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Write-up For BTP

Name- Rahul Sharma Roll No- 1401ME31

Name- Rahul Meena Roll No- 1401ME30
For our B.Tech Project, we intend to develop a dual wheel self-balancing scooter(balancing
board), namely, a hoverboard, also known as a Segway without handlebar. It is motivated
from a Segway personal transporter. A self-balancing scooter is a 2-wheel (inline) powered
vehicle that balances both rider and itself based on riders leaning action. It balances using-
i. Pressure pads which measure the lean (forward/backward both)
ii. Gyroscopic sensors and accelerometer which measure the pitching angle and rate
from amount of lean
iii. Signals are sent to both motors to drive them accordingly
Since both motors are independent of each other, the pivot at the centre of the frame helps
to create a right-left velocity difference using independent leaning action on either of them.
This actually helps to steer the scooter right or left (for steering left, push right toe forward
and left heel backwards and vice -versa for right turn).

Its basic working principle is based on the control of inverted pendulum, that is, when
pendulum is tilted forward, we move the vehicle forward to catch up the pendulum for
The angle of lean will be measured using: -

Integration of gyros output angular rate to give angular orientation about the pitch
axis (pitching angle)
Accelerometers acceleration (in dual axes) of its own inertial frame with respect to
gravity will be used to calculate actual angle and correct gyros drift
The microcontroller will do the following: -

Get sensor readings (gyro,accelero)

Check that angle is within safety range
Compute signal based on control loop
Output signal to motor drivers
Restart entire cycle
The project scope includes (but not limits to): -

Design and fabrication of vehicle chassis

Selection and implementation of major components: -
i. DC Motors
ii. Batteries
iii. Microcontroller
iv. Angular speed measuring Gyro sensor
v. Dual Axis Accelerometer (Tilt Sensor)
Development of control strategy
Programming of microcontroller
Integration of all other engineering details

Working Control System will possibly look like: -

Motors Vehicle + Rider Input Controlled
Reference point Control Element Plant variable (tilt angle)

Feedback signal
Feedback Elements
(Gyro + accelero)