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Student Guide

1 Loudspeakers: Student Guide

Warning: Hearing protection is recommended during this lab!

1.1 Project Overview

The students will be introduced to basic theory and modeling of an acoustic system
using an 8 diameter loudspeaker. In this project, the students are tasked to measure
the Thiele-Small parameters of four individual loudspeakers. Due to limited
resources, the students will swap loudspeakers among the section teams to attain four
measurements. Each workbench is equipped with a function generator and power
amplifier, which will be used to drive the speaker via alligator clip connection. A
LabView program titled Frequency Response Main is utilized to sequence through a
frequency range by a predefined stepsize to construct a Bode plot of Impedance for
the system.

1.2 Equipment
Loudspeaker [EmersonAlpha8Aspeaker]
Speaker Box
HP/Agilent 54602B digital oscilloscope [OPTIONAL]
HP/Agilent 33120A function generator
HP/Agilent 34401A digital multimeter
Techron 7520 power supply amplifier
(2X) BNC cable 48 (4) length
(1X) BNC Splitter (Tee)
(1X) Adapter: Double-banana socket to BNC jack
(2X) Adapter: Double-banana plug to BNC plug
(2X) Patch cable with banana plug at both ends, RED, 48
(1X) Patch cable with banana plug at both ends, BLK, 24
(1X) Cable: Alligator Clip to banana plug at both ends, RED, 48
(1X) Cable: Alligator Clip to banana plug at both ends, BLK, 48
(1X) RS-232 Serial Cable (9-pin Female @ both ends)
LabVIEW program Frequency Response

Last Updated: 5.6.2016 1-1

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / Wiring Diagram

1.3 Wiring Diagram

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / Speaker Connection

1.4 Speaker Connection

A RED and BLACK alligator clip connects to the positive (+) and negative (-)
speaker terminals, respectively, located posterior. The terminals are delicate and
should be handled gently. The stand-alone speaker is placed atop a plastic container
to separate the magnet from the steel frame of the workbench.

Caution: Only touch the metal frame of the speaker!

Caution: Turn OFF power amplifier before disconnecting alligator clips

The speaker diaphragm is a paperlike membrane which can easily be punctured and/or torn. When moving or
positioning the speaker, only touch the metal frame of the speaker avoid contact with the cone diagphragm.

Figure 1-1: Connection to speaker terminals

Figure 1-2: Speaker positioned on plastic bin

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabVIEW Codes

1.5 LabVIEW Codes

The ME x95 LabView Shortcuts folder is installed on all users Desktop. This folder
contains shortcuts to all LabView programs used in ME 395/495. Open the folder by
double-clicking the icon to view all the lab shortcuts. Select the Frequency Response
Main shortcut to open up the LabView program.

Freqeuncy Response Main is a Labview program to analyze multiple, predefined

relationships over a range of frequencies. A HP/Agilent function generator is
controlled via serial communication to provide the driving sinusoidal signal. The
program automatically constructs a Bode plot for each relationship consisting of the
magnitude and phase shift by sweeping through a frequency range by the predefined

1.5.1 Frequency Sweep

Figure 1-3: LabVIEW program Frequency Response front panel

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabVIEW Codes Frequency Sweep Parameters

The frequency range is defined by Start and End; incrementing by the the Step value.
Delay provides a pause to allow equipment to attain steady-state before initiating the
analysis. Repetition enables the test to be conducted multiple times at each increment.
Finally, Clear Plots wipes out the plots at the beginning of a test removing any
history. Signals
All enabled analog signals are plotted for the selected time duration in the upper
graph. The visibility of each signal may be toggled using the checkbox located in the
plot legend.

Figure 1-4: Time-based plot of all analog signals

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabVIEW Codes Bode Plot: Magnitude & Phase

A Bode plot of magnitude and phase angle is generated for all user-defined
relationships. The visibility of each plot may be toggled using the checkboxes in the
the plot legend.

Figure 1-5: Bode magnitude plot

Figure 1-6: Bode phase angle plot

Note: Phase Plot attempts to remove discontinuities from wrap around angle by
using history. However, this algorithm needs further work. Bode Input/Output Variables

Multiple frequency response studies may be conducted concurrently by defining the
input and ouput variables for each study thus defining a relationship. Each pull-
down lists the enabled channels by name and DAQ address.

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabVIEW Codes Take Data

The Take Data button initiates the frequency sweep study by generating Bode plots of
the predefined relationships. Save Data

The data may be saved to a tab-delimited file for analysis in Excel, Matlab or similar
program by pressing the Save Data button. The data file includes a test summary
along with the magnitude and phase at each frequency step for all pre-defined Bode
studies. The following is a sample data file:


SpeakerVoltage SpeakerVoltage
/Microphone1 /Microphone2

Bode Bode Bode Bode
Frequency Current Magnitude Phase Magnitude Phase
(Hz) (A) (dB) (deg) (dB) (deg)

99.9995 0.0799 1.6407 19.5292 8.2005 20.5351
99.9994 0.0799 1.6397 19.5257 8.2018 20.5106
99.9994 0.0799 1.6374 19.6155 8.2006 20.4918
149.9992 0.0357 1.9333 292.6505 8.7261 294.4607
149.9991 0.0357 1.9274 67.5491 8.7257 65.5596
149.9992 0.0357 1.9187 67.513 8.7264 65.4995
199.9989 0.0479 0.1852 119.241 7.143 117.642
199.9989 0.0479 0.1799 241.2254 7.1402 242.536
199.9989 0.0479 0.1774 118.752 7.1392 117.468
249.9986 0.0798 4.5678 156.012 2.5153 155.428

Note: Ignore the 2nd column labeled Current (A). This column lists the RMS
current measured from the digital multimeters, which is not being used in
this embodiment of the lab.

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabVIEW Codes Snapshot
This panel enables the acquisition of raw data for external analysis. Typically, an
oscilloscope is utilized to determine values for several of the system variables. This
panel provides another tool which collects the raw data in digital format at a specified
sampling rate and duration.

Figure 1-7: Snapshot panel for collecting raw data

The function generator may be utilized in the Snapshot mode but must be enabled by
toggling the rocker switch on and setting the desired frequency. For tests which do
not utilize the function generator, the function generator must be off or an error will

Note: At high sampling rates, the memory may max-out before the desired test
duration is attained. For longer duration tests (20-30 seconds), use a
slower sampling rate.

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabVIEW Codes

1.5.2 Configuration:
From the tabs located along the upper-left region of the front panel, click on the
Configure tab to view or edit the configuration settings. The default settings/channels
are listed below and should be correct. The address of the connected DAQ chassis
will automatically be detected and corrected. Both programs have a similar
configuration; only a few minor differences

Figure 1-8: Configuration Panel

General Parameters
Title Speaker/MicrophoneSys
SampleRate(Hz) 5000
Table 1: General Parameters

Multimeter (DMM) Configuration

Enable FALSE
Name SpeakerCurrent
VISAChannel COM2(maychange)
EngineeringUnits(EU) A
FormatString %.4e
Table 2: DMM Configuration for measuring speaker current

Function/Waveform Generator
Enable TRUE
VISAChannel COM1(maychange)
Amplitude(V) 0.05
Table 3: Function/Waveform configuration

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabVIEW Codes

NI 9229 Parameters
SampleMode(Acoustics) ContinuousSamples
SampleMode(Freq.Response) FiniteSamples
Enable TRUE
Name SpeakerVoltage
Channel cDAQ1Mod1/ai0
Min(EU) 10
Max(EU) 10
Gain(EU/V) 1
Offset(EU) 0
EngineeringUnits(EU) Vrms
FormatString %.4e
Enable TRUE
Name SpeakerCurrent
Channel cDAQ1Mod1/ai1
Min(EU) 10
Max(EU) 10
Gain(EU/V) 10
Offset(EU) 0
EngineeringUnits(EU) Arms
FormatString %.4e
Enable FALSE
Name Microphone1
Channel cDAQ1Mod1/ai2
Min(EU) 100
Max(EU) 100
Gain(EU/V) 4.28
Offset(EU) 0
EngineeringUnits(EU) Pa
FormatString %.4e
Enable FALSE
Name Microphone2
Channel cDAQ1Mod1/ai3
Min(EU) 100
Max(EU) 100
Gain(EU/V) 4.28
Offset(EU) 0
EngineeringUnits(EU) Pa
FormatString %.4e
Table 4: Analog Input (NI-9229) Channel Settings

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / Procedure

1.6 Procedure
1.6.1 Connect/Swap Speaker
Step 1: Turn Techron power amplifier OFF
Step 2: Gently disconnect both alligator clips from existing speaker terminals.
Step 3: Remove speaker from plastic bin contact only the metal frame of the

Step 4: Place new speaker atop plastic bin.

Step 5: Connect RED alligator clip to the positive (+) speaker terminal.
Step 6: Connect BLACK alligator clip to the negative (-) speaker terminal.

Step 7: Adjust gain dial on power amplifier mid-position is sufficient.

Step 8: Power ON the amplifier.

1.6.2 Setup Frequency Sweep

Step 1: Set the desired test parameters the following lists the defaults:

Step 2: Verify the relationship to plot is Impedance with current as the speaker
current as the input and speaker voltage as the output.

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / Procedure

1.6.3 Frequency Sweep

Step 1: Turn Function Generator ON.
Step 2: Adjust the amplifier control knob to zero.
Step 3: Start LabView by pressing on the small white arrow along the top menu.

Step 4: Click on the Take Data button to initiate the frequency sweep.

The program will incrementally sequence through the predefine frequency range and
construct the Bode plot. Between frequencies, the program pauses for the preset
delay to allow the system to attain steady state before acquiring data. The duration
for the test varies but will likely take several minutes. When the test has concluded:

Step 5: Save the data file
Step 6: Turn OFF the power amplifier (noisy!)

Please save all data files to YOUR desktop

Ch.1: Loudspeakers: Student Guide / LabView Tips

1.7 LabView Tips

1.7.1 Change Axis Limits
Step 1: Double-click on upper (or lower) limit
Step 2: Edit the value

1.7.2 Toggle AutoScale

AutoScale is the default setting for all plot axes, which automatically sets the axis
limits to best display the entire dataset. The user may wish to zoom up on a range
and not have to repeatedly reset the axis limits. To enable (or disable) AutoScale:

Step 1: Move the cursor to the desired plot or axis.

Step 2: Right-click the mouse button.
Step 3: Click on AutoScale X (or AutoScale Y).

1.7.3 Toggle Plot Visibility

Use the checkboxes in the plot legend to toggle visibility of the desired channel.