produced either by heat-
ing the materials to welding temperature, with or without the application of
pressure, or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use
of filler material.
Weld Face The exposed surface of a weld on the side from which welding was
done.
Weld Metal That portion of a weld which has been melted during welding.
Weld Nomenclature
Toe
Face
Leg Throat
Toe
Leg
Root

Weld Pass A single progression of welding along a joint. The result of a pass is
a weld bead or layer.
Weld Pool The localized volume of molten metal in a weld prior to its solidifica-
tion as weld metal.
Weld Root The points, as shown in cross section, at which the root surface inter-
sects the base metal surfaces.
Weld Size
Groove Weld Size The joint penetration of a groove weld.
Fillet Weld Size For equal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest isosceles
right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. For
unequal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest right triangle that can
be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section.
Weld Toe The junction of the weld face and the base metal.
Welding Procedure The detailed methods and practices involved in the
production of a weldment.
Welding Rod A form of welding filler metal, normally packaged in straight lengths,
that does not conduct the welding current.
Weldment An assembly whose component parts are joined by welding.

139
Metric Conversion Tables
140

To Convert From To Multiply By Fillet Sizes Fillet Sizes


lb Mass (avdp) kg 4.535 924 x 10-1 in. mm in. mm
ton Mass (200 lbm) kg 9.071 847 x 102
1/8 3 0.030 0.76
in Linear Measurement mm 2.540 000 x10
5/32 4 0.035 0.89
in2 Area Dimensions mm2 6.451 600 x 102
lb in.2 Pressure Pa 6.894 757 x 103
3/16 5 0.040 1.02
gal/hr Flow Rate liter/min 6.309 020 x 10-2 1/4 6 0.045 1.14
psi Tensile Strength Pa 6.894 757 x 103 5/16 8 1/6 1.59
ksi. in. 1/2 Fracture Toughness MN m-3/2 1.098 855 3/8 10
5/64 1.98
ft. lb. Impact J 1.355 818 7/16 11
lb/hr Deposition Rate kg/h 0.45 3/32 2.38
1/2 13
in/min Travel/Wire Speed mm/s 4.233 333 x 10-1 1/8 3.18
5/8 16
MPG Miles per U.S. Gal. km/liter 0.425 5/32 3.97
3/4 19
MPG Miles per Imp. Gal km/liter 0.3544
7/8 22 3/16 4.76
Fo Temperature Co 5/9 (Fo 32o)
C o
Temperature Fo 9/5 Co + 32o 1 25 1/4 6.35

Wire Diammeter (14SWG)(12SWG) (10SWG) (8SWG) (6SWG) (4SWG)


Inch
mm
Weld Deposit

Lbs.
KG

Impact Values Charpy V Notch

Ft. lb.
kg. m/cm

Pressure

lbs. Inch2
KG/CM2

Weight
141

Lbs.
KG
Thickness
inch
142

mm

Travel Speed
Inch/Min.
mm/Min.

Gas Flow

Cu. ft./Hr.
Liters/Min.

Temperature
F
C

F
C
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143
HIWT Training Materials

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144
INDEX

Index Terms Links

Aluminum, Filler Guide for Welding 114

Certification 143
Conversion Tables, Metric 140
Cost Saving Tips 54

Designation of Steels 115

Electrodes, Aluminum 114


Electrodes, Hard Surfacing 113
Electrodes, Mild Steel 79
Electrodes, Stainless Steel 92
Electrodes, Tubular Wires 99

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.


Index Terms Links

Electrode Selection 56
Electrode Classification 63
Essentials for Good Welding 16

Filler Metals, Aluminum 114


Filler Metals, Classification 63
Filler Metals, Consumption 60
Filler Metals, Hobart listing 79
Filler Metals, Selection Guide for Steel 115
Filler Metals, Storage and Reconditioning 59

Gases, Shielding 62
Gas metal arc welding, Short circuit transfer 74
Gas metal arc welding, Spray transfer 75

Hard Surfacing Electrodes 113


Hobart Filler Metals 79
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
Certification 143

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.


Index Terms Links

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology


Training 143
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
Training Materials 144

Joints, Types 37

Metal Cored Wire 57 109


Metals, Identification 50
Metals, Welding 48
Metric Conversion Tables 140
MIG, Short Circuit Transfer 74
MIG, Spray Transfer 75
Mild Steel Electrodes 79

Positions, Welding 35
Preheating 52
Problems, Welds 30
Processes, Welding 6

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Index Terms Links

Quality, Welding 34

Safety, Welding 44
Shielding Gases 62
Stainless Steel Electrodes 92
Steel 49
Steel, Filler Metal Selection Guide 115
Symbols, Welding 38

Terms and Definitions 136


Training 143
Training Materials 144
Troubleshooting Guide for Semiautomatic
Wire Equipment 33
Troubleshooting Guide for Wire 33
Tubular Wires 99

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.


Index Terms Links

Weld Beads, Examples 18


Weld Quality, Checkpoints 33
Welding Positions 35
Welding Problems, Causes and Cures 30
Welding Processes 6
Welding Safety 44
Welding Symbols 38
Welding Terms and Definitions 136
Wire, Troubleshooting Guide for
Semiautomatic Welding 33
Wire, Tubular 99

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