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23. Bernoulli and Euler Polynomials- Riemann Zeta Function

EMILIEV. HAYNGWORTH'

AND KARLGOLDBERQ'

Contents

Mathematical Properties ....................

  • 23.1. Bernoulli and Euler Polynomials and the Euler-Maclaurin Formula

......................

  • 23.2. Riemann Zeta Function and Other Sums of Reciprocal Powers ..

.....................

References

..........................

Table 23.1. Coefficients of the Bernoulli and Euler Polynomials B,(z) and E&), n=0(1)15

...

Table 23.2. Bernoulli and Euler Numbers ............. B, and E,, n=O, 1, 2(2)60, Exact and B, to 10s

Table 23.3. Sums of Reciprocal

Powers ..............

Psge

804

804

807

808

809

810

81 1

A("=&

(2k+l)"'

20D

n=1(1)42

Table 23.4. Sums of Positive Powers ...............

m

Ck",n=1(1)10, m=1(1)100

k-1

Table 23.5. P/n!,z=2(1)9, n=1(1)50, 10s

............

813

818

The authors acknowledge the assistance of Ruth E. Capuano in the preparation and checking of the tables.

1 National

Bureau of Standards.

ZNational Bureau of Standards.

(Presently, Auburn University.)

23. Bernoulli and Euler Polynomials-Riemann Function

Mathematical Properties

Zeta

23.1. Bernoulli and Euler Polynomials and the Euler-Maclaurin Formula

  • 23.1.1 -- e'-1 -C Bn(z) a

OD

n-0

lez'

t"

Generating Functions

Bernoulli and Euler Numbers

  • 23.1.2 n=O, 1,

Bn=B,(0)

. .

.

En=2"En(;)= integer

1

1

1

  • 23.1.3 BO=l, Bl=-ij, B2=6, B4=-- 30

Eo=l, E,=-l, E4=5

23.1.10

804

Expanaiona

n=O,

1,. .

.

n=O,

1,. .

.

En(l-z)=(-l)"E.(~)

  • (- l)*+'En(-z)=E,(z) -22"

m=1,2,. .

.

  • En(mz)=-- n+l mn F-

m- 1

-0

(-1)kBn+l(z+k)

n=O,

.

.

n=O,

.

n=O,

.

n=O,

.

n=O,

.

n=O,

.

n=o,

.

m=1,

.

n=O,

.

m=2,4,

.

BERNOULLI AND EULER POLYNOMIALS,RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTION

Integrals

805

23.1.12

1Bn(t)Bm(t)dt=(-l)m-l - (m+n)! Bm+n

m

!n!

m,n=l, 2,

. .

.

I

1En(t)Em(t)dt

= (-1)"4(2m+"+2-1)

m!n!

(m+n+2)!

B

m+n+z

m,n=O,

1,.

.

.

(The polynomials are orthogonal for m+n odd.)

23.1.13

23.1.14

IB2nI>IB2s(z)1 n=l,

2,. .

.,

2(2n+1)! (L)>(-l)n+lBzn+l (z)>O (27r)2"+' 1 -2-"

23.1.15

n=1,2,. .

.,

Inequalities

4-"lE2,1>(-1)"E2,(~)>0

i>z>O

4(2n- 1) !

I

n2"

n=1,2,. .

.

I

Fourier Expandona

I

n=1,2,

. .

.,

~>z>O

n=1,2,

. .

.,

+>z>O

n=O,l,. .

.

n>l,l>z>O

23.1.17

n=l,l>z>O

&n-1(z> =

(-1)"2(2n-I)!

sin 2km

(2?y)*n--1 z 7

n>l, 122'>0

n=l,l>z>O

n>O, 12x20

n=O, l>z>O

(-1)*4(2n-l)! 5 cos (2k+l)7rs

E2n-1(4=

?y2"

t-o

(2k+1)2"

n=1,2,. .

., 12~10

23.1.19

Bzn+l=O

23.1.20

B, (0)= (- 1) "23, (1)

=B,

Special Values

n=1,2, ..

.

EZn+,=0

n=O,1,

. .

.

E"(0) = -En (1 1

= -2(n+I)-l(2"+l- 1) &+I

n=O,l,. .

.

n=1,2,. .

.

  • 806 BERNOULLI AND EULER POLYNOMIALS,RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTION

E2n - 1

= --E2n-1(3>

= - (2n)-l(I -31-h) (2h-1)B2,

n=1,2,. .

.

23.1.25

23.1.26

Symbolic Operationn

p(B(z) + 1) -p(B(z)) =p'(~)

B.(z+h)=(B(z)+h)"

n=O, 1,

. .

.

Here p(z) denotes a polynomial in x and after expanding we set {B(z)}"=B.(z)and {E(x)}"=E.(z).

Relatione Between the Polynomials

23.1.27

Equivalent to this is

23.1.31

23.1.28

23.1.29

n=2,3,. .

.

Euler-Maclaurin Formulas

Let F(z) have its 6rst 2n derivatives continuous on an interval (a, a). Divide the interval into

m equal parts and let h=(b--a)/m.

Then for

some e, I>e>o,

depending on F(2")(z)on (a, b),

we have

23.1.30

Let &(z) =B,(z-[z]).

Formula is

23.1.32

The Euler Summation

BERNOULLI AND EULER POLYNOMIALS, RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTION

23.2.

Riemann Zeta Function and Other Sums of Reciprocal Powers

23.2.1

(D

{(s)=Ck-*

k= 1

as>1

23.2.2

=n (l-p-')--l

P

as>1

(product over all primes p).

23.2.3

23.2.13

23.2.14

{'(0)=--3 In 2r

{(-2n) =O

23.2.15

{(1--2n)=--

Bz.

2n

23.2.16

23.2.11

{(2n)=7 2(2n). (242" 1 BZ.l

807

n=l,2,. .

.

n=1,2,. .

.

n=1,2,.

.

n=1,2,. .

.

* 23.2.4

23.2.5

where

23.2.6

23.2.7

as>o

=2*n'-I sin (37rs) r(l--s){(l-s)

dx

23.2.8

--

  • 23.2.9 =2k-1 k-'+(s-l)-ln1-*-sL

0 x- [XIdX

x'+ 1

23.2.10

product over all zeros p of {(s) with gp>O.

The contour C in the fourth formula starts at

infinity on the positive real axis, circles the origin

once in the positive direction excluding the points

f2nir for n=1, 2,

., and returns to the

starting point. Therefore p(s) is regular for all

values of s except for a simple pole at s=l with

residue 1.

 

Special Values

23.2.11

S(0) = - 3

23.2.12

r(l)=-

'See page If.

Sums of Reciprocal Powerr

The sums referred to are

23.2.18

23.2.19

{(n) =E k-"

(D

k-1

v(n)=F (-1)"1k-m=(1-21-m){(n)

-1

23.2.20

a0

x(n)=C (2k+l)-"=(1-2-"){(n)

k-0

23.2.21

B(n) =% (- 1 >k (2k+ 1)

k-

n=2,3,

. .

.

11=1,2,. .

.

n=2,3,. .

.

n=1,2,. .

.

These sums can be calculated from the Bernoulli

and Euler polynomials by means of the last two

formulas for special values of the zeta function

(note that r)(l)=ln 2), and

23.2.22

8(2n+l)=

(?r/2)2"+1

2(2n)!

IE2.1

23.2.23

n=O, 1,

. .

.

(-1)"1F2n

B(2n)=4(2n-1)!

' Ezn-l(x) sec(m)dx

71=1,2,. .

.

p(2) is known as Catalan's constant.

other special values are

23.2.24

23.2.25

11

{(2)=1+3+3+ 23

11

{(4)=1+-+-+ 24

34

..
..

?rz

=-

6

r4

=-

90

Some

  • 808 BERNOULLI AND EULER POLYNOMIALS, RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTION

11 79 11 a4 - -_ 23.2.26 ~(2)=1--+-5- 22 3 23.229 . . . X(4)=1+-+-+ =-
11
79
11
a4
- -_
23.2.26
~(2)=1--+-5- 22 3
23.229
.
.
.
X(4)=1+-+-+
=-
12
34 54
96
U
23.2.30
/3(1)=1--+-- 11
=$
35
11
n2
11
P
23.2.28
X(2)=1+3+3+
23.2.31
--
/3(3)=1--+--- 33 53 * “-32 -_
35
’-8
References
Testa
Tables

[23.1] G. Boole, The calculus of finite differences, 3d ed. (Hafner Publishing Co., New York, N.Y., 1932).

[23.2] W. E. Briggs and S. Chowla, The power series co- efficients of ~(s),Amer. Math. hlonthly 62, 323-325 (1955).

[23.3] T.

Fort,

Finite differences (Clarendon Press,

Oxford, England, 1948). [23.4] C. Jordan, Calculus of finite differences, 2d ed. (Chelsea Publishing Co., New York, N.Y., 1960) .

[23.5] K. Knopp, Theory and application of infinite series (Blackie and Son, Ltd., London, England,

 

1951).

[23.6]

L. M. Milne-Thomson, Calculus of finite differences

(Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London, England,

1951).

[23.7] N. E. Norlund, Vorlesungen uber Differenzen- rechnung (Edwards Bros., Ann Arbor, Mich.,

 

1945).

t23.81 C. H. Richardson, An introduction to the calculus of finite differences (D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., 1954). [23.9] J. F. Steffensen, Interpolation (Chelsea Publishing Co., New York, N.Y., 1950). [23.10] E. C. Titchmarsh, The zeta-function of Riemann (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England,

1930).

[23.11] A. D. Wheelon, A short table of summable series, Report No. SM-14642, Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., Santa Monica, Calif. (1953).

(23.121 G. Blanch and R. Siegel, Table of modified Bernoulli polynomials, J. Research NBS 44,

103-107

(1950) RP2060.

(23.131 H. T. Davis, Tables of the higher mathematical functions, vol. I1 (Principia Press, Bloomington, Ind., 1935). [23.14] R. Hensman, Tables of the generalized Riemann Zeta function, Report No. T2111, Telecommuni- cations Research Establishment, Ministry of Supply, Great Malvern, Worcestershire, Eng- land (1948). l(s, a), s=-10(.1)0, a=0(.1)2, 5D; (~-l)r(~,a), ~=0(.1)1, ~=0(.1)2, 5D. [23.15] D. H. Lehmer, On the maxima and minima of Bernoulli polynomials, Amer. Math. Monthly 47, 533-538 (1940).

[23.16] E. 0. Powell, A table of the generalized Riemann

Zeta function in

a particular case, Quart. J.

Mech. Appl. Math. 5, 116-123 (1952). {($, a), a=1(.01)2(.02)5(.05)10, 10D.