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Write-up For BTP

Name- Rahul Sharma

Name- Rahul Meena

For our B.Tech Project, we intend to develop a dual wheel self-balancing scooter(balancing board), namely, a hoverboard, also known as a Segway without handlebar. It is motivated from a Segway personal transporter. A self-balancing scooter is a 2-wheel (inline) powered vehicle that balances both rider and itself based on rider’s leaning action. It balances using-

Roll No- 1401ME31

Roll No- 1401ME30

i. Pressure pads which measure the lean (forward/backward both)

ii. Gyroscopic sensors and accelerometer which measure the pitching angle and rate from amount of lean

iii. Signals are sent to both motors to drive them accordingly

Since both motors are independent of each other, the pivot at the centre of the frame helps to create a right-left velocity difference using independent leaning action on either of them. This actually helps to steer the scooter right or left (for steering left, push right toe forward and left heel backwards and vice -versa for right turn).

and left heel backwards and vice -versa for right turn). Its basic working principle is based
and left heel backwards and vice -versa for right turn). Its basic working principle is based

Its basic working principle is based on the control of inverted pendulum, that is, when pendulum is tilted forward, we move the vehicle forward to “catch up” the pendulum for balancing.

The angle of lean will be measured using: -

Integration of gyros output angular rate to give angular orientation about the pitch axis (pitching angle)

Accelerometers acceleration (in dual axes) of its own inertial frame with respect to gravity will be used to calculate actual angle and correct gyros drift

The microcontroller will do the following: -

Get sensor readings (gyro,accelero)

Check that angle is within safety range

Compute signal based on control loop

Output signal to motor drivers

Restart entire cycle

The project scope includes (but not limits to): -

Design and fabrication of vehicle chassis

Selection and implementation of major components: -

i. DC Motors

ii. Batteries

iii. Microcontroller

iv. Angular speed measuring Gyro sensor

v. Dual Axis Accelerometer (Tilt Sensor)

Development of control strategy

Programming of microcontroller

Integration of all other engineering details

Working Control System will possibly look like: -

± Motors

Vehicle + Rider Input

Controlled

look like: - ± Motors Vehicle + Rider Input Controlled ± ↑ Control Element −−−−−−−−−→

±

like: - ± Motors Vehicle + Rider Input Controlled ± ↑ Control Element −−−−−−−−−→ Plant

Control Element −−−−−−−−−→ Plant

↑ Control Element −−−−−−−−−→ Plant Reference point −→ −−−→ − → variable (tilt

Reference point −→

−−−→

variable (tilt angle)

Feedback signal

−−−−−−−

Feedback Elements

←−−−−−−−−−−−−−

(Gyro + accelero)