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Rev C 53

300 Series Strip Reader


Service Manual

Table of Contents Print Head Replacement 29


Printer Platen Replacement 31
Calibration .................................... 32
Introduction .................................... 1
Software or Hardware Calibration?33
Layout ............................................. 2
Restore Calibration Data ............... 34
Principles of Operation ................. 8 Diagrams ....................................... 35
Photometer ...................................... 8
Block Diagram .............................. 35
Display, Keypad, and Printer .......... 8
System Control ................................ 8
PCB Layouts ................................ 36
Carrier Position Detection ............... 9 Main PCB - rev AB ...................... 36
Main PCB - from rev Z ................. 37
Troubleshooting ........................... 12
Main PCB rev L to rev Y ........... 38
Power Supply ................................ 12
Main PCB through rev K ........... 39
Photometer .................................... 12
Printer PCB (300-200C) ............... 40
Strip Drive ..................................... 13
Printer PCB (300-200) .................. 41
Main PCB ..................................... 14
Internal Printer ............................... 14
Schematics ..................................... 42
Display .......................................... 14 Main PCB (rev AB) 1 of 4 ............ 42
Keypad .......................................... 14 Main PCB (rev AB) 2 of 4 ............ 43
Serial Port ...................................... 14 Main PCB (rev AB) 3 of 4 ............ 44
Error Messages .............................. 17 Main PCB (rev AB) 4 of 4 ............ 45
Main PCB (from rev Z) 1 of 4 ...... 46
Service Procedures ....................... 18
Main PCB (from rev Z) 2 of 4 ...... 47
Opening the Instrument ................. 18
Main PCB (from rev Z) 3 of 4 ...... 48
EPROM Replacement 20
Main PCB (from rev Z) 4 of 4 ...... 49
Lamp Replacement ....................... 22
Photometer PCB ........................... 50
Filter Replacement ........................ 24
Printer PCB ................................... 51
Filter Label .................................... 26
Printer Jams ................................... 28
Printer Repairs ............................... 29 Rev C 11/04
1993-1997 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized 300 duplication
Series is strictly
Service prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
Manual
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair service. No part
1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
of this manual may be copied or redistributed without the express consent of Awareness Technology, Inc. There is no transfer of technology,
use by authorized
copyright, personnel
trade name, andtrade
patent, is tosecret,
be used for the
or other sole purpose
proprietary rightofgiven
providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
or implied.
Rev C 1

Introduction
This manual describes service and troubleshooting procedures for 300 series instruments. This manual
is written with the service technician in mind, and contains no information for clinical chemistry
analysis, or other applications. For details on instrument operation and specifications, please refer to
the Owner's Manual specific to the instrument.

There are presently two types of 300 series instruments in field use. Both types are equipped with either
a four optical filter photometer configuration or a six optical filter photometer configuration depending
on customer requirements. One type features a single microtiter strip handling device (hereafter
referred to as Strip Reader with Spring Clip) and the other type can accommodate up to three
microtiter strips using a different handling device (hereafter referred to as Strip Reader with Three-
Position Carrier). Both types of readers will accommodate either 8-well or 12-well strips. The Strip
Reader with Three-Position Carrier is supplied with a strip carrier which will accommodate 12-well
microtiter strips. An 8-well plate carrier is available as an option. Figure 1A illustrates a Strip Reader
with Spring Clip and Figure 1B illustrates a Strip Reader with Three-Position Carrier.

All types of the Model 300 series feature an internal thermal printer which provides a printed record
of all samples and test parameters. All calibration data, test parameters, and other information is stored
in battery-backed (nonvolatile) RAM.

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
2 Rev C

Layout
Figures 1A and 1B show the exterior of the single-strip and triple-strip style instruments. Figure 2
shows the rear panel. Figure 3 shows the bottom (both styles) of the instrument. Figure 4A shows the
internal chassis layout for the single-strip style instrument and Figure 4B shows the internal chassis
layout for the triple-strip style instrument.

The instrument housing is comprised of a chassis (base and rear panel combined) and a formed plastic
cover. The cover is secured to the base by five #4 self-tapping screws.

A 16 character alphanumeric LED display is mounted to the inside of the cover. A 20 column thermal
printer and the printer PCB mount to a metal printer bracket, which in turn mounts to the inside of the
cover. The display and the printer assembly both connect to the main PCB via 14 conductor ribbon
cable terminated with DIP (dual in-line pin) plugs. The keypad is a membrane-switch type sealed
beneath a graphic overlay and connects to the main PCB by the 8 conductor extension of the switch
layer, referred to as the keytail. The serial port connector (DB-9P) is mounted to the rear panel and
connects to the main PCB with a 4 conductor cable and SIP (single in-line pin) header.

The strip mechanism assembly (including the photometer) connects to the main PCB via a 14 conductor
ribbon cable and DIP plug as well as a 10 conductor ribbon cable and header. The 12VDC cooling
fan is mounted to the chassis base and connects to the main PCB via a 2 conductor cable and SIP header.

All AC mains components are mounted on the chassis.

The EPROM is located beneath a hatch on the underside of the instrument to facilitate easy software
upgrades. Early models which do not incorporate the EPROM hatch require the removal of the cover
for software upgrade.

CAUTION

DisconnectAC power cable before servicing.

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 3
Your particular instrument may differ from the configuration described in this manual. To describe
each instrument model in detail would be impossible due to space limitations. Omitted features may
be ignored. Differences which affect service procedures are noted where applicable.

300 series variations:

4 or 6 - position filter wheel


Thermal printer omitted
Graphics printer assembly
Printer assembly mounted to main PCB
Non-removable power cord installed
Serial port omitted
EPROM hatch omitted and EPROM mounted to component side of main PCB
EPROM device may be one of:
27128 16K bytes
27256 32K bytes
27512 64K bytes

RAM device may be one of:


6116 2K bytes volatile
48T08 8K bytes nonvolatile, memory-mapped clock
DS1243 8K bytes nonvolatile, serial clock

PCB revisionsinstalled components, locations, and jumpers:

Revisions A through K - see Main PCB - through rev K under PCB


Layouts

Revisions L through Y - shown in illustrations, also Main PCB - Revisions


L through Y under PCB Layouts

Revisions Z and higher - see Main PCB - from rev Z under PCB
Layouts

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
4 Rev C

Paper roll cover

Strip holder

Strip track Printer

Display

Keypad

Figure 1A. Instrument Exterior


Strip Reader with Spring Clip

Paper roll cover

Strip Carrier

Strip track Printer

Display

Keypad

Figure 1B. Instrument Exterior


Strip Reader with Three-Position Carrier

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
6 Rev C

Fuse block
Strip drive motor

Power
transformer
Filter
wheel
motor
Main PCB

Lamp Yellow wires


bracket to Strip
Mechanism 1

Rainbow
Ribbon
Cable to
Strip Mecha-
nism

Strip J8
holder (test
points)

Gray
Strip track Ribbon
Cable to
Strip
Mechanism

Strip mechanism
EPROM
1
Only on Main PCBs from rev Z (underneath main PCB)

Figure 4A. Chassis Layout


Strip Reader with Spring Clip

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 7

Fuse block

Strip drive motor

Power
transformer

Main PCB

Yellow wires
to Strip
Lamp Mechanism
bracket

Rainbow
Ribbon
Filter Cable to
wheel Strip Mecha-
motor nism

Shuttle
J8
(test
points)

Strip track
Gray
Ribbon
Cable to
Strip
Mechanism

Strip mechanism EPROM


(underneath main PCB)

Figure 4B. Chassis Layout


Strip Reader with Three-Position Carrier

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
8 Rev C

Principles of Operation
Photometer
Light from a tungsten-halogen lamp mounted on a bracket above the strip track passes downward
though the well and the sample it contains. The sealed box beneath the sample contains a rotating filter
wheel and photodetector (GaAsP photodiode). The filter wheel contains optical band-pass filters at
selected wavelengths, and is speed controlled, via drivers U9A and U9B in parallel, to approximately
4 rps. As each filter passes in front of the photodiode, a precisely located index hole in the filter wheel
in tandem with an infrared optical switch generates a pulse (FCNT) at U13. Sample-hold capacitor C14
charges to the peak voltage produced by the photodetector and amplifiers U16 and U14B. The sampled
voltage is buffered by U15A and then fed to comparator U15B which compares the sampled voltage
to the output of an exponential capacitor decay circuit built around Q3 and C16. The positive voltage
at the comparator output enables a counter in 8254 timer U4, the value of which is ultimately read by
the microprocessor and used to compute the absorbance. The photodetector output is proportional to
the intensity of the light, whereas the width of the positive phase of the comparator output is proportional
to the absorbance. An oscilloscope can be used to view the important signals at connector J8 while the
instrument is in operation. See Figure 6, Oscilloscope Waveforms.

A DC motor under microprocessor control drives a lead screw via a pulley and neoprene belt. The lead
screw moves the strip holder along the strip track. The pulley incorporates indexing holes so that an
infrared optical switch generates pulses (CLK2) to timer U4 from which the microprocessor derives
position and speed of the strip movement. The movement is zeroed at the front extreme when the motor
stalls. Each well in the microtiter strip can thus be precisely aligned with the photometer assembly.

Display, Keypad, and Printer


A 16 character alphanumeric LED display is mounted inside the cover. The display connects to the
Z80 data and address buses on the main PCB via a 14 pin DIP cable, which also supplies +5VDC
power. A 4 x 4 membrane switch keypad is sealed behind the front panel overlay. The tail of the keypad
switch layer is fed through the cover and installed to connector K1 on the main PCB, which then
connects to 8255 PPI U5. The printer assembly, consisting of a 20 column thermal printer, the printer
PCB, and metal support, is mounted to the cover and is connected to the main PCB via a 14 pin DIP
cable, which provides +5VDC power and the control lines from U5. On early models the printer
assembly is mounted to the main PCB with threaded spacers.

System Control
The instrument is based on the 8 bit Z80 microprocessor U1, using a 2MHz clock. The software is
permanently stored in EPROM U2. Battery-backed NVRAM (nonvolatile random access memory)
U3, incorporates a real-time clock mapped to the uppermost 8 bytes. Some early models used an
NVRAM with a serial-access real-time clock (DS1243Y). The NVRAM is used store test setups. Most
digital I/O is accomplished with 8255 PPI U5. Time intervals and pulse widths are measured using the
counter channels of 8254 timer U4.

The memory map shown below is for a 27256 EPROM and a 48T08 NVRAM. See the jumper
settings table below for other configurations

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 9

Carrier Position Detection


The latest configuration instrument features the ability to read three microtiter strips instead of a single
strip as in earlier models. Earlier models detected the position of the first well. The three - position
carrier configuration uses indexing holes located on the carrier to distinguish between the adjacent
strips. As the carrier moves forward the instrument looks for the front edge of the carrier which blocks
light to the Photometer. A predetermined distance between the edge of the carrier (light blocked) and
the index hole (light sensed) gives the control circuitry the information it needs to determine if the carrier
is positioned to read the left or center strips. In the case of the right strip, no index hole is used and the
control circuitry is programmed so that if light is not sensed in either of the two other programmed index
hole locations (the light continues to be blocked) the carrier is positioned to read the right strip.

The position of the carrier relative to each well in a microtiter strip is tracked by counting pulses obtained
from the pulley which drives the threaded shaft which moves the shuttle (and carrier) along the guide
tracks. When the front edge of the carrier is sensed, a reference position is established.

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
10 Rev C

300 Series typical memory map (see jumper settings table)


0000:7FFF EPROM
8000:9FF7 NVRAM
9FF8:9FFF real-time clock

300 Series I/O map (fixed)


00:03 8255 PPI U5
00 Port A
01 Port B
02 Port C
03 Control Word

10:13 8254 Timer/Counter U4


10 Timer 0
11 Timer 1
12 Timer 2
13 Control Word

20:2F Alphanumeric LED Display (each I/O address maps to a character position)

300 Series Jumper Settings

PCB Rev through F:


no jumpers

PCB Rev G through K:


27128 27256 6116 48T08/DS1243 M E R
x x 1-2 2-3 1-2
x x 1-2 2-3 2-3
x x 1-2 1-2 1-2
x x 2-3 1-2 2-3

PCB Rev L through U:


27128 27256 6116 48T08/DS1243 M E R
x x 1-2 1-2 1-2
x x 1-2 1-2 2-3
x x 1-2 2-3 1-2
x x 2-3 2-3 2-3

PCB Rev V through AA


27128 27256 27512 6116 48T08 M E1 E2 R
x x 1 1-2 2-3 2-3
x x 2 1-2 1-2 1-2
x x 3 2-3 1-2 1-2

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 11

Figure 5. Troubleshooting Flowchart


300 Series Service Manual
1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
12 Rev C

Troubleshooting
The flowchart in Figure 5 describes the logical steps to take if the instrument is malfunctioning. It is
only a guide to troubleshooting, and is intended to assist in determining routine problems. It is not
intended to take the place of an experienced technician, nor does it attempt to cover all possible
problems.

In the following section, each subassembly or component group and possible problems and solutions
are outlined.

Power Supply
The power supply consists of a transformer, two diode bridges, and three regulators. Line voltage
supplied to the transformer is converted to 36 VAC, center tapped, which feeds diode bridge BR2. The
center tap is used as a reference for regulators VR4 and VR5, which provide +15 VDC and -15 VDC
for analog circuitry. Another transformer output supplies 11VAC to diode bridge BR1, which in turn
provides +12 VDC (raw, 11-13 VDC nominal) to the system, and VR3 regulates this down to +5 VDC
for the logic and other low voltage control circuits.

A dead instrument may be just a blown fuse. However, a blown fuse may indicate a problem on the
main PCB or transformer such as a shorted bridge rectifier or transformer winding. Also, the voltage
select switch setting must match the line voltage. If there is no input voltage present at J6, check the fuse.
To replace the fuse, disconnect the power cable and open the instrument. Locate the double clip fuse
holder mounted on the inside of the rear panel. Locate the blown fuse and remove it with a fuse puller,
or carefully pry it out with a small screwdriver. Install two (2) 0.5 A 3AG slow-blow fuse. Use only
the recommended fuse. Do not substitute any other rating!

If voltage is present at J6, check for input voltage on VR3, VR4, and VR5. If no voltage is present, the
diode bridge BR1 or BR2 may have failed.

Photometer
The photometer assembly can be examined as several component systems:

Lamp
Filter wheel
Photometer
Strip drive mechanism

The lamp is tungsten gas-filled, with integral lens end, rated at 6V 6W. The lamp bracket holds the lamp
in alignment with the rest of the assembly, that is, the lens end of the lamp is centered on the optical path.
The lamp is intended to be maintenance free for the life of the instrument, since the lamp is turned off
automatically after 30 minutes of instrument inactivity. Under heavy usage the lamp remains on for
longer periods and so may require replacement. Also, a physical shock to the instrument could cause
filament breakage.

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 13
The lamp must be replaced if output becomes low or the lamp fails completely. Since the light is visible
without removing the instrument cover, the case of no lamp output can be observed from outside the
instrument. Sight down the strip track while the instrument is first powered on. To check for low output,
select test #186. The instrument prints the wavelength, position, and the detected voltage for each filter.
The voltages should be between 2 and 10 volts. If all of the voltages are below 2.0 volts, the lamp is
the likely suspect. As a final check, measure the voltage at the lamp terminals. If the lamp voltage is
much lower than 5.5 VDC, the regulator circuitry on the main PCB (Q6 and VR1) may be the problem.
Otherwise, replace the lamp. Refer to the section Lamp Replacement. Never adjust trim pots on
the Main PCB to achieve the proper voltages.

If only one or two filters report low detected voltages, degraded filters or an improperly adjusted lamp
may be the cause. To check for an improperly adjusted lamp, refer to Figures 10 and 11, as well as the
procedure Lamp Replacement. The optical interference filters contained in the wheel are of metal-
deposition type construction and are intended to be maintenance free for the life of the instrument. Some
older instruments incorporated other filter materials whose transmittance can be reduced dramatically
if subjected to high humidity over very long periods. Refer to the section Filter Replacement.

The filter wheel turns on a shoulder screw shaft and is driven by the filter wheel motor via a neoprene
belt. The filter wheel itself requires no adjustments. Indexing holes in the filter wheel generate pulses
via LED/phototransistor pairs, which synchronize photometric readings and provide feedback to the
microprocessor of the filter wheel speed. The photometer contains a photodiode, a high-gain op amp
circuit (U16) and phototransistors Q7 and Q8. Because the photodetector and related circuitry is solid-
state, it should require no service. Avoid unnecessary handling of the photometer PCB or removal of
the optical cover.

Strip Drive
The strip drive mechanism is a 1/4-20 lead screw driven by a 12 VDC motor via a belt and pulley.
Indexing holes in the pulley serve to generate tach pulses via an LED/phototransistor pair, which are
monitored by the microprocessor. To establish a reference position, the strip holder is moved forward
along the strip track until the motor stalls. As the strip holder is moved back along the strip track, pulses
are counted to derive the position relative to the stall point. Any problem with the strip mechanism is
immediately apparent as a lack of strip movement, or noisy or erratic movement. A total lack of strip
movement could be the tach generator, motor driver U10 failure, or motor failure. Check the optical
switch pair (LED/phototransistor) mounted next to the pulley. You should see pulses at CLK2 (U4.18)
when the motor is running. Ensure that the LED and phototransistor are aligned with the holes in the
pulley. Check for voltage at the motor terminals and at driver U10.

For older instruments, lubrication or adjustment of the lead screw is indicated for noisy or erratic
movement. This should only be necessary at 3 to 5 year intervals, depending on service conditions.
Lubricate only the o-rings and shoulder washers at each end of the lead screw. Do not lubricate the strip
holder shuttle or the lead screw threads.

If strip position errors are chronic, lead screw end play may require adjustment. Grasp the pulley and
move the lead screw along its axis. End play should be less than 1mm. To adjust end play, the pulley
position along the drive screw must be adjusted. The drive pulley will be retained by a thumb nut or
set screw depending on when it was manufactured. Loosen the nylon thumb nut or loosen the set screw
(access via the pulley groove) holding the pulley. Turn the pulley on the lead screw to remove end-
play. Do not tighten the pulley against the o-ring spacer. Hold the pulley and tighten the thumb nut or
set screw. Recheck end play and repeat if needed.

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
14 Rev C

Main PCB
Under normal circumstances, there are no adjustments to be made to the main PCB. Circuit failures
are highly unlikely, but if they occur, it is recommended that the repairs be performed by factory
authorized technicians. There are ten test points on J8 which provide access to a number of vital signals.
The instrument can be observed in operation with an oscilloscope. Typical test point waveforms are
shown in Figure 6. Note that Figure 6 shows a 6 position filter wheel. The 4 position filter wheel is
very similar.

Internal Printer
The internal printer is a 20 column thermal type device which prints ASCII characters using a 5 x 7
dot matrix. A printer PCB, incorporating a dedicated microcontroller, manages the print head motor
and the head drivers. There are no adjustments, and service is limited to replacement of the entire printer
mechanism. A printer jam can occur if the printer paper tears and becomes lodged in the printer
mechanism, thus preventing the print head from moving freely. Refer to the section Printer Jams.

Display
The display should be clearly legible with no missing or dim characters or segments. There are no
adjustments, and service is limited to replacement.

Keypad
The keypad is a sealed membrane switch layer which is serviceable only by replacement. You can test
the keypad by pressing AUX, then pressing all keys except CLEAR and ENTER. Note that each
key causes the instrument to beep and display a character. Press CLEARand the display clears. Press
ENTER to end the test.

Serial Port
The serial port is intended for use with an external serial printer. Early models do not support a serial
printer. By using a special cable, a serial printer or other serial device may be connected. This is a male
9 pin DB-style connector using RS-232 signals in a nonstandard pin-out. The data format is 2400 baud,
8 bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.

Serial port pin-out

1 GND
2 TX
3 RX/DTR
4-9 NC

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 15

Figure 6. Oscilloscope Waveforms


300 Series Service Manual
1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
16 Rev C

Lead screw Strip drive


motor

Pulley
Thumb
nut
Optical
switch

Cap nut O-ring Photometer cover


spacer

NOTE

The mechanism for the Strip Reader with Three-Position Carrier will
look somewhat different. The motor which drives the Photometer
wheel will also be on the bottom of the mechanism.

Figure 7. Strip drive mechanism (bottom)

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 17

Error Messages
Error messages are displayed when the instrument fails to operate correctly. They are intended to help
the operator locate the problem. If error messages appear frequently, a hardware problem is usually
indicated.

The following error messages indicate possible interface or component problems.

LAMP OUTPUT IS LOW!! Low voltages were detected for all filter positions., The instrument
assumes this to be a result of low lamp output. This may be due to a
failing or misaligned lamp, degraded interference filters, or voltage
regulator VR1 failure.

LAMP FAILURE The lamp does not appear to illuminated at all. Very low voltages
were detected for all filter positions. See the section Photometer
under Troubleshooting.

PRINTER JAM The internal printer paper path is obstructed. Clear the paper path. If
the paper path is clear, Check the 14 pin DIP cable connecting the
printer PCB to the main PCB.

FILTER WHEEL STOPPED The instrument cannot correctly detect pulses from the filter wheel.
Check the photometer LED board and the phototransistors Q7 and
Q8 on the photometer PCB. See the section Photometer under
Troubleshooting.

MECHANISM ERROR The instrument was unable to correctly position the strip for reading.
This may result from a stalled drive motor, lead screw improperly
adjusted, failed driver U10, or motor failure.

POSITIONING STRIP The instrument is attempting to position the strip for reading. If this
messageisdisplayedcontinuously,themechanismmayhavejammed.
See MECHANISM ERROR.

The following error messages indicate possible loss of battery power in the NV RAM U3, which can
be checked by substitution and power cycling.

MEM ERR-TEST ENDED The checksum failed when a stored test was recalled. The test was
canceled.

FILTERS RESET Programmed filter wavelengths for key 5 and key 6 were found to be
corrupted. Run test # 248 to reprogram the filter wavelengths. Refer
to filter label and Figure 13. Filter wheel position #3 corresponds to
key 5 and filter wheel position #2 corresponds to key 6.

DO ABS SET TEST 212! The stored absorbance calibration values were corrupted or not
found. Restore the calibration data. See the section Calibration.

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
18 Rev C

ServiceProcedures
Opening the Instrument
The cover must be removed to allow access to the inside of the instrument. Disconnect the power cable
and the serial cable (if connected) from the rear panel. Invert the instrument on a soft nonabrasive
padded surface such as a terrycloth towel, to prevent scratching. Refer to Figure 3, Chassis Bottom.
Locate and remove the (5) cover screws from the bottom of the instrument. Do not remove or loosen
any other screws. While holding the instrument cover in place with both hands, return the instrument
to the upright position.

On some models, the printer mechanism is mounted to the main PCB and the printer paper roll must
be removed to allow cover removal. Press inward on the sides of the paper roll cover and lift it off. Lift
out the paper roll and tear off the paper where it enters the printer mechanism.

Grasp the cover at the left side. Gently lift the cover upward and to the right, until the cabling is visible.
You can rest the cover on its right-hand side while you disconnect the cables. Refer to Figure 8, Cover
Connections. Disconnect the display cable at the left front of the main PCB assembly. Place a small
slot blade screwdriver between the 14 pin DIP plug and its socket and pry gently upwards. Do not bend
the pins. Disconnect the printer cable in the same way. Disconnect the keypad cable from its connector.

Remove the cover and set it aside.

To reinstall the cover, reverse the procedure. Position the cover on its side to the right of the chassis base.
Connect the printer, display, and keyboard cables. Carefully fit the cover to the chassis base. Install
the cover screws. Do not overtighten the cover screws.

WARNING

Hazardous line voltages are present on the rear panel.


Always disconnect theAC power cable before opening the
instrument.

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 19

Red stripe
To printer

Main PCB

To display To keypad

Red stripe

Remove and install Remove and install


DIP plugs vertically. keypad cable verti-
Do not bend pins. cally. Do not twist,
kink or fold the key-
pad cable.

Figure 8. Cover Connections

300 Series Service Manual


1995-1996 Awareness Technology, Inc. Unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited. Information given in this manual is restricted for
use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
20 Rev C

EPROM Replacement
The instrument software can be upgraded to the latest version by replacing the EPROM. On most
instruments, the EPROM is accessible through a hatch on the underside of the chassis, and can be
changed without removing the cover. On older instruments, the EPROM is accessible only by
removing the cover.

1. Refer to Figure 3. Locate the EPROM hatch on the underside of the instrument. Place the
instrument upside down on a soft surface. Remove one hatch screw and loosen the other.
Swing the hatch out of the way. If the instrument has no EPROM hatch, remove the
instrument cover.

2. Refer to Figure 9. Locate the EPROM socket and lift the small lever at the end of the socket.
This frees the EPROM for easy removal and insertion. If the EPROM socket has no such
lever, pry out the EPROM with a small screwdriver or other tool. Do not bend the EPROM
pins.

3. Gently bend the pins on the new EPROM as shown below, so that the pins are perpendicular
to the EPROM. Hold the EPROM by the body and bend the pins against a flat surface such
as a table to bend all the pins the same amount. Do not over bend the pins, since they are easy
to break if bent too far.

4. Install the new EPROM with the notch or dot (indicating pin 1) oriented toward the front of
the instrument. Press the lever down toward the PCB until it locks into place.

5. Replace the hatch screw removed in step 1, or replace the instrument cover if removed.

6. Power up the instrument and verify that the instrument operates with the new software.

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Rev C 21

EPROM
socketed to under-
side of PCB, acces-
sible via hatch on
chassisbottom
Lever (also on underside of PCB)

EPROM accessible
by removing
instrument cover

Lever

Figure 9. EPROM Replacement

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22 Rev C

Lamp Replacement
The lamp should be replaced only if it fails to light, or several filter voltages are reported as low.

Materials and equipment:


Replacement lamp
Phillips screw driver
Flat blade screw driver

Procedure:

1. Set the power switch to OFF (O). Open the instrument. Refer to Figure 4A or 4B (Chassis
Layout) as appropriate for the instrument. Locate the strip mechanism and the lamp bracket.

CAUTION

Lamp is HOT. Allow the lamp to cool before handling.

3. Refer to Figure 10, Lamp Replacement. Remove the Lamp Bracket Mounting Screws (only
if necessary to access the lamp!) and lift the Lamp Bracket away from the Guide Bracket.
Loosen but do not remove the lamp terminal screws. Do not loosen or remove any other
screws. Remove the lamp from the connector.

4. Use a pair of pliers or tweezers to handle the new lamp. Avoid handling with bare skin, since
the oil from your skin can reduce lamp life. Insert the lamp leads into the connector until they
bottom out. Re-screw the Lamp Bracket to the Guide Bracket if removal was necessary. The
lamp lens end must be centered on the aperture and the lamp body must be perpendicular to
the horizontal. While holding the lamp in alignment, tighten the lamp terminal screws.

5. Set the power switch to ON. Shield your eyes from the lamp beam and observe the projection
of the beam onto the aperture. Refer to Figure 11, Spot Alignment. The spot should be small
and centered on the aperture. The spot should be sufficiently large to just encircle the aperture.
If the spot is not centered, repeat step 4.

6. Select test #186. The instrument prints the detected voltage for each filter position. All
voltages should be between 2.00 volts and 10.00 volts. If all the voltages report low, repeat
step 4 until optimum lamp position is obtained. Never adjust trim pots on the Main PCB
to achieve the proper voltages.

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Rev C 23

Mounting
Screws

Lamp
bracket

Lamp

LAMP MOUNTING CONFIGURATIONS

Lamp
connector
Lamp
terminal
Guide screws
bracket
Aperture
Lamp must be perpendicular to guide bracket and
projected spot must be centered on aperture.

Figure 10. Lamp Replacement

Aperture

Spot Projected spot must be bright,


well-focused, and centered on
aperture.

Figure 11. Spot Alignment

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24 Rev C

Filter Replacement
Materials and equipment:
Replacement filter set
Phillips screw driver
Flat blade screw driver
Procedure:
1. Open the instrument. Refer to Figure 4A or 4B as appropriate for the instrument. Locate the
Strip Mechanism and the ribbon cables which run from the Main PCB to the Strip Mechanism.
Unplug both ribbon cables from the main PCB. On units using Main PCB rev Z and subsiquent
revisions, a third set of wires (two yellow wires connected to J17) need to be disconnected.

2. Use a pencil to mark the front and side edges of the photometer on the chassis so that the
photometer can be installed in its original position.

3. Refer to Figure 3. Locate the (2) #6 screws holding the Strip Mechanism assembly to the
chassis. From the bottom of the instrument, remove these screws and washers while noting
the screw lengths and locations from which they were removed. Remove the Strip
Mechanism.
4. Orient the Strip Mechanism so that you are looking at the bottom of the assembly. Refer to
Figure 7, Strip drive mechanism, and Figure 12, Filter Replacement. Remove the four 6-32
screws retaining the photometer cover. Set the photometer cover aside.

5. Remove the two 4-40 screws securing the photometer PCB. Gently move the PCB aside
without disconnecting any wires.

6. Remove the belt from the filter wheel and pulley. Loosen the shaft (shoulder screw). Remove
the shaft and filter wheel. Note the number of nylon washers and the order of installation.

WARNING
Retaining Rings (used on later production filter wheels) will
pop out from filter wheel when its spring tension is released
during removal. Shield the opening with hand and wear
safetyglasses.
7. Refer to Figure 13, Filter Wheel Positions. Locate the filter(s) to be removed. There are
currently two means of filter retention in field use; silicone glue or a Retaining Ring. Refer
to Figure 12 and determine if a Retaining Ring is used. If a Retaining Ring is used, carefully
pry two to three of the retaining ring teeth away from the filter until the ring is dislodged and
remove the ring and filter. If silicone glue is present, remove the silicone and push the filter
out of the wheel using the eraser end of a pencil or other soft blunt object and the glue should
release. Remove any remaining filter components from that position in the wheel.

8. Locate the neutral density filters, dot screen, and transmittance filters that were included with
the replacement filter and drop them first into the cavity. Install the interference filter with the
mirror side down. Place the replacement retainer over the filter so that the tabs are angled away
from the filter and press in place with a 7/16 diameter wooden dowel or similar object.
9. Install the filter wheel taking care not to pinch washers under the shaft. Reassemble the shaft
and washers as disassembled. Tighten the shaft securely. The filter wheel should spin freely.
10. Install the filter wheel belt. Be sure that the belt is centered on the filter wheel and is not twisted.
11. Install the photometer PCB taking care to center the board around the shaft.

12. Replace the photometer cover, taking care to position the cable in the slot of the cover. Do
not pinch the cable under the cover. Tighten cover screws only until snug. Do not overtighten
the photometer cover screws! Doing so will bend the photometer cover and create light
leakage.
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Rev C 25
13. Install the Strip Mechanism to the chassis by replacing the (2) #6 screws removed in step 3
through the chassis base in their original locations. Line up Strip Mechanism with locating
marks made in step 2. Connect the cables removed in step 1.

14. Attach the power cord and connect the instrument to the mains supply. Set the power switch
to ON (1). Select test #186. The instrument prints the detected voltage for each filters. All
voltages should now be between 2 and 10 volts. If not, check lamp alignment. If the lamp
alignment is properly set, the neutral density filters may need to be changed. Add neutrals
to lower the voltage. Remove neutrals to increase the voltage. Never adjust trim pots on the
Main PCB to achieve the proper voltages.

Remove Screws holding Remove screws holding


photometer cover. photometer PCB.

Filter wheel Belt Retainer

Pulley
Shaft

Filter

Remove filter wheel


belt and filter wheel. Remove adhesive or
retainer and push
filter from wheel.

One or two nylon washers


asdisassembled. One nylon
washer

Install neutral density filters, Assemble washers and filter


dot screens, interference filters wheel to filter wheel shaft.
and retainers.

Figure 12. Filter Replacement


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26 Rev C

Filter Label
The filter label located on the photometer cover describes the specific filter wheel configuration for your
particular instrument. Refer to Figure 14.

Filter wheel position (POS) is the physical placement of the filter on the wheel and does not correspond
directly to the key position. The filter wheel position numbers are shown in Figure 13. Note the position
of the Index hole and the Home hole. When running test # 248, note that filter wheel position #3
corresponds to key 5 and filter wheel position #2 corresponds to key 6.

Each filter position can have several filter elements installed. Configuration (WAVELENGTH
column) describes the various screens and filters in that position . Each element is separated by a slash
(/). The first 3 digit value in this column is always the wavelength of the interference filter, in
nanometers. The other values indicate either dot screens, neutral density filters, or transmittance filters.
A D suffix indicates a dot screen and the first two digits are the percent blockage. A 2 digit value
followed by a percent sign signifies a dot screen. A 3 digit value (other than the first value in the line)
indicates one or more transmittance filters. The first digit is the quantity; the last two digits are the
percent transmittance. A 2 digit value separated by a decimal point indicates a neutral density filter. The
value is the absolute absorbance of the filter. BLOCKED indicates an opaque disk is installed in
that position.

LOT# is the interference filter manufacturers' production code lot number or date. In the new style,
the percent transmittance for the lot is included in this column.

The production date (DATE) is the date the filter wheel was assembled.

4 Position 6 Position 1
6
4 Rotation
1 Rotation

5 2

3 2
4 3

Home
hole
Home Index
Index hole hole
hole
Figure 13. Filter Wheel Positions
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Rev C 27

Filter wheel Filter date or


position lot number
Configuration Production
date

Old style

POS WAVELENGTH LOT# DATE


1 405 2VCT 11/6/92
2 545/2.0/30% 6/30/92 11/6/92
3 600/2.0 8/10/92 11/6/92
4 492/1.0/70% 8/10/92 11/6/92
5 630/1.0/30% 8/10/92 11/6/92
6 450/80% 7/21/92 11/6/9

New style

POS WAVELENGTH LOT# DATE


1 405 3YGF 58.8% 5/23/94
2 545/90D/115/170 4GDB 80.6% 5/23/94
3 600/90D/115/170 3ZCJ 65% 5/23/94
4 492/215 3WEF 74.4% 5/23/94
5 630/215/15D 4FLR 67.6% 5/23/94
6 450/115/90D 4HDL 83% 5/23/94

Figure 14. Filter Labels

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28 Rev C

Printer Jams
CAUTION

Do not apply force to the print head.

Do not scratch the platen or pry with sharp objects.

If the instrument displays PRINTER JAMMED, or if the print head does not return to the home
position, check for obstructions in the print head path.. Refer to Figure 15. Carefully remove any paper
or debris with a pair of tweezers. Turn off the power switch, wait 5 seconds, then turn on the power
switch. The print head should move to the right side and then return to home position at the left.

An alternate method of removing a particularly stubborn wad of paper is to move the print head
manually. To do this, open the instrument. Remove the two nuts holding the printer bracket to the
cover. View the front of the printer mechanism. Locate the small gear on the right side which turns the
grooved steel print head shaft. Turn the gear so that the print head moves away from paper wad and
the paper can be easily removed.

Print head is jammed


Home against wad of paper
position

Print head shaft Print head Right front gear


moves print head
Figure 15. Clearing printer jams

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Rev C 29

Printer Repairs
A graphics capable printer has been introduced in recent instruments. Replacement printers are
graphics capable and can be made compatible with earlier non graphics capable printer PCBs. One way
to identify which type of printer is used is to remove the ribbon cable from the keytail socket on the
printer interface PCB. Look at the connector on the ribbon cable. An earlier non graphics capable
printer will have eight conductors. The graphics capable printer will have nine. Another way to identify
which printer is used is to look at the blue inspection label on the printer interface PCB. If the number
on the label is M020445 or higher, a graphics capable printer is used. Repairs to printer mechanisms
can consist of print head replacement or printer mechanism replacement.

Print Head Replacement


Replacement Print Heads are supplied for the graphics capable printer (nine conductor ribbon cable).
Determine the size of the keytail socket on the Printer Interface PCB into which the ribbon cable from
the Print Head being replaced is inserted (eight or nine slots). If there are eight slots, modify the
replacement Print Head as shown in Figure 16.

If ribbon is too wide for socket,


orient as shown and trim through
center of pad as shown.

Wide trace

Figure 16. Replacement Print Head Modification for


Non Graphics Capable Printers

Refer to Figure 17 and replace the Print Head as follows:

1. Pry out the pin (1) which holds the gear (2) in place.

2. Remove the pin (3) from the side of the print head with tweezers and pry the pin (4) from the
top of the Print Head. The Print Head should now be free to move along the Drive Screw (6).

3. Remove the snap ring (5) from the end of the drive screw (6) and withdraw the drive screw
and gear assembly from the printer mechanism in the direction shown.

4. Press the end of the slider rod (7) out of the hole in the printer mechanism in the direction
shown from the left side of the mechanism. It is not necessary to remove the slider rod
completely from the mechanism.

5. Slide the Print Head off the slider rod and replace with the new Print Head. Reassemble the
mechanism in reverse order of the above disassembly steps.

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30 Rev C

2
RIGHT SIDE

7
5

LEFT SIDE

Figure 17. Printer Views for Print Head Replacement

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Rev C 31

Printer Platen Replacement


1. Referring to Figure 18, remove the Paper Dress Cover.

2. Move the Print Head to the right-most position as shown by rotating the Screw Drive with its
drive gear on the right side of the mechanism.

3. Lift out the left side of the platen.

4. Install the new platen so that the end which has the longer pin is oriented toward the right side
of the mechanism. Insert the right end of the platen under the print head. Use a pen point or
similar blunt instrument to push metal spring slightly forward, then slip the left side of platen
in place.

Dress Cover
RIGHT
SIDE

Platen
(darkenedarea)

Print Head

Screw Drive

LEFT
SIDE

Figure 18. Printer Platen Replacement

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32 Rev C

Calibration
Each instrument is calibrated during manufacturing using standards that are traceable to the National
Institute for Standards and Testing (NIST), and is tested to verify its linearity to 2A. This preset
calibration is very stable, and the instrument should never require re-calibration during normal service
life.

Absolute calibration can be verified with the use of NIST filters, or by comparison to a reference
instrument that is known to be calibrated to NIST filters.

Sincemostlabtestresultsarebaseduponstandardsratherthanuponabsoluteabsorbances,thelinearity
of the instrument, rather than the accuracy, is the more critical indicator of instrument performance. A
periodic verification of instrument accuracy and linearity is advised. Calibration may be confirmed
using a commercially available photometer calibration check set which can be obtained from your
distributor.

CAUTION
RE-CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
SHOULD NOT BE REQUIRED UNDER NORMAL
CIRCUMSTANCES, AND SHOULD NOT BE
CONSIDERED UNTIL ALL POSSIBLE
INTERFERING FACTORS HAVE BEEN RULED
OUT, INCLUDING CHEMISTRY ERROR,
OPERATOR ERROR, LAMP FAILURE, AND
DEGRADED FILTERS.

Standards and blanks should be closely checked for accuracy


and results should be compared with a reference instrument.
Use of a commercially available photometer check set to
verify photometric accuracy and linearity is strongly
recommended.

Restoring the factory calibration data should always be


attempted before resorting to Re-calibration.

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Rev C 33

Software or Hardware Calibration?


Most instruments manufactured after June 1993 rely on software calibration, that is, on
calibration data stored in nonvolatile RAM. The calibration data is used by the instrument to
compensate for variations in electronic components. During factory calibration, any necessary
hardware adjustments are made using precision reference standards and specialized electronic
equipment. The calibration data is stored in the instrument memory and also recorded on a label located
on the bottom of the instrument. This requires no hardware adjustments.

The absorbance calibration data is stored as a scaling factor, which is the ratio of a known reference
absorbance to the instrument's reported absorbance. The value entered at the keypad is multiplied by
the stored value to obtain a new scaling factor. The calibration data may be printed at any time by
selecting test #213. This prints the serial number of the instrument, the date of last calibration, and the
stored absorbance scaling factor.

Calibration data is stored with a checksum that is recalculated and compared each time the instrument
is powered on, a new software mode is selected, or a stored test is recalled. Under certain circumstances,
large AC mains transients or other environmental disturbances may cause the microprocessor to
crash and possibly render the calibration data invalid. Failure to recover the calibration data properly
(checksum failure) will be indicated on the display and the internal printer as follows:

DO ABS SET TEST 212!

If this message is printed or displayed, it indicates that the calibration values have been lost. This
message will be printed each time the checksum failure occurs. The instrument also annunciates this
condition with multiple beeps. In this condition, the absorbance scaling factor is set to 1.000. The
maximum absorbance error is then +/-10%, provided the trimpots have not been disturbed.

The calibration data can be restored from the calibration label as described in the section Restore
Calibration Data.

All instruments manufactured before June 1993 utilize hardware calibration. This requires
making adjustments to the trimpots for absorbance gain and offset. If you believe your instrument
requires hardware re-calibration, contact your distributor for assistance. Never adjust trim pots on
the Main PCB to achieve the proper voltages.

To determine whether the instrument incorporates software calibration features, select test # 213. If
calibration data is printed, the instrument supports software calibration.

In any case, if the trimpots have been disturbed or components C16, R12, R16, R11, R13, RN8, R24,
U16, or the photodiode have been replaced, the instrument will probably require re-calibration. Contact
your distributor for assistance. Never adjust trim pots on the Main PCB to achieve the proper
voltages.

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use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
34 Rev C

Restore Calibration Data


This procedure restores the calibration data to the original factory settings recorded on the calibration
data label.

Procedure:

1. Select test #213 to print the calibration data. The instrument prints something similar to this
(the actual value may differ):

ABS FACTOR 1.126

2. Select test #212. The display shows:

ABS FACTOR=

If the value printed in step 1 is not exactly 1.000, enter the inverse of the value printed in step
1. That is, calculate

1
ABS FACTOR

and enter that value.

3. Locate the calibration data label on the underside of the instrument. Copy the data from the
label for reference in the following steps.

4. If the date and time are incorrect, set the date and time as described in the Owner's Manual.

5. Select test #212. The display shows:

ABS FACTOR=

Enter the number from the Abs Factor line of the calibration label.

6. Select test #213 to print the calibration data. The printed data should now match the values
shown on the calibration data label. If it does not, repeat this procedure.

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Rev C 35

Diagrams
Block Diagram

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36 Rev C

PCB Layouts
Main PCB - rev AB
300-100AB (AR) 300 MAIN PCB 995001
AWARENESS TECHNOLOGY

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use by authorized personnel and is to be used for the sole purpose of providing routine instrument maintenance and repair services.
Rev C 37

Main PCB - from rev Z

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38 Rev C

Main PCB rev L to rev Y

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Rev C 39

Main PCB through rev K

TO
LAMP/MOTOR
TO
PHOTOMETER

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40 Rev C

Printer PCB (300-200C)

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Rev C 41

Printer PCB (300-200)

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42 Rev C

Schematics
Main PCB (rev AB) 1 of 4

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Rev C 43

Main PCB (rev AB) 2 of 4

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44 Rev C

Main PCB (rev AB) 3 of 4

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Rev C 45

Main PCB (rev AB) 4 of 4

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46 Rev C

Main PCB (from rev Z) 1 of 4

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Rev C 47

Main PCB (from rev Z) 2 of 4

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48 Rev C

Main PCB (from rev Z) 3 of 4

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Rev C 49

Main PCB (from rev Z) 4 of 4

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50 Rev C

Photometer PCB

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Rev C 51

Printer PCB

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52 Rev C

Notes:

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32J.sch-1 - Fri Aug 10 15:34:40 2007
32K.sch-1 - Fri Aug 10 15:35:54 2007