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KARL MARX

FRIEDRICH ENGELS
GESAMTAUSGABE
(MEGA)
VIERTE ABTEILUNG

EXZERPTE NOTIZEN MARGINALIEN

BAND 9

HERAUSGEGEBEN VON DER

INTERNATIONALEN MARX-ENGELS-STIFTUNG
KARL MARX
EXZERPTE
UND NOTIZEN
JULI BIS SEPTEMBER
1851
TEXT

Bearbeitet von einer Forschungsgruppe der


Martin-Luther-Universitt Halle-Wittenberg:
Ehrenfried Galander (Leiter), Wolfgang Jahn,
Klaus Fricke, Sonja Hausmann, Otto Schattenberg,
Klaus Stde und Gisela Winkler

DIETZ VERLAG BERLIN

1991
Internationale Marx-Engels-Stiftung A m s t e r d a m :
Begrndet von dem Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis Amsterdam,
dem Institut fr Marxismus-Leninismus beim ZK der KPdSU Moskau,
der Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin
und dem Karl-Marx-Haus Trier

Der vorliegende Band wurde noch unter der frheren


Redaktionskommission erarbeitet.

Marx, Karl: Gesamtausgabe : (MEGA) / Karl Marx ; Friedrich Engels.


Hrsg. von der Internationalen Marx-Engels-Stiftung. - Berlin : Dietz Verl. GmbH
[Sammlung].
Abt. 4, Exzerpte, Notizen, Marginalien
Bd. 9. Exzerpte und Notizen, Juli bis September 1851 / Karl Marx
Text. - 1991. - 54, 552 S.: 10 Abb.
Apparat. - 1991. - S. 553-808: 10 Abb.

IV. Abt. ISBN 3-320-00150-7


Bd. IV/9 ISBN 3-320-00159-0

Text und Apparat


Mit 20 Abbildungen
Dietz Verlag Berlin GmbH 1991
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Technische Redaktion: Jutta Knopp und Heinz Ruschinski
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Inhalt
Text Apparat
Einleitung 13*
Editorische Hinweise 49*
Verzeichnis der Abkrzungen, Siglen und Zeichen 559

L o n d o n e r Hefte 1 8 5 0 - 1 8 5 3 . Heft XI-XIV 3 563

Heft XI 5 563
Inhaltsverzeichnis 5
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hodgskin: Labour defended
against the claims of capital ... 9
Exzerpte aus Robert Owen: Observations on the effect
of the manufacturing system 13
Exzerpte aus: The oppressed labourers ... 14
Exzerpte aus William Copland: A letter to the Rev. C. D.
Brereton ... 15
Exzerpte aus Nassau William Senior: Three lectures on
the rate of wages 16
Exzerpte aus James H. Renny: Hints on wages ... 18
Exzerpte aus Robert Torrens: On wages and combina-
tion 20
Exzerpte aus Nassau William Senior: Letters on the fac-
tory a c t . . . 22
Exzerpte aus Charles David Brereton: A practical in-
quiry ... 25

5*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte aus Edward Carleton Tufnell: Character, ob-
ject, and effects of Trades' Unions 29
Exzerpte aus Thomas Henry Stirling: The question pro-
pounded 40
Exzerpte aus James Howard: The evils of England 41
Exzerpte aus William Logan: An exposure, from person-
al observation, of female prostitution 42
Exzerpte aus John Fielden: The curse of the factory sys-
tem 43
Exzerpte aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress 48
Exzerpte aus: The Edinburgh Review. Vol. 67. 1838 51
Exzerpte aus: The Westminster Review. Vol. 37. 1842 57
Exzerpte aus: The Westminster Review. Vol. 38. 1842 59
Exzerpte aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fort-
setzung) 61
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hopkins: Great Britain for the last
forty years 77
Exzerpte aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Outlines of pop-
ular economy 80

Exzerpte aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Arts und arti-


sans at home and abroad 82
Exzerpte aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress
(Nachtrag) 93
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hopkins: Great Britain for the last
forty years (Nachtrag) 94
Exzerpte aus Charles Wing: Evils of the factory sys-
tem ... 96
Exzerpte aus Samuel Laing (sen.): Notes of a traveller... 100
Exzerpte aus Peter Gaskell: Artisans and machinery 104

Heft XII 110 604


Inhaltsverzeichnis 110
Exzerpte aus Peter Gaskell: Artisans and machinery
(Fortsetzung) 113

6*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte aus James Anderson: An inquiry into the cau-
ses ... 119
Exzerpte aus James Anderson: Essays. Relating to agri-
culture and rural affairs 120
Exzerpte aus Christophe-Joseph-Alexandre Mathieu de
Dombasle: Annales agricoles de Roville 124
Exzerpte aus: An inquiry into those principles, respect-
ing the nature of demand ... 132
Exzerpte aus Samuel Turner: Considerations upon the
agriculture ... 135
Exzerpte aus John Stuckey Reynolds: Practical observa-
tions on Mr. Ricardo's Principles of political economy 136
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hopkins: Economical enquiries ... 137
Exzerpte aus Thomas Perronet Thompson: The true
theory of rent 144
Exzerpte aus Thomas Perronet Thompson: Corn-law fal-
lacies ... 146
Exzerpte aus Edward West: Price of corn and wages of
labour 147
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hopkins: On rent of land ... 153
Exzerpte aus David Ricardo: An essay on the influence
of a low price of corn ... 159
Exzerpte aus David Ricardo: On protection to agricul-
ture 161
Exzerpte aus Charles Wentworth Dilke: The source and
remedy of the national difficulties ... 163
Exzerpte aus Robert Somers: Letters from the Highlands 166

Exzerpte aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie ... 172

Heft XIII 199 635


Exzerpte aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie ...
(Fortsetzung) 199
Exzerpte aus John Claudius Loudon: An encyclopaedia
of agriculture 214

7*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte aus Joseph Townsend: A dissertation on the
poor laws 215
Exzerpte aus Joseph Townsend: A journey through
Spain ... 219
Exzerpte aus Joseph Townsend: A dissertation on the
poor laws (Nachtrag) 220
Exzerpte aus Robert Wallace: A dissertation on the num-
ber of mankind ... 221
Exzerpte aus David Hume: Political discourses 224
Exzerpte aus Thomas Robert Malthus: An essay on the
principle of population 226
Exzerpte aus George Purves: Gray versus Malthus 230
Exzerpte aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-popula-
tion and its remedy 235
Exzerpte aus Robert Vaughan: The age of great cities 248
Exzerpte aus Thomas Doubleday: The true law of popu-
lation 250
Exzerpte aus William Pulteney Alison: Observations on
the management of the poor in Scotland 253
Exzerpte aus Archibald Alison: The principles of popula-
tion 256
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Lectures on
agricultural chemistry and geology 276
Exzerpte aus Archibald Alison: The principles of popula-
tion (Nachtrag) 318
Exzerpte aus: The Economist. Juni 1851 321
Exzerpte aus: The Economist. Juli 1851 323

Heft XIV 325 669


Exzerpte aus Adolphe-Jules-Csar-Auguste Dureau de
La Malle: conomie politique des Romains 325
Exzerpte aus Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren: Ideen
ber die Politik, den Verkehr und den Handel der vor-
nehmsten Vlker der alten Welt 365

8*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Catechism of
agricultural chemistry and geology 372
Exzerpte aus William Johnston: England as it is, politi-
cal, social, and industrial 387
Exzerpte aus: The Economist. Juni bis August 1851 394
Exzerpte aus: The Times. August 1851 402
Exzerpte aus William Hickling Prescott: History of the
conquest of Mexico 403
Exzerpte aus William Hickling Prescott: History of the
conquest of Peru 416
Exzerpte aus Herman Merivale: Lectures on coloniza-
tion and colonies 435
Exzerpte aus Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren: Ideen
ber die Politik ... (Fortsetzung) 454
Exzerpte aus Herman Merivale: Lectures on coloniza-
tion and colonies (Fortsetzung) 461
Exzerpte aus Felix Wakefield: Colonial surveying ... 482
Exzerpte aus Edward Gibbon Wakefield: A view of the
art of colonization 486
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hodgkin: An inquiry into the mer-
its of the American Colonization Society 492
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hodgkin: On the British African
Colonization Society 493
Exzerpte aus Thomas Fowell Buxton: The African slave
trade 494
Exzerpte aus Thomas Fowell Buxton: The remedy; being
a sequel to the African slave trade 499
Exzerpte aus Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren: Hand-
buch der Geschichte ... 502
Exzerpte aus William Howitt: Colonization and Christian-
ity 516
Exzerpte aus Juan Sempere y Guarinos: Considrations
sur les causes de la grandeur ... 527
Exzerpte aus Henry Brougham: An inquiry into the colo-
nial policy of the European powers 542

9*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
REGISTER

Literaturregister 755
I.Werke und Artikel 755
II. Periodica 773
Namenregister 775

Sachregister 796

Verzeichnis der Abbildungen

Londoner Hefte 1850-1853. Heft XI. Inhaltsverzeichnis 7


Exzerpte aus Samuel Laing {jun.): National distress. Heft XI.
Seite 21 63
Exzerpte aus Charles Wing: Evils of the factory system ... Heft XI.
Seite 37 97
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853. Heft XII. Inhaltsverzeichnis 111
Exzerpte aus James Anderson: An inquiry into the causes ...
Heft XII. Seite 4 117
Exzerpte aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie in ihrer An-
wendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie. Heft XII. Seite 32 173
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Lectures on agricultural
chemistry and geology. Heft XIII. Seite 39 289
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Lectures on agricultural
chemistry and geology. Heft XIII. Seite 40 290
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Lectures on agricultural
chemistry and geology. Heft XIII. Seite 52 313
Exzerpte aus Felix Wakefield: Colonial surveying, with a view to
the disposal of waste land. Heft XIV. Seite 68 483
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853. Heft XI. Titelblatt 581
Exzerpte aus Thomas Hopkins: Great Britain for the last forty
years. Heft XI. Seite 30 582
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853. Heft XII. Titelblatt 621
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Lectures on agricultural
chemistry and geology. Heft XIII. Seite 48 647

10*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Lectures on agricultural
chemistry and geology. Heft XIII. Seite 49 648
Exzerpte aus Adolphe-Jules-Csar-Auguste Dureau de La Malle:
conomie politique des Romains. Heft XIV. Seite 1 671
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Catechism of agricultu-
ral chemistry and geology. Heft XIV. Seite 23 677
Exzerpte aus James Finlay Weir Johnston: Catechism of agricultu-
ral chemistry and geology. Heft XIV. Seite 24 678
Exzerpte aus William Johnston: England as it is, political, social,
and industrial und Exzerpte aus dem Economist" von 1851. Heft
XIV. Seite 30 695
Exzerpte aus dem Economist" von 1851. Heft XIV. Seite 31 696

11*
KARL M A R X

EXZERPTE

UND NOTIZEN

JULI BIS S E P T E M B E R

1851
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853
Heft XI-XIV
H e f t XI

| Heft XI.
London. 1851. Juli.

| Inhalt.
I) Labour defended against the claims of capital. London. 1825. 2) Robert
5 Owen. Effects of the Manufacturing System. London. 1817. 3) The op-
pressed Labourers. London. 1819. 4) W. Copland. A letter to the Reverend
etc Brereton. Norwich. 1824. 5) N. W. Senior. Three Lectures on the Rate of
Wages. London. 1830 6) Hints on Wages etc London. 1832.
7) Torr ens. R. On Wages and Combination. London. 1834
10 8) N. W. Senior. Letters on the Factory Act. Lond. 1837.
9) Brereton. A practical Enquiry into Number, Means of Employment of
Agricultural Lab. London. 1825 (?)
10) Character, Object and Effects of Trades' Unions. London 1834.
I I ) Stirling. The Question propounded: How will Great Britain ameliorate
15 the Distress of its Workmen. London. 1849.
12) The Evils of England. Social and Economical. By a London Physician.
London. 1848.
13) W. Logan. An Exposure etc of female Prostitution. Glasgow. 1843.
14) J. Fielden. The Curse of the Factory System. London 1836
20 15) S. Laing. National Distress, its Causes and its Remedies. London
1844
16) Edinburgh Review. (No. 67) Trades' Unions and Strikes. 1838.
17) Hopkins. Great Britain for the last 40 Years. London. 1834
18) J. C. Symons. Outlines of Popular Economy. London. 1840.

5
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

19) J. C. Symons. Arts and Artisans. At Home and Abroad. Edinburgh.


1839.
20) Westminster Review. (1842) Industry and its Reward in Great Britain
and Ireland.
21) Charles Wing. Evils of the Factory System. London. 1836. 5
22) Laing (Samuel) Notes of a Traveller on the Social and Political State of
France etc London. 1842.
23) Gaskell (P.) Artisans and Machinery. London. 1836. |

6
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853. Heft XI. Inhaltsverzeichnis
Aus Thomas Hodgskin: Labour defended against the claims of capital

Iii Labour defended against the claims


of Capital; or the Unproductiveness
of capital proved. By a Labourer.
L o n d o n . 1825.
5 (with reference to t h e Present C o m b i n a t i o n s
amongst Journeymen.)
(Hodgskin?)

Theilung der Arbeit, sagt m a n , ist u n m g l i c h o h n e vorlufige A c c u m u l a -


tion von Capital. [8] A b e r the Effects attributed to a stock of c o m m o d i t i e s ,
10 u n d e r the n a m e of circulating capital, are caused by co-existing labour.
(9.) Do all the capitalists of E u r o p e possess at this m o m e n t o n e week's food
and clothing for all the labourers they employ? Let us first e x a m i n e t h e
question as to food. O n e portion of the food of t h e people is Bread, which is
never prepared till within a few h o u r s of t h e t i m e when it is eaten. ... T h e
15 p r o d u c e des baker c a n n o t be stored u p . In no case can the m a t e r i a l of
bread, whether it exist as corn or flour, be preserved without continual labour.
Die conviction des Arbeiters des c o t t o n s p i n n e r that he will o b t a i n b r e a d
when he requires it, a n d his master's conviction that the m o n e y he pays
h i m will enable h i m to o b t a i n it, arise simply from the fact that t h e b r e a d
20 has always b e e n o b t a i n e d w h e n required. (10) A n o t h e r article of the la-
bourer's food is milk, a n d milk is m a n u f a c t u r e d ... twice a day. If it be said
t h a t the cattle to supply it are already there;why the answer is, they re-
quire constant attention and constant labour, and their food, through the greater
part of the year, is of daily growth. T h e fields in which they pasture, require
25 the h a n d of m a n ... E b e n s o m i t d e m m e a t ; it c a n n o t be stored u p , for it be-
gins instantly to deteriorate after it is brought to market. (10) Selbst Klei-
dungszeuge wegen der M o t t e n only a very small stock is ever prepared,

9
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

compared to the general c o n s u m p t i o n s (11) the only thing w h i c h c a n be


said to be stored up or previously prepared, is the s k i l l of t h e l a b o u r e r .
(12) Mill sagt m i t R e c h t "what is annually p r o d u c e d is annually con-
s u m e d " , so that, in fact, to enable m e n to carry on all those operations
which extend b e y o n d a year, there c a n n o t be any stock of c o m m o d i t i e s 5
stored u p . Those who u n d e r t a k e t h e m m u s t rely, therefore, n o t on any com-
modities already created, b u t that other m e n will l a b o u r a n d p r o d u c e what
they are to subsist on till their own products are completed. T h u s , should
t h e labourer a d m i t that some a c c u m u l a t i o n of circulating capital is neces-
sary for operations t e r m i n a t e d within t h e year ... it is plain, t h a t in all o p - 10
erations w h i c h extend b e y o n d a year, t h e labourer does not, a n d he cannot,
rely on accumulated capital. (I.e.) all the effects usually attributed to accu-
m u l a t i o n of circulating capital are derived from the accumulation and stor-
ing up of skilled labour u n d this m o s t i m p o r t a n t o p e r a t i o n is performed, as
far as the great mass of the labourers is c o n c e r n e d without any circulating 15
capital whatever. (13) If we duly consider the n u m b e r a n d i m p o r t a n c e of
those wealth-producing operations which are n o t completed within t h e
year, and the n u m b e r l e s s products of daily labour, necessary to subsist-
ence, which are c o n s u m e d as soon as produced, we shall be sensible t h a t
t h e success a n d productive power of every different species of labour is at all 20
times more dependant on the coexisting productive labour of other men than on
any accumulation of circulating capital. (I.e.) It is by the c o m m a n d the capi-
talist possesses over the labour of some men n o t by his possessing a stock of
c o m m o d i t i e s , that He is enabled to support a n d consequently employ other
labourers. (14) W a s nun das fixe Capital angeht, so: all i n s t r u m e n t s a n d m a - 25
chines t h e produce of labour. (14) As long as they are merely t h e result of
previous labour, a n d are n o t applied to their respective uses by labourers,
they do n o t repay the expense of m a k i n g t h e m . ... m o s t of t h e m d i m i n i s h
in value from being kept. ... Fixed capital does not derive its utility from previ-
ous, but present labour; a n d does n o t bring its owner a profit because it has 30
b e e n stored u p , b u t b e c a u s e it is a means of obtaining a command over labour.
([14,] 15) After any i n s t r u m e n t s have b e e n m a d e , what do they effect?
N o t h i n g . On the contrary they begin to rust or decay unless u s e d or applied
by labour. (I.e.) W h e t h e r an i n s t r u m e n t shall be regarded as productive
capital or not, depends entirely on its being used, or not, by s o m e p r o d u c - 35
tive labourer. (15, 16) O n e easily c o m p r e h e n d s why ... the r o a d - m a k e r
should receive some of the benefits, accruing only to the road user; b u t I
do n o t c o m p r e h e n d why all these benefits should go to the road itself, a n d be
appropriated by a set of persons who n e i t h e r m a k e n o r use it, u n d e r the
n a m e of profit for their capital. (16) Capital is a sort of cabalistic word, like 40
c h u r c h or state, or any other of those general t e r m s which are invented by

10
Aus Thomas Hodgskin: Labour defended against the claims of capital

those who fleece t h e rest of m a n k i n d to conceal t h e h a n d t h a t shears t h e m .


(17) s t e a m engine ... its vast utility does n o t d e p e n d on stored up iron a n d
wood, b u t on t h a t practical a n d living knowledge of t h e powers of n a t u r e
which enables s o m e m e n to construct it, a n d others to guide it. (I.c.) W i t h -
5 out knowledge they (die M a s c h i n e n ) could n o t be invented; without m a n -
u a l skill a n d dexterity they could n o t be m a d e , a n d without skill a n d la-
bour, they could n o t be productively used. But there is n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n
knowledge, skill, a n d l a b o u r requisite, on which t h e capitalist can found a
claim to any share of the p r o d u c e . (18) After he (the m a n ) h a s inherited t h e
10 knowledge of several generations, a n d w h e n he lives congregated i n t o great
masses, he is e n a b l e d by h i s m e n t a l faculties to complete t h e work of n a -
ture etc. (I.e.) circulating C a p i t a l . . . is created only for c o n s u m p t i o n ; while
fixed capital ... is m a d e , n o t to be c o n s u m e d , b u t to aid the l a b o u r e r in
producing those things w h i c h are to be c o n s u m e d . (19) it is n o t t h e quantity
15 b u t the quality of t h e fixed capital on which t h e productive industry of a
country depends. . . . A l t h o u g h t h e n u m b e r of labourers m u s t at all t i m e s
d e p e n d on the quantity of circulating Capital, or, as I should say, on t h e
quantity of the products of coexisting labour, which labourers are allowed to
c o n s u m e ; the quantity of c o m m o d i t i e s they p r o d u c e , will d e p e n d on t h e ef-
20 ficiency of their fixed capital. Circulating capital n o u r i s h e s a n d supports
m e n as its quantity is increased; fixed capital as a m e a n s of n o u r i s h i n g a n d
supporting m e n , d e p e n d s for its efficiency, altogether on the skill of the la-
bourer, a n d consequently t h e productive industry of a country, as far as
fixed capital is c o n c e r n e d , is in proportion to knowledge a n d skill of t h e
25 people. (19, 20) A m e r e glance m u s t satisfy every m i n d t h a t simple profit
does n o t decrease b u t increase in the progress of society, i.e., t h e s a m e
quantity of labour w h i c h at any former period p r o d u c e d 100 qrs of wheat,
and 100 steamengines, will now p r o d u c e somewhat m[ore,] ||2| or t h e value
of somewhat m o r e : or where is the utility of all o u r boasted i m p r o v e m e n t s ?
30 In fact, also, we find t h a t a m u c h greater n u m b e r of persons now live in o p -
u l e n c e on profit in this country t h a n formerly. It is clear, however, that no
labour, no productive power, no ingenuity, a n d no art, can answer t h e over-
whelming d e m a n d s of c o m p o u n d interest. But all saving is m a d e from t h e
revenue of t h e capitalist, so t h a t actually these d e m a n d s are constantly
35 m a d e , a n d as constantly the productive power of labour refuses to satisfy
t h e m . A sort of b a l a n c e is, therefore, constantly struck. (23) A l m o s t every
p r o d u c t of art a n d skill is t h e result of j o i n t a n d c o m b i n e d labour. So de-
p e n d e n t i s m a n o n m a n , a n d s o m u c h does this d e p e n d e n c e increase a s so-
ciety advances, that hardly any l a b o u r of any single individual ... is of t h e
40 least value b u t as forming a part of the great social task. ... W h e r e v e r t h e
division of labour is introduced, therefore, t h e j u d g m e n t of other m e n in-

11
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

tervenes before the labourer can realise his earnings, a n d there is no longer
any thing which we can call the n a t u r a l reward of individual labour. E a c h
labourer produces only some part of a whole, a n d e a c h part, having no val-
ue or utility of itself, there is n o t h i n g on which t h e labourer can seize, a n d
say: this is my product, this I will keep to myself. Between the c o m m e n c e - 5
m e n t of any j o i n t operation, s u c h as that of m a k i n g cloth, a n d the division
of its product a m o n g the different persons whose c o m b i n e d exertions have
p r o d u c e d it, the j u d g m e n t of m e n m u s t intervene several times, a n d the
question is, how m u c h of this j o i n t p r o d u c t should go to e a c h of the i n d i -
viduals whose u n i t e d labours p r o d u c e it? (25.) I know no way of deciding 10
this b u t by leaving it to be settled by the unfettered j u d g m e n t s of the la-
bourers themselves. (I.e.) I m u s t add that it is doubtful whether o n e species
of l a b o u r is m o r e valuable t h a n another; certainly it is n o t m o r e necessary.
(26) Masters are labourers as well as their j o u r n e y m e n . In this character
their interest is precisely the same as that of their m e n . But they are also 15
either capitalists or the agents of the capitalist, a n d in this respect their in-
terest is decidedly opposed to the interest of their workmen. (27) T h e wide
spread of e d u c a t i o n a m o n g the j o u r n e y m e n m e c h a n i c s of this country, di-
m i n i s h e s daily the value of the labour a n d skill of almost all masters a n d
employers, by increasing the n u m b e r of persons who possess their peculiar 20
knowledge. (30) D e r Capitalist ist der oppressive middleman zwischen d e n
verschiednen labourers. Schmeit m a n ihn beiseite so it is plain t h a t capi-
tal or the Power to employ labour a n d Co-existing Labour are One; u n d Pro-
ductive Capital u n d Skilled Labour are also One; consequently capital a n d a
labouring population are precisely synonymous. In the system of n a t u r e , 25
m o u t h s are u n i t e d with h a n d s a n d with i n t e l l i g e n c e s (33)

12
Aus Robert Owen: Observations on the effect of the manufacturing system

Robert Owen. Observations on the Effect


of the Manufacturing System.
2. ed. L o n d o n . 1817.

Vor 30 oder 40 J a h r e n war G r o b r i t a n n i e n wesentlich agricultural. ...


5 W e c h s e l seit d e n cotton trade inventions u n d der Cultur des cotton tree in
America. (3, 4) N o t m o r e t h a n 30 years since, t h e poorest parents t h o u g h t
the age of 14 sufficiently early for their children to c o m m e n c e regular la-
bour: a n d they j u d g e d well. (8) Since the general i n t r o d u c t i o n of expensive
machinery, h u m a n n a t u r e has b e e n forced far b e y o n d its average strength.
10 (16)

13
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

The Oppressed Labourers,


the means for their relief,
as well as for the reduction of their number
and of the Poorrates.
L o n d o n . 1819. 5

N a c h d e m Schlu des Kriegs 1814 die labourers in agriculture b e c a m e t h e


b u t t of oppression. ... I h r removal from places where they wished to dwell,
to a poorhouse, a n d there being viewed as the pest a n d b u r d e n of t h e state,
r e n d e r e d t h e m objects subject to t h e c o m m a n d of the overseers, to let o u t
for labour, as horses are let to hire, n o t having a choice of master, work, or 10
wages. (Preface.)

14
Aus William Copland: A letter to the Rev. C. D. Brereton

W. Copland:
A Letter to the Rev. C. D. Brereton,
in Reply to his "Observations
on the Administration of the Poor Laws
s in Agricultural Districts."
Norwich. 1824.

Das country is morally a n d o u g h t to be legally, b o u n d to afford t h e m (the


poor) a subsistence. (9) Packt d e n Pfaffen Brereton, der alles P e c h auf die
Armenuntersttzung schiebt.
0

15
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Nassau William Senior.


Three Lectures on the Rate of Wages.
L o n d o n . 1830.

My principal object has b e e n to draw attention to the elementary proposi-


tion, that the rate of wages d e p e n d s on the extent of t h e fund for the m a i n - 5
t e n a n c e of labourers, c o m p a r e d with the n u m b e r of labourers to be m a i n -
tained. (Preface. [Ill, IV]) As marriage (des Arbeiters) has no t e n d e n c y to
increase the value of his labour, it has no t e n d e n c y to increase his r e m u -
neration. (I.e. IX) Pauper ... the m a n whose labour is n o t worth his subsist-
ence, who c o n s u m e s m o r e t h a n he produces. (XIX) (Die ganze Vorrede 10
rth Emigration auf Staatskosten. Jammer ber die Riots der labourers
etc.) the labourer's situation does n o t d e p e n d on the a m o u n t which he re-
ceives [at any] one t i m e , but on his average receipts during a given pe-
riod ... the longer the period taken, t h e m o r e accurate will be the estimate.
(7)I 15
| 3 | Das Jahr am besten als Periode. Umfat die S o m m e r u n d W i n t e r -
l h n e . (7) Few things are less u n i f o r m t h a n the n u m b e r of working days
during the year, or of working h o u r s during the day, or the degree of exer-
tion u n d e r g o n e during those hours. (10) T h e average a n n u a l wages of la-
b o u r in England are 3 x as high as in Ireland; but, as the labourer in Ire- 20
land is said n o t to do m o r e t h a n % of what is d o n e by the labourer in
England, the price of labour may, in b o t h countries, be a b o u t equal. (13)
T h e employer is interested in keeping down the price of labour; b u t while
that price r e m a i n s the same, while at a given expense he gets a given
a m o u n t of work d o n e , his situation r e m a i n s unaltered. If a farmer can get a 25
field trenched for 12 /. it is indifferent to h i m whether he pays the whole of
that s u m to three capital workmen, or to 4 ordinary ones. ... If the three
could be hired at 3 I. 10 s. a piece, while the 4 required 3 I. a piece, t h o u g h

16
Aus Nassau William Senior: Three Lectures on the rate of wages

t h e wages of t h e 3 would be higher, t h e price of t h e work d o n e by t h e m


would be lower. It is t r u e t h a t t h e causes which raise t h e a m o u n t of the la
b o u r e r ' s wages often raise t h e rate of t h e capitalist's profits. If, by i n c r e a s e d
industry, o n e m a n performs t h e work o f two, b o t h t h e a m o u n t o f wages a n d
5 t h e rate of profits will generally be raised. But t h e rate of profits will be
raised, n o t by t h e rise of wages, b u t in c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e additional supply
of labour having diminished its price, or having d i m i n i s h e d t h e p e r i o d for
which it h a d previously b e e n necessary to a d v a n c e that price. T h e labourer,
on the other h a n d , is principally interested in t h e a m o u n t of wages. T h e
10 a m o u n t of his wages b e i n g given, it is certainly his interest t h a t t h e price of
his labour should be high, for on t h a t d e p e n d s t h e degree of exertion i m p o s e d
on h i m . (14, 15) D i e Revenue of a large p o r t i o n of a country k a n n w a c h s e n
u n d die wages fallen. . B . w e n n I r l a n d n u r K o r n n a c h E n g l a n d ausfhrte
u n d pltzlich wrde die d e m a n d n a c h cattle etc so gro, d a die irischen
15 landlords u n d t e n a n t s ihr arable l a n d in p a s t u r e verwandeln. Statt 10 fami-
lies d a n n vielleicht 2 h i n r e i c h e n d fr je 200 acres: one to raise t h e subsist-
ence of t h e two, a n d the other to t e n d t h e cattle a n d sheep. A large p o r t i o n
der Arbeiter so aus Beschftigung geworfen. D e r fund for t h e m a i n t e n a n c e
of Irish labour would fall, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e increase of t h e r e v e n u e of
20 t h e landlords and farmers. ( 2 1 , 22) N u r in 2 F l l e n k a n n der general rate of
wages vermindert w e r d e n d u r c h E i n f h r u n g von M a s c h i n e r i e . Erstens:
when labour is employed in t h e construction of m a c h i n e r y , w h i c h l a b o u r
would otherwise have b e e n e m p l o y e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n of c o m m o d i t i e s for
the u s e of labourers; a n d Zweitens w h e n t h e m a c h i n e itself c o n s u m e s c o m -
25 modities which would otherwise have b e e n c o n s u m e d by labourers a n d
that to a greater e x t e n t t h a n it produces t h e m . (40) U n s r e j h r l i c h e C o n -
s u m t i o n von Baumwolle vor E i n f h r u n g der spinning j e n n y a b o u t to
100,000 lbs, jezt 190,000,000 lbs. Seit E i n f h r u n g des powerloom, die
quantity of cotton cloth m a n u f a c t u r e d for h o m e c o n s u m p t i o n gewachsen
30 von 227,000,000 of yards (average a n n u a l a m o u n t von 1 8 1 6 - 1 8 2 0 ) zu
t e
400,000,000 of yards ( a n n u a l average von 1 8 2 4 - 1 8 2 8 ) . (43, 44) D e r 2 F a l l
pat n u r auf horses u n d working cattle. (44) Behauptet d a M a s c h i n e n ,
angewandt fr W a a r e die in d e n B e r e i c h \ C o n s u m des Arbeiters k m m t ,
seinen Arbeitslohn e r h h n m s s e n . [48]

17
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Hints on Wages, the Corn Laws, High and


Low Prices, Paper Money and Banking arising
from a consideration of 3 Lectures
on the cost of obtaining Money etc
by N. W. Senior. 5

London.1832.
(By a British Merchant.)

Part I. On Wages.

In every n a t i o n , the q u a n t u m of wages received by the labourer is accord-


ing to the a m o u n t of the p r o d u c e of its soil; a n d his m o n e y wages, t h e 10
equivalent for such q u a n t u m , is according to t h e sale price of t h a t p r o d u c e
on the spot. (2) the cost of u n c u l t i v a t e d l a n d in A m e r i c a is % of t h e whole
s u m expended in clearing it. (5) Senior b e h a u p t e t that the wages o b t a i n e d
by the labourers, in return for whose labours the precious m e t a l s are i m -
ported, regulate the wages of all other labourers in t h e s a m e country". ... 15
N u n n a c h d e n parliamentary papers der session 1825 folgt, d a das G e -
wicht von Gold u n d Silber gegangen d u r c h das Bullionoffice in d e n 11 J a h -
ren von 1 8 1 4 - 1 8 2 4 war = 58,726,000 /. D a v o n exported in derselben Peri-
ode 34,963,000 /., leaving im L a n d 23,763,000 /. D i e quantity of b o t h
imported, beyond what is t a k e n to the bullion office, n i c h t % der hier 20
eingebrachten ... we require to supply n e w plate, the wear of the old, a n d of
m o n e y , or to be used in o u r manufactories the old plate being r e m e l t e d auf
1 million. ( 4 8 - 5 0 ) In denselben 11 J a h r e n von british p r o d u c e u n d m a n u -
factures exported jhrlich im D u r c h s c h n i t t 39,360,000/. Sollen n a c h Senior

18
Aus James H. Renny: Hints on wages

der 1/39 Theil der wages o b t a i n e d fr wages der labourers, in r e t u r n for


whose labour this o n e m i l l i o n was imported, die wages aller a n d r e n regu-
liren? (50)

19
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Torrens. (R.)
On Wages and Combination.
L o n d o n . 1834.

Maximum der wages: that, which r e m a i n s after the capitalist's other ad-
vances have b e e n replaced, with the lowest rate of increase, for the sake of 5
which he will carry on his business. (8) M a c h i n e s work b u t do n o t eat.
W h e n they displace labour, a n d render it disposable, they at the s a m e t i m e
displace a n d render disposable the real wages, t h e food a n d clothing, which
m a i n t a i n e d it. T h e aggregate fund for the support of labour is n o t d i m i n -
ished. (39) In a country n o t d e p e n d i n g u p o n foreign markets, c o m b i n a t i o n s 10
m a y raise wages to their M a x i m u m , provided the supply of labour do not
increase. (57) ||4| W h e n wages are at their m a x i m u m , profits are at their
m i n i m u m . But when profits are at their m i n i m u m , an increase of wages
m u s t check production, d i m i n i s h the fund for the m a i n t e n a n c e of labour
etc. (58) In a country d e p e n d i n g u p o n foreign markets, c o m b i n a t i o n s for 15
raising wages beyond the limit d e t e r m i n e d by foreign competition, ulti-
mately occasion, not an advance, b u t a r e d u c t i o n of wages. (60) T h e m a r k e t
is occasionally understocked a n d occasionally overstocked, with m a n u f a c -
tured goods. W h e n the supply of s u c h goods is deficient their p r o d u c t i o n is
increased; a n d w h e n their supply is in excess, their p r o d u c t i o n is d i m i n - 20
ished. But when the production of m a n u f a c t u r e d goods diminishes, the
fixed capital of the manufacturer ceases to be fully employed. It is selfevi-
dent, therefore, that, a m i d the ebbings a n d flowings of the market, a n d the
alternate contractions a n d expansions of d e m a n d , occasions will constantly
recur, in which the manufacturer m a y employ additional floating capital, 25
without employing additional fixed capital. ... if additional quantities of
raw material can be worked up without incurring an additional expense for
buildings a n d machinery, t h e manufacturers of the country in which the

20
Aus Robert Torrens: On wages and combination

rate of profit is comparatively h i g h (d. h. wo der Arbeitslohn absolut nied-


riger), will have an interest in lowering their prices in the foreign m a r k e t ,
so as to b e a t out t h e fabrics of the country in which the rate of profit is
comparatively low. (d. h. der Arbeitslohn h o c h , wo also der Prei nicht
5 weiter herabgedrckt werden k a n n , es sei d e n n da der L o h n herabge-
drckt wrde.) (63, 4) So long as buildings a n d m a c h i n e r y , w h e n n o t in
work exist as dead stock, realizing no profit at all, so long will it be the in-
terest of producers to employ, at the customary rate of profit, as m u c h of
their floating capital as possible, without reference to the consideration
10 whether, by so employing it, they realize the customary profit u p o n their
fixed capital also. Diese consideration wird b e s t i m m e n ob new a n d a d d i -
tional buildings a n d m a c h i n e s shall be erected; b u t when o n c e they are
erected, it will be t h e decided interest of the manufacturer, to keep t h e m in
full work, provided he can thereby secure the customary profit u p o n t h e
15 floating capital employed in paying wages, a n d in p u r c h a s i n g raw m a t e r i -
als. H e n c e , when t h e foreign m a r k e t is overstocked, it will be the interest of
the manufacturer of the h i g h profit country to c o n t i n u e to supply it at
prices greatly below those ordinary prices w h i c h gave the customary r e t u r n
u p o n his whole capital, fixed a n d floating. (68) In a country possessing su-
20 periority in m a n u f a c t u r i n g for foreign m a r k e t s , wages m a y be raised within
the limits of such superiority. (73) T h e Cornlaws deprive t h e operatives of
England of the high comparative wages d u e to the superiority w h i c h E n g -
land possesses in m a n u f a c t u r i n g for the foreign market. (81)

21
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Nassau W. Senior.
Letters on the Factory Act,
as it affects the Cotton Manufacture,
addressed to the right Honourable
The President of The Board of Trade. 5
To which are appended A Letter to Mr. Senior
from Leonhard Horner, Esq. and Minutes of a
Conversation between Mr. Edmund Ashworth,
Mr. Thomson and Mr. Senior.
L o n d o n . 1837. 10

D i e difference between the h o u r s of work u s u a l over t h e whole world in cot-


t o n factories u n d a n d e r n e m p l o y m e n t s rhrt aus 2 G r n d e n her: 1) t h e
great proportion of fixed to circulating capital, which m a k e s long h o u r s of
work desirable; u n d 2) the extraordinary lightness of the labour. (11) Das
fixe Capital gewhnlich = 4:1 z u m circulirenden, so da w e n n a m a n u f a c - 15
turer 50,000 l. hat, er 40,000 l. verausgabt in Errichtung seiner mill u n d fill-
ing it with m a c h i n e r y u n d n u r 10,000 I. to the purchase of raw m a t e r i a l
(cotton, flour a n d coals) u n d the p a y m e n t of wages. ( 1 1 , 12) the fixed capi-
tal is subject to incessant deterioration, n i c h t allein von wear u n d tear,
sondern a u c h von constant m e c h a n i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s , w h i c h in 8 oder 20
9 J a h r e n r e n d e r obsolete, m a c h i n e r y which when first used was the best of
its kind. D a h e r um netprofit von 10 % zu m a c h e n , ist a gross profit von
m e h r als 15 % nthig. (12) U n t e r d e m gegenwrtigen Gesetz no mill, worin
persons u n t e r 18 J a h r e n angewandt, can be worked m o r e t h a n 1 1 h o u r s

22
Aus Nassau William Senior: Letters on the factory act

d e n Tag, d. h. 12 S t u n d e n fr 5 Tage u n d 9 am Samstag. N u n die folgende


Analyse zeigt, d a in a m i l l so worked, t h e whole net profit is derived from
the last hour. E i n m a n u f a c t u r e r investirt 100,000 1.: - 80,000 I. in his m i l l
u n d machinery, u n d 20,000 i n raw m a t e r i a l u n d wages. D e r a n n u a l r e t u r n
5 der mill, supposing t h e capital to be t u r n e d o n c e a year, a n d gross profits to
be 15 %, m u sein goods worth 115,000 1., p r o d u c e d by the c o n s t a n t conver-
sion a n d reconversion of the 20,000 1., circulating capital, from m o n e y i n t o
goods a n d from goods into m o n e y , in periods of rather m o r e t h a n two
m o n t h s . V o n diesen 115,000 I. e a c h of t h e 23 half h o u r s of work p r o d u c e s
5
10 / 115 oder %. V o n d e n % (constituting the whole 115,000 I.) %, d. h.
100,0001, von d e n 115,000 ersetzen n u r das Capital; % (oder 5,000 I. o u t of
the 115,000) m a k e s up for t h e deterioration der mill u n d m a c h i n e r y . D i e
r e m a i n i n g % d. h. die last two of t h e 23 half h o u r s of every day, p r o d u c e
}

the n e t profit of 10 %. W e n n d a h e r (prices r e m a i n i n g the same) die factory


15 13 S t u n d e n at work g e h a l t e n w e r d e n k n n t e statt 11, by an a d d i t i o n of
about 2,600 I. to t h e circulating capital, t h e n e t profit would be m o r e t h a n
doubled. Anderseits, w e n n die A r b e i t s s t u n d e n tglich um 1 S t u n d e per day
reducirt (prices r e m a i n i n g the same) net profit would be destroyed, w e n n
reducirt um 1 ]/ S t u n d e n a u c h gross profits destroyed, das circulating capi-
2

20 tal would be replaced, b u t there would be no fund to c o m p e n s a t e the pro-


gressive deterioration of the fixed capital. (12, 13) ||5| Das Verhltni des
fixed capital z u m circulating wchst bestndig aus 2 G r n d e n . 1) D i e t e n d -
ency of m e c h a n i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t to throw on m a c h i n e r y m o r e a n d m o r e of
the work of p r o d u c t i o n . 2) D a s i m p r o v e m e n t der m e a n s of transport, u n d
25 die c o n s e q u e n t d i m i n u t i o n of t h e stock of raw material in the m a n u f a c -
turer's h a n d s waiting for u s e . Formerly, w h e n coals a n d cotton c a m e by wa-
ter, the u n c e r t a i n t y a n d irregularity of supply forced h i m to keep on h a n d 2
oder 3 m o n t h s ' c o n s u m p t i o n . Now, a railway brings it to h i m week by
week, or rather day by day, from the port or the m i n e . U n d e r s u c h c i r c u m -
30 stances, I fully anticipate that, in a very few years, the fixed capital, instead
of its present proportion, will be as 6 or 7 or even 10 to 1 to the circulating;
and, consequently, t h a t the motives to long h o u r s of work will b e c o m e great-
er, as the only m e a n s by w h i c h a large proportion of fixed capital can be
m a d e profitable. " W h e n a labourer," said Mr. Ashworth to me "lays d o w n
35 his spade, he renders useless, for t h a t period, a capital worth 18 d. W h e n
o n e of our people leaves the mill, he renders useless a capital t h a t has cost
100,000 /." (13, 14) U n s r e cotton factories, at their c o m m e n c e m e n t , were
kept going the whole 24 h o u r s . T h e difficulty of cleaning a n d repairing t h e
machinery, a n d the divided responsibility, arising from the necessity of e m -
40 ploying a double staff of overlookers, bookkeepers etc have nearly p u t an
end to this practice; b u t u n t i l H o b h o u s e ' s A c t r e d u c e d t h e m to 69, our fac-

23
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

tories generally worked from 70 to 80 h o u r s per week. (15) D a s G a r n , das


40 Sh. ein Pfund kostete, w h e n we c o n s u m e d only 10,000,000 of p o u n d s of
cotton, now, when we c o n s u m e 280,000,000, costs 2 sh. Increase of price,
a n d d i m i n u t i o n of c o n s u m p t i o n , will therefore act a n d react on o n e a n -
other. Every increase of price will further d i m i n i s h c o n s u m p t i o n ; a n d every 5
further d i m i n u t i o n of c o n s u m p t i o n will occasion an increased relative cost
of production, a n d consequently a further increase of price. (16)

A us dem Brief von Horner (Leonard) an Senior.

Behauptet, d a in any period of 5 years, since the cotton trade rose into
c o n s e q u e n c e , der profit in well m a n a g e d factories m u s t have greatly ex- 10
ceeded 10 %. (31) Zeigt Herrn Senior berall, d a er sich v o n d e n Fabri-
kanten hat belgen lassen.

24
Aus Charles David Brereton: A practical inquiry

Brereton. (. M.) (Rev.)


Rector of Little Massingham, Norfolk.
A Practical Inquiry into the Number,
Means of Employment, and Wages
5 of the Agricultural Labourers.
L o n d o n . (1825?)

Am Schlu des 14* Jh. W a t Tyler, J a c k Straw, H o b Carter u n d T o m Miller,


n a m e s a s s u m e d by these spirited leaders of t h e peasantry, to d e n o t e t h e i r
origin a n d e m p l o y m e n t s , c o m m i t t e d with a m u t i n o u s p o p u l a c e great vio-
10 lence on t h e gentry a n d nobility. . . . Ihre insurrection war das grosse M i t t e l
of shaking off t h e servitude a n d oppression of t h e N o r m a n a n d feudal tyr-
anny. (11) V o n 1 6 9 0 - 1 7 9 4 sehr great decrease der p o p u l a t i o n der vil-
lages ... D u r i n g t h e last century grosser c h a n g e im woollen trade des
L a n d e s . Das c o m b i n g u n d s p i n n i n g von wool, w h i c h were during t h a t p e -
15 riod performed entirely by h a n d , are now d o n e by m a c h i n e r y u n d dieser
trade transferred a l m o s t entirely von Norfolk u n d d e n eastern districts
n a c h Lancashire, Yorkshire, N o t t i n g h a m s h i r e u n d Leicestershire. T h o u g h
t h e earnings from the s p i n n i n g of yarn a n d knitting of stockings were very
small, yet a great part of t h e female p o p u l a t i o n in diesen arts e m p l o y e d .
20 But I shall shew t h a t u n l e s s t h e female p o p u l a t i o n h a d b e e n disengaged
from these e m p l o y m e n t s , a n d b e e n t u r n e d to t h e labours of t h e field, t h e
l a n d of this c o u n t y could n o t have b e e n cultivated as it h a s b e e n , by t h e
male p o p u l a t i o n of t h e last 30 years. (26, 7) Norfolk ist n i c h t n u r b e r h m t
(die county) fr ihre Agricultur u n d i m p r o v e m e n t s in that art, b u t also for
25 its p a u p e r i s m . U n t e r s u c h e n wir, at different periods, die quantity of l a n d in
cultivation, t h e m o d e of tillage, u n d t h e p r o d u c e of t h e soil. (38) D i e Graf-

25
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

t e
schaft Norfolk enthlt 1,338,880 statute acres u n d ist die 5 county in ex-
l
tent, u n d die 8 in E n g l a n d as to p o p u l a t i o n . E n t h l t 33 h u n d r e d s , 20 m a r -
ket towns u n d 702 parishes u n d h a m l e t s . Norfolk e n t h l t 100 parishes
m e h r als Yorkshire oder any other county in E n g l a n d u n d m e h r als das
whole of Scotland. These divisions are of very a n c i e n t date, a n d h a v e per- 5
h a p s rather decreased t h a n increased during t h e last century. ... Nearly
10,000 I. h a v e b e e n spent in some years in law expences, (in this county) re-
specting removals a n d settlements. (38) In Norfolk m e h r als % der Bevlke-
r u n g u n t e r d e m workhouse system. (39) W h i l e the n u m b e r of parishes a n d
even the n u m b e r of i n h a b i t a n t s in villages decreased w h r e n d des last cen- 10
tury, the quantity of land in cultivation greatly increased. W i t h i n the last
50 years m e h r als % der parishes inclosed d u r c h P a r l a m e n t s a k t e u n d
brought into a high state of cultivation. M a n y of the parishes of Norfolk are
t h e exclusive property of individuals, a n d in m o s t of these inclosures of
h e a t h a n d waste lands have t a k e n place to a great extent w i t h o u t the sane- 15
t i o n of P a r l i a m e n t . Since the Revolution the greater part of this western
district of the c o u n t y has b e e n converted from sheep's walk, of trifling val-
u e , to t h e highest pitch of cultivation. (I.e.) Also m u gewesen sein a great
increase of d e m a n d for labour. Jezt m e h r cattle genhrt in d e m Distrikt
u p o n t h e fallows, als frher supported u p o n the whole in a state of pastur- 20
age a n d waste. Solches L a n d erheischte weder draining n o r fencing. A u e r
diesen h i g h u n d light soils in Norfolk a great d e a l of fen u n d marshland, das
wurde e m b a n k e d u n d drained during this period u n d dessen Cultivation
d a h e r a great increase of e m p l o y m e n t bewirken m u t e . A considerable
quantity of saltmarsh also h a s b e e n e m b a n k e d a n d r e d e e m e d from the sea. 25
T h e great i m p r o v e m e n t der c o u n t y a u c h b e m e r k b a r von der erection of all
the principal m a n s i o n s during this period, - H o l k h a m , H o u g h t o n , Wolter-
ton, G u n t o n etc. D e r c l a m o u r of t h e dearth of e m p l o y m e n t , u n d von der
overflowing supply of labourers fand Statt, while these i m p r o v e m e n t s in the
country ||6| have b e e n in progress. N o t only has there b e e n a great increase 30
in the m e a n s of e m p l o y m e n t by the increased quantity of l a n d in cultiva-
tion, b u t the process of bringing it into a cultivated state, fencing, draining,
a n d improving, which require in m a n y cases l a b o u r to the a m o u n t of m o r e
t h a n y t h e value of the land, m u s t have enormously increased the fund
2

which supplies the wages of labour. (40, 41) T h e quantity of e m p l o y m e n t 35


supplied by agriculture has b e e n still further a u g m e n t e d by t h e changes
which have t a k e n place in the mode of tillage. W a h r s c h e i n l i c h d a die pro-
portion des arable l a n d to pasture grsser war als einige Zeit n a c h der R e -
formation. U n t e r der Herrschaft der Elisabeth u n d for s o m e t i m e after, the
inclosure of pasture was discouraged. Arable land was in fact converted 40
into pasture, a n d the p r o d u c e of corn increased by an improved h u s b a n d r y .

26
Aus Charles David Brereton: A practical inquiry ..

A greater supply of m e a t , dessen C o n s u m sehr wuchs n a c h der Reforma-


tion, wurde afforded by a t t e n t i o n to pastures. ( 4 1 , 2) Blomefield giebt d e n
following a c c o u n t der several estates at different periods:

131 arable
5 1324 a messuage, in Norfolk, c o n t a i n e d 7 meadow
1% p a s t u r e

140 arable
6 meadow
1370. ditto ditto
30 pasture
10 30 heath

200 arable
100 meadow
1567 ditto
300 pasture
10 wood

15 60 arable
20 m e a d o w
1569 ditto
40 p a s t u r e
300 furze &
h e a t h . (42.)

20 So at u n d after t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , die quantity des arable land in Propor-


tion z u h e a t h u n d p a s t u r e decreased. W u c h s erst b e d e u t e n d n a c h d e r R e v o -
lution. Z u r Revolutionszeit die Pfarre, d i e B[lomefield] b e w o h n t , n i c h t
b e r 2 o d e r % cultivated as arable land. J e z t von 2238 acres n u r 152 pas
t u r e u n d 2086 arable. D i e m u die quantity of labour, erheischt seit der
25 Revolution, v e r m e h r t h a b e n . E b e n s o das E i n f h r e n des fourcourse u n d six-
course system. In d e m fourcourse % des L a n d e s best m i t K o r n u n d in d e m
sixcourse % oder %. D e r leztre course n u r a n w e n d b a r w h e n the l a n d is of
the finest quality, a n d a d m i t s t h e growth of b e a n s , aber der erstre n u n
allgemein in d e n m i d d l i n g u n d inferior soils. Zwei V e r b e s s e r u n g e n b e s o n -
30 ders zu diesen courses gefhrt, n h m l i c h Das M a r l i n g of t h e l a n d u n d die
field culture of t u r n i p s . T h e m a r l i n g of l a n d erheischt viel m a n u a l labour,
a n d that of t h e highest value. Besonders aber die field culture of t u r n i p s .
T h e general culture of t u r n i p s i n t r o d u c e d t h e u s e of t h e h o e in agriculture,
which h a d till t h e n b e e n confined to gardening ... Das L a n d worauf die
35 turnips wachsen ist h o e d over 2 u n d oft 3 x im Jahr. By t h e system of drill-
ing also the hoe is very generally u s e d ; u n d so a n u m b e r of acres, = per-
haps nearly % dieser extensive county, is h o e d over by h a n d , like a garden,
in t h e course of t h e year. ( 4 2 - 4 5 ) D i e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s h a t t e n a u c h a great
effect in distributing t h e m e a n s of e m p l o y m e n t t h r o u g h t h e year. (45) Vor

27
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

der Reformation die average p r o d u c t i o n per acre, of all k i n d s of grain,


n i c h t b e r 12 bushels. V o n der R e f o r m a t i o n zur Revolution h u s b a n d r y i m -
proved, a n d t h e produce greatly increased. By m o d e r n i m p r o v e m e n t t h e
p r o d u c t i o n in m a n y parts d o u b l e d seit der Revolution. (47, 8) D e m I n s p e c -
tor der Cornreturns fr Norwich w u r d e n r e t u r n e d 1 8 0 1 : 17,159 qrs, 1814: 5
34,007, also doppelt die quantity u n d 1 8 2 1 : 78,219 oder m e h r als 4x die
n u m b e r of qrs. (49) In this village at this t i m e there are probably as m a n y
w o m e n a n d girls as m e n a n d boys employed. This change in the employ-
m e n t of the female population is of great m o m e n t in ascertaining the earn-
ings of labourers' families. (51) N i c h t zu beweisen, da der rural p a u p e r i s m 10
gegenwrtig is u p h e l d weder by a superfluity of workmen, n o c h a d e a r t h of
e m p l o y m e n t , n o c h i n a d e q u a t e wages, sondern n u n die poorlaws, ihre Ver-
waltung etc. (96)

28
Aus Edward Carleton Tufnell: Character, object, and effects of trades unions

|7| Character, Object and Effects


of Trades' Unions; with some remarks
of the Law concerning them.
L o n d o n 1834.

5 Die mchtigste, extensivste u n d bestorganisirte U n i o n in d e m U n i t e d


K i n g d o m scheint die der working cotton spinners. Alle oder fast alle work-
m e n dieser class in E n g l a n d , Schottland u n d Irland v e r b u n d e n in i h r e n re-
spective districts fr 30 J a h r e oder mehr. 1829 der erste V e r s u c h to form
one G r a n d G e n e r a l U n i o n " of all t h e spinners of the 3 k i n g d o m s . V o n da
10 an m e h r systematischen Plan. J e d e Stadt oder Dorf, e n t s p r e c h e n d d e n
n u m b e r s ihrer spinning p o p u l a t i o n , whlte representatives, die Parliaments
abhielten, levied taxes on their constituents, passed laws, p r i n t e d their
speeches a n d proceedings, a n d performed all the functions of a legislative
body m i t so viel F r m l i c h k e i t wie das h o u s e of c o m m o n s . D i e I n s t i t u t i o n
15 dieser assembly o h n e m a r k e d effect on the trade. Die strikes u n d a n d r e of-
fensive business der U n i o n were still for the m o s t part decided on by t h e lo-
cal committees, a n d the expense of sending delegates to some central spot,
such as the Isle of M a n or M a n c h e s t e r , the u s u a l place of M e e t i n g , h a s pre-
vented the holding of a general congress m o r e t h a n o n c e or at m o s t 2 x a
20 year, a n d t h e n the Session has n o t c o n t i n u e d longer t h a n 4 or 5 days. (2, 3)
Die spinners bilden n u r y der in d e n cotton mills Beschftigten, b u t their
w

labour is absolutely necessary to t h e working des establishment; folglich,


by refusing to work themselves, they force all their fellow-labourers out of
e m p l o y m e n t at the s a m e t i m e . ... diese Abhngigkeit of s o m e w o r k m e n on
25 others existirt berall, wo T h e i l u n g der Arbeit, b u t in no m a n u f a c t u r e
where the same quantity of fixed capital is employed (a c i r c u m s t a n c e
which will be shewn hereafter materially to aid the objects of a c o m b i n a -

29
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

tion) is t h e disproportion equally great. (12, 13) D e r m o s t extensive u n d


persevering strike der v o n 1810, w h e n all t h e spinners in all t h e mills in der
Nachbarschaft von Manchester, eingeschlossen Stockport, Macclesfield,
Stayley Bridge, A s h t o n , H y d e , O l d h a m , Bolton u n d so weit wie Preston, si-
m u l t a n e o u s l y left their work, a n d h a d t h e strike c o n t i n u e d a little longer, 5
t h e whole of Scotland would have j o i n e d it. 30,000 persons thrown o u t of
e m p l o y m e n t , m a n y of t h e m p a r a d e d t h e streets der obigen Stdte during
t h e day, s h o u t i n g u n d h o o t i n g at the residences der ihrer S a c h e feindlichen
Personen. Attacks oft g e m a c h t auf die factories, trotz der Polizei, die z u m
S c h u t z n i c h t h i n r e i c h t e ; m a n y masters u n a b l e ihre mills zu verlassen, for
fear of their lives u n d s u c h w o r k m e n as were got to supply t h e place of t h e
seceders, were held prisoners, in a state of almost c o n t i n u a l siege, in t h e es
t a b l i s h m e n t s where they worked. D a s Government dieses strike carried on
by a congress at M a n c h e s t e r , gebildet von Delegates sent from all t h e prin
cipal mills. An der Spitze Joseph Shipley, e i n vollstndiger M a s a n i e l l o , aber 15
a respectable m e c h a n i c . W h r e n d dieses t u r n o u t , t h e m e n who h a d
struck, were supported by the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of those who were in work u n d
die s u m s so collected beliefen sich fr eine betrchtliche Periode zu fast
1500 /. weekly, wovon M a n c h e s t e r allein an 600 zahlte. Dieser fund e i n e
Zeitlang h i n r e i c h e n d large, d e n Congress zu befhigen a weekly p a y m e n t 20
of 12 sh. d e n spinners, who h a d struck, zu m a c h e n , aber die c o n t r i b u t i o n s
u n d folglich die allowances t h a t flowed from t h e m , gradually fell off, till
they at length ceased altogether, a n d those who d e p e n d e d on t h e m , were
consigned to utter destitution. D a s H a u p t o b j e k t der w o r k m e n war to raise
t h e wages in country districts to a level with those in M a n c h e s t e r . . . . A b e r 25
die country masters, o h n e die advantages der M a n c h e s t e r m a s t e r s , are
obliged to r e d u c e t h e wages of their w o r k m e n to a lower rate, as otherwise
they would be u n a b l e to get the s a m e profit on their capital with t h e i r M a n -
chester rivals ... Zu j e n e r Zeit 4 d. gezahlt in d e n countryparts for s p i n n i n g
1
a p o u n d of cotton, N o . 40 u n d 4 / d. in M a n c h e s t e r , u n d to raise die c o u n -
2 30
try wages um % d. war das a i m der U n i o n . ... m o s t signal failure . . . Sobald
die contributions d e r e n in work failed, s u c h of t h e m e n as h a d laid by m o n -
ey in d e n T a g e n ihrer prosperity, resorted to it for support u n d so die h a r d -
earned savings von J a h r e n c o n s u m i r t in d i e s e m hopeless warfare. F u r n i -
ture, clothes, every article of comfort or c o n v e n i e n c e that their cottages 35
c o n t a i n e d , was t h e n disposed of u n d diese u n h a p p y victims of their own
folly u n d e r w e n t a series of privations, w h i c h would appear incredible to
those who do not know t h e force of pride u n d die e n d u r i n g pertinacity,
womit die english working classes will n o t unfrequently r e m a i n , w h a t they
call, true to e a c h other". N a c h 4 m o n t h s of misery k e h r t e n die m e n zu ih- 40
rer Arbeit zurck, s o m e even accepting e m p l o y m e n t zu 2 d. per p o u n d statt

30
Aus Edward Carleton Tufnell: Character, object, and effects of trades unions

d e n 4 d. ( 1 3 - 1 7 ) D i e hufigste U r s a c h e der strikes in d e m cotton trade war


die Einfhrung verbesserter M a s c h i n e r i e u n d speziell das e n l a r g e m e n t of
mules, wodurch die Z a h l der spindles a spinner is capable of s u p e r i n t e n d -
ing, has b e e n continually increasing. ... A m a s t e r on t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n
5 solcher verbesserten M a s c h i n e r i e in sein tablissement stipulirt m i t s e i n e n
Spinners i h n e n less per piece zu zahlen, aber d o c h zu solcher rate, da, ow-
ing der greater power of t h e m a c h i n e , ihre w c h e n t l i c h e n earnings steigen
statt zu fallen ... A b e r dieser bargain injurious d e n m a s t e r s u n d m e n in
d e n manufactories ||8| where t h e improved m a c h i n e is not i n t r o d u c e d . (17,
10 18) 1824 alle spinners t u r n e d o u t in H y d e . (18) 1829 a serious t u r n o u t . A
little before this t i m e , several masters h a d erected m u l e s , carrying from
4 - 5 0 0 spindles, which e n a b l e d t h e spinners w h o worked at t h e m to receive
a less s u m in the proportion of 3 - 5 for a given quantity of work, a n d zu
gleicher Zeit to e a r n at least an e q u a l a m o u n t of wages, with those who
15 were employed on t h e old m a c h i n e r y . 21 mills u n d 10,000 persons were
thrown idle fr 6 m o n t h s d u r c h diesen strike. (19) D e r lezte grosse strike
u n t e r d e n S p i n n e r n D e c e m b e r 1830, w h e n 3000 spinners a t A s h t o n u n d
Stayley Bridge left their work, w o d u r c h 52 mills u n d 30,000 persons idle ge-
sezt fr 10 weeks. (20) In Schottland die strikes der Spinner ebenso hufig
20 u n d d e t e r m i n e d wie in E n g l a n d u n d a t t e n d e d with a greater degree of vio-
lence. (21) Sie h a b e n (diese U n i o n der spinners) d e n L o h n h o c h gehalten,
z u m D u r c h s c h n i t t w c h e n t l i c h von 30 sh., aber n u r nominell, d e n n : the
work n o t being sufficient for all, in order to prevent the s u p e r n u m e r a r i e s
from beating down the rate of wages, by working u n d e r t h e c o m b i n a t i o n
25 prices, the U n i o n is compelled to m a k e t h e m a weekly allowance for t h e i r
support; a n d the subscriptions for this purpose, as well as the other ex-
penses to which they are p u t in m a i n t a i n i n g their association are so
heavy ... da die s u m distributed a m o n g s t t h e m in wages, is n o t greater
t h a n i n other occupations u n d ihre earnings n u r n o m i n a l l y high, u n d really
30 n o t above the ordinary level. (27) Die Z a h l der zu i h r e m business Z u g e -
l a n e n zu b e s c h r n k e n gelingt i h n e n n i e . Im G e g e n t h e i l a strike invariably
introduces new w o r k m e n . M o r e t h a n 300 persons were instructed in spin-
ning, owing to the t u r n o u t in A s h t o n in 1825 u n d Mr. Lees states in his evi-
d e n c e that every general t u r n o u t without exception has e n d e d in a r e d u c -
35 tion of wages i m m e d i a t e l y after, on a c c o u n t of the influx of fresh h a n d s
causing a s u p e r a b u n d a n c e of labour. (27, 8) V o n diesen fresh h a n d s , s o m e
c a m e from the country u n d s o m e was big piecers what took to spinning.
(28) Schlielich heit es v o n dieser U n i o n der Spinner: Surely, if any
c o m b i n a t i o n could answer t h e expectations of the working classes, this
40 would be the one. It has brought the m o s t extensive m a n u f a c t u r e in t h e
world u n d e r its authority, it has e m b r a c e d in its power three k i n g d o m s , it

31
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

exercises by the peculiar n a t u r e of the trade, control over t e n t i m e s its own


n u m b e r of workmen, it has shewn t h e reality of these pretensions, by k e e p -
ing t h o u s a n d s out of employ for half a year at a t i m e , every favourable cir-
c u m s t a n c e has concurred to establish its efficiency, a n d it has kept up the
rate of wages, yet the m e m b e r s fail to draw from this result o n e iota of b e n - 5
efit. (26)
E i n e der extensivsten U n i o n s is t h a t formed by t h e Workmen in the Build-
ing Trades. Sehr thtig 1833, besonders in den nordwestlichen m a n u f a c t u r -
ing districts. Im spring 1833 b e g a n n dieser body operations in M a n c h e s t e r ,
Liverpool u n d d e n b e n a c h b a r t e n Stdten, by serving a requisition on t h e 10
masters, which d e m a n d e d an a b a n d o n m e n t of the practice of erecting
buildings on the system of contracts. Of late years n m l i c h die c u s t o m
eingefhrt in einigen b r a n c h e s des building d e p a r t m e n t . Contracte e i n z u -
g e h n m i t m i d d l e m a n or agent, who contracted for the entire building m i t
d e n B a u m e i s t e r n ... der contractor b o u n d himself to furnish whatever was 15
required for the construction of the whole edifice ... die masters led in
diese Praxis d u r c h d e n W u n s c h ihrer customers, d e n e n er sehr b e q u e m ,
since it enabled t h e m to obtain the estimate for any work from a single per-
son versed in such calculations, who would be responsible for its comple-
t i o n at the c o m p u t e d price, u n d m a c h t e die deception u n d inaccuracy bei 20
B e r e c h n u n g des Kostenpreisses m i t einer Masse n i c h t m i t e i n a n d e r ver-
knpfter trades u n m g l i c h . D i e m e i s t e n masters i n d e complied m i t der
request ihrer workmen to lay it aside. (29, 30) Ein Theil der Kerls n a n n t e n
sich: The Operative Societies of Bricklayers. Das C o m m i t t e e der U n i o n
issued a series of regulations, requiring the masters to abide by certain 25
rules respecting the equalization of wages, the n u m b e r of apprentices they
were to take, the use of m a c h i n e r y , a n d a variety of other m a t t e r s , all m o r e
or less restrictive, a n d consequently injurious to the free transactions of
business. D i e masters, die diesen laws n i c h t gehorchten, entweder ge-
zwungen to s u b m i t to t h e fine willkhrlich von der U n i o n i h n e n auferlegt, 30
oder ein Edict was issued by t h a t body to the w o r k m e n of any refractory
master", in Folge wovon er verlassen von seinen j o u r n e y m e n u n d u n a b l e to
complete the contracts a n d other work t h e n in progress. ( 3 1 , 2) T h e c o m -
m a n d s to cease working, issued by the C o m m i t t e e s of the U n i o n were in
every case implicitly obeyed. (34) U n t e r diesen U m s t n d e n beschlossen die 35
masters to employ no workmen, except such as should sign a declaration,
t h a t they did n o t belong to a T r a d e s ' U n i o n . ... D a r a u f general t u r n o u t ...
6 M o n a t e fast bestndig die grossen B a u t e n in M a n c h e s t e r , ||9| Liverpool
etc u n t e r b r o c h e n ... die c o n s u m p t i o n of bricks in Liverpool reducirt sofort
von a million weekly to 20,000. (34) D i e masters h a t t e n k e i n e n Versuch zur 40
R e d u c t i o n der wages g e m a c h t ... die earnings der j o u r n e y m e n in d e n

32
Aus Edward Carleton Tufnell: Character, object, and effects of trades unions

building trades war nie weniger als 24 sh. w h r e n d der lezten 20 J a h r e ; zur
very Zeit der strikes, die wages der bricklayers h a d b e e n increased 3 sh.
weekly u n d viele von dieser class of m e n were in the habit of earning 35 sh.
a week, whrend der s u m m e r m o n t h s , by working longer h o u r s t h a n u s u a l .
5 Betrachtet m a n die Preisse der provisions zu verschiednen P e r i o d e n - fol-
gende table of prices of provisions at M a n c h e s t e r - so sieht m a n , da der
L o h n erhht, fast verdoppelt.
1813. 1833.
s. d. s. d.
10 Flour (good seconds) per 12 pounds 4 2 2 2
Butcher meat, good, per pound 0 8 0 6
Dto coarse, per pound 0 6% 0. 5
Bacon per pound Oil 0. 6
Cheese per pound 0 9 0 7
15 Potatoes, per load of 240 pounds 12 0 4 6
Butter per 112 pounds 126 0 90 0
Soap per pound 0 9 0 6
Coals per pound 0 8 0 5%
Salt per pound 0 3 0 0
20 Candles per pound 1 0 0 6

In clothing diese wages g e m e s s e n ist n o c h grsser.

1810 1833.
s. d. s. d.
Linen per yard 1 8 0 9
25 Strong Calico per yard 0 10 0 4
Printed Calico, per yard 2 2 0 7.

Die masters versuchten frische Arbeiter aus a n d r e n T h e i l e n E n g l a n d s zu


verschaffen, aber in Folge der I n t i m i d a t i o n m i t wenig Erfolg. Die shops der
masters bestndig bewacht d u r c h Piquets von 3 - 4 m e n , die abgelst wur-
30 den at certain intervals, u n d d e n e n es im D u r c h s c h n i t t gelang d u r c h D r o -
h u n g e n n e u e Arbeiter z u v e r h i n d e r n fr e m p l o y m e n t sich z u m e l d e n , u n d
wenn any such irgend wie engagirt wurden, the buildings where they
worked were s u r r o u n d e d by U n i o n i s t s , who, by hooting u n d a n d r e effectua-
lere m o d e s of a n n o y a n c e , d e n progress der work zu v e r h i n d e r n s u c h t e n . In
35 der Zwischenzeit die w o r k m e n in d e m b u i l d i n g trade von ganz E n g l a n d
vom Geist der c o m b i n a t i o n ergriffen u n d beschlossen eine allgemeine
U n i o n zu g r n d e n , wahrscheinlich instigated by their Lancashire b r e t h r e n .
A scheme von R e p r e s e n t a t i w e r f a s s u n g entworfen, m e m b e r s gewhlt in d e n
verschiednen counties u n d in S e p t e m b e r last (1833 oder 34?) Builders' Par-
40 Uament sizt in England. 275 delegates, reprsentirend 30,000 wie sie sag-
ten. ( 3 5 - 3 8 ) N a c h 6 M o n a t e n m u t e n die Lancashire m e n reuig zu ihren

33
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

masters zurckkehren. D e r U n i o n f u n d s hatte an 18,000 /. in allowances


verzehrt u n d as the p a y m e n t s to workmen, who have t u r n e d o u t nie b e r %
ihres L o h n s , im D u r c h s c h n i t t , 4x diese s u m or 72,000 was the loss, which
t h e working builders sustained in pursuit of their i n s a n e project. Die m e i -
sten erhielten ihre Arbeit nicht zurck. Viele der buildings were discontin- 5
u e d ; die gute saison frs B a u e n war vorbei; m a n c h e ersezt d u r c h fresh la-
bourers brought from distant parts u n d d u r c h die i n t r o d u c t i o n of
m a c h i n e r y ... in the false h o p e of attaining their object, they h a d e n d u r e d
deprivations only second to actual starvation ... die failure des strike war
complet. (40, 41) T h e Derby work people are at this m o m e n t erecting facto- 10
ries by the aid of subscriptions, collected a m o n g themselves, a n d also from
brother Unionists in all parts of England, hoping by these m e a n s to draw to
their own body the profit, bis jezt von i h r e n masters g e n o m m e n . (45) |
1101 N a c h der Repeal der C o m b i n a t i o n laws in 1824 die Yorkshire workmen,
beschftigt im woollen cloth trade, s u c h t e n eine U n i o n to establish. D i e 15
d a m a l i g e n Versuche m i g l c k t e n i n d e . Die c o m b i n a t i o n s , die lately so
viel Schaden gethan in d i e s e m county, n i c h t on foot gesezt vor 3 J a h r e n
u n d begriffen im Anfang in sich n u r die w o r k m e n employed in d e m was
technically is t e r m e d the manufacturing" of woollen cloth, n m l i c h slub-
bers, spinners u n d weavers. (46, 7) E i n e der largest F a b r i k e n in Leeds, der 20
H e r r e n Gott was the first to feel the power of the U n i o n . H a t t e e b e n
e n o r m e F a b r i k m i t M a s c h i n e r i e etc fr W e b e n von fine woollen cloth er-
richtet, als alle Weber, 210 an der Z a h l t u r n e d out. Sie b e h a u p t e t e n niedri-
gere wages zu erhalten als die von a n d e r n F a b r i k a n t e n . Unwahr, averaged
17 sh. weekly. V i e l m e h r Versuch ihre n e u e power zu erproben, ob sie n i c h t 25
d e n rate of wages steigen m a c h e n k n n t e n ... D i e E s t a b l i s h m e n t gewhlt
wegen des large fixed capital. Einige W o c h e n vergeblicher t u r n o u t , till at
length die m e n , die c o n t i n u e d at their work solchen t r e a t m e n t s unterwor-
fen on entering a n d leaving the factory, being hooted, pelted, u n d a n n o y e d
in other ways, da die proprietors, receiving no support or c o u n t e n a n c e 30
from other manufacturers, auf die vorgeschlagnen t e r m s eingingen. A b e r
die H e r r e n G o t t n a h m e n n u r die h i n r e i c h e n d e Z a h l von W e b e r n zurck t o
work the looms in the old part of their establishment, leaving their newly
erected building u n u s e d . They soon after disposed of all the m a c h i n e r y it
contained ... Der success dieses contest fhrte zu einer coalition der U n - 35
ion m i t d e n w o r k m e n engaged in d e n various processes of finishing" as
well as milling or fulling" woollen cloth, a n d since t h a t period, the trade
has hardly ever b e e n free from strikes, a n d t h e w o r k m e n have wielded an
almost irresistible power over the property of their masters. ( 4 7 - 4 9 ) D e r
n e x t step der U n i o n was to draw up a list of wages to be paid for spinning, 40
weaving etc, publicirt in d e n newspapers u n d also on sheets of paper, z u m

34
Aus Edward Carleton Tufnell: Character, object, and effects of trades unions

purpose of being t r a n s m i t t e d to t h e millowners a n d small m a n u f a c t u r e r s .


Das d o c u m e n t was h e a d e d "A scale of prices to be observed by millowners,
manufacturers etc" u n d h a t t e als A n h a n g einige regulations b e r die ad-
mission of boys u n d die p r o p o r t i o n worin sie a n z u w e n d e n relatively to t h e
5 n u m b e r of adults. ... D e r grssere T h e i l der m a s t e r s gab n a c h u n d their
n a m e s were carefully set forth in t h e 3 newspapers published at Leeds. D i e
w o r k m e n c o n t e n d e d d a dieser scale k e i n rise of wages, s o n d e r n n u r eine
e q u a l i z a t i o n " derselben, it b e i n g a principal object of their association to
c o m p e l the m a s t e r s to pay every operative, good or b a d , an e q u a l s u m for
10 his labour. (49, 50) Trotz dieses advance h a t t e n die w o r k m e n n i c h t d e n er-
warteten G e w i n n . Sie either sent their yarn to be woven in t h e n e i g h b o u r -
ing villages, or stopped part of their works entirely ... Einige m a n u f a c t u r e r s
entschlpften d e n losses by m a k i n g alterations in spinning t h e yarns a n d
setting t h e webs, was leztres h e i t t h e fixing of the geer or reed in w h i c h
15 t h e cloth is woven, a n d w h i c h varies from 36 to 110 portions of 38 t h r e a d s
each. D u r c h diese alterations gewann der m a n u f a c t u r e r dieselbe q u a n t i t y
G a r n converted into cloth of t h e s a m e n o m i n a l quality as before, u n d for
the s a m e cost per yard. . B. w e n n er vor d e r P r o m u l g a t i o n d e r scale z a h l t e
2 s. for an 80 geer u n d die scale fixed 2 s. 3 d. as t h e price of weaving per
20 string, he would weave t h e s a m e quality of wool in a 76 geer, at 2 s., m a k i n g
s u c h alterations in the s p i n n i n g of yarn as were requisite. D i e U n i o n
m a c h t e n e u e regulations to m e e t this contrivance, c o u n t e r a c t e d by fresh
evasions der m a n u f a c t u r e r s , a n d t h u s a war of c u n n i n g was carried on be
tween m a s t e r s u n d m e n , worin die leztren m a n c h m a l geschlagen ... T h e
25 worst davon, d a die goodness des T u c h s was i m p a i r e d by t h e alteration of
the geer and spinning, a n d t h u s t h e p u b l i c h a d to pay in t h e deteriorated
quality of t h e cloth they p u r c h a s e d . (50, 1) D i e U n i o n m a c h t e n u n weitre
F o r d e r u n g e n . Verlangten von d e n m a n u f a c t u r e r s , in case of a c o n t r a c t i o n
of their scale of p r o d u c t i o n , n o t to discharge any of their w o r k m e n , b u t to
30 keep every l o o m a n d j e n n y going, dealing o u t t h e work, however small
might be its quantity, in e q u a l proportions to their m e n . Z u m T h e i l h i e r i n
i h n e n nachgegeben. N u n verlangten sie, n o t to stop a single o n e of t h e m a -
chines u s e d in t h e process preparatory to spinning, though, from t h e fall-
ing | | 1 1 | off of their orders, it should not be necessary to keep t h e m in work.
35 H i e r i n i h n e n vigorously W i d e r s t a n d geleistet u n d die m e n m u t e n d a v o n
abstehn. (52) N u n d e n m a n u f a c t u r e r s befohlen to get all their weaving a n d
spinning d o n e in Leeds a l o n e ; E i n m a s t e r pledged sich schriftlich d a z u , to
weave a n d spin all t h e cloth he m a d e on his own prmisse, at t h e prices
fixed by t h e U n i o n . D a s R e s u l t a t i h n e n n i c h t gnstig. Er r e d u c i r t e sofort
40 seine M a n u f a k t u r um % u n d took in work instead from t h e country m a n u -
facturers to scribble a n d slubb u n d folglich seiner W e b e r earnings reducirt

35
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

von 17 s. zu 7 s. per week u n d his spinners von 27 s. auf 10 s. N a c h 3 M o n a -


ten wollten sie, er solle wieder in der alten M a n i e r anfangen, aber vergeb-
lich. (52, 3) Da die U n i o n nie ihre Regulations publicirt hat, k a n n ein m a s -
ter sie wider W i s s e n brechen. D a n n s u m m a r y p u n i s h m e n t . Vielleicht
m i t t e n in der W o c h e a signal is suddenly given by o n e of t h e m e n , every 5
o n e of w h o m , without m e n t i o n i n g the grievances, will instantly leave his
work, and in 5 m i n u t e s the factory will be deserted. So E i n F a b r i k a n t ge-
straft durch a t u r n o u t von 8 Tagen, weil er discharged a w o r k m a n for negli-
gence u n d changed an overlooker from o n e d e p a r t m e n t to another. (55, 6)
T h e most effectual m o d e of compelling every w o r k m a n to j o i n the c o m b i - 10
n a t i o n , consisted in proscribing any factory where o n e of these "black
sheep," as the n o n - U n i o n i s t s were called, was employed. (56) Various rules
were laid down m i t Bezug auf die admission von apprentices in any m a n u -
factory, the n u m b e r being regulated by t h a t of the adults employed u n d
n i e m a n d allowed to enter as s u c h above the age of 15. E b e n s o die Z a h l der 15
boys beschrnkt u n d if any one of t h e m employed on work usually per-
formed by a m a n , he was to be paid m a n ' s wages. K e i n e m erlaubt to work
at any of the trades exercised by their body, unless he h a d served a regular
apprenticeship to t h e m , n o r could a w o r k m a n leave one d e p a r t m e n t des
business to enter another; a weaver could not b e c o m e a spinner, n o r a gig- 20
ger a s h e a r m a n etc. T h u s an excess or deficiency of w o r k m e n in any partic-
u l a r e m p l o y m e n t could not be easily r e m e d i e d . (57) T h e regulation of
these various matters implies of necessity, t h e a s s u m p t i o n of a j u d i c i a l
character, a n d the C o m m i t t e e have t a k e n u p o n themselves to decide in all
disputes between the w o r k m e n a n d their employers. ... Ihr einziges Mittel 25
ihre orders zu enforce is by ordering a strike. (58) N u n , da der strike i m m e r
populr the power of the C o m m i t t e e ist confined to m e a s u r e s of active
hostility u n d fast useless for purposes of restraint. (59) Die Organisation
der w o r k m e n in d e n stuff und worsted trades, deren m a n u f a c t u r i n g processes
ganz distinct from the woollen, is as perfect u n d prcis auf d e n s e l b e n Prin- 30
cipien begrndet. (59) D e r strike (1833) bei Messrs. H i n d e s u n d D e r h a m ,
der dieser U n i o n (die Distrikte in Leeds, Halifax, Bradford etc) an 4000
kostete verursachte die invention of a wool-combing machine, which wholly
superseded the labour of t h a t class of m e n , who were the chief ringleaders
in this affair, and which has struck a blow at their c o m b i n a t i o n , that it can 35
never recover. (61, 2) W h e n a strike takes place, a n d any of those who j o i n
in it are m u c h in arrear with their subscriptions, they are disabled by the
rules from receiving any assistance from the general funds. T h e enforcing
of this regulation is obviously necessary to prevent bankruptcy, a n d yet it
never can be enforced, for the manifest reason, that a refusal to support 40
those who are in arrear, would c o m p e l t h e m to accept e m p l o y m e n t at any

36
w

Aus Edward Carleton Tufnell: Character, object, and effects of trades unions

price, a n d the object of a t u r n o u t would be defeated. (64, 5) F r c h t e r l i c h e


Eide etc i m m e r geschworen bei d e m Eintritt in diese U n i o n s . (74 u n d
alias) Im Lauf von 3 J a h r e n , 10 lives were lost in D u b l i n in Folge von c o m -
binations, u n d in no instance were the m u r d e r e r s brought to justice. (76)
5 Die hatters in L o n d o n struck in 1820, d e m a n d i n g an increase of 1 sh. per
12 h a t s ; a n d after staying o u t for 15 weeks, they accepted e m p l o y m e n t from
their masters at a decrease of 1 sh., instead of a rise of t h a t s u m . (77) Wo
die L o h n e r h h u n g erreicht, sie n u r n o m i n e l l e n Vortheil davon; sei es d a
die high wages m o r e labourers in diesen trade zogen als can be supplied m i t
10 work u n d die folglich m u s t be supported von d e n e n die get work, else the
competition of their n u m b e r s will beat down the advance t h a t has b e e n o b -
tained; oder von der expense of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e various b u r d e n s w h i c h a
c o m b i n a t i o n entails, wie clerks, secretaries, delegates, m e e t i n g r o o m s , von
d e m falling off of c o n s u m p t i o n in Folge des Steigens des Preisses, v o m
15 Wegtreiben der M a n u f a c t u r etc. (77, 78) |
|12| Die U n i o n in d e n W o r s t e d M a n u f a c t u r e s von der e b e n gesprochen
u n d die sich n a n n t e The N a t i o n a l Friendly Society of operative worsted
manufacturers (die b r i g e n U n i o n s in d e n clothing districts n a c h densel-
b e n Prinzipien established) war folgendermaassen eingerichtet: das c o u n -
20 try divided in districts", j e d e deren c o n t a i n s a certain n u m b e r of lodges" or
separate clubs of workmen. J e d e r District whlt a governing c o m m i t t e e u n d
sendet Delegaten (deren Z a h l proportionirt der quantity of lodges" it c o m -
prises) zu der grandlodge", h e l d twice a year. In d i e s e m grandlodge m e e t -
ing ist das grand c o m m i t t e e " or council of direction gewhlt, das allein
25 das R e c h t hat of deciding u p o n strikes, w h e n the object is to raise wages; to
prevent reductions the district authorities are empowered to order strikes.
Der place of M e e t i n g der grandlodge jhrlich gewechselt; die Delegates, die
it bilden, bezahlt n a c h der distance they have to travel. M o n a t l i c h e r Be-
richt jeder lodge, w h i c h c o n t a i n s an a c c o u n t of all its receipts a n d disburse-
30 m e n t s , a n d also of its general condition. Diese reports c o m m u n i c a t e d d e m
Sekretr der grandlodge", der sie d e n several districts vertheilt. F u l l m e m -
bers h a b e n zu zahlen 1 s. e n t r a n c e money, u n d 3 d. weekly u n d are entitled
to receive, when they have struck work, a weekly allowance of 7 s. ausser
1 s. for a wife u n d 1 sh. for each child u n d e r 10, that is u n e m p l o y e d . (62,
35 3)
Herr Jackson, a m a n u f a c t u r e r von Sheffield, sagt vor d e m C o m m i t t e e
des H o u s e of C o m m o n s : "if t r a d e has b e e n remarkably brisk, a n d the de-
m a n d m a d e by the w o r k m e n has mostly b e e n for an exorbitant price, this
price has been m a i n t a i n e d for a very short t i m e , for a m o n t h , perhaps, to
40 execute the orders on h a n d , b u t t h e price of goods was in c o n s e q u e n c e so
far a u g m e n t e d , as to stop the d e m a n d in our foreign markets, a n d a subse-

37
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

q u e n t reaction taking place, it has b e e n ascertained, that after a t u r n o u t of


workmen, a n d a c o n s e q u e n t a u g m e n t a t i o n in t h e price of goods, every
third season, or every third half year (as t h e A m e r i c a n orders c o m e usually
2x a year) t h e price h a s fallen m u c h below t h e previous level." (78, 9)
(Trotz a l l e d e m s a g t er a n d e r s e i t s w i e d e r (p. 78) d a die c o m b i n a t i o n s d e n 5
rate of wages aufrecht h a l t e n , w e n n das a u c h n i c h t d e m e i n z e l n e n Arbeiter
zu G u t k o m m e ) Paisley u n d Macclesfield owe their rise to t h e high wages
d e m a n d e d i n Spitalfields; u n d Macclesfield i n t u r n h a t aus d e n s e l b e n
G r n d e n e i n e n Theil seines silk trade an M a n c h e s t e r verloren, ( b e r h a u p t
in der Nachbarschaft von Leeds etc etc oft die n e i g h b o u r i n g villages in 10
dieser Art in die H h e gebracht.) ... Irland h a t vielleicht am m e i s t e n in
dieser Art verloren. Owing der U n i o n in D u b l i n , planks c a n be cut into
boards 35 % wohlfeiler in Liverpool als in that town; d a d u r c h der Schiffbau
i m m e r m e h r i n Irland a b n e h m e n d etc etc. (80) Z h l t d a n n (83 sqq F l l e
auf, z . B . N g e l m a c h e n in Sheffield etc wo in Folge der c o m b i n a t i o n s die 15
M a n u f a c t u r e s n a c h fremden L n d e r n ausgewandert u n d der h o m e trade
decayed.) Zwei curious facts bewiesen d u r c h die history of t u r n o u t s : 1) that
they are hardly ever resorted to, except by those, who habitually receive
high wages, u n d 2) t h a t t h e t i m e of their o c c u r r e n c e is almost invariably
w h e n trade is prosperous. . B. in c o t t o n s p i n n i n g mills i m m e r die S a c h e 20
v o n d e n spinners a u s g e h e n d . Als 1829 die fine spinners in M a n c h e s t e r an
1000 t u r n e d out, they refused work, w o d u r c h sie v o n 3 0 - 3 5 sh. clear e i n e
W o c h e m a c h e n k o n n t e n . Als 52 mills u n d 30,000 persons were t h r o w n idle
w h r e n d 10 W o c h e n 1830, zu A s h t o n u n d U m g e g e n d , by t h e t u r n i n g out of
3000 coarse spinners, these m e n could earn weekly von 28 s. bis 31 sh. 25
clear. Im woollen trade die weavers u n d im worsted die C o m b e r s , die von
1 6 - 2 0 s. weekly, sind die ringleaders. (86, 7) Jackson sagt vor d e m C o m m i t -
tee of M a n u f a c t u r e s a n d C o m m e r c e , 1833, von d e n c o m b i n a t i o n s in Shef-
field: S o m e of these c o m b i n a t i o n s have lasted o h n e U n t e r l a seit 1810;
b u t others have b e e n b r o k e n up every r e t u r n i n g period of b a d t r a d e ; b u t as 30
soon as trade b e c o m e s better, t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s spring up afresh." Mr. Dun-
lop sagt vor d e m C o m b i n a t i o n C o m m i t t e e 1824: "they never t u r n out w h e n
t h e trade is b a d . " (87[, 88]) E i n e der worst features dieser Societies ist
ihre hostility to piece or task work a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t d i s c o u r a g e m e n t
they give to t h e exercise of superior skill a n d industry. "The m a n who does 35
task-work," sagt das T r a d e s - U n i o n M a g a z i n e "is guilty of less defensible
c o n d u c t t h a n a drunkard. T h e worst passions of o u r n a t u r e are enlisted in
support of y 131 taskwork. Avarice, m e a n n e s s , c u n n i n g , hypocrisy, all excite
a n d feed u p o n the miserable victim of taskwork, while debility a n d destitu-
t i o n look out for the last morsel of their prey. A m a n , who earns by task- 40
work 40 s. per week, t h e u s u a l wages by day being 20 s., robs his fellow of a

38
Aus Edward Carleton Tufnell: Character, object, and effects of trades unions

week's e m p l o y m e n t . " Sie wollen e q u a l i z a t i o n of wages". (92, 3) In d e n


meisten Statuten d a h e r the penalty of 2 s. 6 d. or expulsion from the So-
ciety, on any m e m b e r , who should "be k n o w n to boast of his superior abil-
ity as to either the quantity or quality of work he can do, either in public or
5 private Company". (93) In those places where c o m b i n a t i o n s h a v e b e e n
most frequent a n d powerful, a c o m p l e t e separation of feeling seems to h a v e
taken place between masters a n d m e n . E a c h party looks on the other as an
enemy. (97)
In some places Benefit Societies, legally enrolled, have b e e n m a d e the
10 cloak for c o m b i n a t i o n s . (103) S o m e of the m o s t valuable a n d i n g e n i o u s
m a c h i n e s ... actually owe their existence to t h e operation of T r a d e s ' U n -
ions.Selfacting m u l e . (107) D e r T u r n o u t der Lancashire w o r k m e n in
d e m building trade (1833) has i n t r o d u c e d a curious application of t h e
steamengine. Diese M a s c h i n e n u n i n einigen Stdten angewandt, statt
15 m a n u a l labour, in hoisting the various building materials to the top of t h e
edifice, where they are i n t e n d e d to be used. (109)

39
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Th. H. Stirling. The Question Propounded:


or, How will Great Britain ameliorate and
remedy the distresses of its workmen etc.
L o n d o n 1849.

Bldsinn. 5

40
Aus James Howard: The evils of England

The Evils of England. Social and


Economical. By a London Physician.
L o n d o n . 1848.

In der Vorrede heits: The object of the a u t h o r in these pages is, to enter
5 a strong a n d earnest protest against M e n d i c a n c y , u n d e r all its disguises;
against Charities, in m a n y of their forms; against Poor Laws, in every possi-
ble or conceivable s h a p e ; a n d against all kinds of waste. Weiser D a n i e l s !
Waste is the great cause of n a t i o n a l as of individual i m p o v e r i s h m e n t ...
T h e m o s t m o n s t r o u s waste of m a t e r i a l yet c o m m i t t e d i s t h e waste of the
10 refuse of our large towns, a n d of the liquid matters which drain away from
our farmsteads. D a s ist waste of manure. (107) waste of smoke. (108) waste
land, by millions of acres ... sturdy emigrants, by tens of t h o u s a n d s , leav-
ing our shores; a n d t h e best of all m a n u r e s , in the best a n d m o s t available
of forms, to the value of several millions a year, flowing into the sea,what
15 a picture of n a t i o n a l extravagance! (109) Emigration = waste of m e n . (120)
In England, at the present t i m e , we have n o t half the population we want to
m a k e things cheap. E m i g r a t i o n is an i n d e x of the pressure of idleness on
industry. (120) T h e aristocracy takes typhus fever u n d e r its peculiar patron-
age; the trading a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g interest adopts c o n s u m p t i o n . (132)

41
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

William Logan (City Missionary)


An Exposure, from Personal Observation,
of Female Prostitution.
In London, Leeds, and Rochdale,
and especially in the City of Glasgow. 5

Glasgow. 1843.

F e m a l e s h a u p t s c h l i c h der Prostitution geliefert % from being servants in


taverns a n d public houses. % from the i n t e r m i x t u r e of the sexes in facto-
ries, and those employed in warehouses, shops etc, % by procuresses, or fe-
males who visit country towns, m a r k e t s a n d places of worship, for t h e pur- 10
pose of decoying goodlooking girls, % endlich die von I n d o l e n z u n d b a d
t e m p e r leave their situations, d a n n von y o u n g m e n Betrogne, endlich
children who have b e e n urged by their m o t h e r s to b e c o m e prostitutes for a
livelihood. (13, 14) 80,000 H u r e n in L o n d o n , 4000 in Liverpool, 3000 in
Glasgow. [27] 15

42
Aus John Fielden: The curse of the factory system

John Fielden.
(Manufacturer at Todmorden in Lancashire)
The Curse of the Factory System.
L o n d o n . 1836.

5 Arkwrights inventions took m a n u f a c t u r e s o u t of the cottages a n d farm-


houses of England, where they h a d b e e n carried on by m o t h e r s , or by
daughters u n d e r t h e m o t h e r s eye, a n d assembled t h e m in the c o u n t i e s of
Derbyshire, N o t t i n g h a m s h i r e u n d besonders Lancashire, where t h e newly
invented m a c h i n e r y was u s e d in large factories built on the sides of streams
10 capable of turning the waterwheel. T h o u s a n d s of h a n d s were suddenly re-
quired in these places, r e m o t e from towns; a n d Lancashire, in particular,
being till t h e n b u t comparatively thinly p o p u l a t e d a n d barren, a p o p u l a t i o n
was all she ||14| now wanted. T h e small a n d n i m b l e fingers of little children
being by very far t h e m o s t in request, the c u s t o m instantly sprang up of
15 procuring apprentices from the different parish workhouses of L o n d o n , Bir- -
m i n g h a m and elsewhere. M a n y t h o u s a n d s of these little hapless creatures
were sent down into t h e N o r t h , being from the age of 7 - 1 3 or 14 years old.
T h e c u s t o m was for the m a s t e r to clothe his apprentices, a n d to feed a n d
lodge t h e m in an "apprentice h o u s e " n e a r the factory; overseers were a p -
20 pointed to see to the works, whose interest it was to work the children to
the utmost, because their pay was in proportion to the quantity of work t h a t
they could exact. Cruelty was, of course, the c o n s e q u e n c e ... in m a n y of
the manufacturing districts, besonders aber in Lancashire ... cruelties t h e
most heart-rending were practised u p o n the unoffending a n d friendless
25 creatures who were t h u s consigned to the charge of m a s t e r m a n u f a c t u r e r s ;
they were harassed to the brink of d e a t h by excess of labour; they were
flogged, fettered, and tortured in the most exquisite refinement of cruelty; they

43
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

were, in m a n y cases, starved to the b o n e while flogged to their work, a n d


even in some instances, they were driven to c o m m i t suicide ... T h e b e a u t i -
ful and r o m a n t i c valleys of Derbyshire, N o t t i n g h a m s h i r e , a n d Lancashire,
secluded from the public eye, b e c a m e the d i s m a l solitudes of torture, a n d
of m a n y a m u r d e r . (5, 6) D i e Profits der manufacturers waren enorm; das weite 5
nur ihren Appetit; sie begannen die Praxis of night working", i.e. having tired
o u t one set of h a n d s , by working t h e m t h r o u g h o u t t h e day, they h a d an-
other set ready to go on working t h r o u g h o u t the night; the day-set getting
into the beds that the nightset h a d j u s t quitted u n d vice versa. It is a com-
m o n tradition in Lancashire, that the beds never got cold! T h e s e outrages on 10
n a t u r e N a t u r e herself took in h a n d ; contagious m a l i g n a n t fevers broke out
a n d began to spread their ravages a r o u n d ; n e i g h b o u r h o o d s b e c a m e
alarmed; correspondences appeared in the newspapers, a n d a feeling of
general horror was excited when t h e atrocities c o m m i t t e d in those r e m o t e
glens b e c a m e even partially known. D i e masters selbst wurden von d e n 15
m a l i g n a n t fevers ergriffen, a u s s e r d e m die public voice u n d therefore they
instituted a board of H e a l t h in M a n c h e s t e r , der 1796 e i n e n R e p o r t m a c h t e ,
worin es unter anderm heit: 1) It appears that the children a n d others
who work in the large cotton factories are peculiarly disposed to be affected
by the contagion of fever u n d es rasch zu propagiren. 2) the large factories 20
are generally injurious to the constitution of those employed in t h e m , even
where no particular diseases prevail, from the close c o n f i n e m e n t which is
enjoined, from the debilitating effects of hot or i m p u r e air, a n d from want
of the active exercises which n a t u r e points out as essential in childhood
a n d youth, to invigorate t h e system, a n d to fit our species for t h e employ- 25
m e n t a n d for the duties of m a n h o o d . 3) T h e u n t i m e l y l a b o u r of the night,
a n d the protracted labour of the day, with respect to children, n o t only
t e n d s to d i m i n i s h future expectations as to the general s u m of life a n d in-
dustry, by impairing the strength a n d destroying the vital s t a m i n a of the
rising generation, b u t it too often gives e n c o u r a g e m e n t to idleness, extra- 30
vagance, and profligacy in parents, who, contrary to the order of n a t u r e ,
subsist by the oppression of their offspring. It appears t h a t children e m -
ployed in factories are generally debarred from all opportunities of educa-
tion, a n d from m o r a l and religious instruction. (6, 7) G e s c h a h i n d e nichts
bis 1802, wo Sir R. Peel procured an Act (42 G e o . 3. c. 73) to regulate the 35
l a b o u r of apprentice children worked in factories. (7) D e r A p p r e n t i c e Akt,
b u t gradually, wore out the newly-adopted m o d e of taking factory appren-
tices; for, as the masters would work the long hours, they now h a d recourse
to the children of parents on the spot; which it b e c a m e easier for t h e m to
do, as, about this time, the application of steam power to cottonfactories, by 40
Watt, was getting into vogue; so that the moving power, which before h a d

44
Aus John Fielden: The curse of the factory system

b e e n waterfalls, a n d which, of course, could only be h a d by building t h e


factory on the stream, was now, an engine, that could be p u t up in t h e
m i d s t of ||15| the people wherever they could be found; u n d da sich auf
diese Kinder der vorige A k t n i c h t bezog, 1816 Sir R. Peel procured a C o m -
5 mittee of the H o u s e of C o m m o n s to e x a m i n e into the expediency of a Bill
to apply the provisions of the Act above n a m e d to all children worked in
factories. (8, 9) A u s der E v i d e n c e des Sir R. Peel selbst geht hervor that, af-
ter the passing of the Factory A p p r e n t i c e Act, the children of very poor
people were brought into t h e mills, and, n o t being apprenticed, were
10 worked during the long h o u r s prohibited to apprentices. (10) N a c h der Evi-
d e n c e von J o h n Moss, overseer of Backbarrow Mill, bei Preston, der A p -
prentice Akt constantly set at n o u g h t . T h e witness did n o t even know of it.
Die children in der mill waren fast alle apprentices von L o n d o n parishes;
they were worked von 5 Morgens bis 8 in der N a c h t , das ganze J a h r durch,
15 mit n u r 1 S t u n d e fr die 2 m e a l s ... invariably they worked von 6 am S o n n -
tag M o r g e n bis 12, in cleaning the m a c h i n e r y for the week. D a b e i m u t e n
sie w h r e n d der g a n z e n Zeit s t e h n ; keine seats in der mill. D i e K i n d e r
fielen oft h i n u p o n the mill floor u n d schliefen dort ein. (10) It is evident
that the long h o u r s of work were brought a b o u t by t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e of so
20 great a n u m b e r of destitute children being supplied from the different parts
of the country, that the masters were i n d e p e n d e n t of the h a n d s ; a n d that,
having once established t h e c u s t o m by m e a n s of the miserable materials
which they procured in this way, they could i m p o s e it on their n e i g h b o u r s
with the greater facility. (11) Am 6 J u n e 1815 Sir R. Peel (der Vater des
25 B e r h m t e n ) first m o v e d to bring in his bill. An d i e s e m Tag sagte
Mr. Horner: "It h a d b e e n k n o w n t h a t with a b a n k r u p t ' s effects, a gang, if he
might use the term, of these children h a d b e e n p u t up to sale, a n d were ad-
vertised publicly, as a part of the property. A m o s t atrocious instance h a d
c o m e before the King's B e n c h 2 years ago, in which a n u m b e r of t h e s e
30 boys, apprenticed by a parish in L o n d o n to o n e manufacturer, h a d b e e n
transferred to another, a n d h a d b e e n found by s o m e benevolent persons in
a state of absolute famine. A n o t h e r case, m o r e horrible, h a d c o m e to his
knowledge, while on a c o m m i t t e e upstairs; that, n o t m a n y years ago, an
agreement h a d b e e n m a d e between a L o n d o n parish a n d a L a n c a s h i r e
35 manufacturer, by which it was stipulated t h a t with every 20 sound children,
one idiot should be taken." (11, 12) Obgleich die M o t i o n Peel's carried,
1815, die Bill erst passed 1819. Aufgeschoben d u r c h das appointing of t h e
c o m m i t t e e to inquire. T h e provisions des Act were: 1) that no child u n t e r
9 Jahren in einer cotton s p i n n i n g factory angewandt werden solle; 2) d a
40 kein Kind u n t e r 16 J a h r e n in einer solchen Fabrik m e h r als 12 S t u n d e n
whrend des Tages, exclusive of the m e a l t i m e s , angewandt w e r d e n solle.

45
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

(12) universal is the c o m p l a i n t of "sair tired," a n d of swelled legs, ankles,


feet, h a n d s , a n d arms, t h a t it almost seems as if o n e voice spoke t h e facts.
(21) it is t h e factory system of overworking, which, in its purest state, t e n d s to
corrupt t h e m o r a l s of y o u n g people, a n d in its t o o general state, is t h e cause
of languor so excessive, that exciting drink and o p i u m e a t i n g are b u t too of- 5
ten resorted to for relief. (28) T h e labour now u n d e r g o n e in t h e factories is
m u c h greater t h a n it used to be, owing to t h e greater a t t e n t i o n a n d activity
required by t h e greatly increased speed which is given to t h e m a c h i n e r y
t h a t t h e children have to a t t e n d to, w h e n we c o m p a r e it with what it was 30
or 40 years ago. (32) as i m p r o v e m e n t s in m a c h i n e r y have g o n e on, t h e "ava- 10
rice of m a s t e r s " h a s p r o m p t e d m a n y to exact m o r e labour from their h a n d s
t h a n they were fitted by n a t u r e to perform. (34) 1832, wo Dr Kay sein B u c h
schrieb, Cholera b r a c h t e die F a b r i k a t e n in M a n c h e s t e r wie in 1796 wieder
in grosse Angst u n d zu e i n e m Special Board of H e a l t h . (38) E i n K i n d in
einer factory hat tglich to walk, in following t h e s p i n n i n g m a c h i n e , 15
20 miles in 12 hours, u n d w e n n d i e M a s c h i n e n rascher g e h n 2 5 - 3 0 . (40)
W e n n 3 N a t i o n e n , . B. England, F r a n k r e i c h , ||16| N o r d a m e r i k a in M e x i c o
c o n c u r r i r e n , so m s s e n sie zu denselben Preissen verkaufen. W h a t these
m a n u f a c t u r e r s take in r e t u r n from M e x i c o , m u s t be sold at such a price in
their respective countries, as will e n a b l e t h e m to go on m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A n d 20
t h u s , t h e a p p a r e n t dearness of m a n u f a c t u r i n g in one country, as c o m p a r e d
with another, falls on t h e c o n s u m e r s in that country, a n d is paid in t h e
price charged on the returns that t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r brings back. (55)
Dr Bowring statuirt: C o n s u m t i o n von cotton in E u r o p a u n d A m e r i c a
1,500,000 bales, jhrlich, die bales, von 300 lbs im D u r c h s c h n i t t . D a v o n 25
c o n s u m i r t fast %, 940,000 bales, in G r e a t Britain, % 280,000 bales in
x
F r a n c e , 216,000 bales oder nearly % in A m e r i c a , 64,000 bales, nearly / in u

other parts. A d d i t i o n a l cost of french cotton goods above those of E n g l a n d ,


average 3 0 - 4 0 % . Inferiority of french m a c h i n e r y , 2 5 % . Ditto of french la-
b o u r 20 %. (57) 30
Die A m e r i c a n s , w h r e n d a period von 18 J a h r e n vor 1833 could pur-
chase in England, m i t d e n proceeds of 300 lbs of U p l a n d cotton, on an av-
erage of these years, n u r 24 pieces of 74-cloth; aber 1833 k o n n t e n sie m i t
d e n s e l b e n proceeds 30 pieces kaufen. 1834 k o n n t e n sie 29 pieces kaufen
u n d 1835 - 32 pieces. An increase of 33%. W h r e n d der 18 J a h r e vor 35
1833 k o n n t e n die A m e r i c a n s m i t d e n proceeds of 300 lbs cotton n u r
131 lbs of 30 h a n k s water twist kaufen; 1833, 177 lbs; 1834, 178 lbs, 1835,
190 lbs. Increase of 45 %. W h r e n d der 18 J a h r e vor 1833 k o n n t e n die A m e -
ricans m i t d e n proceeds von 300 lbs of cotton n u r 86 lbs'of half-ell velvet-
eens kaufen, 1835, 136 lbs. An increase of 58 %. W h r e n d der 18 J a h r e vor 40
1833 k o n n t e n sie, m i t d e n 300 lbs cotton kaufen n u r 15% pieces of 2 8 - i n c h

46
Aus John Fielden: The curse of the factory system

72 powerloom cloth. D e r average, 1836, war 24 pieces for the s a m e . I n -


crease of 53 %. 1826 u n d 7, die A m e r i c a n s , m i t d e n 300 lbs, could p u r c h a s e
n u r 344 yards of domestic, or stout cloth.

1828-9 365 yards, an increase of 6 per cent


5 1830-1 388 12
1832-3 464 34
1834-5 564 64.

Die 5 hier gewhlten Artikel sind leading articles, into which a very great
proportion of the cotton i m p o r t e d in E n g l a n d is worked up ... H a d t h e
10 manufacturers a n d the cottongrowers c o m e in close contact with e a c h
other, a n d exchanged a n d t a k e n away e a c h of t h e m their c o m m o d i t i e s in
bulk, the eyes of the british m a n u f a c t u r e r s would long ago h a v e b e e n
opened, a n d a stop would have b e e n p u t to the losing g a m e we h a v e pur-
sued. (60)

47
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Samuel Laing:
National Distress. Its Causes and Remedies.
Atlas Prize Essay.
L o n d o n . 1844.

( A u s der V o r r e d e g e h t hervor, d a d a s B u c h g e s c h r i e b e n 1842, O c t o b e r 5


u n d N o v e m b e r , towards t h e e n d of a crisis of u n e x a m p l e d severity et dura-
tion.) [V, VI]

Part I. Nature and Extent of the Existing Distress.

Declared value of exports of british produce a n d m a n u f a c t u r e s to the Brit-


ish West I n d i e s : 10

Years of Slavery. Years of freedom


1830 2,838,448 1838 3,393,441
1831 2,581,949 1839 3,986,598
1832 2,439,808 1840 3,574,970. (4 Note)

Der a m o u n t of i n c o m e actually assessed to the property tax in 1 8 1 4 - 1 5 be- 15


lief sich auf 166,222,128 I. exclusive of all i n c o m e s below 50 I. a year. D i e
returns of Sir R. Peel's property tax show that in 1842 das i n c o m e des c o u n -
try, exclusive of i n c o m e s below 150 1., exceeded 180,000,000 I. (5 N o t e ) D a s
jhrliche E i n k o m m e n Englands m i n d e s t e n s 350 Millionen. N u n die N a -
tionalschuld = 760 Mill., also k a u m two years' purchase of the n a t i o n a l in- 20
c o m e ; u n d der jhrliche Zins darauf = 29,000,000 m a c h t n u r 8 - 9 % u p o n
this i n c o m e . N i m m t m a n die ganze Steuerlast zu 50 Mill., so berschreitet
sie nicht 15 % on the n a t i o n a l i n c o m e . (6)

48
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress

1841 - u n t e r der strengen A n w e n d u n g des n e u e n A r m e n g e s e t z e s , offiziel-


ler Pauperismus in E n g l a n d u n d W a l e s 1,300,928 persons, 1 auf 12 in einer
Bevlkerung von 15,911,725 oder 8%. (9) Captain Miller, s u p e r i n t e n d e n t
of police, 11171 sagt von d e m Hauptlumpenproletarierviertel von Glasgow:
5 There is concentrated every thing t h a t is wretched, dissolute, l o a t h s o m e ,
and pestilential. (11) In Glasgow v o m T y p h u s attacked:

1836 10,092
1837 21,800
1838 9,792
10 1839 8,085
1840 15,290
Total 62,051. (12)

In Liverpool auf 25 Arbeiter 1 Typhuskranker; 8000 bewohnte Keller, de-


ren occupants geschzt werden auf 3 5 - 4 0 , 0 0 0 . N a c h Dr D u n c a n % der wor-
15 king classes in Liverpool leben in courts. (13) (175,000 Arbeiter in Liver-
pool. [13]) Zieht m a n d u r c h das C e n t r u m v o n Leeds eine Linie v o m
N o r d e n z u m S d e n , so sind die deaths on the east side of the line = 1:24
(wo die r m r e n Klassen wohnen), in d e m a n d r e n Theil = 1:36. Beide ratios
high, the average mortality of E n g l a n d being only about 1:48. (15) In Bir-
20 m i n g h a m leben 49,016 persons in courts narrow, filthy, illventilated u n d
badly drained. D i e police returns show 122 m e n d i c a n t s ' lodging houses,
252 Irish lodging houses, 314 i n h a b i t e d by c o m m o n prostitutes, 81 h o u s e s
noted als D i e b s w a a r e n h e h l e r r u m e u n d 228 als Resort fr thieves. (I.e.)
Scotch destitution has g o n e a step b e y o n d english, a n d arrived, like that of
25 Ireland, at a point at which all other evils are swallowed up in t h e u r g e n t
a n d everpresent danger of literal d e a t h from starvation. (17 Note) in W h i t e -
chapel, m i t a p o p u l a t i o n von 71,758 die average a n n u a l mortality is
= 1:26, a ratio as h i g h as t h a t of the m o s t u n g e s u n d e n Fabrikstadt. D i e
Durchschnittsmortality in d e n 4 districts von W h i t e c h a p e l , Bethnalgreen,
30 St. Giles, St. George, Southwark u n d Bermondsey, die z u s a m m e n eine p o p -
ulation von 281,264 der labouring, m a n u f a c t u r i n g u n d poorer classes ent-
halten, ist = 1:30 u n d in allen diesen Distrikts das typhus fever, t h e u n e r -
ring sign of social misery and degradation, is firmly established, a n d m a k e s
periodical ravages ... In d e m aristocratic parish of St. George's, H a n o v e r -
35 square die Sterblichkeitsrate = 1:51, u n d in d e n respectable districts of M a -
rylebone u n d St. Paneras = 1:49. (17)

49
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Extent of Destitution in large towns etc.


Condition of Handloom weavers and other classes
of unskilled manufacturing operatives.

In Liverpool, Glasgow, Manchester, Leeds u n d eastern parts von L o n d o n a


large proportion, in m a n y instances % der c o m m o n labouring population, 5
are compelled to live u n d e r circumstances w h i c h necessarily imply an ex-
t r e m e degree of suffering a n d degradation. ... In d e n agricultural districts
von Yorkshire, D u r h a m , N o r t h u m b e r l a n d , C u m b e r l a n d u n d W e s t m o r e -
land, die average n u m b e r of i n h a b i t a n t s von je 1000 who arrive at t h e age
of 70, is 204, in L o n d o n 104, in B i r m i n g h a m 8 1 , in Leeds 79, in Liverpool 10
u n d M a n c h e s t e r 63. I n L o n d o n u n d d e n Fabrikdistrikts die D u r c h s c h n i t t s -
sterblichkeit der K i n d e r u n t e r 5 J a h r e n fast doppelt als in d e n healthy rural
districts. (19, 20) Folgende analysis der p o p u l a t i o n of Leeds, given von R o -
bert Baker, Esq., in the Sanitary Reports, zeigt folgendes:

Persons having sedentary occupations 1,586 15


Persons having perambulatory occupations 967
Professions 292
Merchants 427
Persons working in mines 130
General outdoor labour and handicraft 3,988 20
Indoorlabour and handicraft 13,455
Dyers 665
In trade 2,799
Not in business 1,905
Persons under 15 years without occupations 31,056 25
Other persons without occupations 21,990
Persons employed in manufacture 8,363
Total 87,613. (20)
( c o n t i n u a t i o p. 21) |

50
Aus Edinburgh Review. Vol. 67. 1838

Ii8| Edinburgh Review, (vol. 67 April 1838)


Trades' Unions and Strikes.
The G o t h i c ages b e q u e a t h e d to m o d e r n E u r o p e a very peculiar organiza-
tion of the industrious ranks. T h e y were arranged over the whole of E u r o p e ,
into incorporations or G u i l d s , which were erected into legal incorporations
by Royal Charters, a n d were invested with a large proportion of t h e politi-
cal power, conceded in those t i m e s to t h e Burghs of the K i n g d o m . (211)
But with the gradual decay of the incorporated trades, the progressive cur-
tailing of their exclusive privileges, a n d the total merging of their political
influence sprangen auf die T r a d e s ' U n i o n s ... Mr H u m e ' s Act, passed in
1824, first gave t h e m t h e sanction of law. (212) Vor d e m C o m m i t t e e b e r
die c o m b i n a t i o n laws (1824) h e i t es von der evidence u. a.: "the evidence
a d d u c e d before this C o m m i t t e e proved that the C o m b i n a t i o n laws h a d
b e e n inefficient in repressing those associations of workmen, which h a d so
often dictated to their masters the rate of wages, t h e h o u r s a n d m a n n e r of
working. There was hardly a t r a d e in the three k i n g d o m s (the typefounders
in L o n d o n excepted) in which t h e j o u r n e y m e n were n o t regularly organ-
ized a n d were n o t prepared to assist with m o n e y , to a great extent, any
body of workmen, who chose to stand o u t against their employers. Of these,
the tailors were the best organized. It appeared that the whole body of
j o u r n e y m e n tailors is divided into two classes, d e n o m i n a t e d flints a n d
dungs; the former work by the day, and receive all equal wages; t h e latter
work generally by the piece. T h e r e are a n u m b e r of houses of call for the
flints, each of which elects a delegate; the delegates again elect five of their
n u m b e r s , called t h e town, who rule the whole trade with u n l i m i t e d power.
T h e whisper is spread a m o n g t h e b o d y that there is to be a strike; a n d , with-
out discussing the subject, they strike whenever they are ordered to do so."
(212, 13) T h e old Corporations were defensive Associations, by t h e masters

51
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

a n d w o r k m e n in particular trades, t a k e n as a whole, against the violence


a n d injustice of the feudal lords, or t h e arbitrary exactions of t h e Sover-
eign; die C o m b i n a t i o n s sind Union, or C o m b i n a t i o n of the w o r k m e n
against their masters. (213) (defensive c o m b i n a t i o n s , of the w o r k m e n
against their own employers. 214) they are p e r m a n e n t l y in operation, a n d 5
the fetters they impose, especially on the working class i m m e d i a t e l y below
the skilled operatives, are often galling a n d oppressive in the highest de-
gree. (214) Will der m a s t e r e i n e n w o r k m a n a n w e n d e n , der n i c h t zur Asso-
ciation gehrt, the whole c o m b i n e d w o r k m e n in his e m p l o y m e n t i m m e d i -
ately strike; a n d he is left with his new h a n d , in the m i d s t perhaps of s o m e 10
important operation. Till the obnoxious w o r k m a n is dismissed, no other
m e m b e r of the c o m b i n a t i o n is permitted to enter the master's e m p l o y m e n t .
(215) There are different gradations in these Associations, a m o u n t i n g
sometimes to 2, sometimes to 3 classes. There are the skilled workmen, a n d
the apprentices or beginners. In order to secure the m o n o p o l y of the skilled 15
part of trade, it is usually enacted by t h e ruling c o m m i t t e e , that no m a s t e r
shall employ m o r e t h a n a small proportion of apprentices to t h e skilled
workmen. In some trades, he is only p e r m i t t e d to employ o n e for 3 skilled
workmen, in some, one for four; in others, one for five. In all however, the
proportion of skilled to unskilled m u s t be very large. Will er nicht, so strike 20
verordnet. E b e n s o w e n n er d e n Trades' U n i o n s miliebige overseer oder
m a n a g e r anstellt. (215) Die ruling c o m m i t t e e s m a a s s e n sich a u c h an die
Z a h l der A r b e i t s s t u n d e n u n d die wages zu b e s t i m m e n . ... die colliers von
Lanarkshire, b e n u t z e n d die great d e m a n d for iron whrend der E i s e n b a h n -
m a n i e von 1835 u n d 1836, issued a m a n d a t e , t h a t no collier should work 25
m o r e t h a n 3 days, or 4, in the week, a n d at the u t m o s t 5 h o u r s in t h e day.
This order was implicitly obeyed by the whole of the c o m b i n e d colliers
a r o u n d Glasgow u n d n i c h t n u r von i h n e n , sondern von allen colliers in
Renfrewshire, D u m b a r t o n s h i r e u n d Stirlingshire, z u s a m m e n 2 - 3 0 0 0 . T h e
wages which the m e n were to get for working 1 2 - 1 5 S t u n d e n a week, wech- 30
selten von 30 zu 35 sh., according to the quantity of coals they p u t out. Die
coalmasters begnstigten das. Die coals von Glasgow stiegen von 8 s. 6 d.
zu 16 oder 17 sh. each t o n u n d dieser extravagante Prei d a u e r t e an
18 M o n t h s , die lezten 9 wovon, von J a n u a r - October 1837, was a period of
u n e x a m p l e d commercial and m a n u f a c t u r i n g distress. T r o t z d e m die 35
w o r k m e n stood out for the old rate of wages; u n d da die ironmasters auf |
|19| einer R e d u c t i o n bestanden, als der Prei ihres Products fiel M r z 1837
von 7 10 sh. auf 4 a ton, the greater part of t h e m struck work u n d con-
t i n u e d idle for about 5 m o n t h s , bis ihre funds erschpft u n d the whole
t u r n e d out coal in the country, even of the worst kinds having b e e n con- 40
sumed, m u t e n sie zu d e n rates der ironmasters arbeiten, which was,

52
Aus Edinburgh Review. Vol. 67. 1838

8 hours a day for 5 days a week, wozu a u c h die inferior h a n d s 5 u n d die


bessern 6 sh. tglich earn k o n n t e n . (216, 17) D i e u n i f o r m practice der c o m -
bined workmen, is, to fix a rate below which, n o t only no m e m b e r of t h e
u n i o n , b u t no person whatever, shall work to any m a s t e r ... the scale which
5 they generally adopt, is n o t so m u c h for every day, b u t in proportion to t h e
a m o u n t of work d o n e by the m e n . (217) n o b " heit der deserter, der U n -
gehorsame Arbeiter der U n i o n . (I.e.) A n o t h e r principle which is very gen-
erally acted u p o n by these U n i o n s , is, t h a t t h e m a s t e r is n o t allowed a
choice of workmen, if he requires to take in additional h a n d s . He is n o t
10 permitted to choose those w h o m he would prefer, b u t m u s t go to a certain
office, called a m o n g the tailors "a h o u s e of call," a n d there take t h e first
m a n who stands u p o n the list for e m p l o y m e n t . This principle is established
i n L o n d o n , Dublin, E d i n b u r g h a n d Glasgow, b o t h a m o n g tailors a n d m a n y
other trades. Its levelling a n d injurious effect etc ... T h e majority in all
15 trades almost always will be gainers by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s u c h a system of
rotation in e m p l o y m e n t . (217, 18) Um sich gegen d e n influx von new
h a n d s in ihren trades zu sichern very effectual m e t h o d s n m l i c h of
heavy restrictions u p o n the admission of any persons to the benefits of
their associations werden g e n o m m e n . (218) Lange apprenticeship ge-
20 wohnlich verlangt; w h r e n d der g a n z e n Zeit m u der apprentice pay a
stated contribution to t h e funds of the association. In vielen a u c h entry-
m o n e y zu zahlen by every apprentice or skilled h a n d , for admission, from
any distant quarter. Die Glasgow Spinners verlangten von entrants der lat-
ter description 5 I. Several trades h a b e n a u s s e r d e m a p e r m a n e n t system of
25 offering bounties to s u c h persons as will leave t h e trade and the country al-
together. T h e associated cottonspinners in the W e s t of Scotland h a v e a per-
m a n e n t b o u n t y of 10, which is offered to every person in the trade who
will emigrate to A m e r i c a ; a n d a standing reward of 5 payable to every idle
h a n d who will get o n e of the skilled h a n d s , any how, to leave his employ-
30 m e n t , or to " u n s h o p " h i m . ([218,] 219 Da sie d e n L o h n h h e r halten, str-
m e n natrlich h a n d s aus allen E c k e n in die privilegirten trades) W i r d m i t
N i e m a n d e m gearbeitet, der n i c h t seinen regulren Beitrag zahlt oder re-
fractory gegen die C o m m a n d s des C o m m i t t e e . W e n n er bei e i n e m m a s t e r
Arbeitet, sendet das C o m m i t t e e d i e s e m N o t i z i h n z u entlassen. W e n n
35 nicht, strike. (220) Erstens a weekly regular c o n t r i b u t i o n is levied from
every m e m b e r according to the rate of wages he receives. ... Das C o m m i t -
tee der Glasgow C o t t o n s p i n n e r s gab, whrend des latter part of 1836 u n d 4
ersten m o n t h s von 1837, 11,881 1. aus (220, 1) Secret oaths, which b i n d
them, 1) to keep secret the taking of the o a t h ; a n d 2) to obey in all m a t t e r s ,
40 legal or illegal, the will of the majority, as expressed by the ruling c o m m i t -
tee. (221) In der Eidformel, proved von d e m late Mr. R o b i n s o n , Sheriff of

53
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Lanarkshire, vor d e m C o m b i n a t i o n C o m m i t t e e des H o u s e of C o m m o n s


J u n e , 1825, wovon Huskisson C h a i r m a n war, heit es: "I etc swear, in the
awful presence of Almighty god a n d before these witnesses, that I will ex-
ecute etc every task or injunction which the majority of my brethren shall
i m p o s e u p o n me in furtherance of o u r c o m m o n welfare; as the chastise- 5
m e n t of n o b s , the assassination of oppressive a n d tyrannical masters, or t h e
d e m o l i t i o n of shops t h a t shall be d e e m e d incorrigible etc." (222) Sehr
wichtiger Effect dieser secret oaths u n d des sense entertained of their oblig-
atory n a t u r e , ist die ausserordentliche Leichtigkeit, womit, in trials wegen
M o r d etc, befohlen von der U n i o n , the defence of a l i b i , however false, is 10
successfully m a d e out. (223) Das lezte u n d H a u p t m i t t e l for m a i n t a i n i n g
the authority u n d enforcing the c o m m a n d s des ruling c o m m i t t e e , is tenor
and intimidation. (225) W e n n a strike Platz h a t u n d new h a n d s are at-
t e m p t e d to be introduced, werden guards r o u n d each mill stationirt, von
5 - 1 5 persons. "The guards' duty was to try to take out the new h a n d s who 15
were working at r e d u c e d rates, a n d to prevent others going in. T h e m e a n s
wereby advising, treating to drink, or assaulting. D i e guards were re-
lieved a b o u t the m i d d l e of the day by a n o t h e r party a n d at other t i m e s ; b u t
guards c o n t i n u e d from t h e earliest h o u r in the m o r n i n g till the work was
dismissed." (226) ||20| D i e Spinners' U n i o n s liessen in Glasgow d u r c h b e - 20
zahlte assassins e i n e n n o b u n d e i n e n F a b r i k a n t e n m o r d e n . Glessen von
Vitriol ins Gesicht. (230 sqq.) F e u e r a n l e g e n an F a b r i k e n . (233) Die grosse
Differenz zwischen d e m L o h n der spinners, colliers etc einerseits u n d d e n
besten Agriculturarbeitern u n d W e b e r n (hand) anderseits is quite impossi-
ble to explain ausser d u r c h d e n effect of m o n o p o l y p r o d u c e d by conspir- 25
acy. (235) W h e n an insulated strike occurs in a single factory, the w o r k m e n
are generally victorious. ... they are supported by contributions from the
whole associated trade, whereas the m a s t e r is left to his own resources.
(236, 37) Bei general strikes dagegen die m a s t e r s Sieger. (I.e.) D e r Liberator
v o m 1 Februar, 1834, das great organ der Trades' U n i o n s in Scotland, sagt: 30
"Theirs will n o t be insurrection; it will be simply passive resistance. T h e
m e n m a y r e m a i n at leisure; there is, and can be, no law to c o m p e l t h e m to
work against their will. T h e y m a y walk the streets or fields with their a r m s
folded, they will wear no swords, carry no m u s k e t s , assemble no train of ar-
tillery, seize u p o n no fortified places. They will present no c o l u m n for an 35
a r m y to attack, no m u l t i t u d e for the Riot Act to disperse. They merely ab-
stain, w h e n their funds are sufficient, from going to work for o n e week, or
o n e m o n t h , through the 3 kingdoms. A n d what h a p p e n s in c o n s e q u e n c e ?
Bills are dishonoured, the G a z e t t e teems with bankruptcies, capital is de-
stroyed, the revenue fails, the system of G o v e r n m e n t falls into confusion, 40
a n d every link in the c h a i n which b i n d s society together is broken in a

54
Aus Edinburgh Review. Vol. 67. 1838

m a n n e r by this inert conspiracy of t h e p o o r against t h e rich." (237, 8) D i e


so v o m Liberator e m p f o h l n e n principles in Praxis gesezt u n d der west of
Scotland convulsed with a series of strikes in m a n y skilled trades, b e s o n -
ders die calico-printers, J a n u a r 1834, which lasted 9 m o n t h s . (238) V o n
5 1 8 2 2 - 1 8 3 7 , u n d e r t h e alternations of extravagantly high wages a n d total
destitution, steht die m o r a l u n d vital statistics der Bevlkerung v o n G l a s -
gow wie folgt:

Population has increased von 151,000 zu 253,000


oder a b o u t 66 %
10 Serious crime gewachsen von 98 auf 392 400 d t o
Fever von 229 zu 3,680 oder 1,600 d t o
Deaths von 3,690 zu 10,888 oder 300 dto
Consumption of spirits gewachsen um 500 %
Chance of life decreased von 1:40 auf 1:24 oder 44 %. (247)

15 T h e rapid and now u n p r e c e d e n t e d application of s t e a m to weaving in t h e


steam-power looms, w h i c h h a s superseded within these ten years to such an
extent t h e u s e of h u m a n l a b o u r ... is in a great m e a s u r e to be ascribed to
the strength of t h e U n i o n s a m o n g t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s there e m p l o y e d ; a n d
the harassing repetition of t h e strikes which took place 12 or 15 years ago
20 a m o n g t h e w o r k m e n . (254) G r a n t i n g to t h e T r a d e s ' - U n i o n s their favourite
position, that the wages of skilled labour have b e e n raised by the effects of
c o m b i n a t i o n , w h a t effect m u s t that have h a d u p o n the r e m u n e r a t i o n of
unskilled labour? ... T h e class of unskilled labourers is, in every country,
5 zahlreicher als die der skilled u n d viel m e h r der oppression ausgesezt;
25 because the persons c o m p o s i n g it are, from their extent a n d scattered posi
tion, incapable of c o m b i n i n g , a n d from t h e short instruction requisite to
enable any o n e to engage in t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t , the m o s t exposed to exten
sive a n d depressing c o m p e t i t i o n . Wir h r e n n i e von C o m b i n a t i o n s u n d
strikes u n t e r d e n ordinary or unskilled operatives. W i r h r e n bestndig v o n
30 c o m b i n a t i o n s u n t e r d e n p o w e r l o o m weavers, tenters, cottonspinners, col-
liers, m i n e r s , ironfounders, engineers, tailors, bakers u.d.g. aber n i e v o n
solchen u n t e r daylabourers, h o d m e n , p l o u g h m e n , carders, reelers, piecers,
pickers, or others engaged in such inferior e m p l o y m e n t s ; n o r it is possible
that such c o m b i n a t i o n s ever c a n exist. W h a t t h e n are T r a d e s ' U n i o n s ,
35 taken in the m o s t favourable p o i n t of view, . . . b u t monopolies of skilled
against unskilled labour? a n d m u s t n o t any forced elevation of t h e wages of
the former produce an u n d u e depression in t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n of the lat-
ter? ... By forcibly elevating at t i m e s the wages of t h e skilled classes, they
have compelled t h e m a s t e r s to depress t h e wages of t h e m o r e n u m e r o u s u n -
40 skilled class of persons in their e m p l o y m e n t ; by debarring industry in gen-

55
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

eral an access to t h e skilled trades, except u n d e r very heavy restrictions,


they have | | 2 1 | thrown a vast m u l t i t u d e of their fellow w o r k m e n back u p o n
the unskilled d e p a r t m e n t s . (256, 7)
M a n sieht aus Mr. Fielden's tables, published 1833, d a die wages of
handloomweavers u n d prices of wheat u n d oats seit 1815, have stood as fol- 5
lows:

Wages per piece Wheat per qr Oats per qr


to handloomweavers
1815 4 sh. 6 d. 63 s. 8 d. 22 sh. 11 d.
1824 2 s. 3 62 s. 24 s. 1 10
1831 Is. 4 66 sh. 25 s. 4
1832 Is. 6 61 sh. 24.

So der L o h n der handloomweavers um % gefallen seit 1815. Sie sind at


the starving point. Diese deplorable r e d u c t i o n fand Statt w h r e n d cotton-
spinners von 2 5 - 3 5 sh. u n d colliers von 30 to 40 sh. a week m a c h t e n . D i e 15
W e b e r dagegen 6 - 1 0 s. (258) D a r a n sollen n u n natrlich die combina-
tions Schuld sein.
/

56
Aus Westminster Review. Vol. 37. 1842

|23| Westminster Review. (1842) vol. 37.


Industry and its reward in Great Britain
and Ireland.
An agricultural labourer, who toils 12 a n d s o m e t i m e s 14, h o u r s per day
5 in cold, rain, frost, sun, fogalternately frozen, bleached, a n d
drenched, earns for his week's labour, for the support of himself, his wife,
and his four y o u n g children the wretched pittance of 12 shillings ... these
12 sh. are expended, wie folgt:

s. d.
10 Rent 2
Flour 5
Wood or coals 1 2
Cheese 0 7
Tea 0 7
15 Potatoes 0 10
Sugar 0 7
Bacon 0 8
Candles and Soap 0 7
12 0

20 no butter, no milk, no meat, no red herrings even, no clothing, no m e d i c i n e


for the children, no shoes or boots, no provision p u t by for the t i m e s when
the h u s b a n d m a y be u n a b l e to work from sickness or accident; a n d yet the
12 sh. are G o n e . Yes, G o n e ; a n d in what? In insufficient food for the
body. We visited lately 50 of s u c h cases. T h e r e are 500,000 m o r e to be
25 looked to, and 500,000 m o r e b e y o n d t h e m . So here is a p o p u l a t i o n a n d in
some of our best districts, existing on bread, potatoes, from year's e n d to
year's end, b u t 2 o u n c e s of tea a n d a p o u n d of moist sugar for h u s b a n d ,
a n d wife, a n d 4 children for a whole week; a n d this n o r m a l state is viewed

57
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

not only without horror, b u t even with a sort of complacency. (219) T h e r e


is no step, but simply a hair's breadth, between t h e c o n d i t i o n of our agri-
cultural labourers a n d p a u p e r i s m ... 12 sh. sind brigens ein M a x i m u m
which it would be impossible for us to sustain, threshers e r h a l t e n selten
weniger u n d oft m e h r , aber die wages of p l o u g h m e n u n d waggoners sind 5
sehr inferior ... if English agricultural labour could now be averaged, it
would not a m o u n t to m o r e t h a n 10 s. 6 d. per family, i.e. for the support of
a m a n , his wife, a n d 3 or 4 small children. (222, 3) T h e cottagers of Eng-
land ... are m e l a n c h o l y a n d mournful. T h e voice of singing is never h e a r d
within their walls. Their u n h a p p y i n m a t e s vegetate on potatoes a n d h a r d 10
d u m p l i n g s , and keep themselves warm with hot water p o u r e d over o n e
small teaspoonful of tea, which barely colours t h e water a n d w h i c h is ad-
m i n i s t e r e d to the fretful children by their a n x i o u s and impoverished par-
ents. ... They are ground down by iron a n d searching poverty, a n d their
meals are neither nutritive in quality n o r a d e q u a t e in solid a m o u n t . 15
(226)

58
Aus Westminster Review. Vol. 38. 1842

vol. 38 (1842) First Report of the


Children's Employment Commissioners: Mines
and Collieries. Presented to both Houses
of Parliament etc April 21,1842.
5 (Unter young p e r s o n s " versteht der Factories A c t b e r die childhood, aber
u n t e r 18 Jahren.) [88] D i e coal u n d iron m i n e s geben das chief employ-
m e n t fr K i n d e r u n d y o u n g persons u n d e r g r o u n d . ([90,] 91) U n d e r the
competition which exists a m o n g the coal owners a n d coal proprietors in
each district for the supply of their several markets, no m o r e outlay is in-
10 curred t h a n is sufficient to overcome the most obvious physical difficulties;
and u n d e r that which prevails a m o n g the labouring colliers, who are ordi-
narily m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n the work to be d o n e requires, a large a m o u n t of
danger a n d of exposure to the m o s t n o x i o u s influences will gladly be en-
countered for wages a little in advance of those of the agricultural popula-
15 tion a r o u n d t h e m , in an occupation, in which they can moreover m a k e a
profitable use of their children. This double competition is certainly n o t so
great as in m a n y other b r a n c h e s of industry, b u t it is quite sufficient to
cause a large proportion of the pits to be worked with the m o s t imperfect
drainage a n d ventilation; often with illconstructed shafts, bad gearing, in-
20 competent engineers, a n d illconstructed a n d illpropped bays a n d roadways;
causing a destruction of life, a n d limb, a n d health, the statistics of w h i c h
would present an appalling picture. (102) Bei den Arbeitern, speziell a u c h
den K i n d e r n u n d j u n g e n Leuten, Effects of Overworking, Extraordinary
muscular Development, Stunted Growth, Crippled Gait, Irritation of the
25 Head, Back etc. (134) D i e bergrosse m u s c u l a r exertion in der K i n d h e i t
(bei den colliers) producirt a preternatural m u s c u l a r development. S u c h a
disproportionate m u s c u l a r development, instead of being an i n d i c a t i o n of

59
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

s o u n d a n d robust health, is really a proof t h a t the general system is starved


by the overnourishment of this o n e particular part of it; and that the system
is weakened, not strengthened, by this u n d u e e x p e n d i t u r e of its n u t r i m e n t
u p o n t h e muscles, is shown by the evidence now collected, which proves in-
dubitably that the body in general is stunted in its growth, ... peculiarly 5
p r o n e to disease, u n d that it p r e m a t u r e l y decays and perishes. ... in the
coal m i n e s die A n w e n d u n g der K i n d e r protracts the period of childhood,
shortens the period of m a n h o o d , a n d anticipates the period of old age, de-
crepitude, a n d death. (134) Viel besser stehts in d e n m i n e s of tin, copper,
lead u n d zinc, wo das e m p l o y m e n t ganz anders. (135) | 10
|24| T h e e m p l o y m e n t of t h e adult colliers is almost exclusively in t h e
"getting" of the coal from its n a t u r a l resting place, of which there are vari-
ous m e t h o d s , according to the n a t u r e of the seams a n d the habits of t h e
several districts. T h a t of the children a n d y o u n g persons consists princi-
pally either in t e n d i n g the air doors where the coal carriages m u s t pass 15
t h r o u g h openings the i m m e d i a t e l y s u b s e q u e n t stoppage of which is neces-
sary to preserve the ventilation in its proper channels, or in the conveyance
of the coal from the bays or recesses in which it is hewn, along the subterra-
n e a n roadways, to the b o t t o m of the pit shaft; a distance varying from abso-
lute contiguity even to miles in the great coalfield of the n o r t h of England, 20
where the depth requires that the same expensive shaft shall serve for the
excavation of a large tract of coal. (107) Startling as t h e fact m a y appear, it
is into the pits, which "never can be worked without inflicting great a n d
irreparable injury on the health of children," that children are t a k e n at the
earliest ages, if only to be used as living a n d moving candlesticks, or to 25
keep rats from a dinner; a n d it is in pits of this worst character, too, in
which female children are employed. (I.e.)
1

60
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fortsetzung)

/ 2 1 / Laing. contin. von p. 17.


So in der grossen M a n u f a c t u r s t a d t Leeds betrchtlich m e h r als % der gan-
zen adult p o p u l a t i o n h a t no regular occupation. W o v o n leben sie? V o n oc-
casional jobwork, by sending their children to factories or into the streets to
5 beg, by hawking petty articles for sale, by casual charityespecially of
those who are only o n e degree better off t h a n themselves. W i t h such re-
sources, can we w o n d e r t h a t no cellar or lodginghouse is too u n h e a l t h y or
disgusting to fail in finding nightly its 20 or 30 occupants? Can we wonder
that pilfering a n d prostitution are habitually resorted to as a m e a n s of ek-
10 ing out a wretched existence? (20, 21) A n d r e s remarkable result ist die ex-
tremely small n u m b e r of persons, die direkt in manufactures verwandt
sind, selbst in d e n Stdten, die m a n als exclusively m a n u f a c t u r i n g betrach-
tet. Dasselbe zeigt sich b e i allen principal seats of m a n u f a c t u r e . In G l a s -
gow, m i t 250,000 Einwohner, n u r 29,287 direkt oder indirekt c o n n e c t e d
15 m i t der cotton m a n u f a c t u r e , u n d in all the factories of every description,
n u r 5,585 m a l e s employed. (20 N o t e ) Mr. S y m o n d s u n d Captain Miller, in
their a c c o u n t of the wynds of Glasgow, state ausdrcklich da der grre
Theil der Bevlkerung, an 30,000 persons, have no visible m e a n s of support
ausser plunder u n d prostitution". In M a n c h e s t e r giebt Dr Kay a similar
20 description of a large district; u n d in Liverpool wenigstens % der g a n z e n
Bevlkerung vertheilt between the cellars and lodging houses. In Liverpool
(Parliamentary Tables of Population, 1841) zeigen die Police returns (in
Paris 3800 regular prostitutes, 8000 thieves, swindlers etc, 1500 vagabonds,
243 low lodging houses) 212 m e n d i c a n t s ' lodging houses, 591 brothels,
25 2404 prostitutes, 5007 thieves a n d suspected characters known to the po-
lice. B i r m i n g h a m , wie gesehn, 374 lodging houses devoted to the reception
der loose population of Irish and m e n d i c a n t s u n d 228 houses b e k a n n t als
die resorts of thieves etc. These facts s c h e i n e n zu beweisen, t h a t a large
proportion of the dense masses of p o p u l a t i o n crowded together in the low

61
Exzerpte aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress.
Heft XI. Seite 21
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

districts of our large towns have absolutely no regular u n d recognised occu-


pations, and live, as it were, as outlaws u p o n society. (21, 2) D i e m a n n e r ,
worin diese Klasse bestndig recrutirt u n d vermehrt wird will be only too
apparent, w e n n m a n erforscht die Lage der n u m e r o u s classes i m m e d i a t e l y
above t h e m in the social scale, who earn an existence by c o m m o n a n d 5
comparatively unskilled labour. Am lowest in dieser class s t e h n die hand-
loom weavers. D i e n u m b e r of persons, including their families, d e p e n d e n t
on handloomweaving for existence, ist geschzt von d e m C o m m i t t e e von
1835 auf 840,000 u n d in d e m report der h a n d l o o m weavers' c o m m i s s i o n -
ers, publicirt 1841, auf b e r 800,000. 30 oder 40 J a h r e vorher diese Klasse 10
an der Spitze der british operatives in a m o u n t of earnings, intelligence, ed-
u c a t i o n u n d general respectability. (22) D e r folgende a c c o u n t of wages be-
zahlt 1839 u n d 1840 to the cotton weavers von Lancashire u n d Glasgow:
Ashton-under-Lyne-District: H e a d s of family visited 483, N u m b e r of per-
sons employed 813, N u m b e r of looms idle 213, n u m b e r of persons d e p e n d - 15
ent on the earnings of those employed 1955, average per family per week
4 s. 11 d.
Zu Huddersfield der average von 402 weavers, m a i n t a i n i n g 1655 per-
sons, 5 s. 6% d. per week, or 2 d. p e r day for each individual. Zu W i g a n
der average von 113 persons employed 3 s. 11 d. a week for each. (22) | 20
|22| In Schottland folgende Tafel gegeben von Symonds, the first class being
the average net a m o u n t of wages earned by adult skilled artisans on the fin-
est fabrics; the second, the a m o u n t e a r n e d by less skilled a n d younger arti-
sans:

Fabrics Chief Place Number Clear ws;ekly Wages 25


of Manufacture of Looms 1 Class 2 Class
s. d. s. d.
Pullicates,
Ginghams etc Glasgow und Lanarkshire 18,420 7 4 6
Shawls etc Paisley und Renfrewshire 7,750 10 6 6 30
Plain muslins Glasgow, Lanarkshire etc 10,080 7 6 4 6
Fancy muslins,
silk gauzes etc Paisley und Glasgow 7,860 9 6 6
Thibets und tartans Glasgow und Howiek 2,980 7 5 6

Die n u m b e r of families corresponding to this n u m b e r of looms geschzt 35


auf 26,160; ergiebt, 4 per family. 104,640 individuals u n d n a c h S y m o n d s %
der g a n z e n Z a h l der weavers belong to the second class of wages. (23) Als
Durchschnittswages der M e h r z a h l der Scottish weavers, giebt S y m o n d s fr
M a n n , W e i b u n d 5 children 16 s. 2 d., fr m a n , wife u n d 2 children 7 s.
l i d . E x t r e m e cases wo families von 7 persons n u r earn 7 s . 2 d. per week 40
oder i s . 3 - 7 d . per person. T o earn these wages, die Durchschnittsarbeits-

62
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fortsetzung)

s t u n d e n sind 70 per week. (23) Fletcher schzt die earnings der r i b b o n


weavers of Coventry u n d der Nachbarschaft auf 5 sh. a week; die der best
employed linenweavers of Yorkshire, during a period of comparative pros-
perity, n a c h d e n n t h i g e n d e d u c t i o n s fr winding, dressing etc auf 5 s. 6 d.
5 for a m a n ' s earnings, wchentlich, u n d weniger als half d e n Betrag fr boys
a n d girls. In d e m D u n d e e d i s t r i c t die highest earnings von ablebodied lin-
enweavers n i c h t b e r 7 s. 6 d. a week. In d e n finer descriptions der woollen
u n d silk fabrics u n d b e r h a u p t wo besondrer skill oder strength, oder
beides z u s a m m e n erfrderlich, der rate of wages betrchtlich hher, a b e r
10 die trifft n u r small proportion der total n u m b e r of handloomweavers u n d
selbst m i t dieser n o m i n e l l h o h e n rate of wages oft m e h r als compensirt by
the extreme inconstancy of t h e e m p l o y m e n t . ([23,] 24) D i e obigen wages
n o c h zu hoch, um die actual c o n d i t i o n der weaving p o p u l a t i o n zu beur-
theilen. Sehr grosse irregularity of e m p l o y m e n t , die slightest fluctuation in
15 c o m m e r c e never fails to throw m u l t i t u d e s of looms o u t of work. ... A u f d e n
average of m a n y years der W e b e r m i n d e s t e n s % der g a n z e n Zeit ausser Be-
schftigung. Selbst, w e n n in full work, Zeitverlust in changing fabrics on
the loom, a n d going to the m a n u f a c t u r e r for work etc, which, we are told,
a m o u n t s , on the very lowest average, to 1 week in 8. Taking the average
20 rate of earnings, n a c h d e n n o t h w e n d i g e n deductions, evident da der bulk
der Bevlkerung von 800,000 d e p e n d i n g on handloomweaving m u s t exist,
u n t e r den gnstigsten U m s t n d e n , in a state of extreme destitution. (I.e.)
Die class der h a n d - l o o m weavers constituirt %, at least, of the adult m a l e
manufacturing p o p u l a t i o n . ([25,] 26) N a c h Baines, acceptirt von M a c C u l -
25 loch folgende Liste, wo die wages n o c h zu h o c h angegeben:

Estimate of the number and wages of different classes


of Operatives employed in the Cotton Manufacture.
No. of Operatives Average weekly wages
s. d.
30 237,000 engaged in spinning and
powerloom weaving 10
250,000 handloom weavers 7
159,300 lace workers 2 5
45,000 calico printers 10
35 33,000 makers of cotton hosiery 6

M a n sieht hier, d a wenig b r a n c h e s der c o t t o n m a n u f a c t u r e der l a b o u r a


sufficient r e m u n e r a t i o n gaben. Die R e t u r n s der Factory C o m m i s s i o n e r s |
/ 2 4 / zeigen, da von 220,134 in d e n cottonfactories beschftigten P e r s o n e n
n u r 58,053 oder about % des G a n z e n were males b e r 18 J a h r e . (26) (Fer-
40 n e r sieht m a n a u s d e m F a c t o r y C o m m i s s i o n e r s ' R e p o r t v o n 1841: d a

65
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

von 424,209 operatives angewandt in der cotton, wool, worsted, flax u n d


silk n u r 96,752 oder weniger als 2 3 % des G a n z e n males b e r 18 J a h r e wa-
r e n ; 130,218 waren females b e r 18 u n d 114,603 females u n t e r 18.) (I.e.)
A u f die comparativ kleine Z a h l von spinners, carders, powerloom weavers,
engineers, overlookers u n d einige few der best paid calico printers, b o b b i - 5
n e t m a k e r etc ist die assertion zu b e s c h r n k e n , d a in an ordinary state of
t r a d e " die in der c o t t o n m a n u f a c t u r e beschftigten operatives b e r die c o m -
forts etc zu gebieten h a b e n . (27) Dasselbe gilt fr die woollen, l i n e n u n d
silk m a n u f a c t u r e s . F o l g e n d e s m a y be t a k e n as a fair a n d impartial general
s t a t e m e n t of the c o n d i t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of a b o u t 2% millions, who ap- io
pear from t h e r e t u r n s to derive their subsistence directly from M a n u f a c -
tures, u n d e r ordinary c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a n d in an average state of t r a d e :
A b o u t % plunged in e x t r e m e misery, and hovering on t h e verge of actual
starvation; a n o t h e r %, or m o r e , earning an i n c o m e s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n
t h a t of the c o m m o n agricultural labourer, b u t u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s very 15
prejudicial to health, morality, a n d d o m e s t i c comfort, viz, by t h e l a b o u r of
y o u n g children, girls, and m o t h e r s of families, in crowded factories; and, fi-
nally, )/ earning high wages, amply sufficient to support t h e m in respecta-
3

bility u n d comfort. (27) D i e der state of things u n d e r ordinary circum-


stances. (I.e.) 20

Condition of the Class of Agricultural Labourers.

N a c h d e m lezten Census die Z a h l der a d u l t m a l e labourers (Agrikultur) i n


G r e a t Britain 887,167; m i t ihren families, a p o p u l a t i o n of 3,500,000 o d e r
a b o u t y der g a n z e n Bevlkerung u n d % m e h r als die p o p u l a t i o n der labour-
s

ers directly employed in m a n u f a c t u r e s . In E n g l a n d im A l l g e m e i n e n die ag- 25


ricultural labourers sind daylabourers, hired by the week or j o b , m e i s t by
week, possessing no property, a n d living in r e n t e d cottages. D e r rate of
wages earned by an ablebodied labourer wechselt von 8 zu 12 sh. a week
u n d im D u r c h s c h n i t t 9 oder 10 sh. D i e u s u a l r e n t der cottages ist von 3 zu
5 /. a year. T h e extra earnings einer family w h r e n d Herbstzeit etc m a y 30
a m o u n t von 4 I. 10 s. zu 6 I. 10 s., w h i c h m a y be set against t h e rent of t h e
cottage, fuel etc, obgleich in m a n c h e n T h e i l e n E n g l a n d s this source of
earnings sehr reducirt w o r d e n ist d u r c h d e n influx von irish labourers. (28,
29) In . C. Tuffneil, Esq, Assistant P o o r law Commissioner, Sanitary R e
ports, v . I p. 37 h e i t s : im workhouse, where strict e c o n o m y is studied, a n d 35
where we are constantly told that we give t h e i n m a t e s too little to eat, it is
well k n o w n that a m a n , his wife a n d 5 children, c a n n o t usually be kept u n -
der 11, per week u n d d a b e i n i c h t s g e r e c h n e t fr h o u s e r e n t ; u n d all t h e arti-

66
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fortsetzung)

cles required, being purchased in large contracts, are obtained 2 0 % u n d e r


the shop prices. In A n b e t r a c h t dieses solche family ausser d e m workhouse
m i t denselben comforts n u r zu erhalten zu 25 sh. a week, which is m o r e
t h a n double the general agricultural weekly wages in England. (29) Fol-
5 gendes ist die actual weekly e x p e n d i t u r e eines labouring m a n , m i t 1 wife
a n d 6 children, in M a r c h , 1841, given von Tuffnell, which will afford a fair
average view of the m a n n e r of living der agricultural p o p u l a t i o n der south-
ern u n d m i d l a n d c o u n t i e s of E n g l a n d :

s. d.
10 6 gallons of flour 8
yeast 3
1 lb. of meat
and Y lb of suet
4 8
l i b of butter 1 0
15 1 lb of cheese 0 6
Y lb of candles
2 0 3
% lb of soap 0 3
Potatoes 1
Worsted, starch,
20 cotton, and tape 3
Zusammen 12 sh. 3 d. (30)
D i e lt nichts fr rent, clothing, e d u c a t i o n . Offenbar d a any suspen-
sion der Beschftigung, rise in the price of provisions, or unforeseen casu-
alty, m u s t of necessity compel t h e m to resort to charity, or to descend to a
25 coarser diet, and exchange the habits of an english for those of an Irish
peasant. (30) |
|25| Der englische Agriculturarbeiter h a s no c h a n c e of rising in the world
aber sehr viele of falling. (31) H a t er Pech, so wird er Pauper oder he will be
starved out of the country into s o m e large town, a n d absorbed in the float-
30 ing population who t e n a n t the cellars a n d lodging houses, a n d live by the
worstpaid description of m a n u f a c t u r i n g industry, or by thieving, prostitu-
tion, and casual e m p l o y m e n t . Let it always be r e m e m b e r e d , that w h e n we
read in Poorlaw Reports, a n d Treatises on Political E c o n o m y , of l a b o u r be-
ing absorbed, a n d distress disappearing by refusing relief, this is, in 9 cases
35 out of 10, what the thing practically m e a n s . (31) T h e t e n a n t s at will, i.e. die
Highland peasantry are often driven out in great n u m b e r s , a n d sent in
u p o n the large cities u n d speziell Glasgow (wo 20,000 poor Highlanders)
where their condition is m o s t miserable; they are particularly subject to the
worst diseases on c o m i n g to a city - besonders fever u n d small-pox. (33)
40 W e n n der general rate des increase der Bevlkerung u n i f o r m gewesen
wre u n d n i c h t migration von e i n e m district in d e n a n d e r n in search of
subsistence, the p o p u l a t i o n der m e h r agricultural counties wrde grsser

67
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

gewesen sein als sie ist (1842) in E n g l a n d u n d Wales um 289,487, in


Schottland um 60,512. (34) Diese results werden bewiesen d u r c h d e n fact,
da in Schottland, wo keine poorlaws, der proportionate rate of increase zu
G u n s t e n der m a n u f a c t u r i n g counties h a d b e e n double t h a t i n England.
O h n e Armengesetz in E n g l a n d w r d e es sich hier ebenso verhalten ... the 5
bulk of the aged, infirm u n d destitute ... in Scotland wurden starved into
the large towns. In Glasgow n i c h t 15 % der in die Hauptfieberhospitler Z u -
gelanen waren natives der town; 40 % von d e n H i g h l a n d s u n d agricultu-
raldistricts of Scotland; 65 % der individuals zugelassen in das H o u s e of
Refuge zu E d i n b u r g h sind n i c h t natives der town. In D u n d e e von 944 p a u - 10
pers, n u r 344 natives der town; u n d in A b e r d e e n n u r 420 aus 1517. (Dr Ali-
son, J o u r n a l of Statistical Society of L o n d o n , for year 1840, p. 214.)
In Schottland die Lage des Agricultural labourer wesentlich verschieden
von der same class in England. F o l g e n d e Aussage von a practical witness:
(Report of the C o m m i t t e e on Agriculture, 1836, p. 218): Servants are en- 15
gaged half yearly. U n m a r r i e d p l o u g h m e n have from 5 I. to 6 I. 10 s., with
two pecks of o a t m e a l weekly, a n d an allowance of milk a n d potatoes, with
lodging and fuel generally in a bothie, i.e., a h o u s e attached n e a r to the
steading, where they all live together and m a k e their @wn food. O t h e r u n -
married labourers get 4 I. 10 s. to 5 I. half yearly. Married m e n s e r v a n t s are 20
engaged by the year; they generally get a h o u s e a n d garden, a n d m a i n t e -
n a n c e for a cow, a n d a b o u t 8 I. of wages, 6% bolls of oatmeal, a n d an allow-
ance of potatoes, or ground for raising them, with a few barrels of coals or
brushwood for fuel. F a r m l a b o u r e r s by t h e day get about 1 s. 3 d. in winter;
in s u m m e r 1 s. 8 d. to 2 s. (34) D i e das frher u s u a l system in Schottland 25
u n d n o c h in m a n y districts vorherrschend. Diese class natrlich viel besser
dran als die englische. Sicher respectable etc. A b e r there is too m u c h rea-
son, to fear that this class, the pride of Scotland ... ist fast disappearing.
D i e oben beschriebnen conditions, of late years, sehr generally infringed,
z u m N a c h t h e i l der weaker party. In m a n y counties das privilege of keeping 30
a cow entzogen u n d selbst die allowance of milk substituted for it has b e e n
discontinued as t r o u b l e s o m e and expensive. D i e Z a h l der m a r r i e d cottars
living on the farm sehr reducirt u n d das bothie-system, or e m p l o y m e n t of
u n m a r r i e d m e n living together in a bothie or hovel attached to the stead-
ing, sehr extended. ... a m o r e effective m e a n s of brutalising u n d demoralis- 35
ing a peasantry could n o t be devised, t h a n t h a t of crowding together a par-
cel of y o u n g m e n , half of t h e m perhaps strangers, Irish, or b a d characters,
in a hovel ... It is, in fact, transplanting the lodging h o u s e from the wynds
of Glasgow to the heart of the rural districts. Dieses eins der worst evils at-
t e n d e d der Einfhrung des large farmsystem. Das L a n d cultivirt m i t m e h r 40
skill u n d economy. M e h r p r o d u c e g e w o n n e n m i t less h a n d s . A b e r von der

68
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fortsetzung)

so aus Beschftigung geworfnen rural population, ein Theil in der o b e n b e -


schriebnen Weise in die great towns geworfen ins L u m p e n p r o l e t a r i a t u n d
to glut the m a r k e t of m a n u f a c t u r i n g labour; der andre gezwungen to accept
worse and worse terms, bis zulezt der standard of comfort u n d respectabil-
5 ity has b e e n b r o k e n down. ([35,] 36) U n t e r der agricultural p o p u l a t i o n von
Scotland aufzuzhlen die class of crofters, or peasants, living on a small
p a t c h of g r o u n d barely sufficient to employ their labour. This class n u m -
bers von 2 0 0 - 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 in d e n H i g h l a n d s u n d Hebrides, whose c o n d i t i o n in
keiner H i n s i c h t besser als die der rmsten Irlnder. (36) D e r reale Arbeits-
10 lohn gefallen. Beweis folgendes D o c u m e n t given by one of the assistant
poorlaw commissioners, being an actual a c c o u n t of t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h a
labourer's family, m i t 4 children, lived zwischen 50 u n d 60 years ago, on
the t h e n current wages of 6 s. a week: 4 gallons of flour at 6 d., = 2 s. 3 d.,
grinding, baking, a n d yeast 5 d., 7 p o u n d s of beef at 2 d. = 1 s. 5 d.,
15 2 p o u n d s of cheese oder 1 p o u n d of butter 6 d., o a t m e a l u n d salt
2% d., one oz. of tea 2 d., % p o u n d of sugar 3 d., firing (meist h e a t h turf, cut
free from the c o m m o n or wood) 3 d., candles 3 d., soap 3 d. (37) Vergleich
die mit der obigen e x p e n d i t u r e einer family in 1841. (I.e.)

Condition of classes of labouring population


20 employed in Mines, Fisheries, Canals, Railways etc.

N a c h den Population returns von 1831 sind 608,712 males, ber 20 J a h r e ,


employed as m i n e r s , quarriers, fishermen etc. N a c h M c C u l l o c h
240,000 persons direkt engagirt im irontrade, 150,000 im coal trade, 71,000
in d e n m i n e s of Cornwall u n d Devonshire u n d 8 000 in d e n saltmines von
25 Cheshire etc. ||26| D a z u gerechnet females u n d boys: population of a b o u t
1,200,000 persons d e p e n d i n g on m i n i n g industry. (Die Z a h l der m e n u n d
boys employed in british fisheries ungefhr 220,000) Mit A u s n a h m e des
e m p l o y m e n t of w o m e n u n d e r ground, u n d e r circumstances revolting to de-
cency a n d destructive of morality, a n d of children at too early an age,
30 scheint die Lage der m i n i n g class viel besser als die der agricultural u n d
manufacturing population. U s u a l rates of wages for m e n ber 18 J a h r e
werden von d e n Commissioners stated wie folgt: Staffordshire, coal u n d
iron works, 1 5 - 1 8 s. a week; Warwickshire, 18 sh. a week; Yorkshire
2 0 - 2 5 sh.; D u r h a m u n d N o r t h u m b e r l a n d 2 0 - 3 0 s.; Cornwall 4 0 - 6 5 s . per
35 m o n t h ; South Wales 2 5 - 6 0 s. a week; Lanarkshire 2 4 - 4 0 s. a week. D a z u
die labour aller boys von 9 - 1 0 J a h r e n available at a rate seldom lower als
die der handloomweaver ( 4 - 5 s. a week) which increases regularly zu 15
oder 20 s. a week by t h e t i m e the boy reaches 18, evident d a die p e c u n i a r y

69
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

m e a n s der most collier u n d m i n i n g families very a m p l e sind. D a s F o l g e n d e


gegeben as a fair average i n s t a n c e der earnings u n d e x p e n d i t u r e einer col-
lier family in d e m Tyne u n d W e a r district in 1841, by o n e of the c o m m i s -
sioners employed in the late inquiry:
Earnings per fortnight. s.
d. 5
Father, two weeks 2 4
Putter, one boy, 17 years of age 1 16 8
Driver, one boy, 12 dto 13 9
Trapper, one boy, 8 dto 9 12
5 3 7 10
Outlay per Fortnight. s. d.
Mutton 14 lb 8 9
Flour, 5 stone 13
Maslin, or mixed grain, 3 stone 7 6
Bacon 14 lb 9 4 15
Potatoes, % boll 2 3
Oatmeal 6
Butter 2 lb.; milk 3 d. per day 6
Coffee 1 lb 3
Tea % lb 1 6 20
Sugar, 3 lb 2
Candles 6%
Soap 1 8
Pepper, salt, mustard etc 6
Tobacco and beer ... 4 25
3 0 6

Shoes 9 s. per month 4 6


Clothes, flannels, stockings etc 17 6
Sundries 2 6
4 5 0. 30
C o n t r i b u t i o n to benefit fund, generally 1 s. 3 d. per m o n t h . R e n t u n d fuel
free. ([38,] 39) Invention of the hotblast, or use of h e a t e d air statt der cold
air, in the smelting of iron. Im Westen von Schottland in Folge dieser Erfin-
d u n g der Iron trade sehr rasch entwickelt. In J u n e , 1835, waren 29 furnaces
in blast in Scotland; M a y 1 8 4 1 : 68 in blast u n d 10 building. Properties, ein 35
p a a r J a h r e vorher n u r einige H u n d e r t e a year werth; now yield d e m pro-
prietor an 12,000 jhrlich. D i e Population der 2 parishes von Old u n d
N e w M o n k l a n d , wo die wichtigsten dieser works liegen, angewachsen von
19,447 in 1831 zu 40,193 in 1841. A b e r diese Bevlkerung zeigt d e m A u g e
n u r slavish labour u n i t e d to brutal i n t e m p e r a n c e . K i n d e r in rag u n d filth 40
etc. D i e domestic discomfort seems attributable u. a. d e m crowded state
der habitations, die, from the want of buildings ||27| to c o n t a i n the rapidly
increasing population, were filled with lodgers. In einigen H u s e r n , bei

70
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fortsetzung)

einer family m i t n u r 2 r o o m s , 14 single m e n als lodgers h e r e i n g e n o m m e n .


An infatuated love of m o n e y , for no p u r p o s e b u t to m i n i s t e r to a d e g r a d i n g
passion for a r d e n t spirits, s e e m s t h e allpervading motive for a c t i o n in this
quarter. (43) Die e c o n o m i c a l c o n d i t i o n der fishing p o p u l a t i o n beweist d a
5 der Besitz von E i g e n t h u m oder s o m e interest in property wesentlich to p r e -
serve the c o m m o n unskilled l a b o u r e r from falling into t h e c o n d i t i o n of a
piece of m a c h i n e r y , b o u g h t at t h e minimum m a r k e t price at w h i c h it c a n be
produced, d. h. at w h i c h labourers c a n be got to exist and propagate t h e i r
species, to which he is invariably r e d u c e d sooner or later, w h e n t h e inter-
10 ests of capital a n d labour are q u i t e distinct, a n d are left to adjust t h e m -
selves u n d e r t h e sole o p e r a t i o n of t h e law of supply a n d d e m a n d . ([45,] 46)
Die Z a h l der s e a m e n employed in navigating british vessels am 1 J a n u a r
1841 war 160,509, representing m i t i h r e n families, a considerable T h e i l der
Bevlkerung. Ihre c o n d i t i o n gut, i m Vergleich z u m b u l k der m a n u f a c t u r -
15 ing u n d agricultural p o p u l a t i o n , der u s u a l rate of wages being 3 1. a m o n t h ,
in addition to subsistence, a n d e m p l o y m e n t tolerably certain. (46)

Condition of Classes Superior to Common Labourers.

"employed in retail t r a d e or in handicraft, as masters or w o r k m e n . " Shop-


keepers, Schuster, Z i m m e r l e u t e , Handwerker m i t e i n e m Wort. Diese class,
20 n a c h der der agricultural labourers die most numerous single class in Eng-
land, n a c h d e n returns von 1831 einschliessend 1,159,863 m a l e s b e r
20 Jahre oder fast % der whole n u m b e r of m a l e s o f t h a t age u n d folglich re-
presenting % der g a n z e n Bevlkerung. Diese class, m i t d e n farmers, d e r e n
Z a h l 187,075 m a l e s b e r 2 0 u n d von einigen der best paid u n d m o s t re-
25 spectable operatives, b i l d e n die great m i d d l e class des L a n d e s . D i e lower
m e m b e r s dieser class, wie bricklayers, m a s o n s etc k a u m d a z u zu r e c h n e n .
Die whole division of handicraft or skilled labour n i m m t eine mittlere P o -
sition ein zwischen der c o m m o n labouring class u n d der der retail dealers.
I h r e wages generally good. 1 4 - 4 0 sh. wchentlich, m i t e m p l o y m e n t i m
30 D u r c h s c h n i t t von 11 m o n t h s jhrlich. (49) D i e g a n z e Z a h l der m a l e s b e r
20 Jahre, die zur Kapitalistenklasse gehren, ( a u c h professional a n d o t h e r
e d u c a t e d m e n ) betrug n a c h d e m Census von 1831 n i c h t b e r 214,390 o d e r
z4o der G e s a m m t b e v l k e r u n g . (50) D i e T o t a l z a h l der l a n d e d proprietors in
Schottland, worunter a r e n t a l of 5 Mill. I. St. vertheilt, ungefhr 7800, wo-
35 von m e h r als 6000 h a b e n properties worth less als 600 I. a year. (51) Im
G a n z e n k a n n m a n r e c h n e n die n u m b e r der m a l e s b e r 2 0 J a h r e gehrig z u
d e n capitalists (professional, l a n d e d gentry, m o n i e d m e n , a few literary
m e n ) 250,000 wovon % in easy c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d [0 o p u l e n t . D i e giebt

71
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

l
y der g a n z e n Bevlkerung belonging to t h e u p p e r or genteel class u n d / oo
20 2

zur aristocracy of r a n k u n d wealth. (51) T h e middleclass includes 1) die


m e m b e r s der lower b r a n c h e s der professions, literature, c o m m e r c e etc, who
form a sort of transition class b e t w e e n this a n d t h e upper. 2) shopkeepers
u n d retail t r a d e s m e n j e d e r Art. 3) farmers. 4) skilled artisans u n d h a n d i - 5
craftsmen of superior description. 5) c o m m o n handicraftsmen, or m e n liv-
ing by t h e exercise of a craft which requires s o m e apprenticeship, a n d c o m -
m a n d s wages decidedly superior to those of c o m m o n labour. T h e latter
class is a transition o n e between t h e m i d d l e a n d labouring classes. (I.e.)
D i e alles z u s a m m e n g e r e c h n e t beluft sich die Mittelklasse auf % - % der 10
g a n z e n Bevlkerung. (52) Die arbeitende Klasse besteht aus folgenden di-
visions, deren Z a h l e n u n d Proportions zur g a n z e n Bevlkerung b e r e c h n e t
sind n a c h d e n returns von 1 8 3 1 .

Proportion to Total numbers


total population at present 15
Agricultural labouring population 1.-3.7 5,000,000
Manufacturing ditto 1.-6.6 2,800,000
Mining, fishing, and labour
not agricultural 1.-6.6 2,800,000
Servants etc 1.-3.7 500,000 20
Total of population dependent on
ordinary labour 11,300,000(52)

Die Z a h l der m a l e servants j e d e r Art ist 144,188; of female servants


6 7 0 , 4 9 1 ; total 814,679, aber der b u l k of female servants schon eingeschlos-
sen in die families of agricultural u n d other labourers. N e h m e n wir zu d e n 25
11,300,000 n u n 1,000,000 fr die genteel p o p u l a t i o n u n d 4,650,000 fr die
middleclass im obigen Sinn, so h a b e n wir a b o u t 17 Mill. Bleiben 1,500,000
u n a c c o u n t e d for. 1,300,000 persons sind in d e m official r e t u r n fr 1 8 4 1 .
V o n diesen a large proportion will be i n c l u d e d in t h e p o p u l a t i o n returns,
u n d e r t h e h e a d of agricultural a n d other descriptions of labourers u n d their 30
families. Die n i c h t als labourers aufgefhrte class of paupers ist ||28| 1) die
receiving outdoor relief die ganz unfhig sind zu arbeiten, 2) Wittwen, de-
serted wives u n d their families; 3) a majority of those receiving i n d o o r r e -
lief. D i e n u m b e r dieser classes sind stated respectively wie 170,069;
165,267 u n d 159,118, was giebt a total of paupers not i n c l u d e d in die e n u - 35
m e r a t i o n of labourers von a b o u t half a million. Lt a residue von a b o u t a
m i l l i o n fr die criminal, destitute, u n d vagrant p o p u l a t i o n , die in d e n gro-
ssen S t d t e n als Pariah Caste existiren. (52) Sicher, if we estimate t h e class
u n t e r der lowest i n d e p e n d e n t labour, including paupers receiving relief,
criminals, prostitutes, vagrants u n d poor living m a i n l y on private charity, 40
zu 2 Mill, we should be far u n d e r t h e m a r k u n d 2,500,000 oder zwischen /
u n d $ der total p o p u l a t i o n m e h r correkt estimate. (53)

72
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fortsetzung)

Part II. Causes of Existing Distress.

Es ist etablirt d u r c h official evidence, d a eh die Factories R e g u l a t i o n bill


in Operation kam, folgender Stand der D i n g e existirte: 1) A n w e n d u n g von
K i n d e r n u n t e r 9 J a h r e n c o m m o n . 2) D e r average t e r m der Arbeit oft
5 14 S t u n d e n tglich, m a n c h m a l fortgesezt d u r c h die N a c h t u n d selbst
40 S t u n d e n n a c h e i n a n d e r , o h n e intermission. 3) D a h e r excessive a m o u n t
of labour oft extracted v o n d e n K i n d e r n d u r c h strenge Strafen, inflicted at
t h e discretion of reckless u n d irresponsible overseers. 4) K e i n e E r z i e h u n g .
5) no preservation of decency a m o n g a p r o m i s c u o u s assemblage of every
10 age u n d sex. 6) K e i n e Vorsorge fr die thrown out of e m p l o y m e n t by t h e
want of d e m a n d for a d u l t labour, or disabled in the service by a c c i d e n t or
illness. (61) D e r Z u s t a n d auf d e m country u n t e r d e n A c k e r b a u a r b e i t e r n
ging voran until t h e Swing riots in 1830 revealed to u s , by t h e light of
blazing cornstacks, that misery a n d black m u t i n o u s d i s c o n t e n t s m o u l d e r e d
15 quite as fiercely u n d e r t h e surface of agricultural as of m a n u f a c t u r i n g E n g -
land. (62) W i t h t h e m o r e practical intellect of E n g l a n d der U n g l a u b e an
spiritual things took t h e form of indifference to m o r a l influences, a n d a
hard m e c h a n i c a l way of thinking, which would recognise n o t h i n g as real
which was n o t tangible a n d material. (63) No good was ever yet d o n e by
20 wasting t i m e in vain regrets, by kicking against t h e pricks, a n d refusing to
accept accomplished facts. (I.e.)

Economical Causes of Existing Distress.


Population. Theory of Malthus.

1801 war die P o p u l a t i o n von G r e a t Britain 10,472,048; 1841 aber


25 18,664,761. Dieser rate of increase adds 260,000 souls jedes J a h r zu G r e a t
Britain u n d w e n n c o n t i n u e d at t h e s a m e rate, verdoppelt die Bevlkerung
in a b o u t 50 J a h r e n . (64) 1754 Irland was c o m p u t e d to c o n t a i n
2,372,634 Einwohner, 1791, 4,206,642 u n d e n t h l t n u n 8,205,382. So in
less als 90 J a h r e n fast vervierfacht u n d die exclusive seiner emigrations
30 n a c h England, Schottland, A m e r i c a , die sich zwischen 1801 u n d 1821 a u f
1,000,000 belief. Gleichzeitig 3 Mill, i m m e r an d e m verge des H u n g e r t o d e s
b e i der slightest failure der potatoe crop. U n d in Irland t h e p o p u l a t i o n in-
creases fastest grade in d e n m o s t distressed districts. . . In der Provinz
Leinster zwischen 1821 u n d 1831 der Z u w a c h s n u r 9%, in Ulster 14%, wh-
35 rend in C o n n a u g h t 22%. H i e r finden wir wieder Galway u n d M a y o , die
2 m o s t destitute counties, exhibiting die eine an increase of 27, die a n d r e

73
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

von 25 %. In M u n s t e r finden wir Clare, Kerry u n d Tipperary an der Spitze


der Liste. (66, 67) In Lancashire, der rate of increase, zwischen 1831 u n d
1841 ist 24,7%, in W e s t m o r e l a n d dagegen n u r 2,5 u n d in C u m b e r l a n d 4,8.
(67) N i e m a n d heirathet unvorsichtiger als die rmsten Weber, weil sie die
K i n d e r schon von d e m 6' J a h r an m i t z u m V e r d i e n e n b r a u c h e n ... Evi- 5
d e n c e a b o u n d s of the t e n d e n c y der m a n u f a c t u r i n g districts generally zu
improvident marriages, ebenso so in d e m m o s t wretched u n d degraded
T h e i l der Agriculturbevlkerung. (68) It is a m a t t e r of d e m o n s t r a t i o n , from
t h e genealogies of patrician families in various countries, that if the people
were all in easy circumstances the world would soon be depopulated. (69) Im D e - 10
p a r t e m e n t du N o r d , d e m focus der french destitution, wuchs die Bevlke-
r u n g von 1 8 2 6 - 1 8 3 6 von 962,848 zu 1,086,417 oder um 1 3 % , whrend der
general increase in F r a n c e w h r e n d derselben Periode n u r 5,2 %. (69) Mis-
ery, up to the extreme point of famine a n d pestilence, instead of checking,
tends to increase population. (69) In F r a n c e von 1 7 8 9 - 1 8 4 0 die Bevlkerung 15
n u r gewachsen um 40%, aber der n a t i o n a l wealth sich verfnffacht. (72) In
Irland: L a n d arable 5,389,040; pasture 6,736,240; wastes capable of i m -
p r o v e m e n t 4,900,000. Die Population zu 8 Mill, giebt 1 acres of culti-
vated u n d 2% acres of cultivable land per h e a d . In parts des C a n t o n of Z -
rich u n d des Pays-de-Vaud, wo die Lage der peasantry die beste in Europa, 20
ist der average nicht V/ acres per head. An acre of land producirt im
4

l
D u r c h s c h n i t t 2 / qr wheat u n d 1 qr ist j h r l i c h an a m p l e allowance fr j e d e
2

Person. In Great Britain sind ungefhr 1,500,000 horses, die c o n s u m e im


D u r c h s c h n i t t as m u c h grain as would support 8 m e n . E n g l a n d allein h a t
15,379,200 acres in pastures u n d supports seine present p o p u l a t i o n von 25
1 0 , 2 5 2 , 8 0 0 a r a b l e a c r e s . ([72,] 73) W e n n England h e u t e i n small prop-
erties zu parzelliren, wie Frankreich, so k n n t e n 5,000,000 families oder
eine Population von 20 Millionen erhalten j e d e family 2% acres arable,
4 acres of pasture u n d 2 acres of improvable waste each. (I.e.) |

|29| Maschinen. Extension of Manufactures. 30


Factory System.

N a c h Baines a firstrate cottonspinning factory c a n n o t be built, filled m i t


M a s c h i n e r i e , u n d fitted m i t steamengines u n d gasworks, u n t e r 100,000 I. A
steamengine of 100 horsepower will turn 50,000 spindles, which will pro-
d u c e 62,500 miles of fine cotton thread per day. In such a factory 1000 per- 35
sons will spin as m u c h thread as 250,000 persons could without machinery.
(75) D e r powerloom, obgleich schon 1787 d u r c h Cartwright erfunden, seine
i n t r o d u c t i o n gradual u n d erst general in d e n lezten 10 oder 15 J a h r e n .

74
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Fortsetzung)

MacCulloch schzt die Z a h l der powerlooms in G r e a t Britain auf 130,000,


was in productive power = a b o u t 300,000 h a n d l o o m s . Der use des power-
loom noch, in a great m e a s u r e , confined to plain cloths, figured a n d fancy
goods being woven by h a n d . Der handloomweaver inde has become a m e r e
5 outdoor member of the factory, with no pretensions to be considered as an inde-
pendent manufacturer. (75)
There is no effective d e m a n d for o u r m a n u f a c t u r e s a m o n g the l a z z a r o n i
of Naples, n o t b e c a u s e they do n o t prefer good clothes to rags, b u t b e c a u s e
they prefer idleness with rags to l a b o u r with good clothes. W i t h a n o t h e r n u -
10 m e r o u s class there is no d e m a n d for foreign manufactures, b e c a u s e their
time is of so little value, t h a t it is impossible to undersell the h o m e m a d e
produce of d o m e s t i c industry. (76) Being left at full liberty by the legisla-
ture to buy labour like cotton wherever they could get it cheapest, they suc-
ceeded to such an extent t h a t the e m p l o y m e n t of the adult m a l e l a b o u r
15 m a y almost be said to be superseded. In 4213 factories which p r o d u c e t h e
bulk der e n o r m o u s p r o d u c t i o n in d e n 4 staple m a n u f a c t u r e s of cotton,
wool, flax u n d silk, out of 422,209 h a n d s employed, n u r 96,752 are m a l e s
b e r 18 J a h r e , w h r e n d 244,821 are females, wovon 162,256 u n t e r 2 1 . (78)
I n r u n d e n Z a h l e n 270,000 h a n d s u n t e r 2 1 J a h r e n verwandt i n d e n facto-
20 ries, while the whole n u m b e r , m a l e a n d female, b e r 21 Jahre, ist n u r
150,000; klar daher, da, ein J a h r u m s andre, 40 oder 50,000 persons,
trained from early childhood to factory labour, m u s t be cast adrift. W h a t
becomes of t h e m ? handloomweavers etc etc. (80) In A m e r i c a the law pro-
vides that if children are employed in factories, 3 m o n t h s at least out of
25 every year shall be devoted to e d u c a t i o n . This, with the force of public
opinion, a m o u n t s to a prohibition of infant labour. (81) A u s d e m R e p o r t of
C o m m i t t e e on M a c h i n e r y , 1841, ersieht m a n , d a 1831 there were 700 per-
sons in d e m N o t t i n g h a m trade working their own m a c h i n e s in their respec-
tive houses; 1836 aber nur mehr 302 so situated. (83)

30 In dem Second Report of Committee on Machinery statuirt, da labour, esti-


mated by p r o d u c t i o n , is decidedly cheaper in England than in any country on
the continent. (87) "The weavers of Spitalfields are rapidly descending to t h e
size of Lilliputians; a n d yet, 40 years ago, the r e g i m e n t of volunteers raised
in Bethnal G r e e n u n d Spitalfields were goodlooking m e n . Bad air, b a d
35 lodging, a n d bad food, cause the children to grow up an enfeebled a n d di-
minutive race of m e n ; b u t of 613 m e n enlisted at B i r m i n g h a m and the
neighbouring towns, only 238 were approved for service." (Chadwick, Sani-
tary Report.) [90]

Gregg giebt die folgende division der gross proceeds of a farm in t h e Loth-
40 ians: R e n t 3 3 % , Expenses 47%, Profit u n d Interest 20%, Total 100. (97)

75
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Emigration.

D i e a n n u a l average n u m b e r of emigrants v o m U n i t e d K i n g d o m fr die


12 J a h r e e n d e n d 1837 war 57,000 n a c h d e m Report des Agent G e n e r a l for
l
Emigration. (122) At the present rate, nearly / des annual increase of popula-
3

tion in Great Britain is absorbed by emigration. (122) D e r a m o u n t der e m i - 5


gration n a c h Australia n i c h t b e r % des n a c h America. (123)

Building.

Mercenary speculators have been allowed to do what they like with their own,
i.e., to take advantage of the influx of population, in order to r u n up rows
of wretched hovels, streets built back to back, without drains or sewers, 10
courts a n d wynds without ventilation, cities without playground or breath-
ing place. They have b e e n allowed to crowd lodgers together pellmell, with-
o u t distinction of sex or age, to stow t h e m away in cellars, to pack t h e m 5
or 6 together in b e d s yet warm with the contagion of typhus feverin a
word to work the mine of misery as they could with most profit a n d least ex- 15
pense. In no particular have the rights of persons been so avowedly a n d
shamefully sacrificed to the rights of property, as in regard to the lodging of
the labouring class. Every large town m a y be looked u p o n as a place of hu-
man sacrifice, a shrine where t h o u s a n d s pass yearly t h r o u g h the fire as offer-
ings to the Moloch of avarice. ([149,] 150) 20

76
Aus Thomas Hopkins: Great Britain for the last 40 years

Hopkins. (Thomas.) Great Britain


for the last 40 Years etc
L o n d o n . 1834.

C. I. Introduction.

5 rent is a tax levied by the landowners as monopolists u n d t h a t tax is


charged on the c o n s u m e r s of l a n d e d p r o d u c e in an addition to its price, in
the same way that a tax u p o n tea, malt, hops, oder irgend eine andre W a a -
re, is charged in an increased price of the article. N u r im ersten Falle die
tax paid to o n e class of the c o m m u n i t y by the whole of the r e m a i n d e r . (25)
10 Every thing that tends to raise up obstacles to the a c c u m u l a t i o n of capital
has a tendency to cause profit to be high, a n d every thing t h a t stimulates to
a c c u m u l a t i o n has a t e n d e n c y to cause profit to be low. (38) |
|30| A loan, then, to a government, to carry on a war, is to be considered
as a tax on wages, levied t h r o u g h the agency of the capitalists of t h e c o u n -
15 try, who collect the tax in the form of additional profit, a n d they or a part
of t h e m , pay the a m o u n t to the government in the loan which they ad-
vance. (43) Profit h a s a selfadjusting power, a n d adapts itself to t h e supply
of capital in such a way as to e n s u r e s o m e supply u n d e r almost every va-
riety of circumstances. 1253 der Zinsfu in E n g l a n d 50 % per Jahr. ... Dis-
20 tress on the part of the labouring class, does n o t prevent profit from rising
to an extravagant h e i g h t . . . In m o d e r n e u r o p e a n countries profit is compar-
atively low. (44) If you r e d u c e the labouring population, n o t only will t h e
capital be reduced, but, it will be r e d u c e d in a greater degree t h a n the p o p -
ulation. (57) (Die Herren v o n der Populationstheorie n e h m e n dazu an,
25 da das Capital dasselbe bleibt, w e n n die Bevlkerung abnimmt.)

77
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Von 1793-1802.

D e r extent des rise in der Profitrate u n d die c o n s e q u e n t r e d u c t i o n in d e m


general rate of wages, m a y be seen from the prices of t h e 3 % consols, which
were:
7
91 im J a h r 1792, 76 im J a h r 1793, 67 / im J a h r 1794, 66 im J a h r 1795,
8 5
62 im Jahr 1796, 50% im J a h r 1797, 51 im J a h r 1798, 56 im J a h r 1799, 61
3
im J a h r 1800, 58 im J a h r 1801 u n d 70 / im J a h r 1802. D i e capitalists, in
4

their additional profits, h a t t e n die m e a n s b o t h of paying their taxes a n d of


creating annuities for themselves by feeding t h e loans. (83) Also das whole
des wealth expended von der Regierung furnished von der labouring class. 10
(84) In countries supplied with gold in exchange for other c o m m o d i t i e s ,
the value of gold will d e p e n d on the cost of procuring it. In Siberia m a g es
5, in Polen 2, in F r a n c e 1, in G r e a t Britain 1 qr of wheat kosten, to pro-
cure an o u n c e of gold u n d in diesen countries respectively, the exchange-
able value of the gold would be d e t e r m i n e d by the cost of procuring it. 15
(113) It should be recollected t h a t t h o u s a n d s of ingenious contrivances
have b e e n tried a n d laid aside, before spinning m a c h i n e s were brought to
their present state of perfection (i.e. in 1815) ... their u n i t e d effects
a m o u n t to this, that t h e labour of o n e person, aided by t h e m , can now pro-
d u c e as m u c h yarn, in a given t i m e , as 200 could have p r o d u c e d 50 years 20
ago. [134] (Kennedy in a paper published in the M e m o i r s of the Literary
a n d Philosop. Societ. of Manchester, v. 3)
H t t e n u n die cotton i m A u s s e n m a r k t i m m e r n o c h z u d e m s e l b e n Prei,
i.e. Q u a n t u m Gold verkauft gold would have c o m e into the country in
such a b u n d a n c e , as to cause the moneyprices of labour, a n d of all articles 25
p r o d u c e d in an u n i m p r o v e d way, to be doubled. ([135,] 136) W h e n profit
falls, circulating is disposed to b e c o m e , to s o m e extent, fixed capital. W e n n
Z i n s 5%, capital n i c h t used in m a k i n g new roads, canals or railways, bis
diese works yield a corresponding large %; b u t w h e n interest n u r 4 oder
3 % capital would be advanced for such i m p r o v e m e n t s , if it o b t a i n e d only a 30
proportional lower percentage. Jointstock C o m p a n i e s , to accomplish great
improvements, are t h e n a t u r a l offspring of a falling rate of profit. It also in-
duces individuals to fix their capitals in t h e form of buildings a n d m a c h i n -
ery. (232)
M c C u l l o c h schzt so die n u m b e r s u n d i n c o m e s derer engaged in der cot- 35
ton manufacture:

78
w
Aus Thomas Hopkins: Great Britain for the last 40 years

833,000 weavers, spinners, bleachers, etc


at 24 I. each (a year) 20,000,000
111,000 joiners, engineers, machine makers 3,333,000
etc at 30 I. each
5 Profit, superintendence, coal and
materials of machines 6,667,000
944,000 30,000,000

V o n d e n 6% millions, 2 millions are supposed to go for coal, iron, a n d


other materials, for m a c h i n e r y a n d other outgoings, which would give e m -
10 ployment, at 30 a year each, to 66,666 m a k i n g a total of people e m p l o y e d
of 1,010,666; diesen h i n z u z u f g e n % der Zahl of children, aged etc d e p e n d -
ent on those who work, or an additional 505,330, so a total, supported on
wages, of 1,515,996 persons. D i e s e n h i n z u z u f g e n die die are supported,
directly or indirectly, by the 4 millions of profit, at 2 0 a head, -
15 233,350 - u n d wir h a b e n a total p o p u l a t i o n of 1,749,346 persons supported
by the 30 millions o b t a i n e d in the cotton m a n u f a c t u r e s . (336, 7) E b e n s o
viel essen die Staatsglubiger. [337]

79
1
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

| 3 i | Outlines of Popular Economy,


by Jelinger C. Symons.
L o n d o n . 1840.

4 cardinal elements of p r o d u c e : 1) the a b u n d a n c e of material, s u c h as land,


minerals, wood, a n d water; 2) the quality of material, such as fertility of 5
soil a n d mines, goodness of climate etc. 3) the a b u n d a n c e of labour c o m -
pared with population, in other words the fewness of n o n p r o d u c t i v e con-
sumers 4) the skill of l a b o u r a n d the l a b o u r of m i n d , as applied to p r o d u c -
tive invention a n d m a c h i n e r y . Flschlich fgt m a n d i e s e m h i n z u t h e
produce applied to further p r o d u c t i o n in the shape of m a t e r i a l a n d suste- 10
n a n c e of labour, this, however c o n t a i n s no fresh element, b u t merely con-
stitutes a c o m p o u n d m a t e r i a l into which the e l e m e n t s already n a m e d have
alone entered, acting a n d reacting on e a c h other in the process a n d r o u t i n e
of production. ... This application of the savings of p r o d u c e is merely the
P h o e n i x law of n a t u r e , equally operative in the arts of life as in t h e a n i m a l 15
a n d vegetable world, in which there is no c o n t i n u o u s vitality, a n d where
the existence of creation is kept up by a series of reproductions, the older
p r o d u c e wasting as the newer waxens, again in its t u r n to decline a n d dis-
appear with the growth of its successor. (16) Profits are the increases of
wealth, a n d the only sources of wages, a n d it is alone eventually by increasing 20
these that wages are encreased, a n d by d i m i n i s h i n g t h e m that wages are di-
m i n i s h e d . (25)

80
Aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Outlines of popular economy

5 Class of labourers Weekly wages Difference after adding


France and England 1 s. 3 d. for difference of
Belgium money value to France
und Belgium
f. c. s. d. s. d. s. d.
1 Class of Mechanics 15 12 6 20 3 4
2 Class of Mechanics 10 80 9 14. 2
10 Farm labourers 7 80 6 6 10. 1 4
Spinning Factory
Labourers, men,
women, and children 7 50 6 3 10. 6 2 2 (26)

81
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

J. C. Symons.
(One of the Assistant Commissioners
on the Handloom Inquiry)
Arts and Artisans at Home and Abroad.
E d i n b u r g h . 1839. 5

1) Wages at Home.

F o l g e n d e rates of wages in d e n Lancashire Factories sind nearly an average


for the whole country, a n d were drawn up by the M a n c h e s t e r C h a m b e r of
Commerce:

Spinners men 20 to 25 10
women 10 15
Stretchers 25 26
Piecers (boys u n d girls) 4/7 7
Scavengers 1/6 2/8
In the Card Room 15
Men 1 4 / 6 - 17
Young w o m e n 9 - 9/6
Children 6 7
Throstle Spinners 5 9/6
Reelers 7 9 20

82
Aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Arts and artisans at home and abroad

Weavers by Power.
Men 13 - 16/1(
Women 8 - 12
Dressers' m e n 28 30
5 W i n d e r s u n d warpers 8 11
Mechanics 24 26

Weaving by Hand.
Quality W o v e n by
N a n k i n g s (fancy) men 9 - 15
10 common children a n d
women 6 8
best men 10 13
Checks, fancy men 7 7/6
common children 6 7
15 Cambrics all ages 6 6/6
Quiltings men and
women 9 12 ( 1 , 2) I

|31[a]| In a n d r e n trades folgende Durchschnittswages in E n g l a n d :

F u s t i a n cutters all ages 10 - 12


20 Machinemakers men 26 30
Ironfounders men 28 30
Dyers u n d Dressers men 15 20
Young men 12 14
boys 5 10
25 Tailors men 18 20
Porters men 14 16
Shoemakers men 15 18
Whitesmiths dto 22 24
Sawyers dto 24 28
30 Carpenters dto 20 25
Stone M a s o n s dto 18 22
Bricklayers dto 17 20
Bricklayers' labourers dto 12
Painters dto 18
35 Slaters dto 3/8 per day
Plasterers dto 19 21
Spadesmen dto 10 15
Blacksmiths dto 18 22
Compositors dto 24

83
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Wages in Sheffield von 2 5 - 3 5 per week fr die w o r k m e n in skilled de-


p a r t m e n t s u n d oft zu 40. In den ironworks in a B i r m i n g h a m district von 20
zu 30 fr die c o m m o n labourers. In d e n Leeds flaxmills: M a l e adults
1 7 - 1 9 per week, females 5/6 bis 6/6, children zwischen 9 u n d 10 J a h r e n
3/6 bis 4. In d e n Gloucestershire clothfactories m a l e adults von 1 2 - 1 4 , fe- 5
males 4 - 5 , children 2 - 3 / 6 . (2, 3 )
In u n d bei Glasgow m a s o n s , bricklayers, h o u s e carpenters, b l a c k s m i t h s
etc earn von 1 9 - 2 2 per week, engineers von 2 0 - 3 0 , tailors, cabinet makers,
hatters, p l u m b e r s , shoemakers etc von 2 0 - 2 5 . In d e m country die wages
um 1 0 - 2 0 % niedriger. (3, 4) In d e n C o t t o n mills das following ist a fair 10
general average:
per week
s.
Picking room, females 20 years u n d upwards 7
A t t e n d i n g cards, males a n d females, 15
13 J a h r e bis 15 4/6
drawing frames, females, 16 J a h r e
u n d upwards 6/6
slobbing frames dto do 6/6
finishers do do 7 20
stretchers do do 8/6
throstle spinners do 13 J a h r e
u n d upwards 7
reelers do 16 6/6
toppers males 20 J a h r e 25
u n d upwards 14
spinners do do 25-29
outside piecers do 16-20 6
inside piecers do 13-16 3/6
cleaners do 9-13 21. 30

In Lancashire fast dieselbe Distribution der Arbeit, aber der average rate
of wages fr Weiber, m e n , children z u s a m m e n , wchentlich 10/6 per h e a d .
(4) J132.1 Die stocking makers of Leicester average 8/3 per week. In D u m -
fries die workmen are paid at so m u c h per d o z e n of the fabric woven,
whether stockings, drawers or shirts. M e n ' s stockings of 24 gage are paid 35
9/6 per dozen, and an average w o r k m a n will m a k e 18 pair in the week;
gross wages 14/3 wovon a b z u z i e h n fr framerent u n d seaming 2/2, bleibt
12/1 clearwages u n d die der average rate in this trade. Fast alle bisherge-
n a n n t e n trades sind more or less c o m b i n e d . V o n d e n n i c h t c o m b i n i r t e n die
handloomweavers die hauptschlichsten. ([5,] 6) D i e woollen weavers work 40

84
Aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Arts and artisans at home and abroad

almost entirely in factories where t h e h a n d l o o m s are placed, belonging to


the manufacturer; u n d wo die der Fall ist m i t den ginghams, checks u n d
other cotton fabrics die wages invariably von 4 0 - 8 0 % higher. (7) engineers etc
etc.

5 2) Wages in Belgium.

J o h n Cockerill zu Seraing (Maschinenfabrik). Zu Seraing bei Liege,


3000 w o r k m e n employed. Die wages sind wie folgt: Dessinateurs
1 5 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 fcs jhrlich oder 6 0 - 8 0 . D i e w o r k m e n sind divided in bri-
gades. There are 40 in d e m ersten process who earn von 3 - 4 f. tglich; die
10 founders 4 - 5 fc tglich; die nailmakers 200 sehr y o u n g m e n , b e z a h l t per
weight of nails, u n d earn von 3 - 4 fr b e i n g responsible for losses. D i e m a n u -
facture of furnaces sehr b e d e u t e n d , von 5 0 0 - 6 0 0 w o r k m e n employed, earn-
ing von 4 - 5 fcs; this work is very laborious, a n d deafens m o s t of t h e m e n .
etc etc ([17,] 18) Die average wages der adult w o r k m e n in d i e s e m establish-
15 m e n t an 3f. 50 c. Die others in B e l g i u m 10% niedriger. Die gewhnliche
Arbeitszeit 11 S t u n d e n per Tag. Die miners gain as follows: Die superin-
tendents 2 f. 30 c. per day, die first class w o r k m e n 2 f. 25 c, Zweite class 2 f.
10 c, Y o u t h s 1 f. 90 c, U n t e r 12 J a h r e n 1 f. 30. Age of admission ist
10 Jahre. Period of work 6 S t u n d e n per Tag. (19) In Cotton s p i n n i n g facto-
20 ries, deren h a u p t s c h l i c h e zu G e n t , ist der general rate of wages: for adult
m e n , spinners etc von 2 f. 50 c. zu 3 f. per day; fr apprentices von 12 zu
16 J a h r e n 75 c. bis 1 f., fr girls 75 c. bis 1 f. (22) In d e n l i n e n s p i n n i n g fac-
tories den m e n are paid 1 f. 35 cent, fr je 12 h o u r s work. Die children e m -
ployed % der Zahl der m e n . (23)

25 Trades Townwages Country Wages Hours usually worked


f. ct. f. ct.
Masons, Carpenters
und Blacksmiths 2 5 1 60 11
Daylabourers 1 35 11
30 Saddlers 2 25
Wheelwrights 2 25
Compositors 3
Lithographic
Printers 5
35 Cabinetmakers 3
Bleachers 2 16 in summer
Taylors und
Shoemakers 2 50 1 60 11-12
oder mit
40 food 75 c.

-85
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

[Trades] [Townwages] [Country Wages] [Hours usually


worked]
f. ct. f. ct.
Sawyers 3 25
Forgers 6 5
Coach Painters 2 25
Paviers 1 80
Labourers at
Canal wharfs 1 70
Miners 2 50 10 10

Agricultural Labourers
Provinces Conditions Men Women
f. c. f. c.
Brabant "1 with food 63 31
Westpellier J |_ without food 91 80 15
f with food
West Flanders \ without food 1 20 80
J with food 1 18 0 88
Liege \ without food 20
Luxemburg without food 1 85

D i e wages der agricultural labourers wechseln sehr in Westflandern; n o c h


niedriger in Ostflandern, weil hier weniger factories. In Liege u n d N a m u r ,
im H e r z des Fabrikdistricts, die agricultural wages fast doppelt was in d e n 25
purely agricultural provinces. (24, 25)
D i e handloomweavers sind divided in classes, die exceedingly v o n ein
a n d e r abweichen: D i e c o t t o n weavers b e w o h n e n chiefly Ostflandern, G e n t ,
St N i c o l a s etc. D i e 1' class v o n c o t t o n weavers 12 fc per W o c h e , die 2 t e 8
o d e r 9fcs, die 3 t e , b e s t e h e n d aus apprentices, old m e n v o n 3%-4%f. per 30
week. S t u n d e n 1 2 - 1 5 , selten weniger als 13. D e r l o o m u n d its a p p e n d a g e s
at t h e cost des weaver, aber d e r m a n u f a c t u r e r finds t h e winding. D e r aver
age n e t gain per week fr adults 8 fc. (25, 26) In V e n d e r s die wages von
1 2 - 2 0 fcs wchentlich fr weavers. M e i s t 12 fc d a h e r clear earnings. ([26,]
27) Die silkweavers besonders zu A n t w e r p e n , average 1 f. 50 c. per day, 35
weben n u r plain silks. (I.e.) Die m e i s t e n l i n e n weavers weave the plain
shirting a n d ||33| sheeting. Sie are completely i n t e r m i x e d m i t d e n agricul-
turists. A small farmer has generally 2 oder 3 l o o m s which he or his ser-
vants u s e w h e n n o t employed o u t of doors. W h e r e a m a n weaves con-
stantly, he can earn von 1 f. 25 c. bis 1 f. 50 c. per day. (27) Einige d a m a s k 40
weavers zu Courtrai etc who work solely in factories u n d von 6 - 1 4 f. per
W o c h e verdienen, je n a c h i h r e m skill. (I.e.) Die food der working classes,
n i c h t n u r von Belgien, s o n d e r n des C o n t i n e n t s b e r h a u p t consists of veg-
etables; m e a t is not the food of t h e working classes ... It is the relish u s e d

86
Aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Arts and artisans at home and abroad

with food. Die Italiener essen m a c a r o n i , die french u n d G e r m a n h a b e n als


staple food bread or cabbage, die Irish Potatoes, % selbst von J o h n Bull lebt
auf vegetable diet. D i e I n d i e r essen Reis, die W e s t i n d i e r Y a m s u n d b r e a d
tree, die Africans dates; in fact, a fraction, a n d that a very small one, of
5 m a n k i n d are carnivorous. ... Die l i n e n weavers u n d c o m m o n labourers in
Belgien c o n s u m e potatoes u n d ryebread, vegetable soup, rarely flavoured
with meat, coffee of chicory, beer etc. Die cottonweavers u n d factory work-
m e n (leben schlechter als die in d e n iron works of H a i n a u l t , Liege u n d die
der m a c h i n e m a k i n g factories von Seraing, Bruxelles, G h e n t . A u c h schlech-
10 ter als die m a s o n s , blacksmiths, carpenters etc der towns. D i e ersten n m -
lich live on potatoes u n d vegetables, m i t a piece of m e a t a m o n g t h e m , for
dinner regularly; coffee of chicory; u n d an Sundays, spirits in m o d e r a t e
quantity. Dieses die best paid. D i e m a s o n s etc, ebenso die woollen factory
u n d domestic weavers c o n s u m e either a less portion of m e a t oder n e h m e n
15 es 3 oder 4x n u r per Woche.) h a b e n Potatoes u n d vegetable soup fr ihr
chief food, m i t bread half rye u n d half wheat; coffee u n d gelegentlich a
glass of spirits, a n d c o m m o n l y brown beer - execrably boiled. ( 2 7 - 2 9 ) M i t
7 d. k a n n an ablebodied m a n in d e m country in Belgien leben. Bread, wie
es die Arbeiter essen, \% d. per lb in the country. (29)

20 3) Wages in France.

D u p i n statuirt m i t R e c h t 2 f. 26 c. per day fr die n o r t h e r n u n d 1 f. 90 c. fr


die Sdprovinzen. (36) Elsa der Hauptcottondistrikt. Bei d e n H e r r e n
Schlumberguer u n d Bocard's zu Guebwillers: m e n (spinners) 1 f. 40 c . - 2 f.,
W o m e n 1 f . - l f. 20 c, children 4 0 - 7 0 cent. A r b e i t s s t u n d e n b e r 13 u n d oft
25 14, Kinder wie adults. In der Normandie u n d einigen Pltzen des Elsa die
wages der h a n d l o o m w e a v e r so niedrig wie in Schottland, in allen b r i g e n
Fllen hher. ([36,] 37) Die h o m e s der working classes meist dirty, c o m -
fortless and evincing every s y m p t o m of b a d m a n a g e m e n t a n d poverty c o m -
bined. (38) Die Elsssischen W e b e r im A l l g e m e i n e n nicht o h n e sufficiency
30 of food, aber in allen a n d e r n respects ill off. In d e n m o u n t a i n s der Vosges
die peasantry n o c h schlechter d r a n u n d there l o o m s also found, b u t chiefly
on the system of the customer" weavers von Schottland, obgleich n i c h t ex-
clusively. (39) D i e Lyoner W e b e r sind an emaciated, miserablelooking set
of beings. They are diseased u n d u n d e r s i z e d . (43) Tarare, bei Lyon, is der
35 chief muslin district of F r a n c e . E i n e Portion dieser W e b e r in d e m country
verdient n u r 75 cent. (7 d.) bis 1 f. 25 c. (1 s.) per day; die der Stadt von
2 f . - 2 f. 50 u n d m a n c h m a l 3 fc. n a c h i h r e m skill. D e r m a n u f a c t u r e r liefert
n u r den reed u n d das u p p e r m o u n t i n g , all the rest being at the expense of

87
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

the workmen. Die in t o w n weben das ganze Jahr, die des country n i c h t
b e r 7 M o n a t e . D i e r e m a i n i n g 5 beschftigt in agricultural e m p l o y m e n t .
Fast all the fathers dieser weavers in d e m country sind small proprietors
themselves. (44) A townweaver im average 30 sous per day u n d der c o u n -
tryweaver 25, fr 14 hours work. Sie sind a quiet simple people, who have 5
few wants, and b u t limited intelligence. (45) Normandy produces pullicates,
domestics u n d andre coarser articles. Die schlechtesten off in F r a n c e . D i e
peasants live chiefly on vegetable soup, a n d the coarsest sort of bread. (46)
In den Norman spinning mills, Spinners von 1 5 - 2 0 fcs per week, working
von 8 0 - 8 4 hours. W o m e n u n d Girls, employed at t h e carding a n d drawing 10
operations, von 7 - 1 0 fcs. Die power loomweavers von 1 2 - 1 6 fcs wchent-
lich. (47)

4) Wages in Switzerland.

In Switzerland grosse i n t e r m i x t u r e of agricultural u n d artisan o c c u p a t i o n s ,


a vast n u m b e r of the working classes p r o d u c i n g a portion of their own sub- 15
sistence. (59) R h m t d i e S y s t e m s e h r . |
|34| Bread fluctuates von 1 zu \% d. per lb. of 17 o u n c e s ; the average is
l
1 d. for c o m m o n bread, i.e. o n e batz of Zrich. M e a t varies von 2 / d. zu 2

4]/ d. per Swiss lb. average price 3 d. Potatoes 20 d. per sack of 33 gallons.
2

Milk, von 5 - 7 farthings per pot of 3 pints. (72) Die Swiss h a b e n eingesehn, 20
that a handicraft, at least, as far as plain weaving is concerned, requiring
the skill of children a n d the strength of w o m e n , m u s t necessarily be r e m u -
nerated by the wages of children's and w o m e n ' s labour. Weaving, therefore,
except, in the fancy work, has long ceased to be a separate e m p l o y m e n t .
([72,] 73) 25

5) Wages in Austria und Prussia.

Die wages der factory labourers in Austria: Spinners 1 fl. (1/8) per day.
women von 3 0 - 4 0 kr. (10 d.) bis (1/1 d.) per day; children 1 3 - 1 6 kr.
(4 d.) bis (5 d.) per day. Die h o u r s of factory labour oft 15 h o u r s per day,
exclusive of the m e a l t i m e s u n d oft 17 S t u n d e n . (74, 75) 30
In d e n dye-works zu Elberfeld die m e n receive an 4 Th. = 12 s. p e r
W o c h e , fr die hardest work, m i t long h o u r s , u n d 3 dollars = 9/1 fr die
second class work. (77) D i e weavers, die Majoritt der a r b e i t e n d e n classes
dieses Platzes, sind die best paid u n d earn von 8 - 1 6 s. per week, n a c h ih-
r e m skill u n d der class of work, besonders silks u n d velvets. (77[, 78]) In 35

88
Aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Arts and artisans at home and abroad

Nordpreussen, M e c h a n i c s , as carpenters u n d blacksmiths, earn in d e n


towns von 1/6 zu 1/10 per day. S h o e m a k e r s , tailors etc an 1/2; c o m m o n la-
bourers in towns 1 s. per day in s u m m e r u n d 9 d. in winter u n d in d e m
country von 5 - 8 d. Agricultural labourers, ausser houserent, fuel u n d
5 m a n c h m a l % acre land, von 5 - 7 d. per day. (78) Coarse m e a t costs in Wur-
temberg im D u r c h s c h n i t t 8 kr. per lb = 2% d., bread von 3 zu 4 kr. = 1% d.
per lb. (81)

l
S. b e h a u p t e t da die working class of E n g l a n d wenigstens um / besser 6

dran als auf d e m C o n t i n e n t . (84) whilst very great disparity exists between
10 the rates of p a y m e n t in t h e different d e p a r t m e n t s of labour at h o m e , an u n -
iformity prevails abroad, varied alone by the variations of skill required,
and by the local d e m a n d for a n d supply of labour. (83) D a s factory
workpeople Englands das bestbezahlte i m Vergleich m i t d e m A u s l a n d . D i e
wages in d e n Lancashire factories average 10 s. 6 d. per week per h e a d . In
15 France, Switzerland, Austria u n d B e l g i u m von 6 f. zu 9 f., averaging 7 f.
50 c. = 6 s. 3 d., was in j e n e n districts in real value = 8 s. 4 d., so d a cotton
factory workpeople of Lancashire h a b e n 26% or a quarter m e h r wages als
dieselbe class abroad. D i e disparity less in allen a n d e r n Zweigen der I n d u -
strie u n d die Differenz nimmt ab in each b r a n c h of industry, in t h e s a m e
20 proportion in which that b r a n c h is unfortified by c o m b i n a t i o n s at h o m e ...
the agricultural wages differing very little u n d die handloomweavers being
somewhat higher abroad. (84) In F r a n c e wages as low if not lower t h a n in
most countries; a n d the people live in a state of discomfort, n u r surpassed
in d e n r m s t e n parts of Austria and W u r t e m b e r g . (85) In Schottland ist die
25 Sache on a par m i t Prussia. (86)

7) On the elements which govern wealth and wages.

Der Arbeitsprei regulirt d u r c h supply u n d d e m a n d . Diese aber d e t e r m i n e


n u r the labourer's share: b u t there are another set of agencies, which deter-
m i n e the a m o u n t of wealth to be shared. (88) I n a s m u c h as trade is re-
30 stricted c o m m o d i t i e s are d i m i n i s h e d , a n d with c o m m o d i t i e s wages, since
wages can alone consist in c o m m o d i t i e s . (91)

Die n u m b e r of w o m e n who perish by prostitution in G r e a t Britain exceeds


that of any other country in the whole world, m i n d e s t e n s = 3:1 in propor-
tion to the population. (119)

89
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

11) Combinations at Home and Abroad.

D e n englischen hnliche C o m b i n a t i o n s h a u p t s c h l i c h n u r i n R o u e n u n d
Lyons. (135) n o t h i n g can benefit the labourer's share in the aggregate, ex-
cept what increases the a m o u n t of c o m m o d i t i e s or lessens the n u m b e r of
C o n s u m e r s , in proportion to that a m o u n t . C o m b i n a t i o n s viewed in their 5
operation on the whole body of a people do neither. (136) the c o m b i n a t i o n s
h a v e b e e n beneficial in teaching knowledge. (137) |

|35| 12) Die Handloomweavers of Scotland.

Zerfallen in 2 distinct classes. D i e ltre Klasse h a t n o c h b e t r c h t l i c h e n


Theil der frher dieser Klasse eignen Bildung. (146) D i e j n g r e G e n e r a t i o n 10
far less educated u n d lasterhafter ... I am (nach seinen B e o b a c h t u n g e n u n -
ter den schottischen W e b e r n ) well convinced, that poverty has the s a m e ef-
fect on the m i n d that d r u n k e n n e s s has on t h e body. I believe it to be a
m a i n i n s t r u m e n t in the d e b a s e m e n t of m a n k i n d . (147)

In Oestreich kostet das erecting a cotton mill of 16,000 spindles m i n d e - 15


stens 2 I. per spindle oder f 32,000. In England, zu 17 s. 6 d. per spindle
wrde die n u r kosten 14,000. (200) (Aber die long hours, die low wages,
die waterpower costing n o t h i n g fully c o m p e n s a t e s for the cost of erection.)
[201] In Oestreich die F a b r i k a n t e n 1 1 - 1 2 % Netprofit. [199] E b e n s o in
Frankreich in der Spinnerei 1 1 % . (216) 20

Ein manufacturer of Glasgow giebt d e m S. folgende N o t i z e n : " E x p e n s e of


erecting a powerloom factory of 500 looms, calculated to weave a good fab-
ric of calico or shirting, such as is generally m a d e in Glasgow, would be
about 18,000.

A n n u a l produce, say 150,000 pieces 25


of 24 yards at 6 s. 45,000
W h i c h cost as u n d e r :
Interest on sunk capital, a n d for
depreciation of value of the m a c h i n e r y 1,800
Steampower, oil, tallow etc, 30
keeping up machinery, utensils etc 2,000
Yarns a n d flax 32,000
Wages to w o r k m e n 7,500
Suppose profit 1,700
45,000 35

90
Aus Jelinger Cookson Symons: Arts and artisans at home and abroad

In d i e s e m s t a t e m e n t des M a n u f a c t u r e r , wie die in Glasgow, aber n i c h t


in Lancashire hufig, unterstellt sein G a r n im M a r k t zu kaufen. (233) "Af-
ter" f h r t d e r s e l b e M a n n fort "a s p i n n i n g or weaving factory h a s b e e n
wrought for a few years, if b r o u g h t to t h e m a r k e t for sale, t h e price to be got
5 is generally 20 oder 30 % less t h a n t h e cost; a n d if forced u p o n t h e m a r k e t
in a t i m e of dull trade, even little m o r e t h a n half t h e cost s o m e t i m e s c a n be
got. W h e n trade is good, if a new going mill, either s p i n n i n g or weaving,
h a p p e n to c o m e into t h e m a r k e t for sale, it is very s e l d o m t h a t first cost c a n
be got for it, though, p e r h a p s , n o t h i n g worse for any tear a n d wear, a n d in
10 every respect fitted up with t h e m o s t approved m a c h i n e r y . " (233, 4)
Probable expense of erecting a spinning cottonmill m i t h a n d m u l e s , calcu-
lated to p r o d u c e N o . 40 of a fair average quality, 2 3 , 0 0 0 . If p a t e n t selfac-
tors 2000 additional. Das p r o d u c e annually zu d e n present prices of cot-
ton, and t h e rates at w h i c h t h e yarns could be sold

15 25,000

Cost of which as follows:


Interest of s u n k capital, a n d allowance for
depreciation of value of m a c h i n e r y zu 10 % 2,300
Cotton 14,000
20 Steampower, oil, tallow, gas, a n d
general expense of keeping up utensils
u n d m a c h i n e r y in repair 1,800
Wages to workers 5,400
Profit 1,500
25 25,000

Das Produce der mill t a k e n at 10,0001b weekly." (234) ||36| "Cost of a


cotton spinning mill of 10,000 throstles, calculated to p r o d u c e a fair qual-
ity of N o . 24 would be a b o u t 20,000. Taking present value of produce, t h e
a m o u n t annually would be ,,, _
30 2 3 , 0 0 0
r

Costing as u n d e r :
Interest on s u n k capital, a n d for
d e p r e c i a t i o n of value of m a c h i n e r y , zu 1 0 % 2,000
Cotton 13,300
35 Steampower, tallow, oil, gas,
keeping m a c h i n e r y in repair etc 2,500
Wages to Workers 3,800
A s s u m e profit 1,400
2 3 , 0 0 0 " (235)

91
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Symons. ( I m o b i g e n B u c h e . ) In Frankreich, there is, generally speaking


sufficient m a n l y o c c u p a t i o n to be h a d ; a n d consequently, m e n are n o t re-
d u c e d to the necessity of having recourse to trades which require children's
skill a n d strength, n o r are they r e m u n e r a t e d with children's wages. (241)

92
Aus Samuel Laing (jun.): National distress (Nachtrag)

Laing. (Im obigen Buch.)


T h e only articles in w h i c h any effective c o m p e t i t i o n from foreign countries
has yet b e e n experienced in n e u t r a l m a r k e t s are: 1) fine a n d expensive
printed G o o d s from F r a n c e , owing to t h e superiority in taste and design. 2)
5 Coarse cottons from the U n i t e d States, owing to the advantage in the raw-
material. 3) Certain descriptions of cotton hosiery from Saxony, where u n -
skilled h a n d l a b o u r is t h e chief e l e m e n t of cost. 4) a few Swiss cottongoods,
owing to the s a m e cause, a n d the superiority of certain dyes. 5) A little
hardware a n d other miscellaneous articles from the R h e n i s h provinces, Bel-
10 gium, and Westphalia. (In silk n a t r l i c h F r a n c e superior in m o s t depart-
ments.) Also in s o m e descriptions of woollen cloths, F r a n c e , Belgium, a n d
G e r m a n y , are on a footing of equality with u s . (87, 88)

93
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Hopkins. (Das oben citirte Buch.)


Von C o t t o n war der average a n n u a l export, for
official declared Mean price of
value value bowed cotton
d. 5
The 5 years ending mit 1819 20,271,567 18,202,179 18
the 5 years ending mit 1824 23,562,359 16,161,422 9
the 6 years ending mit 1830 31,460,860 17,113,485 7

D e r value des rawmaterial unterstellt zu sein % (andre sagen %) des val


ue des m a n u f a c t u r e d article. S a n k von der ersten bis zur 3* P e r i o d e to
nearly 2/s when we c o m p a r e t h e declared values of t h e 2 periods, we m u s t
a d d die other % of t h e price of t h e c o t t o n , w h i c h would raise t h e declared
value der last period zu 20,000,000, in r o u n d n u m b e r s . U n d so von 1817,
d e m m i d d l e J a h r der ersten Periode, bis 1827, d e m Mitteljahr der lezten,
nthig fast 50 % m e h r m a n u f a c t u r e s zu exportiren, in r e t u r n for an e q u a l 15
a m o u n t of m o n e y . 1815 betrug der official value 17,655,378 u n d der d e -
clared value 20,033,132, 1830 betrug der official value 37,269,395 u n d der
declared 17,394,584. This is an extent of r e d u c t i o n in price, for which t h e
r e d u c t i o n in t h e price of t h e raw material, a n d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s in t h e
m e t h o d s of producing articles, will not a c c o u n t . Die improve||37|ments 20
waren h a u p t s c h l i c h i m spinning d e p a r t m e n t . A u s M r K e n n e d y s s t a t e m e n t
of t h e extent of t h e m 1 8 1 2 - 1 8 3 0 , sieht m a n , d a in d i e s e m D e p a r t m e n t
die Hauptverbesserung in N o . 40 u n d da die increased p r o d u c t i o n at t h e
end of 19 J a h r e n n u r 3 auf 8, while t h e decline in t h e declared value of the
whole of t h e goods, exported at t h e e n d of 16 J a h r e n , was 42 millions to 25
only a little m o r e t h a n seventeen millions. ( 2 7 3 - 7 5 )
D e r o b e n citirte Hopkins b e m e r k t n o c h i n B e z u g a u f w a g e s : I n a c o u n -
try possessing m u c h fixed capital in m a c h i n e s where difficult processes re-

94
Aus Thomas Hopkins: Great Britain for the last 40 years (Nachtrag)

quire great skill a n d care, and, of course, confidence in t h e persons e m -


ployed, skilful labour m a y c o n t i n u e to be paid at a good rate, while t h e
wages of c o m m o n l a b o u r are declining. A n d when the state of the c o m m o n
labourer is m u c h r e d u c e d , t h e difference between the rates of p a y m e n t for
5 the two kinds of labour m a y increase. ... T h e comparatively h i g h wages
which yet r e m a i n to t h e superior class of labourers in G r e a t Britain, are,
therefore, no evidence that c o m m o n l a b o u r is even moderately well paid.
The c o n s u m p t i o n of certain taxed articles is s o m e t i m e s pointed o u t as evi-
dence of the undeteriorated, or of t h e improved condition of the people,
10 but the c o n s u m p t i o n of these articles m a y be kept up by the skilled labour-
ers in town, who are increasing in n u m b e r s , and are yet tolerably well paid.
(298, 99)

95
Exzerpte aus Charles Wing: Evils of the factory system
Heft XI. Seite 37
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Charles Wing, (Surgeon to the Royal


Metropolitan Hospital for Children etc)
Evils of the factory System demonstrated
by Parliamentary Evidence.
L o n d o n 1837. 5

Das bischen i m p r o v e m e n t im factorysystem hervorgebracht d u r c h perpet-


u a l agitation of the question, d u r c h die frequent strikes der operatives,
d u r c h legislative e n a c t m e n t s u n d die voice of public opinion. (IV) Wing
giebt sowohl Sadler's Report wie den der government commissioners, die
d e n manufacturers sehr gnstig waren, als compelled, in spite of t h e m - 10
selves, to give their verdict against the factory system by the sheer force of
truth. (V) W i t h regard to the age at which children begin to work, it ap-
pears in evidence, that in s o m e rare instances children begin to work in fac-
tories at 5 years old; it is n o t u n c o m m o n to find t h e m there at six; m a n y
are u n d e r seven; still m o r e u n d e r eight; b u t the greater n u m b e r are n i n e ; 15
while some, b u t comparatively few, b r a n c h e s of m a n u f a c t u r e do n o t a d m i t
of the e m p l o y m e n t of children u n d e r ten years of age. (XXIII) Herr Poulett
T h o m s o n (1837) tried to obtain an act to substitute 12 for 13 years, d a m i t
K i n d e r von 12 J a h r e n (nach d e n inspectors 35,000) gesetzlich 69 S t u n d e n
die W o c h e statt 48 angewandt werden k n n t e n . (XXIV) (Dr Kay's 20
P a m p h l e t on the M o r a l a n d Physical C o n d i t i o n of the Working Classes e m -
ployed in the Cotton M a n u f a c t u r e in M a n c h e s t e r . Dieser Kay sagt u. a.:
"There is a state of physical depression which does n o t t e r m i n a t e in fatal
organic changes, which, however, converts existence into a prolonged dis-
ease, a n d is n o t only compatible with life, b u t is proverbially protracted to 25
an advanced senility.") [LXXV] Between the weight of the factory a n d n o n
factory children, there is a considerable difference in favour of the latter,

96
Aus Charles Wing: Evils of the factory system

being, with regard to t h e boys 3.5 lbs, m i t regard to the girls only 0.3 lbs.
... factory e m p l o y m e n t prevents m u s c u l a r development. (LXXXI) D a s
B u c h v o n W i n g , als M a t e r i a l i e n s a m m l u n g wichtig fr die, die d i e m e d i -
zinischen Aussagen ber das factorysystem z u s a m m e n h a b e n wollen. |

99
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

|38| Samuel Laing. Notes of A Traveller


On the Social and Political State of France,
Prussia, Switzerland, Italy, and other Parts
of Europe, during the present century.
2 . e d . L o n d . 1842 5

In Italy, a n d in Holland, the social c o n d i t i o n of great c o m m e r c i a l wealth,


with comparatively little e m p l o y m e n t given by it to the m a s s of the people,
called into existence painters, sculptors, architects; furnished artists, a n d
e n c o u r a g e m e n t for t h e m . (11) M o n e y rent deteriorates the c o n d i t i o n of a
small t e n a n t in two ways. ... He m u s t sell all his best p r o d u c e , his grain, his 10
butter, his flax, his pig, a n d subsist of the m e a n e s t of food, his worst pota-
toes a n d water, to m a k e sure of m o n e y for his rent. It thus deteriorates his
standard of living. He is also t e m p t e d by m o n e y r e n t out of the p a t h of cer-
tainty into that of c h a n c e . It thus deteriorates his m o r a l condition. (44) In
the social E c o n o m y of France, o n e family in every 46 lives by functionar- 15
ism, and at the public expense; there is o n e functionary family for every
46 families of the people. (69) In t h e ratio of population, 189 paid function-
aries in F r a n c e live u p o n the public, by doing t h e duties which, at the ut-
most, from 30 to 35 paid functionaries live by doing in Scotland. (71)
Abroad, the e m p l o y m e n t u n d e r G o v e r n m e n t , in the present age, attracts to 20
it, as the c h u r c h of R o m e did in t h e m i d d l e ages, all the m i n d , industry,
a n d capital of the m i d d l e classes, on w h o m the wealth a n d prosperity of a
country are founded. (73, 4)
Die Bauernfamilie in D e u t s c h l a n d hat its own raw material, d. h. flax,
h e m p , wool, hides, raised by itself; has h o u s e - r o o m a n d t i m e i d l e t i m e in 25
winterto work t h e m up ... T h e whole agricultural population, if n o t m a n -
ufacturing in some wayspinning, weaving, m a k i n g h o u s e h o l d s goods,

100
Aus Samuel Laing (sen.): Notes of a traveller

working in iron, wood, or cloth, for t h e i r own use, during t h e winter


m o n t h s w o u l d be totally idle all t h e winter half year. It is a saving of t i m e
with us to b u y all, a n d m a k e n o t h i n g at h o m e . It would be a waste of t i m e
o n t h e C o n t i n e n t n o t t o m a k e a t h o m e all t h a t can b e m a d e . ... owing t o
5 this c i r c u m s t a n c e in t h e social E c o n o m y of G e r m a n y t h e h o m e m a r k e t , on
which alone any great i n d u s t r i a l prosperity c a n be founded, is, a n d always
will be, i n c o n s i d e r a b l e . (286[, 287]) Exclusiveness, t h e soul of fashion, c a n
n o t exist in t h e p r e s e n t c h e a p , extensive p r o d u c t i o n of clothing m a t e r i a l .
This greater steadiness of fashion with t h e great m a s s of c o n s u m e r s of
10 cloth, c o t t o n a n d silk, a n d t h e longer e n d u r a n c e , a n d greater e x t e n s i o n of
t h e d e m a n d for a n y fashion t h a t o n c e gets established, enable m a c h i n e r y
a n d large capital to work even u p o n objects which would have b e e n left for
merly to h a n d w o r k ; a n d t h e field for h a n d l o o m w e a v e r s is n a r r o w e d to t h e
p r o d u c t i o n of a few fancy articles. (364) It costs a vast deal m o r e t i m e a n d
15 labour to bring all this finely cooked food together: it costs, at t h e least,
twice as m u c h of h u m a n t i m e a n d l a b o u r to d i n e 5 m i l l i o n s of french or
g e r m a n people, as to d i n e 5 m i l l i o n s of English; a n d t i m e a n d l a b o u r are
the basis of all n a t i o n a l wealth a n d prosperity. T i m e a n d l a b o u r e m p l o y e d
unproductively are capital t h r o w n away. (368) In m a n y b r a n c h e s of i n d u s -
20 try, . B. glassmaking, i r o n founding, s o a p m a k i n g , c o t t o n s p i n n i n g h a b e n
die grossen Capitalisten in E n g l a n d s c h o n das M o n o p o l . D i e excessive tax
a t i o n h a t die n o c h befrdert, d e n n sie vergrssert d e n a m o u n t des vorzu-
streckenden Capitals. (374) t h e s h e p h e r d a n d h u n t e r states are t h e retro-
grade, and n o t the progressive steps of t h e h u m a n race from o n e stage of
25 civilisation to another. (416) Im alten R o m The saving of l a b o u r a n o b -
ject which has led to t h e perfection of labour in all t h e useful arts in o u r
state of societywas no object in their state of society. All was d o n e by
slaves, and great m u l t i t u d e s of t h e m ||39| at c o m m a n d , and by overseers or
freed m e n entertained a b o u t t h e families of t h e great. Any thing m a y be
30 produced, if waste of t i m e , labour, h u m a n life, a n d happiness, be left out of
the estimate of t h e cost of p r o d u c t i o n s (418) H a u p t p e c h fr Italien: T h e
great source of industry a n d civilisation in F r a n c e , is the cultivation of t h e
vine, a n d its n a t u r a l exclusion from all t h e N o r t h of F r a n c e . ... It n o t only
gives within F r a n c e itself a c o n s t a n t interchange of industry for industry
35 etc etc. Italy has n o t this advantage. W i t h her e q u a l or nearly e q u a l p r o d u c -
tiveness of soil a n d climate over all, b o t h in the kinds and q u a n t i t i e s of h e r
products, no considerable m a s s of her p o p u l a t i o n are d e p e n d i n g on e a c h
other's industry for t h e supply of their m u t u a l wants, a n d inseparably
b o u n d u p with e a c h other b y c o m m o n interests. Italy has n o n a t u r a l capa-
40 bilities of raising up s u c h a division in t h e m a s s e s of her p o p u l a t i o n by
manufacturing or c o m m e r c i a l industry. T h e r e is little c o m m a n d over wa-

101
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

terpower, a n d n o n e of firepower, in the Italian p e n i n s u l a for moving m a -


chinery. T h e Po, the Adige, the T e c i n o , a n d all t h e A l p i n e rivers; the Tiber,
the A r n o , a n d all from t h e A p e n n i n e s , owing to the melting of the snow at
their m a i n s o u r c e s , partake of the character of m o u n t a i n - s t r e a m s , having
s u c h difference of level at different seasons, that millseats on their b a n k s , 5
at which waterpower can be always available, are extremely rare. Italian
a u c h schlecht fr c o m m e r c i a l industry oder zu supporting a seafaring pop-
ulation. She h a s little coasting trade, b e c a u s e all parts of h e r territory pro-
d u c e nearly the same articles in sufficient a b u n d a n c e for the inhabitants,
a n d has little trade, for t h e same reason, with t h e other countries, on the 10
M e d i t e r r a n e a n . ... Cities u n d towns, zu 5 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0 E i n w o h n e r sehr hufig
in Italy, vielleicht m e h r als irgend wo in Europa, within so small an area.
Aber of a very peculiar character. T h e country is so fertile, that each of
these masses of population draws its subsistence from, a n d extends its in-
fluence over, a very small circle beyond its own town walls. All capital, in- 15
dustry, intelligence, civil authority, and business, public or private; all
trade, m a n u f a c t u r e or c o n s u m p t of the objects of trade a n d m a n u f a c t u r e ,
a n d it m a y be said all civilisation, are centralised within these cities, a n d
the small circles of country a r o u n d t h e m from which they draw the articles
of their c o n s u m p t . ... E a c h city or town, within its own circle, suffices for 20
itself, is a metayer family u p o n a great scale living u p o n its own farm, a n d
having no d e p e n d e n c e u p o n , or c o n n e x i o n with, the industry, interests,
prosperity, or business of its neighbours in the land; a n d very little c o m m u -
n i c a t i o n or traffic with any other masses of population, by carriers, wag-
gons, carts, diligences or water conveyances, the objects of interchange be- 25
ing, from the general b o u n t y of n a t u r e , b u t very few between t h e m . T h e y
are m o r a l oases, beyond which, all is desert. W i t h i n t h e m people are re-
fined, intelligent, wealthy, i m b u e d with a taste for the fine arts, a n d in-
spired with liberal ideas of the constitutional rights of the people, a n d na-
tional i n d e p e n d e n c e of their country; a n d without, the people belong to a 30
different country, age, a n d state of civilisation, are ignorant, poor, halfcivi-
lised, clothed in sheepskins, or u n s c o u r e d , brown, woollen cloaks, or are
halfclothed etc ... Here, the townpopulation, draw the m e a n s of buying as
well as what they buy, from the Country, leaving on the l a n d the cattle a n d
the peasantry to reproduce next year their own food, a n d the incomes of 35
the town populations. ||40| T h e princes, nobility, or other landholders,
where the land is not, as in Tuscany, divided a m o n g the peasantry, the
higher clergy, the military a n d civil establishments of government, local
a n d general, with their armies of functionaries, live in the towns a n d cities
with the t r a d e s m e n who live by supplying t h e m . The traffic between town 40
a n d country is small, b e c a u s e there are no c o n s u m e r s in t h e country; its

102
Aus Samuel Laing (sen.): Notes of a traveller

produce is c o n s u m e d in the towns without any return. ... Italy is dotted


over with these separate a n d distinct masses of population, forming, no
whole of power, wealth, c o n n e c t e d industry, c o m m o n interests, objects or
feeling; a n d this state of d i s u n i o n in the social e c o n o m y of the Italian p e o -
5 pie is ... the effect of n a t u r a l , n o t of political causes. ... social u n i o n , n a -
tional spirit, interests a n d industry exist only in masses of people living by
each other. ... T h e power of the sword in the t i m e of t h e R o m a n s , t h e
power of c o m m e r c i a l capital in t h e m i d d l e ages, the power of t h e sword
again in the days of N a p o l e o n compressed Italy, or distinct portions of
10 Italy, into n a t i o n a l m a s s e s in form a n d g o v e r n m e n t ; b u t when the pressure
was removed, the parts started a s u n d e r again ... the b o u n t y of n a t u r e en-
ables m a n to live u n c o n n e c t e d with m a n by ties of c o m m o n interests a n d
necessities, and exchanges of industry. ( 4 7 8 - 4 8 1 ) T h e e n o r m o u s capital
which superstition in t h e m i d d l e ages, a n d down even to m o d e r n times,
15 drew to R o m e , the vast wealth which the c o m m e r c e of the East brought, in
the same ages, to Florence, Pisa, G e n o a , V e n i c e , have all b e e n laid out u n -
productively ... It has b e e n r e c k o n e d t h a t the churches of Italy, with their
embellishments, their marbles, jewels, gold a n d silver o r n a m e n t s , paintings
and statuary, have cost m o r e , t h a n t h e fee-simple of t h e whole l a n d of t h e
20 Italian peninsula would a m o u n t to, if sold at the present average price per
acre. This e n o r m o u s outlay of capital has b e e n altogether u n p r o d u c t i v e .
Ebenso die vast u n d splendid palaces, with their o r n a m e n t a l architecture,
their magnificent galleries of precious paintings, statues, fine marbles, a n d
all the costly glory displayed, even now in their decay etc. (482) t h e beset-
25 ting error of c o m m e r c i a l wealth, in the ages a n d countries which p r e c e d e d
England a n d her rise, has b e e n to overbuild a n d overdisplay itself in u n r e -
productive objects, instead of retaining their capitals as working m e a n s or
capitals in trade or m a n u f a c t u r e s . (483, 4)

103
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

Gaskell, P. (Surgeon.) The Manufacturing


Population of England.
L o n d o n 1833.

ist n u r die erste Auflage v o n

P. Gaskell (Surgeon):
Artisans and Machinery:
The Moral and Physical Condition of the
Manufacturing Population considered with
Reference to Mechanical Substitutes for
human Labour.
London.1836.

1) Domestic Manufacture.

T h e distaff, the spinning wheel, producing a single thread, a n d subse-


quently the j e n n y and m u l e , were to be found forming a part of the comple-
m e n t of h o u s e h o l d furniture in the majority of the cottage h o m e s of G r e a t
Britain, whilst every h a m l e t a n d village r e s o u n d e d with the clack of the
h a n d l o o m . (12) Die domestic manufacturers were scattered over the entire
surface of the country. ... T h e yarn which they spun, a n d which was want-

104
Aus Peter Gaskell: Artisans and machinery

ed by the weaver, was received or delivered, as the case m i g h t be, by |


|41| agents, who travelled for the wholesale h o u s e s ; or depots were estab-
lished in particular n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , to which they could apply at weekly
periods. (13) Some surprise m a y be excited by the assertion ... t h a t sexual
5 intercourse was almost universal prior to marriage in the agricultural dis-
tricts. (20) Various circumstances h a d b e e n for a considerable period pro-
ducing important modifications in the c o n d i t i o n of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g p o p -
ulation, prior to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s t e a m as an antagonist to h u m a n
power. (23) Der distaff u n d spinning wheel, producing a single thread,
10 lange die only m e t h o d s of spinning. G e n M i t t e des 18' Jh. die d e m a n d for
cloth so increased, d a die inventive faculties of those interested in it were
called into activity, a n d improved m a c h i n e s for spinning were very s o o n
the result. Sehr viel Vorurtheile dagegen. Einige driven durch Verfolgung
in fremde Lnder. T r o t z d e m zwang die w a c h s e n d e Nachfrage n a c h cloth
15 die manufacturers to the a d o p t i o n verbesserter S p i n n m e t h o d e n ; for the dif-
ficulty h a d always lain in producing an a d e q u a t e supply of materials in a
state fit for the loom. D i e s e m abgeholfen d u r c h die m u l e u n d j e n n y , b o t h
of which enabled t h e spinner to p r o d u c e a greatly increased quantity of
yarn. (23, 24) D e r h a n d l o o m w e a v e r gewann sehr durch diese improve-
20 m e n t s , without any extra outlay of capital ... A family of 4 adult persons,
with 2 children as winders, e a r n e d at the e n d of the last a n d at t h e c o m -
m e n c e m e n t of the present century, 4 /. per week, w h e n working 10 h o u r s
per day; when work was pressed they could earn m o r e . (24) E i n e r der ersten
effects der constant d e m a n d u p o n t h e labour of the weaver, resulting from
25 a m o r e extensive a n d p e r m a n e n t supply of yarn, was the gradual a b a n d o n -
m e n t of farming as an accessory, which h a d b e e n very c o m m o n with t h e
m o r e respectable portion of the weavers. His labour, when employed on his
loom, profitabler u n d m e h r i m m e d i a t e in its return, t h a n w h e n devoted to
agricultural pursuits. Die led zu dem new order of farm tenants, at will. (25)
30 So wurde der weaver a simple labourer. (I.e.) Die great body of h a n d l o o m
weavers i m m e r in zwei Klassen zertheilt; die, die landholders zugleich,
u n d die entirely d e p e n d a n t u p o n weaving for their support. Leztre h a t t e n
i m m e r gelitten von der impossibility of supplying themselves with m a t e r i -
als for their labour. Considerable vacations oft occurring in d i e s e m respect
35 u n d d a n n sie in privations. Diese Klasse also hob sich, whrend die erste sank.
(26) Die ganze Klasse raised on the whole their general character as a body,
rendered t h e m m o r e u n i t e d , u n d gab i h n e n c o m m u n i t y o f interests a n d
feeling. (27) Sehr m a t e r i a l i m p r o v e m e n t d a h e r gradually operating wh-
r e n d des h a l b e n Jh. u n m i t t e l b a r vor Einfhrung der s t e a m power. N i c h t
40 v o m increase in d e m rate of p a y m e n t for labour, sondern from a m a r k e t
generally understocked, and a constantly increasing p r o d u c t i o n of yarn,

105
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

which enabled t h e m to work full hours, a n d consequently to throw off a reg-


ular a n d sufficient quantity of cloth. (I.e.) In d e n early t i m e s of m a n u f a c -
turing, the spinner and the weaver were to some extent s y n o n y m o u s , - the
distaff, the wheel, and the loom being all called into requisition by a single
family. At a later period, als die S p i n n m a s c h i n e n verbessert, u n d als diese 5
m a c h i n e s m i t j e d e m Schritt m o r e bulky, m o r e complicated, and conse-
quently m o r e expensive wurden, division zwischen weaver u n d spinner ...
Zu dieser Periode, when spinning was b e c o m e ||42| a separate b r a n c h , a n d
when the division between the two bodies was well defined, the spinners
were j o i n e d by another class of persons, who h a d heretofore h e l d aloof from 10
m a n u f a c t u r e ; these were the yeomen, the small freeholders. ([28,] 29) D e r yeo-
m a n bisher s u r r o u n d e d by petty farmers, die h a d generally eked out their
l a n d cultivation by being weavers, a n d who h a d served h i m as bulwarks or
breakwaters against the i m p e n d i n g storm. Diese removed o n e by one, gab
[ g e g e n ] andre race of m e n auf who gave a considerably increased rent, u n d 15
by improved m o d e s of husbandry, soon drove t h e small proprietor from the
m a r k e t s which he h a d so long supplied. So der y e o m a n was driven to e m -
bark some portion of his m e a n s in the p u r c h a s e of spinning machines, u n d
before very long, great quantities of yarn were p r o d u c e d by the i n m a t e s of
old farmhouses, in which previously the most sluggish inertness h a d pre- 20
s
vailed. / derselben, die purchased diese machines muten zu loan, meist Hypo-
7

thek, ihre Zuflucht nehmen, to raise money. ([29,] 30) D e r Prei der complicir-
teren Spinnmaschinen sehr betrchtlich u n d removte ihn aus d e m r e a c h der
inferior class of weavers. Zugleich m o n i e d m e n b e g a n to fix their attention
on a b r a n c h of trade, the returns from which were very rapid. D i e b r o u g h t 25
a farther accession of capital into it, a n d led to the erection of milk, c o n t a i n -
ing a less or greater n u m b e r of spinning m a c h i n e s , propelled by water
power; with the assistance of h u m a n labour. Diese mills g e b a u t in einiger
distance von den towns, doch so n a h als U m s t n d e erlaubten for the conve-
n i e n c e of markets, u n d readiness of transport for the raw a n d m a n u f a c t u r e d 30
material. Their site, sonst, durch 2 U m s t n d e b e s t i m m t : 1) die Existenz
eines stream of sufficient volume u n d p e r m a n e n c e u n d 2) die neighbour-
h o o d of suitable workmen. (30, 1) Diese mills ausschlielich devoted d e n
first processes of m a n u f a c t u r e , carding u n d spinning. Ihr gradual increase
wirkte bald auf den domestic manufacturer, his profits quickly fell, w o r k m e n 35
being readily found to s u p e r i n t e n d the mill labour, zu einer h o h e n Arbeits-
rate aber viel lower als der estimated rate of h o m e labour. A n o t h e r cause
which t e n d e d to injure the private spinner was the incessant and expensive
improvements in the construction of machines, (wie h e u t e dieselbe cause of
distress wirkt auf die woollen und bobbin-net manufactures.) W e r E i n J a h r 40
eine b e d e u t e n d e S u m m e im A n k a u f der besten J e n n y ausgelegt, im folgen-

106
Aus Peter Gaskell: Artisans and machinery

den Jahr so behindhand, da mit dem ussersten Flei er k a u m G a r n genug


s p i n n e n k o n n t e to repay him for his present labour, in Folge von alterations
which threw the productive power of his machine in the background. T h e
price of yarn b e c a m e of necessity depreciated in proportion to the q u a n t i t y
5 produced, which was now m o r e t h a n sufficient to supply the h o m e de-
m a n d . The number of machines which at this period were thrown back into the
market, gave a strong impulse to the growth of the mills; a machine which was
not sufficiently perfect for the purpose of domestic manufacture doing well
enough in a mill in conjunction with others, worked at a less rate of wages, and
10 assisted by water power, when its use was valueless to its original owner; he was
consequently left in many cases, pekunir, schlimmer dran als beim Beginn sei-
ner new vocation, no time having been given him to cover its first cost. (31, 2) |
|43| D i e meisten der y e o m e n gingen so caput. Ihre little estates b e k a m e n in
wenigen J a h r e n so e n c u m b e r e d as to be utterly worthless to t h e m u n d a
15 very rapid u n d very extensive c h a n g e griff Platz in der l a n d e d proprietor-
ship von 1 7 9 0 - 1 8 1 0 . Einige arbeiteten sich durch Energie zu d e n m o s t
successful s t e a m m a n u f a c t u r e r s herauf, wie die Peels, die Strutts etc. ...
Eew of the m e n who entered the trade rich were successful. W h r e n d die,
c o m m e n c i n g in an h u m b l e way, generally from exercising s o m e handicraft,
20 as clockmaking, h a t t i n g etc aufkamen. (32, 3) V o n 1738 (invention of t h e
fly shuttle by J o h n Kay) bis 1800 diese series of changes vollendet. N u n a n d -
rer grosser change in d e n relative situations der 2 divisions of m a n u f a c t u r -
ers. Die improved m a c h i n e s , ihre increased n u m b e r , das establishment of
mills, the accession of capital, p r o d u c i r t e n alle z u s a m m e n viel m e h r G a r n
25 t h a n could by any possibility be converted into cloth by the t h e n h a n d -
loom weavers. Das surplus in die F r e m d e versandt oder r e m a i n e d a dead
weight u p o n the maker. Die d e m a n d for cloth inde n o c h u n s u p p l i e d u n d
it b e c a m e necessary to i n t r o d u c e great n u m b e r s of new h a n d s as weavers.
Solange die supply of G a r n begrenzt oder u n t e r der d e m a n d oder j u s t e q u a l
30 ihr war, die weavers h a d felt b u t little competition. Ihre wages d a h e r sta-
tionr geblieben. Jezt, w h e n der outcry for cloth c o n t i n u e d u n d G a r n
a b u n d a n t , a large body of weavers immigrated into the manufacturing districts:
great numbers of agricultural labourers deserted their occupations u n d a n e w
race of h a n d l o o m weavers ... w u r d e n producirt, of a still lower grade als die
35 primitive; sie hatte geerndtet e i n e n viel g e r i n g e m a m o u n t of wages u n d
waren accustomed to be mere labourers. Die m a s t e r spinners fanden sie pa-
rat zu e i n e m n i e d r i g e m Prei zu arbeiten a n d t h u s discovered an outlet for
their extra quantity of yarn. D i e fhrte zu grosser Depreciation im Prei
der h a n d l o o m Arbeit. (33, 4) Die ersten manufacturers, who h a d to trust
40
entirely t o h a n d labour, were subjected periodically t o severe i m m e d i a t e
losses durch den refractory spirit of their h a n d s , who timed their opportu-

107
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XI

nity, when the m a r k e t s were particularly pressing, to urge their claims. ... a
crisis was rapidly approaching die d e n progress of m a n u f a c t u r e s wrde ge-
checkt haben, when steam u n d its application to machinery at once turned the
current against the men. (34, 35) (first s t e a m engine applied to cotton spin-
n i n g errichtet 1783. Sir R. Arkwright's first u s e of this power 1790. 1800 5
a b o u t 32 s t e a m engines in M a n c h e s t e r . D i e s t e a m l o o m s i n t r o d u c e d von
1800 bis 1806 u n d followed by serious riots, a n d breaking a n d destroying of
machinery.) V o n der Zeit der I n t r o d u c t i o n der steampower painful change
in der condition der handloomweavers ... sie have b e e n crushed b e n e a t h
the steamengine. (35) W a r u m w u r d e n diese W e b e r n i c h t die first workers 10
on steam looms, and in other factory labours? ... Erst sie feindlich gegen
die Maschinerie, die sie b e t r a c h t e t e n als infringement u p o n their proper
d o m a i n of industry. D i e hielt sie entfernt von d e n ersten spinning u n d
weaving mills; so that these were furnished with their c o m p l e m e n t of h a n d s
from other sources. ( 3 5 , 6 ) D a n n die majority of workers in den early spin- 15
ning establishments were children; partly on a c c o u n t of the m a c h i n e s be-
ing small, a n d partly from ||44| a difficulty of procuring adult labour. D a n n
verbesserte sich die M a s c h i n e r i e sehr rasch u n d die geschicktre Arbeit ber-
all XXXweichend ... die steam looms erheischen k e i n e n adult labourer, sondern
sind ganz supplied by y o u n g w o m e n u n d girls ... there is no r o o m for the 20
m a l e h a n d l o o m weaverthe factories are closed against h i m by the stern-
est necessity. (36, 7) Families, fast 1 Million von h u m a n beings, d e p e n d e n t
on handloomweaving, die ganze F a m i l i e 14 S t u n d e n tglich arbeitend, m i t
stets fallendem Lohn. (37) N a c h Mr. Felkin, in d e m Factory C o m m i s s i o n
Report, the net weekly earnings of the h a n d s engaged in the cotton stock- 25
ing trade von 4 zu 7 s. A u f diese S u m m e , a m a n , his wife u n d ihre children
have to be supported. (38) E i n e andre large u n d interesting class of d o m e s -
tic manufacturers ist connected m i t d e m bobbin-net trade. An
200,000 young w o m e n darin engagirt. (lace-embroidering) "They begin
early a n d work late, and during this long daily period their bodies are con- 30
stantly b e n t over the frame on which the lace is extended, the h e a d being
usually kept within 5 or 6 inches of the frame, the edge of which presses
against the lower part of the chest. O n e effect, universally p r o d u c e d is
short-sightedness, and often a general weakness of the eyes, with c o n s u m p -
tive tendency, distortion of the limbs, a n d general debility, from the con- 35
finement a n d the posture." (38)

108
Aus Peter Gaskell: Artisans and machinery

ch. 2. Factory System.

M o d e geworden d e n K i n d e r n selbst ihre wages a u s z u z a h l e n . Z a h l t so sei-


n e n Eltern n u r a stated s u m for food a n d lodging. (64) Ist reiner lodger
im lterlichen H a u s . (I.e.) (Separation of Families, breaking up of t h e
5 home)

ch. 3. ch. IV. ch. V. Social Condition.

ch. VI. Infant Labour. Female Labour.

T h e m a c h i n e s for s p i n n i n g were, day after day, b e c o m i n g m o r e bulky, a n d


requiring greater skill a n d exertion for producing fine n u m b e r s , so t h a t
10 adults gradually found their way to t h e m . (140) Nearly the whole of the
h a n d s employed in the silk factories are females, as well as in t h e Scotch
flax, cotton, and woollen mills. (143) Vast n u m b e r s der factory children are
hired out at the rate of 1 s. 6 d. per week. (153) Das K i n d geboren von F a -
brikeltern: wieder n u n selbst Fabrikarbeiter, n o t only is its m u s c u l a r sys-
15 t e m flaccid, supplied with t h i n watery blood; its m u c o u s surfaces u n -
healthy; its glandular system deranged; b u t the groundwork u p o n which
these are built, the frame u p o n which they are arranged, is i n c o m p l e t e in
comparison. T h e b o n y fabric has h a d no opportunity for b e c o m i n g proper-
ly solidified ... c o n t a i n s as yet too large a proportion of cartilaginous m a t -
20 ter. (158, 9) W h e r e the b o n y system is still imperfect, the vertical position it
is compelled to r e t a i n influences its direction; the spinal C o l u m n b e n d s
b e n e a t h the weight of t h e h e a d , bulges o u t laterally, or is dragged forward
by t h e weight of the parts composing the chest; the pelvis yields b e n e a t h t h e
opposing pressure downwards, a n d the resistance given by t h e t h i g h - b o n e s ;
25 its capacity is lessened, s o m e t i m e s m o r e a n d sometimes less; [the legs]
curve, and the whole body loses height, in c o n s e q u e n c e of this general
yielding a n d b e n d i n g of its parts. (159) |

109
H e f t XII

I Heft XII.
London. 1851. Juli. |

I Inhalt.
1) Gaskell. Artisans and Machinery. London. 1836.
2) Anderson (James) An Enquiry into the Causes that have hitherto re- 5
tardea the advancement of Agriculture. Edinb. 1779.
3) Anderson: (James) Essays relating to Agriculture and Rural Affairs.
3 vol. Edinb. 1777-1796.
4) Mathieu de Dombasle: Annales Agricoles de Roville. Paris. 1825 bis
1830. 10
5) An Enquiry into those Principles respecting the Nature of Demand and
the Necessity of Consumption. London. 1821.
6) Samuel Turner. Considerations upon the Agriculture etc London 1822.
7) Thomas Hopkins. Economical Enquiries. London. 1822.
8) Thompson (Perronet) The true theory of Rent. 2 ed. London. 1832. 15
9) Sir Edward West., Prices of Corn and Wages of Labour. London. 1826.
10) Thomas Hopkins. On Rent of Land and its Influence on Subsistence
and Population. London. 1828.
11) Ricardo. (David) An Essay on the Influence of the low Price of Corn on
the Profits of Stock etc London. 1815. 20
12) Ricardo. (D.) On Protection to Agriculture. London. 1822.
13) The Source and Remedy of the National Difficulties etc London 1821.
14) Somers (Robert) Letters from the Highlands or, the famine of 1847.
London. 1848.
15) Liebig (Justus) Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricul- 25
tur und Physiologie. Braunschweig. 1842. \

110
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853. Heft XII. Inhaltsverzeichnis
Aus Peter Gaskell: Artisans and machinery (Fortsetzung)

Iii Gaskell (Contin. von Heft 11)


There are, in the Cotton factories Male ... Female
in Lancashire and Cheshire 100 to 103
Cottonfactories in Scotland 100 to 209
Flaxfactories in Leeds 100 to 147
Flaxfactories in Dundee
and East Coast of Scotland 100 to 280. (173)

ch. VII, ch. VIII, ch. IX. Physical Condition.

Die population of G r e a t Britain frher gesnder als jezt trotz d e m d i m i n -


10 ished rate of mortality. T a k e n as individuals they were m o r e robust, fuller
of organic activity, enjoyed in m u c h higher degree the feelings of exist-
ence; but, in c o n s e q u e n c e , their diseases were of a m u c h m o r e a c u t e char-
acter, and infinitely m o r e fatal in their t e n d e n c y . (201) In d e n Fabrikstd-
ten disease generally assumes a chronic type; its progress is slow, a n d often
15 interferes but little with the proper functional actions which are essential to
life. Neither, in m a n y instances, does it, of necessity, shorten its d u r a t i o n ;
b u t rather, by keeping the standard of vital energy somewhat below par, it
abstracts the system from the impression of m o r e fatal affections, w h i c h
kill by disturbing the circulation. (205) 1831 h a t t e L o n d o n 1 m e d i c a l m a n
20 auf je 345 i n h a b i t a n t s , Paris auf je 900 u n d M a n c h e s t e r auf je 1 2 1 - 3 in-
habitants. (208 Note) In M a n c h e s t e r m o r e t h a n % of all children born to
the lower class perish before they have completed their 5 years. (212) (Ptis-
sier: Sur les Maladies des Artisans. Thackrah: On the effect of the Principal
Arts, Trades, Professions etc, u p o n H e a l t h a n d Longevity. [222]) T h e singu-
25 larly miserable aspect presented by m a n y of the operatives, shewing, as it
were, an epitome of every thing that m e l a n c h o l y can impress on t h e h u m a n
face, is owing to these bowel affections. (235) Dieser tribe of diseases in

113
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

n e u r e r Zeit sehr hufig u n t e r d e n higher classes of society, having their ori-


gin in too nourishing a n d s t i m u l a n t a diet. [236] (235 die R e d e v o n d e n
d e r a n g e m e n t s in d e n digestive organs.)

ch. X. Education etc.

ch. XI. Combinations. 5

ch. XII. Truck and Cottage System.

D i e s e b e i d e n A u s g e b u r t e n d e s factory S y s t e m : the a p p r o x i m a t i o n w h i c h
these show of the c o n d i t i o n of the labourer, u n d e r the factory system, to t h e
t i m e s of feudal t e n u r e a n d vassalage in E n g l a n d is Singular. (293) D i e cot-
tages, gruppirt besonders um countryfactories, m e i s t das property des mill- 10
owner, a n d the o c c u p a n t s are universally his d e p e n d e n t s . Oft diese d e p e n d -
e n c e viel absoluter als je u n t e r d e m feudal lord. D i e social existence des
d e p e n d e n t hngt von diesem lord ab. A r o u n d m a n y mills a fixed p o p u l a t i o n
has arisen, which is as m u c h a part a n d parcel of the property of the m a s t e r
as his machinery. T h e rapid i m p r o v e m e n t in this last has p u t an end to the 15
necessity for new labourers, a n d t h u s little colonies are formed u n d e r the
absolute government of the employer. Combination amongst the great body of
the operatives has as yet checked, or rather overpowered, the growing superiority
of the master. (294) Das cottagesystem, ist in fact an offset des truck system. Erst-
res sich rapidly entwickelnd. (298) This system of cottagebuilding is n o t 20
universal: in towns where masses of labourers are already collected, a n d ,
w h e n considerable expense would attend u p o n it, it is very little practised. It
is chiefly in out-districts; a n d it is a striking ||2| proof of the advantages to
the master, that the great manufacturers are gradually creeping to the out-
skirts, or into localities a few miles from the great towns. D i e extension a n d 25
influence of this system m a y be very distinctly seen in the now p o p u l o u s
township of Hyde and N e w t o n , Duckenfield, etc about 7 miles from M a n -
chester etc. Die population dieser districts 1801 k a u m 3 0 0 0 , 1 8 3 0 zu 26,000
angewachsen ... die dwellings dieser population in einer large proportion in
d e n h a n d s der manufacturers, als owners oder als general t e n a n t s . (299) Al- 30
l e r d i n g s : They have b e e n forced to build, a n d are still building; b u t it does
not lessen the evils a t t e n d a n t u p o n the System. (300) Die masters, m a n y of
w h o m have 80, 100, 200 or m o r e of those cottages surrounding, are i m -
m e n s e gainers by the arrangement. Die cost of building a range of h o u s e s ,
such as these, z.B. 100, nicht, u p o n the m o s t liberal average, m e h r als 35
5000; im Durchschnitt, d e m very best, 50 /. will over a n d above cover the

114
Aus Peter Gaskell: Artisans and machinery (Fortsetzung)

outlay fr every cottage. N o w for the outlay of 5000 /. the capitalist draws an
a n n u a l i n c o m e of 800 1., or 13%, a n d completely covers himself in little
more t h a n 6 years. This profitable return is b u r d e n e d with no drawback; no
rent is lost, every paynight it is d e d u c t e d from t h e wages. (302) Also erstens:
5 dieser disproportionate rate of interest. D a n n erleichtert i h m die congre-
gating his m e n , u n d e r his i m m e d i a t e control 1) das trucksystem, d e n n er
b a u t 2 oder 3 shops, u n d h o u s e s calculated fr taverns u n d beerhouses u n d
if he has no direct dealing in t h e m , he abstracts an equivalent rent. 2) it en-
ables h i m to shorten t h e h o u r s allowed for m e a l s , to begin earlier in t h e
10 m o r n i n g , to c o n t i n u e later at night. (I.e.)

Ch. XIII. Influence of Machinery on Human Labour.

T h e surplus h a n d s wrden die manufacturers befhigen to lessen the rate


of wages; b u t the certainty that any considerable r e d u c t i o n would be fol-
lowed by i m m e d i a t e i m m e n s e losses from turnouts, extended stoppages,
15 a n d various other i m p e d i m e n t s which would be thrown in their way, m a k e s
t h e m prefer the slower process of m e c h a n i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s by which,
though they m a y triple p r o d u c t i o n , they require no new m e n . (314) w e n n
die improvements n o t quite displace the workman, will render o n e m a n
capable of producing, or rather of superintending, the p r o d u c t i o n of q u a n -
20 tity now requiring 10 or 20 labourers. (315) M a c h i n e s have b e e n invented
which enable o n e m a n to p r o d u c e as m u c h yarn as 250, or 300 even, could
have produced 70 years ago, which enable 1 m a n a n d 1 boy to print as
m a n y goods as a 100 m e n a n d a 100 boys could have printed formerly. D i e
150,000 w o r k m e n in the spinning mills p r o d u c i r e n so viel G a r n als
25 40,000,000 an d e m onethreadwheel h t t e n produciren k n n e n . (316) 2 Mil-
lions of handloomweavers in H i n d u s t a n have b e e n driven from their labour
by m a c h i n e r y here, m u l t i t u d e s of w h o m have perished by famine. (324)
Mr G o r d o n an engineer sagt v o m S t e a m : "Considered in its application to
husbandry, the cottager looks forth u p o n the n e a t paling which fences his
30 dwelling; it was sawed by steam. T h e spade with which he digs h i s garden,
the rake, the hoe, the pickaxe, the scythe, the sickle, every i m p l e m e n t of ru-
ral toil which ministers to his necessities, are p r o d u c e d by steam. S t e a m
bruises the oilcake which feeds the farmers cattle; m o u l d s the ploughshare,
which overturns his fields; forms the shears which clip his flock; a n d cards,
35 spins, and weaves the p r o d u c e . Applied to architecture, we find t h e Bria-
rean arms of the steam engine every where at work" etc. ([325,] 326) | | 3 | In
the weaving d e p a r t m e n t the c o n s e q u e n c e of m e c h a n i c a l a d a p t a t i o n is n o w
beginning to be felt in its full force. H i t h e r t o the depression which h a s

115
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An inquiry into the causes ...
Heft XII. Seite 4
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

crept over this d e p a r t m e n t has resulted from c o m p e t i t i o n with s t e a m l o o m s ,


from cheap yarn, from this yarn being exported, and h e n c e compelling t h e
English m e r c h a n t , in order to c o m p e t e with t h e foreign manufacturer, to
bring down the price of cotton cloth below h i s ; a n d from the a m a z i n g pro-
ductiveness of spinning m a c h i n e r y constantly choking the market, whilst 5
h u m a n labour being driven from this d e p a r t m e n t , and having no other re-
source, has b e e n forced to keep itself on the loom. H e n c e it is t h a t the
h a n d cotton manufacturers have kept on t h e increase, the n u m b e r actually
employed far exceeding the factory labourers, a n d that the former are in a
far greater proportion adults t h a n the latter; yet t h e h a n d l a b o u r e r s are 10
charged with being the authors a n d perpetrators of their own r u i n . A b e r
a u c h diese resource will be withdrawn from the operatives. D e r powerloom
n i m m t sehr zu; every new mill which is built contains t h e m , a n d additions
to old mills of weaving r o o m s are going on in every direction. ([329,] 330)
If the 150,000 spinners of the present day s u p e r i n t e n d the p r o d u c t i o n of as 15
m u c h yarn as would have required the l a b o u r of 40 millions of m e n a cen-
tury ago, what is to prevent 1000 doing that which is now d o n e by 150,000?
... If o n e powerloom is 6 x as effective as a h a n d l o o m , why should n o t the
powerloom be doubled in capability in 10 years? These things are yet in their
infancy. ([332,] 333) A b e r B a i n e s : A very good h a n d weaver, 25 oder 20
30 years of age, will weave 2 pieces of 9 - 8 t h s shirting per week. In 1823 a
s t e a m l o o m weaver, about 15 years of age, attending 2 looms, could weave
7 similar pieces in a week. In 1826, a steamloomweaver von 15 J a h r e n , at-
tending 2 looms could weave 12 similar pieces in a week, some a u c h 15. In
1833, a steamloonweaver, von 1 5 - 2 0 J a h r e n , assisted by a girl about 25
12 Jahre, attending 4 looms, can weave 18 similar pieces in a week, s o m e
20. Also 1823 an adult handloomweaver can produce, at the u t m o s t , n i c h t
% von d e m was a girl at steam l o o m ; 1826 n i c h t %\ 1833 nicht % so m u c h .
(334) machinery, in the first place, destroyed d o m e s t i c spinning; in the sec-
ond, it has opened up an i m m e n s e export trade in yarn; a n d in the third, it 30
c o n d e m n s the domestic weaver to clothe the whole world, while he himself
is working 14 hours a day in rags and poverty. (340) D e r Iron Man of R o -
berts zerstrt d e n Factory Spinner. (352)

Year Crime Pauperism Drunkenness Cotton Trade Exports


Commit- Poor Rates Spirits Official Declared 35
ments consumed value value
Gallons
1821 13,155 6,674,938 8,798,655 22,522,079 16,516,758
1822 12,242 6,102,253 8,754,281 23,541,615 16,094,807
1831 19,647 7,929,608 21,845,309 33,682,400 17,182,936 40
1832 20,829 8,255,315 21,778,559 37,060,750 17,344,676 (399)(

116
Aus James Anderson: An inquiry into the causes

Anderson (James) An Inquiry into the


Causes that have hitherto retarded the
Advancement of Agriculture in Europe.
E d i n b u r g h . 1779.

5 D i e Agricultur schwieriger als irgend eine M a n u f a c t u r . Agricultur die abso


lut nothwendige, die n t z l i c h s t e der arts; w a r u m bis j e z t n i c h t weiter ent-
wickelt? (1) Erstens. D i e N o t h w e n d i g k e i t vieler E x p e r i m e n t e . (2, 3) D i e ex-
p e n c e d u r c h dieselben in agriculture. (4) Infinite diversity of soils, die m a y
be so m u c h altered from their original state by t h e m o d e s of c u l t u r e they
10 have formerly b e e n subjected to, by t h e m a n u r e s etc we have no t e r m s
capable of expressing t h a t great diversity of soils, differing from o n e a n -
other by such delicate a n d u n o b s e r v e d peculiarities etc. (5) D i e m a c h t die
N t z l i c h k e i t der E x p e r i m e n t e grer als in a n d r e n arts. U n d die B o d e n der
4 grossen Klassen, clayey, loamy, sandy u n d gravelly u n t e r s c h e i d e n sich
15 wieder sehr. (6) E x p e r i m e n t e r t h er a n , v o n d e r g a n z e n G e s e l l s c h a f t g e -
macht.

119
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Anderson (James) Essays relating to


Agriculture and rural affairs.

3 vol. 1 7 7 7 - 1 7 9 6 .

vol. III.

Essay I. On the Obstacles 5


to the Advancement of Agriculture in England,
and the means of removing them.
Obstacles sind:

1) Commonable lands. (8)

Sie sind schdlich, d e n n sie unterwerfen in regard to their culture a n d 10


m o d e of cropping, gewisses I n d i v i d u e n gehriges L a n d , to certain regula-
tions, which were adopted at a very distant period, wenn Agrikultur n o c h in
ihrer K i n d h e i t u n d ein very dissimilar state of society. (9, 10) In m e h r e n
counties in England m e h r als % des arable land in d i e s e m state. (10) U e b r i -
gens lst sich die common-field h u s b a n d r y n u r im G r u n d auf in die i n a d e - 15
quate size of farms. (20)

120
Aus James Anderson: Essays Relating to agriculture and rural affairs

2) Commons. (31 sqq.)

3) the minute division of land.

Ein L a n d von 100 acres, w e n n j e d e F a m i l i e 3 K i n d e r hat, wrde in der


I l t e n G e n e r a t i o n n u r 2 yards auf d e n M a n n fallen lassen, e a c h m a n ' s
5 property would be barely sufficient to m a k e a grave to hold himself. ([59,]
60)

4) Inadequate size of farms, (p. 76 sqq.)

W h e r e there are two fields, the p r o d u c e of which is nearly as above stated,


n m l i c h das Eine 12 bushels, grad r e m u n e r i r e n d die Auslage, das andre 20,
10 without requiring any i m m e d i a t e outlay for their improvement, t h e farmer
would pay even m o r e rent als 6 . . fr das erste, w h r e n d fr das a n d r e
keine, (wenn 12 b u s h e l s j u s t sufficient for the expence of cultivating, no
rent whatever can be afforded for cultivated land that yields only 12 b u s h -
els, p. 107) Yet it c a n n o t be expected that, if the superior p r o d u c e has b e e n
15 i m m e d i a t e l y occasioned by his own outlay of capital, and exertions of in-
dustry, he can pay nearly the s a m e proportion of it as rent; b u t after t h e
land has b e e n for s o m e t i m e in a p e r m a n e n t state of fertility to t h a t degree,
t h o u g h it even originally derived t h a t fertility from his own industry, he
will be content to pay s u c h a proportion of rent as is here stated. ( 1 0 9 , 1 0 )

20 5) Want of Capital among Farmers.

Existirt fast berall in d i e s e m Eiland dieser want. (124)

6) Andres obstacle: Church lands, lands in Mortmain


and Entails. (146 sqq.)

7) Indefinite claims upon land

25 (tithes, poorrates etc) (157 sqq.)

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Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

8) want of easy means of communication. (209 sqq.)

9) want of markets. (210)

10) fiscal regulations.

(Salzsteuer . .) 220 sqq.

11) law of entails. 5

12) want of means of circulating agriculture knowledge. (228)

13) Die tenantry at will,

ueberhaupt die Unsicherheit der l e a s e s etc. Kurz das Verhltni des


Pchters z u m Landlord, there c a n be no doubt, t h a t while t h e obstruc-
tions above ||5| e n u m e r a t e d shall c o n t i n u e to operate, it would be nearly 10
with equal justice, that we should revile a m a n for his i n d o l e n c e a n d aver-
sion to work, while he was b o u n d h a n d a n d foot so as to r e n d e r h i m incapa-
ble of moving, as to c o m p l a i n of t h e d e t e r m i n e d obstinacy of farmers, for
n o t doing those things that were equally b e y o n d their power. (229)

Essay II On Waste Lands, and the Means of 15


their Improvement.

W a s t e lands k n n e n b e improved, entweder i n d e m m a n sie i n cultivated


fields verwandelt oder i n d e m m a n sie m i t B u m e n bepflanzt. (239)

Part first. Verbesserung durch means of culture.

Fast alle soils k n n e n d u r c h m e n s c h l i c h e A n s t r e n g u n g in Kornfelder ver- 20


wandelt werden. Aber viele zu grrer expence, als d e m improver a reason-
able indemnification gewhren wird. (240[, 241]) Es ist in Betracht g e z o -
g e n worden: 1) Die N a t u r des soil u n d des subsoil. 2) D i e physical
obstructions that stand in t h e way of cultivating that soil, as arising from
rocks or stones, brushwood, trees etc, hurtful m o i s t u r e , inequalities of sur- 25

122
Aus James Anderson: Essays Relating to agriculture and rural affairs

face etc. (241) 3) Clima. 4) D i e F e r n e oder N h e der M r k t e u n d ihr ex-


tent. 5) the Arten, Preisse, Beziehungsart, Zeiten, Q u a n t a wie the k i n d s of
extraneous m a n u r e s can be p u r c h a s e d . 6) the n a t u r e of the roads or other
m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 7) what conveniencies die premises afford for
5 erecting houses, rearing fences, m a k i n g drains etc wie es m i t d e m water b e -
stellt ist; m i t d e m fuel; der state des L a n d s m i t Bezug auf servants u n d la-
bourers. 8) D e r Stand des L a n d s in Bezug auf m e c h a n i c arts. 9) D i e n a t u r e
der t e n u r e by which t h e lands are held. ( 2 4 1 - 4 5 ) In the n e i g h b o u r h o o d of
large towns alone, the e x p e n c e incurred in improving t h e most barren
10 wastes, can be repaid. As you r e c e d e from these great marts, it is necessary
that the soils be of a greater degree of fertility, before the expence of culti-
vating t h e m can be repaid ... je weiter ab, je less a b u n d a n c e of e x t r a n e o u s
m a n u r e can be o b t a i n e d etc desto smaller will be the proportion of waste
land that can be b r o u g h t into cultivation. (251, 2)

15 Part II. Plantation of Trees.

Wo der soil dry u n d infertile, oder wo sein chief or only produce is h e a t h ;


oder wo voll von rocks u n d stones rising to the surface, oder a stiff o b d u r a t e
clay, having little surface p r o d u c e , b e r h a u p t wo der soil poor, p l a n t a t i o n s
am besten, am ertrglichsten, w h r e n d gleichzeitig the ground itself, while
20 the trees c o n t i n u e to grow u p o n it, undergoes, for the most part, a gradual
amelioration, which it would n o t have d o n e in its n a t u r a l state. (353, 4)

123
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Mathieu de Dombasle. Annales


Agricoles de Roville.

Paris. 1829.

2. livraison. 1825.

De l'Etendue des Exploitations rurales dans 5


ses rapports avec la prosprit de l'Agriculture.

Lorsque l'extrme division parcellaire se c o m p l i q u e avec l ' e n c h e v t r e m e n t


des pices qui les r e n d r c i p r o q u e m e n t serves, c o m m e on l'observe dans
u n e partie considrable de la F r a n c e , elle forme un des plus puissans obsta-
cles fr das p e r f e c t i o n n e m e n t de l'agriculture. (206) Klar d a die culture
sera d ' a u t a n t meilleure u n d die profits d ' a u t a n t plus considrables, que le
capital pcuniaire et le capital de connaissances seront plus e x a c t e m e n t pro-
portionns l ' t e n d u e de c h a q u e exploitation, g r a n d e ou petite. (213) Die
grosse Kultur folgenden avantage: Mglich die Theilung der Arbeit d'tablir,
so da c h a q u e h o m m e soit c o n s t a m m e n t occup au m m e genre 15
d'ouvrage. ||6| (213, 14) Ferner: die dpense des attelages verhltnimssig
m o i n d r e in einer g r a n d e ferme als in einer petite. W e n n 10 Pferde nthig
fr eine Exploitation von 100 hectares, 15 oder 16 h i n r e i c h e n d fr eine von
200. E b e n s o verhltnimssig geringer die dpenses de construction et de r-
parations des btimens, die ducation des btes laine n u r b e i grossen exploi- 20
tations mglich, bei k l e i n e n n u r l'aide d ' u n t r o u p e a u c o m m u n , ce qui
suppose la vaine pture, et par c o n s q u e n t l'tat de culture le plus misra-
ble. Die exploitations de g r a n d e culture, lorsque les amliorations de la
culture alterne s'y introduisent, o c c u p e n t un b e a u c o u p plus grand n o m b r e

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Aus Christophe-Joseph-Alexandre Mathieu de Dombasle: Annales agricoles de Roville

de bras que dans le systme d'assolement triennal, m a i s b i e n m o i n s que les


fermes de petite ou m o y e n n e culture ; M a s c h i n e n u n d I n s t r u m e n t e k n n e n
hier z u m Theil die H a n d a r b e i t ersetzen. (215, 16) Also die grosse K u l t u r
giebt d e m M a r k t le plus grand e x c d a n t possible de produits disponibles
5 relativement au n o m b r e d'individus employs le crer u n d elle fournit,
relativement la p o p u l a t i o n totale d ' u n pays, u n e b e a u c o u p plus g r a n d e
quantit des matires p r e m i r e s q u i servent d'aliment l'industrie m a n u -
facturire. Pat am besten fr L n d e r d ' u n e p o p u l a t i o n m o y e n n e , wovon
ein Theil die Stdte b e w o h n t u n d m a n u f a c t u r i r t u n d wo folglich la m a i n
10 d'oeuvre theuer. (216) Die g r a n d e culture n'exige pas u n e plus g r a n d e
masse de capitaux q u e la petite ou la m o y e n n e culture ; elle en exige m o i n s
au contraire, aber, in diesen v e r s c h i e d n e n Systemen, m s s e n die Capita-
lien verschieden distribuirt sein; d a n s la g r a n d e culture, les c a p i t a u x appli-
qus l'agriculture doivent se trouver entre les m a i n s d ' u n petit n o m b r e
15 d ' h o m m e s q u i salarient les bras qu'ils emploient ; die in England der Fall,
wo die grands propritaires grosse A u s l a g e n zur Verbesserung des B o d e n s
m a c h e n u n d wo eine Klasse de fermiers riches u n d die Kredit h a b e n ...
D a n s de telles circonstances, la petite culture ne peut soutenir la concur-
rence avec la grande. Car il ne faut pas oublier que, par la force irrsistible
20 de la n a t u r e des choses, les terres t e n d e n t toujours se ranger entre les
m a i n s de ceux q u i en tirent le profit le plus lev, parce que ce sont ceux-l
qui peuvent y m e t t r e le plus h a u t prix d'achat ou de loyer. ([217,] 218) In
Frankreich dagegen die Capitalien der propritaires u n d spculateurs n i e
dirigs vers l'agriculture. Die i m m e n s e majorit qui se livrent cet art
25 braucht n u r sehr kleine p e c u n i r e M i t t e l dazu, k e i n e n Credit u n d ihre
Kenntnisse im A l l g e m e i n e n n i c h t grsser als la fortune qu'ils possdent.
... A b e r les plus petites proprits sont celles auxquelles on consacre pres-
que toujours le capital le plus considrable, relativement leur t e n d u e .
(218, 19) Die K e n n t n i s s e dieser K l e i n e n a u c h gro, im Verhltni z u m U m -
30 fang. D a h e r gedeiht die kleine Agricultur. (220 [, 221]) U n t e r d e n U m s t n -
den daher dans lesquelles se trouvent placs les h o m m e s q u i se livrent
l'agriculture im grten Theil F r a n k r e i c h s sind die petits propritaires in
der gnstigsten Position p o u r les cultiver avec avantage et ils p e u v e n t par
c o n s q u e n t y mettre un prix d ' a c h a t tel q u e les propritaires q u i dsirent
35 acqurir un d o m a i n e p o u r l'affermer, ne peuvent entrer en c o n c u r r e n c e
avec eux. Les terres r u n i e s en corps de ferme acquirent ainsi par u n e
vente en dtail, u n e a u g m e n t a t i o n de valeur. (221, 2) Aber w e n n der culti-
vateur von grandes exploitations kmpfen k n n e n armes gales m i t d e n
kleinen, d. h. wenn sie p o u r r o n t appliquer Kapital u n d K e n n t n i s s e propor-
40 tionellement gaux d e n e n die der Bauer anwendet, ||7| m s s e n die G r o s s e n
i m m e r siegen u n d die exploitations t e n d r a i e n t c o n s t a m m e n t s'agrandir

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Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

u n d die petites proprits werden sich y r u n i r successivement. (222, 3)


D i e petite culture favorise e x t r m e m e n t la culture des rcoltes-racines et
des plantes potagres, qui fournissent, sur u n e t e n d u e de terre d o n n e ,
u n e si grande m a s s e de substances alimentaires, m a i s q u i doivent tre
c o n s o m m e s tout prs du lieu de production, et q u i ne peuvent gure sup- 5
porter de transports q u e du c h a m p la d e m e u r e du cultivateur, cause de
leur volume et de leur poids. D a h e r in d e n pays excessivement peupls, la
petite culture prsente le seul m o y e n de fournir la subsistance de la p o p u -
lation. (223, 4) E b e n s o sicher da die petite culture fournit le m o i n s d'ex-
c d a n t disponible p o u r le m a r c h ; elle p e u t a l i m e n t e r u n e trs n o m b r e u s e 10
population agricole, m a i s elle emploie tous les bras, et elle c o n s o m m e tout
ou presque tout ce qu'elle produit ; elle n'est d o n c n u l l e m e n t favorable au
dveloppement des autres branches d'industrie, grossen Stdten etc. (224)
La petite culture elle m m e , telle qu'elle est p r a t i q u e o r d i n a i r e m e n t en
F r a n c e , emploie un b e a u c o u p m o i n s grand n o m b r e de bras q u e la 15
m o y e n n e culture ne le fait dans les c a n t o n s les m i e u x cultivs de la F l a n -
d r e : aussi les bnfices q u ' o n en obtient sont ils b e a u c o u p m o i n s levs,
quoiqu'ils soient b i e n suprieurs ceux que prsentent en gnral, chez
n o u s , la grande et la m o y e n n e culture. (227, 8) En supposant q u e de grands
perfectionnements s'introduiraient en F r a n c e dans la petite et la m o y e n n e 20
culture, le rsultat serait ncessairement, d ' u n e part, u n e g r a n d e surabon-
d a n c e de produits alimentaires, suivie d ' u n extrme avilissement dans les
prix, et de l'autre d ' u n r e n c h r i s s e m e n t excessif de la m a i n d ' u v r e . Un tel
tat de choses ne pourrait se soutenir. Je crois avoir suffisamment d m o n -
tr que, dans l'tat actuel de la p o p u l a t i o n de la F r a n c e , le systme de 25
grande culture est le seul qui puisse a d m e t t r e g n r a l e m e n t les perfection-
n e m e n s q u e l'art agricole a reus chez d'autres n a t i o n s de l'Europe. (228,
9) (Si la petite et la m o y e n n e culture taient pratiques en F r a n c e avec
toute la perfection dont elles sont susceptibles, elles p r o d u i r a i e n t u n e
masse d'alimens disproportionne la population, parce qu'elles ne 30
peuvent aussi facilement et avec a u t a n t d'avantage q u e la grande culture,
tourner leurs spculations vers les productions des a l i m e n s de n a t u r e a n i -
m a l e , qui font c o n s o m m e r un n o m b r e d o n n d'individus les produits
d ' u n e t e n d u e de terre b e a u c o u p plus considrable q u e les a l i m e n s vg-
taux.) (228) 35

126
w

Aus Christophe-Joseph-Alexandre Mathieu de Dombasle: Annales agricoles de Roville

Quatrime livraison. 1828.

Du systme de fermage suivi dans la Grande-Bretagne.


Traduit de l'anglais de Robert Brown.

In d e n ersten Zeiten, als die Agrikultur n o c h sehr roh, die Erde cultivirt,
5 fr R e c h n u n g der E i g e n t h m e r , d u r c h die personnes engages leur ser-
vice et qui avaient en j o u i s s a n c e ou recevaient u n e partie d t e r m i n e du
produit c o m m e un salaire de leurs travaux et pour l'entretien du btail et
des i n s t r u m e n s employs la culture des terres. D i e System graduell
a b a n d o n n , im M a a als die cultivateurs e u r e n t amasss des c a p i t a u x u n d
10 fhig waren die terres fr ihre eigne R e c h n u n g zu pachten. D i e R e n t e die-
ser fermes bestand ursprnglich in services u n d corves excuts p a r le fer-
mier ... d a n n change en redevance, payable en grains oder j e d e m a n d r e n
Agrikulturproduct, d'aprs u n e q u a n t i t fixe par les d e u x p a r t i e s ; u n d
schlielich Geldrente. Im ersten tat des ||8| choses die t e n d u e des fermes
15 sehr resserre, tandis q u e la c o n d i t i o n du t e n a n c i e r tait abjecte et m a l h e u -
reuse. Ein eben erst emancipirter tenancier, k o n n t e sich n i c h t leicht von
den G e w o h n h e i t e n der esclavage l o s m a c h e n etc. Die tenanciers im Mittel-
alter obligs de suivre leurs matres la guerre, sous peine d'tre chasss de
leurs fermes. Vor 1449 k o n n t e ein fermier cossais o h n e formalit a u c u n
20 chass werden ... die fermiers des biens de l'glise taient traits avec plus
de d o u c e u r que leurs frres tenanciers des seigneurs laques. ( 2 4 5 - 2 4 7 )
Q u a n t aux prjudices occasionns par ce q u ' o n appelle a s s o l e m e n t
contraire aux rgles de la b o n n e agriculture, n o u s en d o u t o n s tout--fait, et
n o u s confessons q u e n o t r e o p i n i o n est q u e la valeur primitive du sol ne
25 peut tre d i m i n u e par a u c u n systme d'assolement quelque m a u v a i s qu'il
puisse tre, q u o i q u ' i l soit hors de d o u t e q u e la valeur artificielle du sol qui
provient de l'emploi des pturages et du fumier puisse tre dissipe par un
assolement vicieux. ... die conventions restrictives z w i s c h e n f a r m e r u n d
l a n d l o r d daher ganz berflssig, m o i n s qu'elles n ' a i e n t pour b u t de dter-
30 m i n e r la rotation suivre la fin du bail, et de m a i n t e n i r la ferme en b o n
tat l'entre du fermier qui succdera. (297)

127
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Des Baux Partage des fruits.


(Par M. de Dombasle.)

(Metairiewirthschaft) Le propritaire fournit le d o m a i n e , les b t i m e n s , et


o r d i n a i r e m e n t t o u t ou partie du btail et des i n s t r u m e n s ncessaires l'ex-
ploitation ; le colon, de son ct, apporte son travail, et rien ou presque rien 5
de p l u s ; les produits de la terre se partagent par moiti. (301) les colonspar-
tiaires sont g n r a l e m e n t des h o m m e s plongs d a n s la misre et l'insou-
ciance etc. (302) W e n n der m t a y e r ein accroissement de produit brut de
1500 fcs erhlt, au m o y e n d ' u n e avance de 1000 fcs, a l s o 5 0 % b r u t t o G e -
w i n n , m u er zur Hlfte theilen m i t d e m propritaire, zieht also n u r 750, 10
verliert also 250 fcs von seinen avances ; c'est encore b i e n pis, si la s o m m e
place en amlioration n ' a produit q u ' u n e a u g m e n t a t i o n de 10 ou de 15 % ;
le colon qui aurait t assez dupe pour faire cette avance, en perdrait prs
de la moiti, ds la premire a n n e . (304) D i e Agricultur in s o l c h e m Con-
tract daher misrable, parce q u ' a u c u n capital ne p e u t s'y appliquer, et 15
parce qu'elle ne peut tre exerce q u e par des h o m m e s retenus dans un tat
de misre, par la n a t u r e m m e des stipulations qui leur d o n n e n t le droit de
cultiver le sol. (305) M a n m u u n t e r s c h e i d e n zwischen d e m produit brut
u n d d e m produit net der Agricultur. E i n Theil des ersten = d e n Produc-
tionskosten c. d. les dpenses qu'il a t ncessaire de faire p o u r obtenir 20
la rcolte ; cette portion, ni le propritaire, ni le colon ne p e u v e n t en dispo-
ser, c'est u n e partie du capital d'exploitation, et elle appartient la terre,
car elle doit lui tre restitue p o u r la p r o d u c t i o n de l ' a n n e suivante. La
proportion de cette part du produit brut varie c o n s i d r a b l e m e n t d a n s les di-
vers systmes de l'agriculture : elle est p e u considrable dans l'assolement 25
triennal, et d a n s le systme agricole imparfait, n o c h gebruchlich im grs-
seren Theil du r o y a u m e , elle ne dpasse peuttre pas alors, d a n s b e a u c o u p
de cas, le quart du produit brut, q u i l u i - m m e reste toujours, d a n s ces cir-
constances, port au minimum. Cette part du produit ||9| brut, qui repr-
sente les frais de production, s'accrot c o n s i d r a b l e m e n t d a n s les systmes 30
agricoles perfectionns qui aussi a u g m e n t e n t , dans u n e grande proportion,
le produit brut l u i - m m e : d a n s quelques cas particuliers, les dpenses de
9
production galent les / du produit brut, et c e p e n d a n t celui-ci prsente
10

encore un bnfice net plus considrable q u e d a n s l'assolement triennal,


o il a t o b t e n u presque sans dpenses. D a n a c h k a n n m a n juger, si un 35
m o d e q u e l c o n q u e de partage du produit brut, entre le propritaire et le co-
lon, pourrait tre applicable ces divers systmes agricoles. (306) D a n s
l'ancien systme de culture, la dpense ou les frais de p r o d u c t i o n sont pris

128
Aus Christophe-Joseph-Alexandre Mathieu de Dombasle: Annales agricoles de Roville

presque e n t i r e m e n t sur les produits e u x m m e s en n a t u r e , par la c o n s o m -


m a t i o n des bestiaux, du cultivateur et de sa famille ; il ne se fait p r e s q u e
a u c u n e dpense en cus. N u r dieser U m s t a n d a pu d o n n e r lieu de croire
que le propritaire et le colon p o u v a i e n t partager entre eux t o u t le produit
5 des rcoltes qui n ' e s t pas c o n s o m m d a n s l'exploitation; a b e r dieser
Process n u r applicable d i e s e m genre d'agriculture, d. h. der agriculture mis-
rable, aber sobald m a n eine Verbesserung in der Cultur a n b r i n g e n will,
merkt m a n da die n u r m g l i c h d u r c h q u e l q u e s avances d o n t il faut rser-
ver le m o n t a n t sur le produit brut, p o u r l'appliquer la production de l'an-
10 ne suivante, en sorte q u e tout partage du produit brut, entre le propri-
taire et le colon, forme un obstacle i n s u r m o n t a b l e toute amlioration.
(307) Um Fortschritt in der Agricultur zu m a c h e n selbst nthig q u ' u n e par-
tie du produit n e t ou bnfice puisse tre a n n u e l l e m e n t appliqu l'ac-
croissement du capital d'exploitation ; cette c o n d i t i o n est r i g o u r e u s e m e n t
15 ncessaire, pour q u ' u n d o m a i n e s'amliore graduellement par l'accroisse-
m e n t des produits, et par c o n s q u e n t de la valeur foncire. Ce d o m a i n e ne
peut donc, au contraire, q u e dchoir successivement, lorsque par l'effet du
partage opr sur le produit brut, on d t o u r n e c h a q u e a n n e de l'exploita-
tion u n e portion du capital l u i - m m e employ la production, et lorsque,
20 par les stipulations du bail, on place le cultivateur dans u n e position o il y
aurait lsion manifeste p o u r lui, s'il appliquait son exploitation ein an-
deres Capital als son travail personnel, oder la portion de bnfice qu'il
pourrait avoir o b t e n u d u r c h b e s o n d e r s gnstige U m s t n d e d a n s u n e a n n e
de son exploitation. (309) In F r a n k r e i c h der tat de misre dans lequel ce
25 systme a plong plusieurs de nos d p a r t e m e n s , que l'on p e u t considrer
c o m m e possdant les sols les plus fertiles du r o y a u m e , et o les d o m a i n e s
ruraux les plus t e n d u s ne p r o d u i s e n t presque rien p o u r le propritaire.
(310) D a n s le Berry z . B . (311) D a n s un c a n t o n divis en grandes proprits
territoriales, et o les cultivateurs n ' o n t j a m a i s su faire a u c u n e avance p-
30 cuniaire pour les travaux de la terre, nothwendig sehr wenig zahlreiche Be-
vlkerung u n d diese p o p u l a t i o n se trouve invitablement dgrade par des
habitudes de fainantise p r o f o n d m e n t enracines. U n e p o p u l a t i o n de co-
lons partiaires ne p e u t tre e n t o u r e que d ' u n e population de ce genre ...
wo fainantise, misre, ignorance u n d dgradation morale. (311, 12) A u c h
35 im Poitou die Mtairie. Im Poitou u n d Berry v e r m i e t h e n sich d o m a i n e s
von 300 hectares fr 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 0 fcs, die in weniger als 20 J a h r e n , bei gu-
tem System zu 100 fcs per hectare, d. h. zu 15 x du produit n e t actuel.
(325) I

129
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

|10| Sixime Livraison. 1830.

De la r e n t e de la terre et de l'impt foncier.


(M. de D o m b a s l e )

La rente de la terre est de la m m e n a t u r e q u e l'intrt d ' u n capital p c u -


niaire ; car cet intrt, chez u n e n a t i o n livre l'industrie, n'est autre chose 5
q u e l'excdant du produit q u e l'on p e u t tirer du capital d a n s u n e entreprise
industrielle, aprs avoir p a y les dpenses de p r o d u c t i o n , et aprs le prl-
v e m e n t des profits de l'industrie, au t a u x ordinaire d a n s le pays. S e u l e m e n t
la rente de la terre est b i e n plus variable q u e l'intrt, parce q u e d e u x
s o m m e s de 1000 fcs sont toujours applicables a u x m m e s choses l ' u n e q u e 10
l'autre, et peuvent d o n n e r naissance des produits gaux, was n i c h t bei
2 hectares de terre der Fall ist: la situation, le degr de fertilit, et mille
autres causes, p e u v e n t tablir entre e u x d ' n o r m e s diffrences ; d r u m k a n n
die R e n t e von e i n e m H e c t a r 10, die v o m a n d r e n 100 fcs [oder] m e h r werth
sein. (307, 8) D i e Rente ist n i c h t der Z i n s des Capitals employ l'acquisi- 15
tion du fonds, plus le m o n t a n t de l'impt ; car elle ne varie a u c u n e m e n t se-
lon q u e la terre a t a c h e t e un prix plus ou m o i n s lev ; et si le propri-
taire qui a achet trs bas prix un terrain marcageux, es wohlfeil
verzehnfacht im W e r t h hat, wird die R e n t e von 100 auf 150 fcs per hectare
steigen, q u o i q u e le propritaire l'ait acquis m o y e n n a n t un capital peuttre 20
infrieur cette s o m m e . E b e n s o u m g e k e h r t . (308) La rente est l ' l m e n t
essentiel qui fixe la valeur vnale des terres ... le t a u x de la r e n t e p e u t faire
baisser celui de l'impt ; m a i s j a m a i s le t a u x de l'impt ne p e u t apporter ni
h a u s s e ni baisse dans le prix de la r e n t e . (309) Le loyer d ' u n e ferme p e u t
tre suprieur ou infrieur la rente, selon que le propritaire, n ' a pas su 25
ou n ' a pas voulu la porter au prix qu'il aurait pu en prtendre, ou selon
qu'il a trouv un fermier q u i a consenti le payer audessus du t a u x ordi-
naire. Le loyer n'existe q u e pour les terres affermes, tandis q u e la rente ...
est inhrente au sol, et y reste attache d a n s le cas o elle est exploite par
le propritaire lui m m e , tout aussi b i e n q u e lorsqu'elle l'est par un fer- 30
mier. (316) Q u e la rente soit paye intgralement au propritaire, ou q u e le
fermier en fasse l u i - m m e la rpartition entre le propritaire, le fisc et le
crancier hypothcaire, cela est e n t i r e m e n t indiffrent relativement la
production agricole. (318) Um d e n valeur vnale oder d e n t a u x de la r e n t e
des terres zu verstehn, in Betracht zu ziehn, d a : le^sol est u n e q u a n t i t 35
fixe et invariable; il ne p e u t ni s'tendre avec l ' a u g m e n t a t i o n de la de-
m a n d e , ni se rtrcir lorsqu'elle d i m i n u e ; il ne p e u t ni se dplacer p o u r al-
ler chercher ailleurs la d e m a n d e , ni s'employer d'autres usages q u e la cul-

130

Aus Christophe-Joseph-Alexandre Mathieu de Dombasle: Annales agricoles de Roville

ture, ni tre r e m p l a c e par r i e n d a n s cet usage. ... Ainsi, p e n d a n t q u e la


d e m a n d e p e u t varier par l'effet d ' u n e m u l t i t u d e de causes, l'offre est tou-
jours, p o u r ce genre de proprit et d a n s c h a q u e localit, renferme d a n s
des limites i n v a r i a b l e s : q u e la d e m a n d e s'accroisse ou qu'elle d i m i n u e ,
5 elle ne p e u t exercer a u c u n e influence sur la m a s s e des offres. (324, 25)
Also folgt q u e la proprit foncire est place dans u n e position o toutes
les circonstances qui p e u v e n t accrotre la d e m a n d e , t o u r n e n t ncessaire-
m e n t son profit. (325) A n d e r s e i t s : l'lvation de la rente accroissant les
charges de ||11| la p r o d u c t i o n , t e n d alors d i m i n u e r la d e m a n d e , et la ra-
10 m e n e r au niveau de l'offre : le t a u x de la rente est ici le seul t e r m e variable
qui puisse rtablir l'quilibre, p u i s q u e l'offre est i m m o b i l e par sa n a t u r e .
... c'est finalement au profit de la proprit, q u e se fait tout ce q u i favorise
la p r o d u c t i o n agricole, ( d e n n c o m m e la d e m a n d e des terres s'accrot p a r
l'effet m m e de l ' a u g m e n t a t i o n des benefits des fermiers, la rente s'lve
15 l'expiration des bail) C'est p o u r cela q u e d a n s les c a n t o n s p o p u l e u x et b i e n
cultivs, c o m m e p. e. la F l a n d r e , le bnfice des fermiers n ' e s t certaine-
m e n t pas plus lev q u e d a n s les c a n t o n s les plus arrirs, c o m m e le P o i t o u
ou la Bretagne, en p r o p o r t i o n de l ' i m p o r t a n c e du capital q u e les u n s et les
autres emploient leur exploitation ; m a i s la r e n t e et la valeur vnale de la
20 terre sont, degr gal de fertilit, cinq ou six fois plus leves d a n s la pre-
m i r e de ces provinces, q u e dans la majeure partie des d e u x autres. L,
c o m m e partout et dans t o u s les t e m p s , c'est la proprit foncire q u i re-
cueille i n v i t a b l e m e n t t o u t le profit des circonstances qui v i e n n e n t favori-
ser la p r o d u c t i o n agricole. L ' i n d u s t r i e productive s'efforce de j o u i r m o m e n -
25 t a n m e n t de ces avantages et elle y parvient, surtout dans un tat
a s c e n d a n t de l'art agricole, et d a n s u n e situation sociale qui en favorise les
dveloppemens ; m a i s elle ne p e u t luder la ncessit de lguer la p r o -
prit foncire le fruit de ses succs ; car ce sont ces succs e u x m m e s q u i
c h a n g e n t ces rapports avec la proprit foncire, en fournissant celle ci le
30 m o y e n de lui dicter des lois plus favorables p o u r elle m m e . ([326,] 327)
Anderseits m u d i e proprit foncire en dfinitive tragen le poids des cir-
constances q u i e n t r a v e n t la p r o d u c t i o n industrielle applique la terre, q u i
d i m i n u e n t ses produits, en abaissant le prix, ou q u i lvent les dpenses de
la production, m i t e i n e m Wort, toutes les circonstances d i m i n u a n t les d e -
35 m a n d e s de la terre. (328) D a n s le Berri, la r e n t e de l'hectare de terre ne
s'lve gure plus h a u t q u e l ' i m p t foncier q u e supporte l'hectare sembla-
ble dans quelques parties de la F l a n d r e ou de la N o r m a n d i e ; q u e l'on es-
saie d'lever la r e n t e des terres du Berri, en d o u b l a n t , triplant, q u i n t u p l a n t
l'impt foncier q u i pse sur elles, et l'on verra si la rente s'lvera d ' u n seul
40 c e n t i m e . (330) la r e n t e est, n o n p a s la r e d e v a n c e des fermiers envers les
propritaires, m a i s la r e d e v a n c e de l'industrie agricole envers la proprit
foncire. (332)

131
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

An Inquiry into those Principles


respecting the Nature of Demand and
the Necessity of Consumption, lately
advocated by Mr Malthus.
L o n d o n 1821. 5

A. S m i t h glaubte, da a c c u m u l a t i o n or increase of stock in general lowered


the rate of profits in general, on the s a m e principle which m a k e s the in-
crease of stock in any particular trade lower the profits of that trade. But
such increase of stock in a particular trade means an increase m o r e in pro-
portion t h a n stock is at the same t i m e increased in other trades: it is rela- 10
tive. (9) I
1121 Herr Say sagt: "There is a glut of english goods in Italy, because
there is n o t e n o u g h produced in Italy." But fewer goods have not b e e n pro-
d u c e d in Italy t h a n formerly. It would be simpler to say, the English should
n o t have p r o d u c e d which was possible, t h a n to say, as he does, t h a t the Ital- 15
ians should. (15) T h e i m m e d i a t e m a r k e t for capital, or field for capital, m a y
be said to be labour. T h e a m o u n t of capital which can be invested at a
given m o m e n t , in a given country, or the world, so as to return n o t less
t h a n a given rate of profits, seems principally to d e p e n d on t h e quantity of
labour, which it is possible, by laying out that capital, to i n d u c e the t h e n 20
existing n u m b e r of h u m a n beings to perform. (20) Profits do not depend on
price, they depend on price compared with outgoings. (28) 1) So far, as de-
m a n d m e a n s an exchange of goods, it is insured by increased general pro-
d u c t i o n ; it is ... the same with production, supposing the m e a n s of commu-
nication to r e m a i n the same, oder, as is probable u n d e r such circumstances, 25
to be increased: the increased d e m a n d for one article would be the in-
creased supply of another, a n d the d e m a n d for the whole is ... u n m e a n i n g .

132
Aus An inquiry into those principles, respecting the nature of demand ...

T h e n there is, besides goods, n o t h i n g in which d e m a n d c a n consist, except


land, and labour of all k i n d s . 2) T h e d e m a n d on the part of the land c a n n o t
be increased; the land has a certain extent, a n d no m o r e . ... A b e r die
R e n t e der landholders, der collectors (der taxes) der stockholders, oder der
5 useless pensioners zu vergrssern, um d e m a n d zu schaffen k o m i s c h ... t h e
upshot of it is, t h a t you are minus so m u c h of your goods without any re-
turn. This is not an increased demand; or ... it is no increased i n d u c e m e n t ,
from gain, to produce. It m a y be an increased i n d u c e m e n t from necessity ...
We are continually puzzled, in H e r r n M a l t h u s speculations, between the
10 object of increasing p r o d u c t i o n a n d that of checking it. ( 5 3 - 5 5 ) W h e n a
m a n is in want of a demand, does Mr M a l t h u s r e c o m m e n d h i m to pay s o m e
other person to take off his goods? (55) t h e very m e a n i n g of an increased
d e m a n d by the labourers is, a disposition to take less themselves, a n d leave
a larger share for their employers; a n d if it be said that this, by d i m i n i s h i n g
15 c o n s u m p t i o n , increases glut, I c a n only answer, that glut t h e n is synony-
m o u s with high profits. (59) This distinction between capital and profits is
in a great degree merely in t e r m s . Profits d e p e n d on the quantity I receive
back in return for my whole capital expended. If, at t h e e n d of a certain pe-
riod, that quantity is less t h a n what I e x p e n d e d at first, or greater in b u t a
20 small degree, am I to say t h a t my capital is less but my profits fair profits,
or to say that I have t h e s a m e capital, or nearly so, b u t have m a d e no prof-
its? A n d what period am I to take for this purpose? It is impossible for the
n a t i o n to take stock till these fluctuations are over. M a n y transactions ex-
tend over m a n y years. We m u s t wait to see how they are w o u n d u p , before
25 we can pretend to say what o u r capital is. (78, 79) ||13| D i e G r s s e d e s A r -
b e i t s l o h n s n i c h t g u t fr die A r b e i t . Increase the value of t h e encourage-
m e n t of the m i n i n g labour compared to t h a t of farming labour, m i n i n g in-
dustry will increase at the expense of t h a t of farming. Sprechen wir aber
von allen Sorten of Arbeit: H e (der Arbeiter) will work a for b wages; b u t
30 n o t 2 a for 2 b wages. T h e n if y o u give h i m 2 b for 1 a, m a y it n o t follow, t h a t
he will be content with less, a n d therefore n o t work even a? (97) W e n n
einer food producirt, and he h a d p r o d u c e d 2x as m u c h as every b o d y
could eat, in this case no new creation of products would open a d b o u c h
for his stock, till t h e numbers h a d also increased. (99) A m a n m a y r e d u c e
35 the rate of his profits by the c o m p e t i t i o n of his capital with itself, i n d e -
pendently of that of others. I m e a n , by adding to his capital in order to
gain. He will not gain so m u c h m o r e in proportion as he adds. (103) W h e r e
the advantage possessed by the owner of capital is m o r e felt in p r o d u c i n g
one commodity, t h a n it is in p r o d u c i n g another, in proportion to t h e l a b o u r
40 employed of course, when capitalists c o m e to take less r e m u n e r a t i o n for
the assistance of their capital, t h e former c o m m o d i t y will e x c h a n g e at a

133
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

less rate with the latter t h a n before. T h e advantage possessed by t h e owner


of capital, who can afford to sink it for a long t i m e , i.e., by the owner of
fixed capital, is greater t h a n that possessed by h i m who only sinks it for a
short t i m e ; i.e. by the owner of circulating capital, or of fixed capital of less
durability. Therefore, w h e n profits fall, c o m m o d i t i e s will exchange with 5
o n e another at a new rate, a given quantity of those, which are in a greater
degree p r o d u c e d by fixed capital (and which therefore are, in a greater de-
gree, b e h o l d e n to the assistance of capital on the whole), exchanging now
for a less quantity of such as are p r o d u c e d in a less degree by fixed, a n d in
a greater degree by circulating capital. (103, 4) Unterstellt alle h a b e n in 10
e i n e m L a n d so viel zu essen als sie b r a u c h e n , still, if industry a n d capital
increase, the d e m a n d for raw produce, as materials, will rise, t h o u g h n o t the
d e m a n d for raw produce, as food. T h a t land, w h i c h raises the former sort of
raw produce, will rise t h e n , in t i m e , to an exchangeable value; and, if the
land be convertible, it will encroach on the corn land, and straiten that, 15
a n d give that an exchangeable value too. (106, 7) If land of the n e x t degree
h a d no where existed, the high price u n d high profits would have contin-
u e d (auf d e m b e s t e n L a n d ) and, probably, increased on t h e land of the
first degree; a n d the excess of it above profits in other lines, being an ad-
vantage n o t derived from capital, b u t ownership of land, would have b e e n 20
separated very soon in the form of rent. R i c a r d o m a c h t an inversion of
cause a n d effect. (107) R e n t m a y arise on the former a m o u n t of capital, by
an increased d e m a n d for corn. (108) the proposition of M. Say does n o t at
all prove t h a t capital opens a m a r k e t for itself, b u t only t h a t capital a n d la-
b o u r o p e n a m a r k e t for one another. ( I l l ) 25

134
Aus Samuel Turner: Considerations upon the agriculture

Samuel Turner. Considerations upon the


Agriculture, Commerce and Manufactures of
the British Empire etc
London.1822.

5 It is the m o s t easily cultivated, a n d n o t always the best, lands w h i c h are


first cultivated, (enclosed); b u t as society advances, i m p r o v e m e n t s t a k e
place, and lands which, in the earlier stages of society, would p e r h a p s h a v e
yielded a very i n a d e q u a t e r e t u r n for such labour as m a n could have t h e n
bestowed u p o n t h e m , m a y , w h e n new i n s t r u m e n t s are devised, a n d w h e n
10 the labours of the drainer, the lime-burner, a n d others, are brought to the
assistance des cultivator, b e c o m e considerably m o r e fruitful t h a n any l a n d s
before cultivated. (10) |

135
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Ii4| Reynolds. (John Stuckey) Practical


Observations on Mr. Ricardo's Principles of
Political Economy.
L o n d o n 1822.

Wages. 5

(Nichts.)
D a s ganze Buch Hohler Bldsinn.

136
Aus Thomas Hopkins: Economical enquiries

Thomas Hopkins. Economical Enquiries


relative to the Laws which regulate Rent,
Profit, Wages and the Value of Money.
L o n d o n . 1822.

5 1) Production and Value.

If t h e borrower paid only for the degree of d a m a g e t h a t h a d b e e n d o n e to


the i m p l e m e n t , or replaced it w h e n it was worn out, the lender could derive
no p e r m a n e n t revenue from lending it; he would have restored to h i m only
what was precisely e q u a l to what he h a d lent. (4, 5) In the general principle,
10 that cost of p r o d u c t i o n regulates the exchangeable value of all c o m m o d i -
ties, original materials are n o t i n c l u d e d ; b u t the claim which the owners of
these have u p o n p r o d u c e , causes r e n t to enter into value. (11) Food being
considered the original e l e m e n t of value, the quantity of that e l e m e n t n e c -
essary to the p r o d u c t i o n of any c o m m o d i t y d e t e r m i n e s its value ... Taxes,
15 rent, profit and wages, m a y all be e s t i m a t e d in food; and the whole cost in
food, to the government, the landlord, the capitalist a n d the labourer, or to
any of t h e m , which is indispensably necessary, in order to have an article
produced, constitutes t h e cost of production, a n d t h e exchangeable value
of t h a t article. (12)

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Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

2) On the General Law of Rent, or Charge for Use.

R e n t , or a charge for use, arises naturally o u t of ownership, or the establish-


m e n t of a right of property. (13) Any thing m a y yield a rent if possessed of
t h e following qualities:First, it m u s t exist in a degree of scarcity; Sec-
ondly, it m u s t have the power to aid l a b o u r in the great work of p r o d u c t i o n . 5
(14)

Rent of Land.

t h e existence of a second quality of l a n d is not necessary to t h e formation of


a rent, the relative a m o u n t of p r o d u c e c a n n o t be the cause of it. (20) Infe-
rior soils, so far from being the cause of rent, w h e n they exert an influence, 10
limit or retard the advance of it. (I.e.) M a n darf n a t r l i c h n i c h t d e n case
setzen where land so plentiful, c o m p a r e d with t h e labour a n d stock to be
employed u p o n it, that no charge for rent could be m a d e , b e c a u s e it was
not scarce. (21) successive portions of capital may, instead of a less, pay a
greater rent for the use of land. (21) without the application of labour, 15
land would pay no rent. Let t h e portions of labour and capital employed be
small, a n d the rent will be low; n o t in absolute a m o u n t only, b u t on the
capital employed. (22) T h e cause of successive portions of labour a n d capi-
tal affording an increased rate of rent for the land, is to be found in the su-
perior productiveness of sufficient capital a n d wellcombined labour, to iso- 20
lated a n d u n a i d e d labour. (23) T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r would pay their share of
the rent of land, in the advanced price they would pay for the raw p r o d u c e ;
in precisely t h e same m a n n e r that a c o n s u m e r pays the t a x on any particu-
lar article, in the additional price consequently charged for it. W h e n t h e
four producers were b o t h agriculturists a n d manufacturers, the landowner 25
received, as rent of land, a value of 10 I. Suppose this rent to have b e e n
paid Y in raw produce, a n d the other % hi m a n u f a c t u r e s ; - on the division
2

of the producers into the 2 classes of agriculturists a n d m a n u f a c t u r e r s ,


k n n t e die fortgesezt werden. In practice, however, it would be found
m o r e convenient for the cultivators of the land, to pay the rent, a n d to 30
charge it on their produce, when exchanging it against t h e p r o d u c e of the
labour of the manufacturers; so as to divide the p a y m e n t into 2 equitable
proportions between the 2 classes, a n d to leave wages a n d profits equal in
each department. (26) ||15| Ist geschzt worden, d a das productive land of
England pays im D u r c h s c h n i t t 11, an acre per a n n u m . (28) In einigen L n - 35

138
Aus Thomas Hopkins: Economical enquiries

d e m k a n n der Lord 50 % a u s d r c k e n , in a n d r e n n i c h t 10. In einigen der


fruchtbaren G e g e n d e n des Osten, m a n can subsist auf % des p r o d u c e of his
labour employed u p o n the l a n d ; b u t in parts of Switzerland a n d Norway,
an exaction of 10% m i g h t d e p o p u l a t e the country. ... we see no n a t u r a l
5 b o u n d s to the rent t h a t m a y be exacted, b u t in the limited abilities of t h e
payers. (31) T h e great regulators of r e n t of land in a p o p u l o u s country are,
inability on the part of t h e cultivators to pay m o r e , and, where inferior soils
exist, t h e c o m p e t i t i o n of those inferior soils against t h e superior. (33, 34)
In E n g l a n d viel c o m m o n land, the n a t u r a l fertility of which is e q u a l to
10 what a large part of the l a n d now cultivated was prior to its being t a k e n into
cultivation; a n d yet t h e e x p e n c e of bringing such c o m m o n lands into culti-
vations is so great, as to cause t h e m not to yield the ordinary interest for
t h e m o n e y expended in improving t h e m , leaving n o t h i n g as rent for the
n a t u r a l fertility of the soil: a n d this m i t all the advantages of an i m m e d i a t e
15 application of labour, aided by stock skilfully applied, and furnished m i t
manufactures cheaply p r o d u c e d ; a u e r d e m good roads in der N a c h b a r -
schaft etc ... T h e present l a n d proprietors m a y be considered the owners of
all the a c c u m u l a t e d labour which has for ages b e e n expended, in bringing
the country to its present productive state. (35)

20 Rent of Mines and other things, the Gift of nature.

W h e r e irrigation of land is practised, a rent is paid for water, as well as for


land. In the rice grounds of L o m b a r d y , it is not u n c o m m o n for a r e n t to be
paid to one owner for water, a n d to a n o t h e r for t h e l a n d : b u t a stream, fa-
vourably situated, furnishes an instance of a r e n t being paid for an appro-
25 priated gift of nature, of as exclusive a kind as any t h a t can be n a m e d . T h i s
is well u n d e r s t o o d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g districts, where considerable rents are
paid for small streams of water, particularly if t h e fall is considerable. T h e
power obtained from s u c h streams being equal to that afforded by large
steamengines, it is as advantageous to use t h e m , t h o u g h subject to the pay-
30 m e n t of a heavy rent, as it is to e x p e n d large s u m s in the erection a n d work-
ing of steamengines. Of streams, too, there are some larger, s o m e smaller.
Contiguity to the seat of m a n u f a c t u r e is also an advantage, w h i c h c o m -
m a n d s a higher rent. In t h e c o u n t i e s of York a n d Lancaster there is proba-
bly a m u c h greater difference between the rents paid for the smallest a n d
35 the largest streams of water, t h a n there is between the rents paid for 50 of
the least and 50 of the most fertile acres that are in c o m m o n cultivation.
(37, 8) Beim L a n d fr H u s e r b a u e n the c o m p e t i t i o n always turns u p o n
a m o u n t of rent d e m a n d e d , c o m p a r e d with advantage of situation. As land,

139
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

generally, in m a r k e t towns is of high value, b e c a u s e those towns enable in-


dividuals to effect their exchanges with less labour, the central situations in
those towns are of the highest value ... scarcity a n d productiveness are the
2 great qualities which cause rent to be given for the u s e of any thing. (39)
By doubling the labour a n d capital employed in working the coal m i n e , a 5
double quantity of coal could be h a d ; b u t by doubling the quantities e m -
ployed on the stream (in e i n e r mill) only the s a m e quantity of power would
be obtained. In a limited fishery, a n d in t h e cultivation of a certain extent
of land, in the same way limited quantities of labour a n d capital yield the
highest rent to the owner; a n d any a d d i t i o n a l quantities employed, at the 10
s a m e rate of wages and profits, would n o t add to the rent. A fall in wages
a n d profits m u s t take place, before an ||16| increased rent could be paid for
t h e land or the stream; but a large increase of rent is possible for a coal-
m i n e , even with a rise of wages a n d profits. (42)

Rent of Stock or Profit. 15

U n t e r Profit schliet m a n sonst a u c h ein, n i c h t n u r die charge fr mere use;


b u t a periodical charge also for the wear of the thing, a n d wages of labour
in the m a n a g e m e n t . Diese 2 latter are principally wages of labour. (43) La-
b o u r a n d stock being b o t h scarce, relatively to t h e land, would obtain larger
shares of the produce. ... If the doctrine of Mr. Ricardo were true, that, at 20
all times, a n d u n d e r all circumstances, profits a n d wages alone enter into
the value b o t h of raw p r o d u c e and m a n u f a c t u r e s , a rise in profits m u s t be
a t t e n d e d by a fall in wages ... a b e r w e n n R e n t m i t in die P r o d u c t i o n s k o -
s t e n e i n g e h t , a r e d u c t i o n of rent would leave labour as well rewarded after
as before the ... rise of profits. (48) 25

Different Rates of Rent.

Competition will assign to capital its proper rate of profit, in whatever way
it m a y be employed: b u t this renders it u n e q u a l : it is in the n a t u r e of
things, where c o m p e t i t i o n is the m o s t free a n d active, t h a t the rates of
profit should be u n e q u a l . (53) 30

140
Aus Thomas Hopkins: Economical enquiries

3) Wages of Labour.

A t t e n d i n g to these n a t u r a l causes of inequality of supply of labor (. B.


weaving has a t t a c h e d to itself an excessive supply of labourers; d e n n o t h e r
e m p l o y m e n t s t h a t afford advantages to children, t h o u g h n o t at so early an
5 age, receive their average c o m p l e m e n t of n e w h a n d s , b u t t h e supply is m o r e
scanty, as t h e peculiar n a t u r e of t h e trade a p p r o a c h e s those w h i c h afford
little r e m u n e r a t i o n for t h e labor of learners, u n t i l years of application, a n d
an a p p r o a c h to m a t u r i t y , qualify t h e m for their employments.) to various
b r a n c h e s of industry, a scale m i g h t be formed w h i c h would shew t h e grada-
10 tions of wages, a n d p o i n t at t h e different degrees of force with w h i c h l a b o u r
is d e t e r m i n e d to different e m p l o y m e n t s . (60) W h e n t h e wages of t h e p a r e n t
are high, he c a n b e t t e r afford to support a child o u t of those wages, u n t i l he
arrives at a sufficiently m a t u r e age to learn t h e profession which h a s t h e
highest rate of wages; b u t in a c o u n t r y where t h e wages of t h e great m a s s of
15 labourers are low, t h e poverty of t h e p a r e n t i n d u c e s h i m to place his child,
n o t at t h e profession in w h i c h he will be able to earn t h e most, b u t at t h a t
which affords wages t h e soonest. (61) D a s W a c h s t h u m der Bevlkerung
k a n n n u r d a n n die wages fallen, statt steigen m a c h e n , w e n n es bis zu d e m
P u n k t geht, wo an a d d i t i o n a l labourer will not increase t h e productive
20 power of the others. T h e wages of l a b o u r m a y t h e n be considered as having
arrived at t h e highest rate, in t h a t state of t h i n g s : and should labourers still
increase in n u m b e r s , wages m i g h t decline; b e c a u s e t h e a d d i t i o n a l labourer
would n o t increase t h e whole p r o d u c e e q u a l to t h e highest rate of wages of
one m a n : a n d supposing t h e a d d i t i o n a l labourer to receive only to t h e ex-
25 tent that his labour increased the general p r o d u c e , he would have less
wages for his labour t h a n t h e former labourers h a d ; or supposing that, as
t h e new labourer works as m u c h as t h e old, the whole p r o d u c e is equally
divided, t h e n the rate of wages of all would be d i m i n i s h e d in a small de-
gree. (63) T h e gross p r o d u c e of labour being increased by t h e u s e of stock,
30 it is the a d d i t i o n a l part that is divided between t h e owner of t h e stock a n d
the labourer. ... T h e degree ||17| of scarcity in which those rentable articles
exist, which have t h e general n a m e of stock, seems to be the p r i n c i p a l
cause which d e t e r m i n e s t h e r a t e of rent that is paid for t h e m . If p l o u g h s ,
carts a n d looms are scarce, c o m p a r e d with t h e labourers who w a n t t h e m ,
35 the owners will require, a n d t h e labourers will give, a larger p r o p o r t i o n of
p r o d u c e as rent for t h e u s e of t h e m ; b u t this rent c a n never a m o u n t to m o r e
t h a n t h e whole of t h a t surplus w h i c h is o b t a i n e d by t h e u s e of the m a c h i n e .
(64) As the degree of scarcity is t h e i m m e d i a t e cause, those c i r c u m s t a n c e s
which affect scarcity or plentifulness of stock, are t h e r e m o t e influencing

141
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

causes. They are various, and e m b r a c e all those w h i c h affect industry, a n d


t h e inviolability of property, as liberty, security, frugality etc. (65) A farmer
m a y live by spade husbandry, t h o u g h n o t so well as by the plough; b u t , to
the i n h a b i t a n t s of Manchester, superior m a c h i n e r y is indispensably neces-
sary. (68) every improved m a c h i n e to aid l a b o u r in the task of producing, 5
a n d every additional portion of stock, benefited the labourer, b e c a u s e a
greater p r o d u c e was thereby obtained, a n d the labourer shared in t h e sur-
plus. (67, 68) ... stock of all kinds u s e d in p r o d u c t i o n increases the wages
of labour, a n d the m o r e stock there is, t h e higher would be the wages of la-
bour, were it n o t for other counteracting causes ... T h u s t h e labourer is 10
m a d e a k i n d of j o i n t owner of, a n d participator in, the benefits arising from
all the a c c u m u l a t e d stock in the country. (68, 9)

4) Of taxes.

5) On Money.

the causes which d e t e r m i n e the different values of gold in different c o u n - 15


tries ... are the same as those which regulate its value in the country where
it is p r o d u c e d from the m i n e s , namely, t h e cost of procuring it. W e n n es in
E n g l a n d 5 sh. sich a u s t a u s c h e n fr a b u s h e l of wheat, in F r a n k r e i c h n u r 2,
so ists because it costs E n g l a n d a b u s h e l of wheat to procure a supply of
gold a n d silver to the a m o u n t of 5 sh etc. If all n a t i o n s h a d to give wheat in 20
exchange for gold, the difference in the value of t h a t metal, in wheat, in
different countries, would be proportioned to the difference in the expence
of conveying t h e wheat to the gold market. (83) An english manufacturer,
by expending a b u s h e l of wheat, or the price of it, is able to get a yard of
cloth m a d e , which he can export, and, in return, bring back 5 sh., after pay- 25
ing his own expences. E n g l a n d is t h e n supplied with gold or silver at t h a t
R a t e . A R u s s i a n m e r c h a n t has 4 bushels of wheat at Moscow, which he ex-
ports and sells; and, after paying all expences, he finds that he brings back
to Moscow five sh. It is, therefore necessary to export 4 bushels of wheat
from Moscow, and 1 from England, to obtain an e q u a l quantity of gold or 30
silver5 sh: that quantity will consequently exchange regularly in the
2 countries at those rates. W h e a t will, in England, be 5 s. a bushel, a n d in
Moscow 1 s. 3 d. a bushel. ... 1st m a n u f a c t u r i n g skill u n d capital soweit in
Frankreich entwickelt, d a es i h m vortheilhafter m a n u f a c t u r e s als wheat
auszufhren u n d d o c h so hinter E n g l a n d zurck, da es zwei b u s h , of 35
wheat in m a k i n g of a yard of cloth verausgabt, wo j e n e s n u r 1, so, da der
original p r o d u c e r of gold would n o t give a higher price for t h e yard of

142
Aus Thomas Hopkins: Economical enquiries

french cloth, t h a n for t h e yard of english, i.e. 5 sh., F r a n c e would o b t a i n h e r


supply of gold at t h a t rate ... H e r e , t h e cost, in wheat, of procuring gold in
England, F r a n c e , a n d Russia, would be as 1, 2 a n d 4; a n d ist t h e m o n e y
price of wheat in R u s s i a 1 s. 3 d., in F r a n c e 2 s. 6 d., in E n g l a n d ||18| 5 sh.
5 per bushel. ... Also das M e t a l c h e a p u n d m o n e y prices high, where supe-
rior m a n u f a c t u r i n g skill, capital a n d industry exist, as in E n g l a n d ; a n d t h e
gold dear, or m o n e y p r i c e s low, in countries ill situated for exporting raw
produce, a n d without m a n u f a c t u r e s , as in parts of Russia. ( 8 4 - 8 6 )

143
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft Xil

Thompson. (T. Perronet.)


The True theory of Rent etc
9 Edition. L o n d o n 1832.

Der wahre G r u n d der R e n t e ist der lngst von A. S m i t h pointed out. It is


the limited quantity of the land, in C o m p a r i s o n with the competitors for its 5
p r o d u c e ; or, as it is s o m e t i m e s called, t h e monopoly. (6) It is the rise in
the price of produce t h a t enables a n d causes inferior land to be b r o u g h t
into cultivation; and n o t the cultivation of inferior l a n d that causes the rise
of rent. (8) T h e effect of all agricultural i m p r o v e m e n t s is to increase the
quantity of produce and lower its price; but, i m p r o v e m e n t s which consist 10
in a saving of expense, do this in a m u c h less degree t h a n those which re-
quire an a u g m e n t e d outlay. I m p r o v e m e n t s of the first kind d i m i n i s h the
quantity of capital d e m a n d e d from the t e n a n t , a n d consequently t h e final
a m o u n t of the profits that will be left h i m ; i m p r o v e m e n t s of the latter kind
increase t h e m . In i m p r o v e m e n t s of the first kind, the landlord finally ob- 15
tains the whole of the gain, and a part of what used to be the profits of the
t e n a n t besides. In those of the latter kind, he obtains only t h a t part of the
gain which is left after paying the increased a m o u n t of profits of the t e n a n t .
An i m p r o v e m e n t of this last kind is always advantageous to the t e n a n t ;
and, except in the lowest class of cases where n o t h i n g is left after paying 20
the necessary profits of the tenant, to the landlord also. An i m p r o v e m e n t of
the other kind is always very advantageous to the landlord; but it is against
the tenant, in the same way as a d i m i n u t i o n in the quantity of capital that
can be employed with a profit is against any other dealer. (10) If any m a n
were to assert that proof spirit sold for a high price because there were 25
weaker spirits that were selling for a lower, a n d was t h e n c e to d e d u c e some
practical inference ... klar die fallacy, (13) R e n t would increase still m o r e
rapidly, if there was no disposable l a n d with any difference of productive

144
Aus Thomas Perronet Thompson: The true theory of rent

powers at all. ... t h e relation between rent a n d the productive power of t h e


disposable land, is o n e of opposition, n o t of c o n n e x i o n . (13, 14) it is n o t
true that m e n are living on a fixed quantity of food, which will n o t be di-
m i n i s h e d on an increase of price. ... (oder v e r m e h r t b e i m F a l l e n d e s
5 Preisses.) ... sufficient to a t t e n d to the fact, t h a t w h e n there is a necessity
for the c o n s u m p t i o n being d i m i n i s h e d because the corn is n o t t h e r e to be
c o n s u m e d , an increase of price is the engine which carries it into effect; a
clear proof that increase of price d i m i n i s h e s c o n s u m p t i o n s (24) T h e secret
(eines glut (general)) lies in t h e slowness of the increase of t h e p r o d u c e of
10 land, compared with t h e increase of m a n u f a c t u r e s which m i g h t otherwise
be created to t e m p t the agriculturists withal. It would be easy to d o u b l e t h e
quantity of goods m a n u f a c t u r e d , if the offer of t h e m would t e a c h t h e agri-
culturists to produce food for 2 m e n where they p r o d u c e for o n e now, a n d
leave a certain rate of profit for the m a n u f a c t u r i n g capitalists besides.
15 ... There is then, in any given state of m a n u f a c t u r i n g skill a n d of the sup-
ply of corn, a certain q u a n t i t y of all kinds of m a n u f a c t u r e s which can be
produced a n d sold with a living profit. A n d if m o r e are produced, they c a n -
not be sold with a living profit; a n d this is a G e n e r a l Glut. It is not true
that there would be no glut, if there was only less of o n e k i n d of m a n u f a c -
20 tures a n d m o r e of s o m e other. T h e cause of the glut extends to all k i n d s ,
and c a n n o t be r e m e d i e d by altering their proportions. (30) M a n u f a c t u r e s
are t h e application of industry in a direction where the p r o d u c e varies as
the labour applied, a n d agriculture where it does not. (I.e.)

145
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

| i 9 | Cornlaw fallacies with the answers.


By T. P. Thompson. 2. ed.
L o n d o n 1839.

U n m g l i c h z u lesen.

146
Aus Edward West: Price of corn and wages of labour

Sir Edward West.


Price of Corn and Wages of Labour.
L o n d o n . 1826.

T h e price will d e p e n d n o t only u p o n the actual quantity exposed to sale,


5 b u t also u p o n the quantity ... in the different stages of its progress of
growth, or m a n u f a c t u r e , or towards t h e m a r k e t ; u p o n the period also within
which the supply can be increased, a n d various other circumstances, as
whether the c o m m o d i t y is durable or perishable etc. (21) T h e price of corn
then, in a given state of the supply, will be settled by the d e m a n d , or t h e
10 wants a n d m e a n s of t h e lower orders of the c o m m u n i t y ; a n d supposing
their wants to be u n c h a n g e d , any variation in the a m o u n t of their m e a n s
m u s t affect the price of corn. (31) Es ist klar d a die lower classes nicht so
viel Brod h a b e n as they desire in average years, for if they h a d , the smallest
addition of a more a b u n d a n t year would n o t be c o n s u m e d . (31, 2) T h e only
15 m e d i u m through which the price of corn, the quantity remaining the same,
can be increased, is an increase of the wages of labour. (35) the price of
corn depends m u c h m o r e u p o n the wages of labour, a n d follows any varia-
tion of the wages of l a b o u r m u c h m o r e i m m e d i a t e l y t h a n the wages of la-
bour follow any variation in the price of corn. (38) A n d r e U r s a c h e n affi-
20 ciren natrlich a u c h d e n K o r n p r e i , besonders die fluctuation der supply,
caused by the variety der seasons; u n d diese different powers wirken
m a n c h m a l z u s a m m e n , m a n c h m a l in opposition to e a c h other. (44, 45) As
the deficient crop sells for an actually larger s u m t h a n the average crop, t h e
price rises m o r e t h a n in proportion to the deficiency. ... E b e n s o an a b u n -
25 dant crop sells for a smaller aggregate s u m t h a n an average crop. (56)
U m g e k e h r t bei n i c h t n t h i g e n Artikeln, wie T h e e , Z u c k e r etc. W e n n ihr
Prei gestiegen, n i c h t n u r der C o n s u m a b g e n o m m e n , sondern die a c t u a l
aggregate s u m e x p e n d e d u p o n t h e m has also decreased; u n d w e n n der

147
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Prei gefallen, nicht n u r der C o n s u m davon gestiegen, s o n d e r n die aggre-


gate s u m e x p e n d e d u p o n t h e m has also increased. An increase of duty (auf
Zucker, T h e e etc) has actually d i m i n i s h e d t h e aggregate a m o u n t of t h e
duty, and a r e d u c t i o n of rate of duty has actually increased the aggregate
a m o u n t of the duty. (57) Aber an excess of supply drckt d e n Prei n i c h t 5
so sehr unter d e n average, (da in a plentiful year a part of the excess m a y be
kept over to the following year) wie ein Mangel of supply i h n b e r d e n aver-
age Prei hebt; d e n n in e i n e m scarce year keine Mittel zu helfen der sup-
ply, es sei da d a n n fremder I m p o r t mglich ist oder U e b e r s c h u von ei-
n e m vorhergehenden reichen Herbst existirt. (57) D i e Kriegsnachfrage wird 10
n u r d a n n d e n Prei h e b e n , if the d e m a n d of g o v e r n m e n t for soldiers a n d
sailors constitutes an additional, a n d n o t a substituted d e m a n d . (58) the
price of labour is the s u m paid for a given quantity of labour; the wages of
labour is the s u m earned by the labourer. ... the wages of labour d e p e n d
u p o n the price of labour a n d the quantity of labour performed. (67, 8) 15
B e i m taskwork fallen diese S a c h e n z u s a m m e n . Hier aber zu u n t e r s c h e i d e n
zwischen d e m rate of wages u n d d e m amount of wages, da leztrer abhngt
von der Z a h l der Tage, die ein I n d i v i d u u m arbeitet, oder der S t u n d e n am
Tag; von der Z a h l der Stcke die es m a c h t etc. (68, 9) the increase of the cap-
ital which constitutes t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of labour, s u c h as food, clothing etc 20
is generally the effect a n d not t h e cause, of the increased d e m a n d for la-
bour, there m a y be an additional d e m a n d for labour without any preceding
increase of capital, such increased d e m a n d for labour causes an increase of
the m o n e y wages of labour, and that ||20| increase of the m o n e y wages ef-
fects an additional d e m a n d for a n d an increase of the quantity of s u c h cap- 25
ital. (79) We m i g h t j u s t as well say, t h a t the d e m a n d for coats d e p e n d s
u p o n the quantity of cloth, as that t h e d e m a n d for labour d e p e n d s u p o n the
quantity of capital. T h o u g h the n u m b e r of coats c a n n o t be increased with-
out an increase of the quantity of cloth, increase the d e m a n d for a n d the
price of coats, a n d the cloth will soon be m a n u f a c t u r e d ; so increase the de- 30
m a n d for and the price of labour a n d the necessaries which the labourers
require will soon be raised a n d m a n u f a c t u r e d . (81)
T h e larger the portion of the labour expended in Luxusartikeln for the
rich, the less will be the portion of labour e x p e n d e d fr den Theil des capi-
tal for the m a i n t e n a n c e of labour, a n d the less the a m o u n t the capital pro- 35
duced for the m a i n t e n a n c e of the labourer. (85) T h e general c o i n c i d e n c e of
the high price of corn with a flourishing state of trade, and of the low price
with a depression of trade c a n n o t be disputed. (89) the same increase of
price or other cause which calls fresh soils into cultivation, forces a d d i -
tional and improved culture u p o n those already u n d e r tillage. (97, 8) Ask 40
den farmer whether every considerable increase of price does n o t m a k e it

148
Aus Edward West: Price of corn and wages of labour

answer to cultivate his farm at a larger expense t h a n would have answered


[at] the old price; whether every considerable rise of price does n o t m a k e it
worth his while to m a k e i m p r o v e m e n t s u p o n his lands in order to increase
the produce, to apply m o r e labour a n d m o r e m a n u r e , n o n e of which would
5 have answered at the old price; a n d he will n o t hesitate to answer you in
the affirmative. (98) Allerdings: in an improved state of agriculture pro-
duce m a y be raised on t h e second or third quality of land at as little cost as
it could u n d e r the old system u p o n t h e first quality. (98) Zweierlei Art v o n
agricultural i m p r o v e m e n t s : E i n s p a r u n g von expense, wodurch der Pchter
10 sein Produkt v e r m e h r e n k a n n o h n e increase of rate of the e x p e n s e ; zwei-
tens die which increase the p r o d u c e but at an increased rate of expense.
Die erste Art der Verbesserung n t z l i c h in every state of the m a r k e t ; die
leztre n u r called into action u n d e r particular circumstances, a n d is n o t al-
ways applicable. (99) M a n h a t generally b e m e r k t , da die english farmers
15 who have taken lands in A m e r i c a have n o t prospered; die i h n e n gewohnte
Art von high cultivation pate n i c h t fr den Z u s t a n d von A m e r i k a . In a
cheap m o d e of cultivation the n e t p r o d u c e bears a m u c h larger proportion
to the expense and to the gross p r o d u c e t h a n in an expensive m o d e of culti-
vation. ... weil every a d d i t i o n a l portion of p r o d u c e is raised at a greater
20 cost. Der a m e r i k a n i s c h e Pchter legt wenig Capital aus u n d sein Profit auf
die Capital ist e n o r m . D e r E n g l n d e r - a large capital m i t a small profit.
(99, 100) Da jede a d d i t i o n a l portion of p r o d u c e m e h r kostet, e a c h a d d i -
tional portion of capital yields a less return, solang der Prei derselbe
t e
bleibt. Liefert die erste Portion a gross return von 150%, die 2 von 140%
25 u n d so on, so klar, da das Capital so v e r m e h r t werden k a n n , d a at the
given price der gross r e t u r n weniger ist als das capital expended u n d der
Pchter, instead of deriving any profit, m a y actually sustain a loss. D a h e r
m a n y m o d e s of cultivation u n d m a n y i t e m s of cost, die in E n g l a n d m i t
d e m english price of labour u n d d e m english price of corn entsprechend, in
30 America, m i t d e m a m e r i c a n price, selbst e i n e n Verlust verursachen k n -
nen. Klar, da in every state of cultivation and of price, es mglich ist, so
to overlay a farm with capital as that a great portion of the expense shall
not answer, and shall even occasion a loss u n d die der Fehler vieler n a c h
A m e r i c a gewanderter english farmers. (100) M a n h a t ferner b e o b a c h t e t ,
35 da little farmers u n d die der less improved parts des L a n d e s , did n o t sus-
tain so great a loss als die der larger farms u n d die die higher m o d e of
farming adopted u n d alle m o d e r n i m p r o v e m e n t s a n g e n o m m e n h a t t e n . D e r
large farmer, hatte whrend der Periode der high prices sein Land gesttigt
mit Capital, Verbesserungen g e m a c h t bis zu d e m u t m o s t extent, den die
40 h o h e n Preisse erlaubten, u n d h e a p e d m a n u r e u n d expense j e d e r Art u p o n
the land to the very verge of | | 2 1 | profit ... Der small farmer dagegen, blieb

149
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

hartnckig im alten System, legte n u r kleines Capital aus, raised a m u c h


smaller p r o d u c e , aber larger im V e r h l t n i zur expense als das des intelli-
gent farmer. Er litt also weniger von der Revulsion of prices, da sein n e t
profit e i n e n grssern A b z u g tragen k o n n t e without t o u c h i n g his capital ...
D e r erstre b e n u z t e die gute Zeit besser, war d a r u m a u c h m e h r d e m S t u r m 5
ausgesezt. N e h m e n wir eine farm, zu 100 sh. a qr of corn, bringe 160 %
gross produce fr die erste auf es angelegte P o r t i o n von Capital u n d 10 %
less on every successive additional portion of capital (Aber wie H o p k i n s
sagt: Ist die Eintheilung des Capitals in besondere Portionen nicht rein
willkhrlich) u n d der ordinary rate of profit sei 10 %. D a s Capital u n d gross 10
u n d net produce u n d rent w r d e n sein wie folgt:

Capital Gross Return Net Return Rent


1st 100 160 60 50
2 100 150 50 40
3 100 140 40 30 15
4 100 130 30 20
5 100 120 20 10
6 100 110 10 0
600 810 210 150

Dieser intelligente farmer legt 600 aus, sein ganzes Capital, u n d k a n n 20


150 R e n t e zahlen. D e r small, aus M a n g e l an Capital oder aus I n d o l e n z u n d
inveterate habits u n d prejudices legt n u r 200 Capital aus, k a n n n u r
3
90 R e n t e zahlen. D e r Prei falle n u n / at o n c e oder 30 sh. per qr, so das
10

gross produce im selben Verhltni vermindert u n d die R e c h n u n g steht


wie folgt: 25

Capital Gross Return Net Return Rent (Loss)


1< 100 160-48 = 112 12
2 100 150 - 45 = 105 5
3 100 140-42= 98 -2
4 100 1 3 0 - 39= 91 -9 30
5 100 120 - 36 = 84 -16
6 100 110-33= 77 -23
600 567 17-50 -33

Der farmer, der sein ganzes Capital ausgelegt h a t e i n e n actual loss of


capital von 3 3 . Der farmer, der 200 ausgelegt h a t k e i n e n loss, n u r der N e t 35
R e t u r n reducirt auf 17. S u c h was the effect of the fall of price in the years
which succeeded the F r e n c h wars, t h o u g h in a greater degree from the
greater fall of price. ( 1 0 1 - 4 ) Die supply war nicht increased i m m e d i a t e l y
in a quantity sufficient to r e d u c e the price to its n a t u r a l price. T h o u g h
s o m e of t h e m e a n s of increasing the growth of corn a n d other r u d e p r o d u c e 40
m a y be i m m e d i a t e l y resorted to, a n d be m a d e i m m e d i a t e l y productive,

150
Aus Edward West: Price of corn and wages of labour

other m e a n s of increasing erheischen considerable Zeit eh sie wirken u n d


sind oft erst n a c h m e h r e n J a h r e n produktiv. So bei der V e r m i n d e r u n g [der
d e m a n d ] u n d d e m Preissefallen. Einige Mittel d e n growth z u v e r m i n d e r n
u n d d e m L a n d Capital z u e n t z i e h n , u n m i t t e l b a r zugnglich u n d effectiv,
5 andre erfordern Z e i t eh sie any effect p r o d u c e . ||22| Steigt der Prei, so
k a n n new land b e i m m e d i a t e l y t u r n e d u p u n d a n additional p r o d u c e
raised; ebenso wirken direkt expensive m a n u r e s . A b e r einige Zeit, viel-
leicht Jahre, before a whole farm were clayed or m a r l e d ; Verbesserung alter
oder A n l e g u n g n e u e r W e g e u n d farmbuildings, draining v o n l a n d u n d be-
10 sonders, wie der Fall direkt u p o n t h e rise of price in 1794, to i n t r o d u c e the
new a n d improved m o d e s of h u s b a n d r y . Viele farmers u n t e r d e m alten Sys-
t e m h a t t e n nicht Capital g e n u g fr das n e u e u n d expensive; Vorurtheile
s t a n d e n i m Wege, die n u r d u r c h die Zeit z u besiegen; Feudalfeelings
hielten einige landlords auf die old t e n a n t s m i t n e w capitalists zu ver-
15 t a u s c h e n ; andre b e s t a n d e n n i c h t u p o n their full rents, which would h a v e
forced the farmer to greater exertions. So m a c h t e n die m o d e r n improve-
m e n t s ihren Weg n u r slowly u n d gradually, a n d have never pervaded t h e
whole country. In m a n c h e Theile des K i n g d o m das turnip system of h u s -
bandry n o c h nicht eingedrungen, selbst wo die lands am geeignetsten d a z u .
20 Alle diese i m p r o v e m e n t s waren partial: in einigen districts das L a n d m i t
Capital gesttigt, in a n d r e n n o c h sehr bedrftig desselben. H a d t h e capital
expended u p o n l a n d during the h i g h prices b e e n m o r e equally distributed,
there can be no d o u b t t h a t a larger p r o d u c e m i g h t have b e e n raised at a less
expense. ... bei dieser gleichmssigren Vertheilung, h a d s o m e of t h e capi-
25 tal which was laid on almost to excess in s o m e districts, b e e n applied to
others where it was deficient, a larger p r o d u c e m i g h t have b e e n raised at a
lesser cost. 1819 bei d e m F a l l e n der Preisse, k a n n t e m a n das P r o d u c t u n d
verminderte m a n es effectiv sofort, i n d e m m a n weniger Arbeit a n w a n d t e
u n d less m a n u r e ; aber nahm, viele Verbesserungen, die m a n nie g e m a c h t
30 u n d nie erneuert h a b e n wrde u n t e r d e n reducirten Preissen, p r o d u c i r t e n
fortwhrend fr viele J a h r e e i n e n b e t r c h t l i c h e n Effect, obgleich das pro-
duce raised by m e a n s of t h e m should n o t fetch a r e m u n e r a t i n g price u n d
das ausgelegte Capital n i c h t . . . d e n gewhnlichen Profit zahlt. As t h e capi-
tal expended c a n n o t be withdrawn, the farmer c o n t i n u e s to avail himself of
35 the improvements effected by it, t h o u g h he would n o t renew or keep t h e m
up at any great fresh expense. Beispiel das marling or claying of land, sehr
expensive, b u t if d o n e well, a very p e r m a n e n t m o d e of i m p r o v e m e n t ...
when the chief expense is o n c e incurred, m a g es answer to take advantage
of it whilst the effects c o n t i n u e . So auf der e i n e n Seite die U m s t n d e
40 preveniren an i m m e d i a t e increase of the supply in proportion to the in-
crease of d e m a n d , u n d auf der a n d r e n Seite, retard the r e d u c t i o n of t h e

151
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

supply in proportion to the r e d u c t i o n of the d e m a n d . (105 - 9) T h e cost of


p r o d u c t i o n (des Korns) d e p e n d s on the price of labour, and an increase of
the wages of labour does n o t necessarily imply an e n h a n c e m e n t of t h e
price of labour. F r o m fuller e m p l o y m e n t , a n d greater exertions the wages
of labour m a y be considerably increased, whilst the price of labour m a y
c o n t i n u e the same, or the price of labour m a y be e n h a n c e d , wie sicher der
Fall w h r e n d des Kriegs u n d zugleich die wages of l a b o u r vermehrt in viel
grrer Proportion. Die Productionskost in s o l c h e m Fall v e r m e h r t im Ver-
h l t n i z u m price of labour, aber die d e m a n d for a n d the price of corn fol-
lowing the wages of labour, would be increased in a still greater proportion.
(112) Dasselbe gilt fr die r e d u c t i o n der wages of labour. A l s o Kost der
P r o d u c t i o n fllt u n d steigt nicht m i t d e m Fallen u n d Steigen der wages,
also a u c h Nachfrage nicht. (111[, 112]) Ist die Nachfrage sehr b e r der Z u -
fuhr, so das produce jedes Jahrs m e h r closely c o n s u m e d , a less portion of it
left fr das folgende J a h r u n d folglich, w e n n in d i e s e m der crop falls short
von e i n e m Durchschnittsjahr, der Prei m e h r e n h a n c e d als w e n n m e h r
Rest von Vorigem J a h r geblieben wre. Ist die d e m a n d less als die supply
u n d der price u n t e r d e m n a t u r a l one, the sale m e h r languid, die dealers
keep more back v o m Markt in Erwartung eines besseren Preisses, a larger
surplus will be thrown u p o n the n e x t year's crop u n d w e n n der plentiful,
the supply will ||23| be still m o r e increased, a n d the price u n u s u a l l y de-
pressed. (115, 16) D a z u die farmers in solcher Zeit d u r c h ihre distress
selbst gezwungen to bring all their stock to market. (116) W e r e a village to
provide all its supplies within itself, die d e m a n d der society leicht zu anti-
cipiren. Aber w e n n fr countries in d e n other extremities des globe, I n d i a
oder S d a m e r i k a zu sorgen, oft mistake in d e n articles sie want oder in ih-
rer Zahlungsfhigkeit. W h e n we draw our supplies from quarters as distant,
they c a n n o t be very nicely proportioned to any fluctuation of the d e m a n d
at the distance of half the globe. These very irregularities, however, of an
extended c o m m e r c e , may, perhaps, be rectified by a still further extension
of it. As our markets are multiplied, we b e c o m e less d e p e n d a n t u p o n any
individual o n e ; it is improbable, t h a t all should fail, or b e c o m e unprof-
itable at once, and the gain in o n e m a y c o m p e n s a t e the loss in another.
(141, 2)
In d e m D e c e n n i u m von 1 7 4 4 - 1 7 5 3 der Durchschnitt des qr of W h e a t for
each Harvest Year 1 / . 11 sh. 2%d.; von 1 7 5 4 - 1 7 6 3 , II. 1 7 s h . 6 d . ; von
1 7 6 4 - 1 7 7 3 : 2 I. 8 s. 8 d., von 1 7 7 4 - 1 7 8 3 : 2 I. 8 s. 7 d.; von 1 7 8 4 - 1 7 9 3 : 2 I.
9 s. 11 d.; von 1 7 9 4 - 1 8 0 3 : 3 I. 18 s. 6 d.; von 1 8 0 4 - 1 8 1 3 : 4 I. 15 s. 7 d.; von
1 8 1 3 - 1 8 2 1 : 4 I. 4 s. 7 d. yearly average. ( 1 4 7 - 1 5 0 )

152
IF'

Aus Thomas Hopkins: On rent of land

Hopkins. (Thomas.) On Rent of Land and its


Influence on Subsistence and Population.
London.1828.

Seine g e m s s e A n s c h a u u n g v o n d e r R e n t e i n d e r V o r r e d e : rent is, i n its


5 nature, a tax paid to o n e class of t h e c o m m u n i t y by the other classes, which
tax m a y be raised or r e d u c e d at the option of those who impose it. (VI.)

Ch. I. Rent of land.

Das Prinzip der R e n t e gegrndet auf die power des landlord to prevent his
land from b e i n g u s e d ; unless w h a t he d e m a n d s be given to h i m . (6) In der
freien Praxis von settlers, g e h n sie von L a n d N. 1. - wodurch an increase of
their n u m b e r , their power of raising p r o d u c e from it, ist v e r m i n d e r t - zu
. 2, wo their labour will bring, obgleich das L a n d von 2 1 Qualitt, a greater
return of p r o d u c e u n d das ist das i n d u c e m e n t to the removal. (7) In every
step in this process of occupying t h e lands of inferior fertility, the m o r e fer-
15 tile land yield a smaller r e t u r n for the s a m e labour, a n d t h e less fertile a
larger return. (8) L a n d N. 2 would n o t yield a higher r e t u r n t h a n N. 1, to an
equal population. On an average, each individual on N. 2, m u s t have a larger
extent of land, to c o m p e n s a t e for inferior fertility. (I.e.) So, w h e n t h e whole
land was occupied, t h e richest l a n d would have t h e m o s t dense p o p u l a t i o n ,
20 and t h e poorest l a n d t h e m o s t scanty p o p u l a t i o n . (I.e.) D a s T h e i l e n des
Capitals in Dosen is altogether a process of t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . Die s.g. erste
Dose is allowed to have h a d its effect collectively in raising p r o d u c e , sie
wird n i c h t unterstellt theilbar zu sein in separate portions, b u t as an u n d i -
vided quantity it exerts its energies to p r o d u c e the crop. A n d if 2x die
25 quantity of capital a n g e w a n d t das n e x t year on t h e s a m e piece of l a n d with-

153
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

out producing 2 x d e n return, w a r u m sollte this larger q u a n t i t y of capital


be separated in 2 doses p r o d u c i n g u n e q u a l returns? (10) W e n n eine viel
grre quantity of labour or capital a smaller p r o p o r t i o n a l r e t u r n hat, so
gilt die von der g a n z e n quantity of labour a n d capital; there can, t h e r e -
fore, be no difference to constitute rent. (11) Ist E i g e n t h u m da, so sind die 5
settlers zweiter Ankunft gezwungen, d u r c h das civil privilege, n i c h t d u r c h
ein N a t u r g e s e t z , sich auf B o d e n N. 2 a n z u s i e d e l n , weil die von N. 1 sie pre-
vent from cultivating lands . 1. (19) So in d e n U n i t e d States die e x a c t i o n
of r e n t on the best land is t h e r e p r e m a t u r e l y forcing l a b o u r a n d capital to
n e w l a n d . (21) So wie different degrees of fertility of land, r e n t m a y give 10
s u c h a d i r e c t i o n to t h e e m p l o y m e n t of labour, as will m a k e labour, on t h e
whole, less productive. (I.e.) H a t e i n P c h t e r 2 farms, eine at will, die a n d r e
at lease, w e n n a u c h die leztre n i c h t so fruchtbar, so wird er alles Capital
darauf werfen, weil es i h m n i c h t in der R e n t e abgezogen werden k a n n . So
rent causes t h e capital to be u n e q u a l l y productive. (25, 6) R e n t a u c h in 15
G r e a t Britain treibt p o p u l a t i o n p r e m a t u r e l y to poorer soils. (27) T h e l a n d
of each quality has its proper relative rent ||24| d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p e t i t i o n
a m o n g individual t e n a n t s , whatever m a y be t h e general average rate of
rent. (27, 28) D a s principle of c o m p e t i t i o n m a c h t 2 rates of profit u n m g -
lich in d e m s e l b e n L a n d ; aber das b e s t i m m t die relative rents; aber n i c h t 20
d e n general average rate of rent. (30) T h e rates of wages a n d profit m a y be
equalised by competition, b u t they c a n n o t be kept high, if land proprietors,
by raising rents, choose to r e d u c e t h e m . (I.e.) D e r u n m i t t e l b a r e Effect of a
rise of rent - andre D i n g e dieselben b l e i b e n d - ist a r e d u c t i o n of wages. ...
M i t der m e h r food k a n n der landlord d a n n a surplus p o p u l a t i o n , die fr i h n 25
u n d seine F a m i l i e arbeiten, n h r e n . H i e r rent die cause of an increase of
t h e population, statt ihr effect zu sein. (34) Die Bevlkerung u n d alle b r i -
gen U m s t n d e stationr b l e i b e n d voraus gesezt, any rise of r e n t reduces t h e
n u m b e r of primary producers, a n d increases t h e n u m b e r of secondary pro-
ducers, and, with the r e d u c t i o n in t h e n u m b e r of primary producers, there 30
m u s t evidently be a d i m i n u t i o n in t h e whole quantity of primary p r o d u c e
brought i n t o existence; i.e. of t h e principal necessaries of life, and t h e
share of e a c h labourer m u s t c o n s e q u e n t l y be less, or real wages m u s t fall.
(38) U n t e r d e m feudal system war das great object des l a n d proprietor to
have m a n y m e n u p o n his land; t h e obtaining of m o n e y , or rent from t h e 35
l
l a n d was a very inferior consideration. (45) Im 1 3 u n d 14 Jh. die low rents
required, enabled those t e n a n t s who held t h e richest lands, to increase
their n u m b e r s , a n d in process of t i m e , with t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of t h e chief, to
divide a n d subdivide their farms, a n d they were generally r e d u c e d to a
small one for each family. (48) Im 13 J h . die average rent 6 d. an acre 40
(nearly I s . %. von u n s r e m G e l d ) . (50) In I r l a n d :

154
Aus Thomas Hopkins: On rent of land

Labour Weavers Potatoes Potatoe Rent


per day wages acre per acre
In 1799 Os. 6%. Is. 2%. Os. 2y4d. 3/. 8 s. 6 d. 0. l i s . Od. (A.) Young
1811 Is. Od. I s . 3d. Os. 3y2d. 8 I. 13 s. 2 d. 1/. 7 s. l i d .

5 N a c h Wakefield die l e z t r e L i s t e . Also in 12 J a h r e n die R e n t m e h r als 2


gestiegen. (59) R e n t g e h t e i n in d e n Prei der P r o d u c t e . D i e Influenz v o n
R e n t auf die Preisse der W a a r e n zeigt sich am schlagendsten b e i m Cattle,
dessen Prei schritthlt m i t d e m rise of r e n t of land. Da wenig Capital ge-
b r a u c h t u n d wenig A r b e i t in p r o d u c i n g cattle on n a t u r a l grass, ist es wohl-
10 feil wo rent low; t h e u e r , wo sie h o c h , as t h e value of cattle t h u s raised will
be formed almost entirely of t h e h i g h rent, die words cheap a n d d e a r n a t r -
lich relatively to o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s . (61) In d e n h i g h l a n d s of Scotland,
w h e n rents were low, a p o u n d of o a t m e a l b r e a d so t h e u e r wie a p o u n d of
meat.

15 s. d.
In E n g l a n d am Schlu des 13 century,
a b u s h e l o f wheat c o s t . . . 09
Z u r selben Zeit 24 lbs of m e a t 0 9
In E n g l a n d 1827 a b u s h e l of w h e a t 7
20 24 lbs of meat, at 7 d. per lb 14
oder its relative price c o m p a r e d
with bread, is d o u b l e d .
1790 in E n g l a n d Brod war per lb 0 1%
U n d m e a t , zur selben Zeit, per lb 0 4
25 In F r a n c e zur selben Zeit b r e a d 1
und meat 3;
also in E n g l a n d m e a t zu b r e a d n i c h t ganz wie 2 % : 1 , in F r a n k r e i c h
= 3 ^ : 1 . Gegenwrtig m e a t z u m selben relativen Prei in E n g l a n d gestie-
gen, wie 1790 in F r a n c e , d e n n bread per lb n u n 2 d. u n d m e a t 7 d. (67, 8)
30 K e i n e nothwendige V e r b i n d u n g zwischen d e m proportional rate of r e n t
u n d d e m degree of i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e land. A u f einigen der highly i m -
proved lands of E n g l a n d die r e n t n u r % oder % des crop, w h r e n d on t h e
racked soils of I r e l a n d u n d d e n half deserts der p a p a l states %, % m e h r als
des crop. Die r e n t k a n n steigen, w h r e n d das land sich verschlechtert.
35 (68)

155
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Ch. II. The Labouring classes.

Wo Boden, Clima schlecht, wo keine I n d u s t r i e u n d Capital, wie in d e n


arabian u n d african sandy deserts u n d in d e n high n o r t h e r n latitudes, das
people zahlt wenig, w e n n b e r h a u p t irgend etwas, als rents, u n d taxes, they
enjoy fast ihr ganzes p r o d u c e , oder ganz ihr p r o d u c e . D e n n o c h few in n u m - 5
ber u n d c o m m o n l y very poorly subsisted. Ihre c o n d i t i o n n u r zu verbessern
by increasing their productive power. E n a b l e t h e m to p r o d u c e m o r e , a n d
they m a y have m o r e to enjoy. (81) If all labourers were employed for the
s a m e end, or object, as the d i a m o n d cutter a n d the opera singer, in a short
t i m e there would ||25| be no wealth to subsist t h e m ; because n o n e of t h e 10
wealth produced would then become capital. If a considerable proportion were so
employed, wages would be low; because, b u t a comparatively small part of
what was produced would be used as capital; b u t if only a few of t h e labour-
ers were so employed, and, of course, nearly all were p l o u g h m e n , s h o e m a k -
ers, weavers etc, t h e n m u c h capital would be produced, and wages could be 15
proportionally high. (84, 5) W i t h the d i a m o n d cutter and the singer, m u s t
be classed all those who labour for the ... landlords, or a n n u i t a n t s , a n d who
receive a part of their i n c o m e as wages: all, in fact, whose labours terminate
merely in producing those things which gratify landlords u n d a n n u i t a n t s ,
and who receive in return for their labours, a part of the rent of the land- 20
lord, or of the i n c o m e of the a n n u i t a n t . These are all productive labourers,
b u t all their labours are for the purpose of converting the wealth which
exists, in the shape of rents and a n n u i t i e s , into some other form, that shall,
in that other form, m o r e gratify the landlord a n d a n n u i t a n t , and therefore
they are secondary producers. All other labourers are primary producers. 25
(85) In Irland n a c h massiger B e r e c h n u n g u n d d e m Census von 1821 das
whole n e t produce, was geht an landlords, government titheowners
20 Millions I. St., die whole wages aber n u r 14,114,000. (94) It has b e e n
stated, d a wie frher 5 per acre nthig, to stock Irish land as well as E n g -
lish land is stocked. (Siehe Wakefield's A c c o u n t s of Ireland.) (94[, 95]) Die 30
l
cultivators von Italy, im Allgemeinen, zahlen von / zu m e h r als % des pro-
2

d u c e as rent an den landlord, m i t m o d e r a t e skill in agriculture u n d a


scanty supply of fixed capital. Der grre Theil der p o p u l a t i o n besteht aus
secondary producers u n d proprietors u n d generally the primary producers
are a poor and a degraded class. ([101,] 102) U n t e r Louis X I V hnlich, the 35
m o n e y rents were too high to p e r m i t the cultivators to a c c u m u l a t e capital
on the land. (102) N a c h A. Young in seinen Travels in France stand die
R e n t e dort wie folgt

156
Aus Thomas Hopkins: On rent of land

Arable and L u c e r n e 75,000,000 zu 15 s. 7 d per acre 5 7 , 4 3 7 , 5 0 0


Woods 19,000,000 zu 12 s. 11,910,000
Vines 5,000,000 zu 76 s. 6 d . 19,125,000
Meadows 4,000,000 43 s. 9 d . 8,750,000
5 Wastes 27,150,000 z u I s . 9 d . 2,375,625
130,150,000 99,598,125

Also fast 100 Mill. St. R e n t . H i n z u Tithes zu 16,599,687 (viel zu ge-


ring angeschlagen) u n d taxes zu 24,707,492, z u s a m m e n 140,905,304.
D a b e i Ackerbau miserabel. D i e P o p u l a t i o n Frankreichs damals
10 26,363,074. W e n n selbst 6 Millions of labouring population, was zu large,
htte j e d e family zu liefern g e h a b t jhrlich, direkt oder indirekt, an average
von an 2 3 of n e t wealth to t h e landlords, the c h u r c h a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t .
N a c h Youngs A n g a b e n , n o c h allerlei in A n s c h l a g gebracht, k o m m t auf
die Arbeiterfamily j h r l i c h 42, 10 sh. Product, 23 davon paid away to
15 others u n d 19 u n d 10 s. r e m a i n e d to subsist itself. D a r a u s zu folgern, d a
n u r a m o d e r a t e portion der whole french p o p u l a t i o n were primary p r o d u c -
ers. (103, 4) the error of Mr M a l t h u s and his followers is to be found in t h e
assumption, that a r e d u c t i o n of the labouring population would not be fol-
lowed by a correspondent reduction of capital. (118) At present, in G r e a t
20 Britain, 1 family on an average cultivates 40 acres; u n d da sie gleichzeitig
in distress, Mr M a l t h u s says they are too n u m e r o u s , and t h a t they m u s t by
some m e a n s r e d u c e their n u m b e r s . (120) D i e antipopulationists sind
b o u n d to prove, d a die labour would n o t be even less productive, w h e n
there would be only 1 family to every 60 acres. ([120,] 121) Herr M a l t h u s
25 vergit da die d e m a n d is limited by the m e a n s of paying wages u n d da
diese m e a n s , do n o t arise spontaneously, b u t are always previously created
by labour. (122) A r e d u c t i o n of the population, a n d a c o n s e q u e n t d i m i n u -
tion of the a n n u a l supply of wealth, would n o t necessarily lower either rents,
or t h e rate of profit, b u t would r e d u c e wages. (124) Sonderbar, da a |
30 |26| strong inclination to represent n e t wealth as beneficial to the labouring
class, because it gives employment, t h o u g h it is evidently n o t on a c c o u n t of
being net, that it h a s t h a t power, b u t b e c a u s e it is wealth, - t h a t which h a s
b e e n brought into existence by labour; while, gleichzeitig, an a d d i t i o n a l
quantity of labour is represented as injurious to the labouring classes,
35 t h o u g h that labour produces 3 x as m u c h as it c o n s u m e s . (126) If by the
use of superior m a c h i n e r y , the whole primary p r o d u c e could be raised from
200 to 250 or 300, while n e t wealth a n d profit took only 140, klar, d a there
would r e m a i n as a fund for the wages der primary producers 110 oder 160
statt 60. (128) the c o n d i t i o n of labourers is r e n d e r e d bad either by crippling
40 their productive power, or by taking from t h e m what they have p r o d u c e d .

157
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

(129) No says Mr M a l t h u s "the weight of your b u r t h e n has n o t h i n g what-


ever to do with your distress; that arises solely from there being too m a n y
persons carrying it." (134) w h e n the emigrant, by t h e greater r o o m or larger
extent of l a n d that he leaves for those w h o r e m a i n , benefits t h e m in a great-
er degree, t h a n leaving his share of t h e n e t wealth to be paid by t h e m , in- 5
j u r e s t h e m u n d umgekehrt. ([138,] 139.)

158
Aus David Ricardo: An essay on the influence of a low price of corn

Ricardo. (David) An Essay on the Influence


of a low Price of Corn on the Profits
of Stock etc
L o n d o n 1815 (2 ed.)

5 I am only desirous of proving t h a t t h e profits on agricultural capital c a n n o t


materially vary, without occasioning a similar variation in t h e profits on
capital, employed on m a n u f a c t u r e s a n d c o m m e r c e . (7) W e n n m a r k e d i m -
provements in agriculture, or in the i m p l e m e n t s of h u s b a n d r y acted with
equal effect, wie die causes, w h i c h r e n d e r the acquisition of an a d d i t i o n a l
10 quantity of corn m o r e difficult, ... corn would be subject only to a c c i d e n t a l
variation of price, arising from b a d seasons, from greater or less real wages
of labour, or from an alteration in the value of the precious m e t a l s . (17)
T h e sole effect t h e n of t h e progress of wealth on prices, i n d e p e n d e n t l y of
all improvements, either in agriculture or m a n u f a c t u r e s , appears to be to
15 raise the price of raw p r o d u c e a n d of labour, leaving all other c o m m o d i t i e s
at their original prices, a n d to lower general profits in c o n s e q u e n c e of the
general rise of wages. (18) the interest of the landlord is always opposed to
the interest of every other class in the c o m m u n i t y . (20) Der rise or fall of
wages hngt ab, im stationren Stand der Gesellschaft von d e m increase or
20 falling off of the population, in d e m advancing state, ob das Capital oder die
Bevlkerung rascher a d v a n c e ; in d e m retrograde state, ob Bevlkerung oder
Capital decrease with t h e greater rapidity. (22) T h e facilities of o b t a i n i n g
food are beneficial in two ways to the owners of capital, it at t h e s a m e t i m e
raises profits and increases t h e a m o u n t of c o n s u m a b l e c o m m o d i t i e s . T h e
25 facilities in obtaining all other things, only increases the a m o u n t of c o m -
modities. (27) E i n rise of prices, selbst w e n n d u r c h depreciation of m o n e y
verursacht, is said to be beneficial, b e c a u s e it betters the situation of t h e

159
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

c o m m e r c i a l classes at the expense of those enjoying fixed i n c o m e s . (42, 3)


B e i m freien I m p o r t von K o r n : In every step of our progress, profits of stock
increase a n d rents fall, a n d m o r e l a n d is a b a n d o n e d : besides which, the
country saves all the difference between the price at which corn can be
grown, a n d the price at which it c a n be imported, on t h e quantity we re- 5
ceive from abroad. (46) I shall greatly regret that considerations for any
particular class, are allowed to check the progress of the wealth a n d popula-
tion of the country. (49) To be consistent, let us by the s a m e act arrest im-
provement, (da improvement in agriculture auch d e m landlord schd-
lich) a n d prohibit importation. (50) 10

160
Aus David Ricardo: On protection to agriculture

Ricardo. (David.)
On Protection to Agriculture.
L o n d o n . 1822.

In d e m Report, Agricultural C o m m i t t e e , 1821, sagt Mr. Iveson: "I know


5 districts of the country, taking t h e very best qualities in t h e m , that will pro-
d u c e from 4 to 5 qrs per acre. I know there are farms that have averaged in
the wheat crop, 4 qrs to the acre, or 32 bushels, (in Wiltshire)" " . . . I t h i n k
the middling, or second, ... quality of lands u n d e r good cultivation, m a y be
t a k e n at 2% qrs. A n d the inferior lands? F r o m 12 to 15 bushels per acre."
10 Harvey statuirte, d a die lowest rent fr das worst cornraising land sei 18 d.
per acre. Er statuirte ferner, d a im D u r c h s c h n i t t der leztren 10 J a h r e er
30 bushels W e i z e n per acre v o n s e i n e m L a n d e erhalten. N a c h Wakefield
die Differenz zwischen d e m p r o d u c e of wheat per acre auf d e m b e s t e n u n d
d e m schlechtesten L a n d in cultivation 32 bushels. Er sagte: "on the sea-
15 coast of ||27| Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, a n d Kent, t h e crop is t h o u g h t a b a d
one, if it be not 40 bushels per acre;" a n d he a d d e d "I do n o t believe, t h a t
the very poor lands p r o d u c e above 8 bushels per acre." (3, 4) W e i z e n p r e i s s e
in diesem L a n d in different seasons of plenty, trotz des Exports, fielen v o n
der a b u n d a n c e of crop um 50 % in 3 J a h r e n . Das folgende D o k u m e n t copirt
20 von Tooke's evidence vor d e m c o m m i t t e e von 1821.

s. d. Quarters
1728 war der Prei mit einem excess
des Weizens 48 5 of import von 70,757
1732 mit einem excess
25 23 of export von 202,058
1740 45 oy 2 46,822
1743 22 1 371,429
1750 28 10 947,323

161
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

[s. d.] [Quarters


1757 excess of
53 4 import 130,017
1761 excess of
26 10 export 441,956. 5
(P. 229, Agricultural Report.)

If we lived in one of Mr Owen's parallelograms, a n d enjoyed all o u r pro-


ductions in c o m m o n , t h e n no o n e could suffer in c o n s e q u e n c e of a b u n -
d a n c e , b u t as long as society is constituted as it now is, a b u n d a n c e will of-
t e n be injurious, to producers, a n d scarcity beneficial to t h e m . ([20,] 21) 10
T h a t some capital would be lost (bei freier K o r n e i n f u h r ) c a n n o t be dis-
p u t e d , b u t is the possession or preservation of capital the end, or the
m e a n s ? T h e m e a n s , u n d o u b t e d l y . W h a t we want is an a b u n d a n c e of com-
modities, a n d if it could be proved t h a t by the sacrifice of a part of our cap-
ital we should a u g m e n t the a n n u a l p r o d u c e of those objects which contri- 15
b u t e to o u r enjoyment a n d happiness, we ought n o t to repine at the loss of
a part of our capital. (60)

162
Aus Charles Wentworth Dilke: The source and remedy of the national difficulties

The Source and Remedy


of the National Difficulties etc
A letter to Lord John Russell.
L o n d o n . 1821.

5 Suppose t h e whole l a b o u r of t h e c o u n t r y to raise j u s t sufficient for t h e sup


port of t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n ; it is evident t h e r e is no surplus labour, conse
quently, n o t h i n g t h a t c a n be allowed to a c c u m u l a t e as capital. S u p p o s e t h e
whole l a b o u r of t h e c o u n t r y to raise as m u c h in one year as would m a i n t a i n
it 2 years, it is evident o n e year's c o n s u m p t i o n m u s t perish, or for o n e year,
10 m e n m u s t cease from p r o d u c t i v e labour. B u t t h e possessors of the surplus
produce, or capital, will n e i t h e r m a i n t a i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h e following year
in idleness, nor allow t h e p r o d u c e to perish; they will employ t h e m u p o n
s o m e t h i n g n o t directly a n d i m m e d i a t e l y productive, . B., in t h e erection of
m a c h i n e r y etc. But, t h e third year, t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n m a y again r e t u r n
15 to productive labour, a n d t h e m a c h i n e r y erected in t h e last year c o m i n g
now in operation, klar d a das P r o d u c t grsser als das des ersten Jahrs um
das p r o d u c e der m a c h i n e r y in a d d i t i o n . D i e surplus p r o d u c e , also n o c h
mehr, m u perish oder be p u t to u s e as before; u n d dieser u s a n c e fgt
wieder der productive power der Gesellschaft h i n z u , bis m e n must cease
20 from productive l a b o u r for a t i m e , or the p r o d u c e of their labour m u s t per-
ish. D i e die palpable c o n s e q u e n c e in t h e simplest state of society. (4, 5.)
Der Progress des increasing capital would, in established societies, be
m a r k e d by the decreasing interest of m o n e y , oder, was dasselbe ist, t h e d e -
creasing quantity of the l a b o u r of others t h a t would be given for its u s e . (6)
25 A b e r wahrhaft reich eine N a t i o n ist, w e n n kein Zins fr Capital gezahlt.
W e n n statt 12 S t u n d e n n u r 6 gearbeitet wird wealth is disposable t i m e ,
and n o t h i n g more. (I.e.) all u n p r o d u c t i v e classes have always a twofold o p -

163
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

eration, not only ceasing to produce themselves, but actively destroying t h e


produce of the labour of others. (9) the d e m a n d of other countries is lim-
ited, n o t only by our power to produce, b u t by their power to produce, for
do what you will, in a series of years the whole world c a n take little m o r e of
us, t h a n we take of the world, so t h a t all your foreign trade, of which there 5
is so m u c h talking, never did, never could, nor ever can, add o n e shilling,
or o n e doit to the wealth of the country, as for every bale of silk, chest of
tea, pipe of wine that ever was imported, s o m e t h i n g of e q u a l value was ex-
ported; a n d even the profits m a d e by our m e r c h a n t s in their foreign trade
are paid by the c o n s u m e r of the return goods here. (17, 18) foreign trade is 10
m e r e barter a n d exchange for the convenience a n d enjoyment of t h e capi-
talist: he has n o t a h u n d r e d bodies, n o r a h u n d r e d legs: he c a n n o t con-
s u m e , in cloth a n d cotton stockings, all the cloth a n d cotton stockings t h a t
are m a n u f a c t u r e d ; therefore they are exchanged for wines a n d silks; b u t
those wines and silks represent the surplus labour ||28| of our own popula- 15
tion, as m u c h as the cloths a n d cottons, a n d in this way the destructive power
of the capitalist is increased beyond all bounds: by foreign trade the capitalists
contrive to outwit nature, who h a d put a 1000 n a t u r a l limits to their exac-
tions, and to their wishes to exact: there is no limit now, either to their
power, or desires. (18) the n a t u r a l a n d necessary c o n s e q u e n c e of an in- 20
creased capital, is its decreasing value. (22) In Bezug auf Ricardo's Capi-
tel ber die Effects on A c c u m u l a t i o n on Profits and Interest, sagt der
Verfasser: Why set o u t by telling us that no a c c u m u l a t i o n of capital will
lower profits, because n o t h i n g will lower profits b u t increased wages, when
it appears that if population does n o t increase with capital wages would in- 25
crease from the disproportion between capital a n d labour; a n d if popula-
tion does increase, wages would increase from the difficulty of procuring
food. (23) If it were possible to c o n t i n u e to increase capital a n d keep up
the value of capital, which is proved by the interest of m o n e y c o n t i n u i n g
t h e same, the interest to be paid for capital would soon exceed t h e whole 30
produce of labour. ... capital tends in m o r e t h a n arithmetical progression
to increase capital. It is a d m i t t e d t h a t the interest paid to the capitalists
whether in the n a t u r e of rents, interests of m o n e y , or profits of trade, is
paid out of the labour of others. Also w e n n capital go on a c c u m u l a t i n g , the
labour to be given for the u s e of capital m u s t go on increasing, interest paid 35
for capital c o n t i n u i n g the same, till all the labour of all the labourers of the
society is engrossed by the capitalist. A b e r impossible to h a p p e n ; for what-
ever m a y be due to the capitalist, he can only receive the surplus l a b o u r of
the labourer; for the labourer must live ... A b e r perfect wahr, da if capital
does not decrease in value as it increases in a m o u n t , the capitalists will ex- 40
act from the labourers the produce of every hour's labour beyond what it is

164
Aus Charles Wentworth Dke: The source and remedy of the national difficulties

possible for the labourer to subsist o n : a n d however horrid a n d disgusting it


m a y seem, the capitalist m a y eventually speculate on the food that requires
the least labour to p r o d u c e it, a n d eventually say to the labourer, "You
s h a ' n ' t eat bread, b e c a u s e barley m e a l is cheaper; Y o u s h a ' n ' t eat m e a t , be-
5 cause it is possible to subsist on beet root a n d potatoes." A n d to this p o i n t
have we c o m e . (23, 4) If the labourer can be brought to feed on potatoes in-
stead of bread, it is indisputably true that m o r e can be exacted from his la-
bour; i.e., if when he fed on b r e a d he was obliged to retain for the m a i n t e -
n a n c e of himself a n d family t h e labour of M o n d a y a n d Tuesday, he will, on
10 potatoes, require only the half of M o n d a y ; a n d the r e m a i n i n g half of M o n -
day a n d the whole of T u e s d a y are available either for the service of the
state or the capitalist. (26) T h e real labour of every m a n is of equal value,
or rather, is equally paid for, the few exceptions of great talents n o t being
worth distinguishing. Society n e i t h e r p r e s u m e s n o r pays for extraordinary
15 ability: all the i n c o m e , t h e n , t h a t a counsellor, judge, bishop, landholder,
householder, (selbst was die m e c h a n i c s u n d other artizans b e r d e n ge-
whnlichen L o h n h i n a u s ziehn) receives beyond the pay of a c o m m o n la-
bourer, is interest of capital. (33)

165
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Robert Somers. Letters from the


Highlands; or, the Famine of 1847.
L o n d o n . 1848.

Blair-Atholl, wie die m e i s t e n Highland parishes, has witnessed a rapid a n d


steady decrease of its population. H i e r das clearance system b e g o n n e n 5
schon vor 60 Jahren. G l e n Tilt cleared of its i n h a b i t a n t s by the present
D u k e of Atholl's Grandfather, 20 or 30 years before the burnings a n d eject-
m e n t s of Sutherland were heard of. (11) 1801 die P o p u l a t i o n von Blair
Atholl: 2,848; in 1831: 2,384, in 1 8 4 1 : 2,231 ... T h e clearance a n d disper-
sion of the people is p u r s u e d by the proprietors as a settled principle, as an 10
agricultural necessity, just as trees a n d brushwood are cleared from the
wastes of A m e r i c a or Australia: a n d the operation goes on in a quiet, busi-
ness-like way. (12) J e d e clearance p r o d u c e s misery a n d pauperism. It less-
ens the work to be d o n e in a parish, because the large farmers t u r n exten-
sive tracts of soil into grass, on which the small t e n a n t s used to grow corn, 15
turnips, a n d potatoes. A n d while it d i m i n i s h e s the work to be done, it in-
creases the n u m b e r of those who can only subsist by hiring themselves to
do it. It grinds down small farmers ( n m l i c h w h e n leases expire a n d a new
t e n a n t can be obtained, Y D u t z e n d , 20, 30 families h e r a u s geworfen; to
2

m a k e r o o m for one ... consolidation of small farms) into daylabourers. (12) 20


In den H i g h l a n d s die W a l d u n g e n ausgedehnt. H e r e , on o n e side of Gaick,
you have the new forest of Glenfeshie; a n d there, on the other, you have
the new forest of Ardverikie. In the same line ||29| you have t h e Black
M o u n t a n i m m e n s e waste also recently erected. F r o m east to westfrom
the neighbourhood of A b e r d e e n to the crags of O b a n y o u have now a 25
continous line of forest; while in other parts of the H i g h l a n d s there are t h e
new forests of L o c h Archaig, Glengarry, G l e n m o r i s t o n , Glenstrathfarar etc.
... the clearances which have t a k e n place within the last few years, to m a k e

166
Aus Robert Somers: Letters from the Highlands

r o o m for these new deer-forests, have m a d e little noise in the country, sim-
ply because they were clearances of sheep a n d n o t of people. (25) In the
first place, sheep were i n t r o d u c e d into glens which h a d b e e n the seats of
c o m m u n i t i e s of small farmers; a n d the latter were driven to seek subsist-
5 ence on coarser a n d m o r e sterile tracts of soil. N o w again, deer are supplan-
ting sheep; a n d these are o n c e m o r e dispossessing the small t e n a n t s , w h o
will necessarily be driven down u p o n still coarser land, and to m o r e grind-
ing penury. Or ... the deerforests, a n d the people c a n n o t coexist. O n e or
other of the two m u s t yield. Let the forests be increased in n u m b e r a n d ex-
10 tent during the n e x t quarter of a century, as they have b e e n in the last, a n d
the G a e l will perish from their native soil. ... Dieses m o v e m e n t u n t e r d e n
H i g h l a n d e i g e n t h m e r s theils aus M o d e , aristokratischem Kitzel, Jagdlieb-
haberei, aber: others follow the trade in deer with an eye solely to profit.
For it is a fact, that a m o u n t a i n range laid out in forests is, in m a n y cases
15 more profitable to the proprietor t h a n w h e n let as a sheep walk. ... T h e
h u n t s m a n n m l i c h who wants a deerforest limits his offers by no other cal-
culation t h a n the extent of his purse. In any circumstances it will be a loss
to h i m . (26) Sufferings have b e e n inflicted in t h e H i g h l a n d s scarcely less
severe t h a n those occasioned by the policy of the N o r m a n kings. D e e r have
20 received extended ranges, while m e n have b e e n h u n t e d within a narrower
and still narrower circle. ... O n e after o n e , the liberties of t h e people have
b e e n cloven down. ... T h e oppressions are daily on the increase. (28) Small
crofters (bei N e w t o n m o r e ) are located on a rocky acclivity that stretches
back b e h i n d the h a m l e t . T h e s e crofters pay from f 3 to 7 of rent, a n d are
25 far from being comfortable in their c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e n a k e d n e s s of t h e
soil giving the labour of the poor people no c h a n c e of a d e q u a t e reward. It is
a prevalent n o t i o n that it is small crofters, such as these, extracting a m i s -
erable crop of corn a n d barley from a few acres of barren land, t h a t t h e
clearance system r e m o v e d from the glens. But the very opposite is the
30 truth. The small tenants of this class are in fact creations of the clearance system.
... Allerdings. U n d e r the old system die L e u t e m a n c h m a l schlecht dran.
Their system of farming was b a r b a r o u s ; they neglected their stock u n d ihre
crops; and, while b o t h were going to ruin, they indulged in savage i n d o -
lence. Aber dieser grosse difference: the distress der small farmers u n d e r
35 the old system arose entirely from their own bad m a n a g e m e n t , while t h a t
of the small crofters, u n d e r the new system, springs from the essential de-
fectiveness of their circumstances. In the o n e class you h a d all the m a t e r i -
als of gradual and steady i m p r o v e m e n t ; b u t in the other you have dilapi-
dated m e a n s and a b r o k e n spirit, conjoined with a want of land, t h a t
40 renders i m p r o v e m e n t scarcely possible by any m e a s u r e short of a new dis-
tribution of the soil. (31) T h e labourer or the t r a d e s m a n who has no land

167
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

k a n n k a u m leben u n t e r solchem System. He is pressed down to the lowest


possibility of existence. His (dieser labourer h e i t cottar) c o m p e t i t o r t h e
crofterfeels that, with his cow or 2, a n d his 2 or 3 bolls of barley a n d oat-
m e a l , he c a n afford to give his work for smaller wages t h a n he could live
u p o n , without these a p p u r t e n a n c e s ; a n d so he either cuts down the re- 5
m u n e r a t i o n of t h e cottar, or cuts h i m o u t altogether. (42) the result was a
wretchedness of living a m o n g the p o p u l a t i o n of the H i g h l a n d s , c o m p a r e d
with which, the subsistence of savage life is luxury itself. (I.e.) D i e club ten-
ants in Lochcarron ... Ihre corncrops oft so poor as to yield little m o r e t h a n
the seed; b u t even with this miserable r e t u r n the people are n o t altogether 10
dissatisfied, providing that the yield of straw is sufficient to carry their cat-
tle over winter. Aber die straw s u c h inferior feeding for cows t h a t it is i m -
possible they can thrive, or yield the a m o u n t of p r o d u c e which they would
do if well fed. (54) Hier im Lochcarron district (wie fast berall im High-
land) n u r 2 Klassen, a higher u n d a lowerthe former consisting of a few 15
large t e n a n t s all occupying nearly the same level; a n d the latter consisting
of a dense body of small lotters a n d fishermen, alle equally u n i f o r m in
their circumstances a n d condition. T h e o n e class has wealth on its side, the
other class has n u m b e r s . D i e sprich||30|wrtliche Feindschaft zwischen Ar-
m e n u n d R e i c h e n erhielt n o c h besondre Entwicklung in this simple social 20
structure of the Highlands. Die clearances laid the f o u n d a t i o n of a bitter
animosity between the sheepfarmers a n d the lotters; a n d as these violent
changes were executed by the authority of the lairds, they also snapped the
tie which h a d previously, a m i d all reverses, u n i t e d the people and their
chiefs. N o c h E i n Band war da, die spiritual u n i o n . D i e Parish C h u r c h was a 25
c o m m o n centre where all classes met. A b e r die social wrongs of the lower
class inclined their m i n d s to the doctrine of n o n - i n t r u s i o n u n d sie t r e n n t e n
sich von der etablirten church. T h e parishchurches, in Rossshire particu-
larly, have b e e n literally emptied. ... the sheepfarmers adhere to the Estab-
lishment. There is thus a d o u b l e p o i n t of collision between the 30
2 r a n k s , a n ecclesiastical as well as an agrarian enmity. T h e Proprietor,
the minister, t h e schoolmaster a n d the large t a c k s m e n a l l who used to act
as the leaders of the people and to m a n a g e t h e public business of the par-
ishare ranged together on one side a n d in o n e cause; while t h e people
are as u n a n i m o u s l y a n d determinedly u n i t e d on a n o t h e r side a n d in an en- 35
tirely opposite cause. (65, 6) No political economist has yet written the his-
tory of such towns as Janetown, Plockton, a n d D o r n i e . Diese H i g h l a n d ( a n
d e r W e s t k s t e ) fishing villages form a distinct species of the genus urbs.
... On some fatal M a r t i n m a s or W h i t s u n d a y term, t h e forefathers of these
wretched villagers were h u n t e d out from the glens, a n d pressed together in 40
crowds on barren stripes along t h e m a r g i n s of the lochs. They h a d no arts,

168
Aus Robert Somers: Letters from the Highlands

no manufactures, no goods to sell. A n d even supposing that they h a d b e e n


adepts in trade, there was no rural p o p u l a t i o n b e h i n d t h e m to give a d e -
m a n d for their products, a n d no corn to take in exchange; for t h e s a m e p r o -
cess which h u d d l e d t h e m in helpless misery on t h e shore, cleared t h e c o u n -
5 try of its peasants, a n d e x t i n g u i s h e d cultivation. ... T h e land allotted t h e m
was too narrow a n d too b a r r e n to k e e p t h e m alive; but here is t h e seawhy
not dip for herrings in t h e tide, a n d scratch limpets from t h e rocks? T h e y
b e c a m e a m p h i b i o u s , lived half on l a n d a n d half on water, and, after all, did
not half live u p o n both. ([83,] 84) D i e Isle of Skye das E l e n d u n g e h e u e r .
10 Subdivision has b e e n carried to its farthest limits, wofr h o h e R e n t s .
(93 sqq.) the land r e n t a l von Arisaig ist an 1200 per Jahr. D i e P o p u l a t i o n
1250. A p o u n d per h e a d is t h e relative p r o p o r t i o n of rent a n d p o p u l a t i o n in
Skye, and some of the m o s t destitute districts of t h e W e s t H i g h l a n d s . (119)
T h e p o p u l a t i o n m u s t necessarily be very poor on an estate where t h e r e is a
15 h u m a n being for every p o u n d w h i c h goes into t h e pocket of the landlord.
Very probably Lord C r a n s t o u n receives a larger share of the a n n u a l pro-
d u c e of Arisaig t h a n t h e whole 1250 souls p u t together. To m a k e up this
rent the people toil, a n d save, a n d stint themselvesliving u p o n t h e scanti-
est a n d poorest fare, a n d scraping together every farthing they can lay their
20 fingers u p o n , from o n e year's e n d to another. (119) Die H a u p t q u e l l e n der
want in d e n H i g h l a n d s sind: I) Waste of land. 1) It is wasted d u r c h das sys-
tem der sheepwalks. Large tracts of country, 20 or 30 miles in length, are
thrown into one farm; all fences over this vast space are removed, a n d t h e
soil resigned to its own s p o n t a n e o u s p r o d u c t i o n . All kinds of land, dry a n d
25 wet, land fit for t h e p l o u g h a n d land adapted only for pasture, are t h u s ap-
plied to t h e s a m e use, a n d subjected to t h e s a m e t r e a t m e n t . C o n s e q u e n z :
an e n o r m o u s waste of productive capability. 2) land is wasted by deer-forests
and gamepreserving. (165) T h e b r e e d i n g and fostering of winged g a m e ,
which is also carried to a great e x t r e m e in the H i g h l a n d s , retains extensive
30 moors u n d e r heather. A vigorous m o o r - b u r n would clear t h e soil of t h a t
e m b l e m of barrenness, a n d cover it with grass. But m o o r b u r n is p r o h i b i t e d
by t h e gamepreservers. (166) 3) Natural wastes. Besteht h a u p t s c h l i c h aus
mosses, swamps, seabeaches, a n d t h e seats of old and nearly extinct forests.
2 or three centuries ago, t h e surface of t h e lowlands was scarred by similar
35 wastes etc. (I.e.) 4) l a n d is wasted by imperfect cultivation. . B. das feeble
scraping of the surface soil w h i c h passes for digging m a y also be said to
waste t h e ground, by allowing t h e subsoil to lie useless to t h e work of vege
tation. (166, 167) II.) Waste of Manure. M a n u r i n g is the m e a n s of repairing
the waste of soil o c c a s i o n e d by p r o d u c t i o n . A waste of m a n u r e , therefore, is
40 virtually a waste of l a n d . (167) III.) Waste of Capital t h e landlords, i n s t e a d
of saving a part, have c o n s u m e d m o r e t h a n their | | 3 1 | i n c o m e s . T h e a n n u a l

169
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

rental of t h e 4 counties of Sutherland, Ross, Inverness, a n d Argyle, is


597,496 18 sh.; b u t how m u c h of this, after paying the interest of m o n e y -
lenders a n d family i n c u m b r a n c e s , really goes into the h a n d s of the n o m i -
n a l proprietors? Perhaps %, % or n o t m o r e t h a n %. ... As for the large farm-
ers, they are also in a great m e a s u r e an absentee class. T h e sheepwalks are 5
principally held by g e n t l e m e n who have farms in the south, a n d who carry
away with t h e m the profits a n d savings a c c u m u l a t e d in the H i g h l a n d s .
... t h u s dispersion of that surplus p r o d u c e which is the lifeblood of i n d u s -
try, the g e r m and the food of i m p r o v e m e n t . ( 1 6 7 - 1 6 9 ) IV.) Waste of La-
bour. In t h e Highlands there is a want of roads, of m a c h i n e r y , of impie- 10
m e n t s , and of every contrivance of intellect a n d art, by which m a n u a l
labour is assisted and facilitated. (169) V.) Waste of Time. (169 sqq.)
clearance der people from Glen Tilt von 1780-1790. D u r c h d e n Grovater
des jezigen Herzogs von Atholl. Dieses glen was occupied in the same ways
as other H i g h l a n d valleys, each family possessing a piece of arable land, 15
while the hill was held in c o m m o n . T h e people enjoyed full liberty to fish
in the Tilt, an excellent salmon river; a n d t h e pleasures a n d profits of the
chace were nearly as free to t h e m as to their chief. 3 or 4 p o u n d s a year was
all the rent paid for possession capable of supplying a family with a b u n -
d a n c e . ... T h e present D u k e ' s grandfather acquired a taste for deer. T h e 20
people were accustomed to take their cattle in the s u m m e r season to a
higher glen that is watered by the Tarff; b u t a large dyke was built at the
h e a d of G l e n Tilt, a n d they were forbidden to trespass, or suffer their stock
to trespass, beyond it. T h e outer region was consigned to the u n d i s t u r b e d
possession of the deer. These lighthearted creatures increased in n u m b e r , 25
a n d paid no respect to their m a r c h e s . They leaped over the enclosure, a n d
destroyed the poor people's crops. T h e D u k e , observing this, gratified their
roving propensities, and added a few 1000 acres m o r e to their grazing
g r o u n d s at the expense of t h e people, who now b e g a n to be peeled of their
possessions like one of their elms of its leaves by an October storm. G r a d u - 30
ally the forest ground was extended, a n d gradually the m a r k s of cultivation
were effaced, till the last m a n left the glen, a n d the last cottage b e c a m e a
h e a p of ruins. T h e same devastation which W i l l i a m the Conqueror, a n d the
early N o r m a n kings, spread over the plains of H a m p s h i r e , in the 11 a n d
12 centuries, was thus reproduced, at the end of the 18, in this quiet High- 35
l a n d valley. D e m Herzog bot sich ein Vorwand zur Extirpation seines Vol-
kes. H i g h l a n d chiefs h o b e n regiments to serve in the A m e r i c a n war. D e r
D u k e of Atholl suchte a u c h zu enlist the G l e n Tilt people. Die m e i s t e n re-
fusirten. T h e D u k e flew into a rage: a n d pressgangs were sent up the G l e n
to carry off the young m e n by force. D u r c h i m p r e s s m e n t u n d violence end- 40
lieh das regiment raised. N a c h d e m Krieg wollte er sie an die Ostindische

170
Aus Robert Somers: Letters from the Highlands

Compagnie verkaufen; wurde only prevented by the rising m u t i n y of the


regiment. (22, 3) After the Conquest, t h e N o r m a n kings afforested large
portions of the soil of E n g l a n d in m u c h t h e s a m e way as t h e l a n d h o l d e r s
are now doing in the H i g h l a n d s . To s u c h an extent was this practice car-
5 ried, that an historian informs us, t h a t in the reign of King J o h n "the great-
est part of the K i n g d o m " was t u r n e d into forest, and that so multiform a n d
oppressive were the forest laws, t h a t it was impossible for any m a n who
lived within the b o u n d a r i e s to escape the danger of falling a victim to
t h e m . To prepare the ground for these forests, the people required to be
10 driven o u t ... Cultivated land was laid waste, villages were destroyed, a n d
the inhabitants extirpated. Distress ensued, a n d discontent followed as a
n a t u r a l consequence. ... Zu R u n n y m e d e King J o h n was compelled to dis-
afforest the land, a n d restore it to its n a t u r a l a n d appropriate u s e . (27) In
einer history, written by D a n i e l , in 1650 heit es: " A n d 12 Knights or legall
15 m e n , " says this old writer, referring to m e a s u r e s adopted in t h e reign of
Henry III "are c h o s e n in every shire, u p o n their oath, to dispart the old
Forrests from the new. A n d all s u c h as were disafforested were disposed at
their pleasure who were to possesse t h e m . W h e r e u p o n they were laid open,
plowed, and improved, to the exceeding comfort and benefit of t h e subject,
20 whereby m e n , in stead of wild beasts, were sustained, and m o r e r o o m m a d e
for t h e m to use their industry." (166) |

171
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

I32| Dr. Justus Liebig.


Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung
auf Agricultur und Physiologie.
4* Auflage. 1842.

I) Erster Theil. Der chemische Proze 5


der Ernhrung der Vegetabilien.

Die allgemeinen Bestandtheile der Vegetabilien.

Der Kohlenstoff ist der B e s t a n d t e i l aller Pflanzen u n d zwar eines j e d e n


ihrer Organe. D i e H a u p t m a s s e aller Vegetabilien besteht aus Verbindungen,
welche Kohlenstoff u n d die Elemente des Wassers, u n d zwar in d e m n m l i - 10
c h e n Verhltni wie im Wasser, enthalten; h i e r h e r gehren die Holzfaser,
das Strkemehl, Zucker u n d Gummi. E i n e andre Klasse von Kohlenstoffver-
b i n d u n g e n enthlt die E l e m e n t e des Wassers + einer gewissen M e n g e Sau-
erstoff; sie umfat m i t wenigen A u s n a h m e n die zahlreichen in d e n Pflan-
z e n v o r k o m m e n d e n organischen Suren. E i n e dritte besteht aus 15
V e r b i n d u n g e n des Kohlenstoffs m i t Wasserstoff, welche entweder k e i n e n
Sauerstoff enthalten, oder wenn Sauerstoff e i n e n Bestandtheil davon aus-
m a c h t , so ist seine Q u a n t i t t stets kleiner, als d e m Gewichtverhltni ent-
spricht, in d e m er sich m i t Wasserstoff zu Wasser verbindet. Sie k n n e n
d e m n a c h betrachtet werden als V e r b i n d u n g e n des Kohlenstoffs m i t d e n 20
E l e m e n t e n des Wassers, + einer gewissen M e n g e Wasserstoff. D i e flchti-
gen u n d fetten Oele, das Wachs, die Harze gehren dieser Klasse an. (4, 5.)
D i e organischen Suren sind Bestandtheile aller Pflanzensfte, u n d : m i t
wenigen A u s n a h m e n , an unorganische Basen, an Metalloxide, g e b u n d e n ; die
leztren fehlen in keiner Pflanze, sie bleiben n a c h der E i n s c h e r u n g dersel- 25

172
Exzerpte aus Justus Liebig:
Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie
Heft XII. Seite 32
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

b e n in der Asche zurck. D e r Stickstoff ist ein B e s t a n d t e i l des vegetabili-


schen Eiweisses, des Klebers; er ist in d e n Pflanzen in der F o r m v o n Suren,
von indifferenten Stoffen u n d von e i g e n t h m l i c h e n V e r b i n d u n g e n enthal-
ten, welche alle Eigenschaften von M e t a l l o x i d e n besitzen; die leztren heis-
5 sen organische Basen. S e i n e m Gewichtsverhltni n a c h der Stickstoff der
kleinste Theil der M a s s e der Pflanzen; er fehlt aber in k e i n e m Vegetabil
oder Organ eines Vegetabils; w e n n er k e i n e n Bestandtheil eines Organs
ausmacht, so findet er sich d e n n o c h u n t e r allen U m s t n d e n in d e m Saft,
der die Organe durchdringt. Die Entwicklung einer Pflanze n a c h dieser
10 A u s e i n a n d e r s e t z u n g abhngig von der Gegenwart einer Kohlenstoffverbin-
dung, welche ihr den Kohlenstoff, einer Stickstoffverbindung, welche ihr
d e n Stickstoff liefert; sie bedarf n o c h a u s s e r d e m des Wassers u n d seiner
E l e m e n t e , so wie eines Bodens, welcher die anorganischen M a t e r i e n dar-
bietet, o h n e die sie n i c h t b e s t e h n k a n n . (5)

15 Die Assimilation des Kohlenstoffes.

Die Pflanzenphysiologie betrachtet e i n e n G e m e n g t h e i l der Acker- u n d


D a m m e r d e , d e m m a n d e n N a m e n Humus gegeben hat, als das H a u p t n a h -
rungsmittel, was die Pflanzen aus d e m B o d e n a u f n e h m e n , u n d seine G e -
genwart als die wichtigste B e d i n g u n g seiner Fruchtbarkeit. Dieser H u m u s
20 ist das Product der F u l n i u n d Verwesung von Pflanzen u n d Pfianzenthei-
len. (6) Die C h e m i k e r waren bis j e z t gewohnt, alle Zersetzungsproducte or-
ganischer V e r b i n d u n g von b r a u n e r oder braunschwarzer Farbe m i t Humus-
sure oder Humin zu b e z e i c h n e n , je n a c h d e m sie in Alkalien lslich waren
oder nicht; diese P r o d u c t e h a b e n aber i n ihrer Z u s a m m e n s e t z u n g u n d E n t -
25 stehungsweise n i c h t das Geringste m i t e i n a n d e r gemein. (7) D i e Eigen-
schaften des H u m u s u n d der H u m u s s u r e der Chemiker sind von d e n
Pflanzenphysiologen unbegreiflicher Weise bertragen worden auf d e n
Krper i n der D a m m e r d e , d e n m a n m i t d e m n m l i c h e n N a m e n belegt ...
der H u m u s in der F o r m , wie er im B o d e n e n t h a l t e n ist, trgt zur E r n h r u n g
30 der Pflanzen n i c h t das Geringste bei. (8) Die Felder produciren K o h l e n -
stoff in der F o r m von Holz, H e u , G e t r e i d e u n d a n d e r e n Culturgewchsen,
deren Massen ausserordentlich u n g l e i c h sind. Auf 2500 Q u a d r a t m e t e r
Wald von m i t t l e r e m B o d e n wachsen 2650 Pfund lufttrocknes T a n n e n -
Fichten- Birken- etc H o l z . A u f derselben F l c h e W i e s e n erhlt m a n i m
35 D u r c h s c h n i t t 2500 Pfd H e u . Die n m l i c h e F l c h e G e t r e i d e l a n d liefert
1 8 , 0 0 0 - 2 0 , 0 0 0 Pfd R u n k e l r b e n . A u f derselben F l c h e gewinnt m a n
800 Pfd Roggen u n d 1780 Pfd Stroh, im G a n z e n also 2580 Pfd. Analysirt
m a n n u r die Bestandtheile von Holz, H e u , etc., so findet m a n :

175
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

2500 Q u a d r a t m e t e r Wald bringen hervor an Kohlenstoff 1007 Pfd


Wiese 1018
Culturland, Runkelrben ohne Bltter 951
Getreide 1020.
A u s diesen T h a t s a c h e n folgt, da gleiche F l c h e n culturfhiges L a n d 5
eine gleiche Q u a n t i t t Kohlenstoff p r o d u c i r e n ... Jedes Jahr n e h m e n wir
d e m Wald, der Wiese eine gewisse Q u a n t i t t von Kohlenstoff in der F o r m
v o n H e u u n d Holz u n d d e n n o c h n i m m t der Kohlenstoffgehalt des B o d e n s
zu, wird er reicher an H u m u s . Wird n i c h t gedngt, wie G e t r e i d e u n d
F r u c h t l a n d . Dieser gedngte B o d e n bringt nicht m e h r Kohlenstoff hervor, 10
als der W a l d u n d die Wiese, d e n e n er n i e ersezt wird. ( 1 2 - 1 4 ) D e r Kohlen-
stoff, v o m ge||33|dngten L a n d hervorgebracht, betrgt n i c h t m e h r als der
Kohlenstoff des u n g e d n g t e n ... D e r Kohlenstoff der Vegetabilien m u
aus einer a n d e r n Quelle s t a m m e n , u n d da es der B o d e n nicht ist, der i h n
liefert, so k a n n diese n u r die Atmosphre sein. (15) Zu j e d e r Jahreszeit u n d 15
in allen Climaten hat m a n in 100 V o l u m t h e i l e n der Luft 21 V o l u m Sauer-
stoff mit so geringen A b w e i c h u n g e n gefunden, da sie als Beobachtungs-
fehler angesehn werden m s s e n . W o h e r dieser u n v e r n d e r l i c h e G e h a l t der
Luft an Sauerstoff? D e r Sauerstoffgehalt der Luft ist eine erschpfbare
Grsse. W e n n m a n erwgt, da jeder M e n s c h in 24 S t u n d e n 57,2 Cubikfu 20
(hessische) Sauerstoff in d e m A t h m u n g s p r o z e verzehrt, da 10 Ctr Koh-
lenstoff bei i h r e m V e r b r e n n e n 5 8 1 1 2 Cubicfu Sauerstoff verzehren, d a
eine einzige E i s e n h t t e H u n d e r t e von M i l l i o n e n Cubikfu, d a eine kleine
Stadt wie Giessen, in d e m z u m H e i z e n d i e n e n d e n H o l z e allein b e r
1000 Millionen Cubikfu Sauerstoff der A t m o s p h r e e n t z i e h e n , so u n b e - 25
greiflich, wenn keine Ursache existirt, w o d u r c h der w e g g e n o m m e n e Sauer-
stoff wieder ersezt wird, da der Sauerstoffgehalt der Luft nicht kleiner ge-
worden, da die Luft in d e n T h r n e n k r g e n , die vor 1800 J a h r e n in
Pompeji verschttet wurden, nicht m e h r davon als wie h e u t e enthlt. (15,
16) Wo k o m m t die K o h l e n s u r e hin, die d u r c h das A t h m e n der Thiere, 30
durch Verbrennungsprozesse gebildet wird? E i n Cubicfu Sauerstoff, der
sich mit Kohlenstoff zur K o h l e n s u r e vereinigt, ndert sein V o l u m e n
n i c h t ; aus den Billionen Cubicfu verzehrten Sauerstoffgases sind ebenso
viel Billionen Cubicfu K o h l e n s u r e e n t s t a n d e n u n d in die A t m o s p h r e
gesendet worden ... das Gewicht der K o h l e n s u r e n a h e Y 1000 des Gewichts 35
der Luft. Dieser G e h a l t wechselt n a c h d e n Jahreszeiten, er ndert sich a b e r
n i c h t in verschiednen J a h r e n . (17) Es m u eine Ursache v o r h a n d e n sein,
welche die A n h u f u n g der K o h l e n s u r e hindert, u n d die sich b i l d e n d e u n -
aufhrlich wieder entfernt; eine Ursache, d u r c h welche der Luft der Sauer-
stoff wieder ersezt wird, den sie d u r c h Verbrennungsprozesse, d u r c h Ver- 40
wesung u n d d u r c h die Respiration der M e n s c h e n u n d Thiere verliert.

176
WW"

Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

Beide Ursachen vereinigen sich zu einer einzigen in d e m Lebensprozesse


der Vegetabilien. D e r Kohlenstoff der Pflanzen s t a m m t ausschlielich aus
der A t m o s p h r e . In der A t m o s p h r e existirt der Kohlenstoff n u r in der
F o r m der K o h l e n s u r e , also in der F o r m einer Sauerstoffverbindung. D i e
5 H a u p t b e s t a n d t h e i l e der Vegetabilien, gegen deren Masse die M a s s e der
brigen verschwindend klein ist, e n t h a l t e n Kohlenstoff u n d die E l e m e n t e
des Wassers; alle z u s a m m e n e n t h a l t e n weniger Sauerstoff als die K o h l e n -
sure. D e m n a c h gewi, d a die Pflanzen, i n d e m sie d e n Kohlenstoff der
Kohlensure sich aneignen, die Fhigkeit besitzen m s s e n , die K o h l e n -
10 sure zu zerlegen; die Bildung ihrer H a u p t b e s t a n d t h e i l e . sezt e i n e Tren-
n u n g des Kohlenstoffes von d e m Sauerstoff voraus; der leztre m u , wh-
rend d e m L e b e n s p r o z e der Pflanze, w h r e n d sich der Kohlenstoff m i t
d e m Wasser oder seinen E l e m e n t e n verbindet, an die A t m o s p h r e wieder
freigegeben werden. F r jedes V o l u m e n K o h l e n s u r e , deren Kohlenstoff
15 Bestandtheil der Pflanze wird, m u die A t m o s p h r e ein gleiches V o l u m e n
Sauerstoff empfangen. ([17,] 18) D i e Pflanze liefert nicht allein d e m thieri-
schen Organismus in i h r e n O r g a n e n die M i t t e l zur N a h r u n g , zur E r n e u e -
rung u n d V e r m e h r u n g seiner Masse, sie entfernt nicht n u r aus der At-
mosphre die schdlichen Stoffe, die seine Existenz gefhrden, s o n d e r n sie
20 ist es a u c h allein, welche d e n h h e r e n organischen Lebensproze, die R e -
spiration, m i t der ihr u n e n t b e h r l i c h e n N a h r u n g versieht; sie ist eine unver-
siegbare Quelle des reinsten u n d frischesten Sauerstoffgases, sie ersezt der
Atmosphre in j e d e m M o m e n t e was sie verlor. Alle brigen Verhltnisse
gleichgesezt, a t h m e n die Thiere Kohlenstoff aus, die Pflanzen a t h m e n i h n
25 ein, das M e d i u m , in d e m es geschieht, die Luft, k a n n in ihrer Z u s a m m e n -
setzung n i c h t gendert werden. (20) Die A t m o s p h r e enthlt 2800 Billio-
n e n Pfund Kohlenstoff, eine Q u a n t i t t , welche m e h r betrgt, als das G e -
wicht aller Pflanzen, der Stein- u n d Braunkohlenlager auf d e m g a n z e n
Erdkrper z u s a m m e n g e n o m m e n . D e r Kohlenstoffgehalt des Meerwassers
30 ist verhltnimssig n o c h grsser. (20, 21) Die W u r z e l n u n d alle Theile der
Pflanzen, welche die n m l i c h e Fhigkeit besitzen, saugen b e s t n d i g W a s -
ser, sie a t h m e n K o h l e n s u r e ein; diese Fhigkeit ist u n a b h n g i g v o m Son-
n e n l i c h t e ; sie huft sich whrend des Tages im Schatten u n d bei N a c h t in
allen Theilen der Pflanze an, u n d erst von d e m Augenblicke an, wo die
35 Sonnenstrahlen sie treffen, geht die Assimilation des Kohlenstoffs, die
A u s h a u c h u n g von Sauerstoffgas vor sich; erst in d e m M o m e n t e , wo der
K e i m die Erde durchbricht, frbt er sich von der ussersten Spitze abwrts,
die eigentliche H o l z b i l d u n g n i m m t ihren Anfang. D i e Tropen, der A e q u a -
tor, die h e i e n Klimate, wo ein selten bewlkter H i m m e l der S o n n e gestat-
40 tet, ihre g l h e n d e n Strahlen einer u n e n d l i c h reichen Vegetation z u z u s e n -
den, sind die eigentlichen ewig unversiegbaren Quellen des Sauerstoffga-

177

to,
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

ses; in d e n gemssigten u n d kalten Z o n e n , wo knstliche W r m e die


fehlende S o n n e ersetzen m u , wird die K o h l e n s u r e , welche die tropischen
Pflanzen nhrt, im Ueberflu erzeugt; derselbe Luftstrom, welcher, veran-
lat d u r c h die U m d r e h u n g der Erde, seinen W e g von d e m A e q u a t o r z u d e n
Polen zurckgelegt hat, bringt u n s , zu d e m A e q u a t o r z u r c k k e h r e n d , d e n 5
dort erzeugten Sauerstoff u n d fhrt i h m die K o h l e n s u r e u n s e r e r W i n t e r
zu. (22) Die Versuche von de Saussure h a b e n bewiesen, da die oberen
S c h i c h t e n der Luft m e h r K o h l e n s u r e e n t h a l t e n als die u n t e r e n , die m i t
d e n Pflanzen in Berhrung sich befinden, d a der ||34| Kohlensuregehalt
der Luft grsser ist bei N a c h t als bei Tag, wo das eingesaugte k o h l e n s a u r e 10
G a s zersezt wird. (I.e.) Die Pflanzen verbessern die Luft, i n d e m sie die
K o h l e n s u r e entfernen, i n d e m sie d e n Sauerstoff erneuern. (I.e.) Die Cul-
tur erhht den G e s u n d h e i t s z u s t a n d der G e g e n d e n ; m i t d e m Aufhren aller
Cultur werden sonst gesunde G e g e n d e n u n b e w o h n b a r . W i r e r k e n n e n in
d e m L e b e n der Pflanze, in der Assimilation des Kohlenstoffs, als der wich- 15
tigsten ihrer F u n k t i o n e n , eine Sauerstoffausscheidung, m a n k a n n sagen,
eine Sauerstofferzeugung. (23) Materien, wie Zucker, A m y l o n etc, welche
Kohlenstoff u n d die E l e m e n t e des Wassers enthalten, sind P r o d u c t e des
Lebensprozesses der Pflanzen, sie leben nur, insofern sie diese erzeugen.
Dasselbe m u von d e m H u m u s gelten, d e n n er k a n n ebenso wie diese, in 20
Pflanzen gebildet werden. (24) Die von d e n Blttern, von den W u r z e l n m i t
d e m Wasser a u f g e n o m m e n e K o h l e n s u r e wird m i t der A b n a h m e des Lich-
tes n i c h t m e h r zersezt, sie bleibt in d e m Safte gelst, der alle Theile der
Pflanze durchdringt; i n j e d e m Z e i t m o m e n t e verdunstet m i t d e m Wasser
aus den Blttern eine i h r e m G e h a l t e n t s p r e c h e n d e M e n g e K o h l e n s u r e . 25
E i n Boden, in welchem die Pflanzen krftig vegetiren, enthlt als eine nie
fehlende Bedingung ihres Lebens u n t e r allen U m s t n d e n eine gewisse
Q u a n t i t t Feuchtigkeit, nie fehlt in d i e s e m Boden kohlensaures G a s ,
gleichgltig, ob es von d e m s e l b e n aus der Luft a u f g e n o m m e n oder d u r c h
die Verwesung von Vegetabilien erzeugt wird; kein B r u n n e n - oder Quell- 30
wasser, nie ist das Regenwasser frei von K o h l e n s u r e ; in keinerlei P e r i o d e n
des L e b e n s einer Pflanze hrt das V e r m g e n der W u r z e l auf, Feuchtigkeit
u n d m i t derselben Luft u n d K o h l e n s u r e e i n z u s a u g e n . K a n n es n u n auffal-
lend sein, da diese K o h l e n s u r e m i t d e m verdunsteten Wasser von der
Pflanze an die A t m o s p h r e u n v e r n d e r t wieder zurckgegeben wird, w e n n 35
die Ursache der Fixirung des Kohlenstoffs, w e n n das Licht fehlt? (29, 30)
D i e also der F a l l w h r e n d d e r N a c h t . Diese A u s h a u c h u n g von Kohlen-
sure h a t m i t d e m Assimilationsproze, m i t d e m L e b e n der Pflanze ebenso
wenig zu t h u n , als die E i n s a u g u n g des Sauerstoffes. Beide Stenn m i t e i n a n -
der n i c h t in der geringsten Beziehung, der eine ist ein rein m e c h a n i s c h e r , 40
der a n d r e ein rein chemischer Proze. E i n D o c h t von Baumwolle, den m a n

178
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

in eine L a m p e e i n t a u c h t , welche eine m i t K o h l e n s u r e gesttigte Flssig-


keit enthlt, wird sich grade so verhalten wie e i n e lebende Pflanze in der
N a c h t , Wasser u n d K o h l e n s u r e werden d u r c h Capillaritt aufgesaugt,
beide verdunsten a u e r h a l b an d e m D o c h t e wieder. (30) D i e Lebenskraft
5 ist die e i n e m j e d e n e i n z e l n e n Organ i n n e w o h n e n d e Fhigkeit, sich selbst
zu j e d e m Z e i t m o m e n t e n e u wieder zu erzeugen: hierzu g e h r e n Stoffe,
welche seine E l e m e n t e enthalten, u n d diese Stoffe m s s e n sich zu M e t a -
m o r p h o s e n eignen. Alle Organe z u s a m m e n g e n o m m e n k n n e n kein einzel-
nes E l e m e n t , k e i n e n Stickstoff, Kohlenstoff oder ein Metalloxid erzeugen.
10 (38) Ist die Masse der d a r g e b o t n e n Stoffe zu gro, oder sind sie keiner M e -
tamorphose fhig, oder b e n sie eine c h e m i s c h e Wirkung irgend einer Art
auf das Organ aus, so unterliegt das Organ selbst einer M e t a m o r p h o s e . Alle
sogenannten Gifte gehren der leztren Klasse an. (39) W e n n wir m i t Be-
s t i m m t h e i t wissen, da es e i n e n Krper giebt, der H u m u s z.B., welcher f-
15 hig ist, eine Pflanze bis zur vollendeten Entwicklung mit N a h r u n g zu ver-
sehn, so fhrt u n s eine K e n n t n i seines Verhaltens u n d seiner
Z u s a m m e n s e t z u n g auf die B e d i n g u n g e n des Lebens einer Pflanze. Es m u
sich alsdann m i t d e m H u m u s grade so verhalten, wie m i t e i n e m einzigen
N a h r u n g s m i t t e l , was die N a t u r fr d e n a n i m a l i s c h e n Organismus produ-
20 cirt, n m l i c h mit der Milch. W i r finden in der Milch einen an Stickstoff rei-
c h e n Krper, den Kse, eine Substanz, welche reich an Wasserstoff ist, die
Butter, e i n e n dritten, welcher eine grosse M e n g e Sauerstoff u n d Wasserstoff
in d e m Verhltni wie im Wasser enthlt, d e n Milchzucker; in der Butter
befindet sich eine der a r o m a t i s c h e n Substanzen, die Buttersure; sie enthlt
25 in Auflsung milchsaures Natron, phosphorsauren Kalk, u n d Kochsalz. (I.e.)

Ursprung und Verhalten des Humus.

Alle Pflanzen u n d Pflanzentheile erleiden m i t d e m Aufhren des L e b e n s


zwei Zersetzungsprozesse, von d e n e n m a n d e n e i n e n Ghrung oder Fulni,
d e n a n d e r n Verwesung n e n n t . Die Verwesung b e z e i c h n e t e i n e n l a n g s a m e n
30 Verbrennungsproze, d e n Vorgang also, wo die verbrennlichen Bestand-
theile des verwesenden Krpers sich m i t d e m Sauerstoff der Luft verbin-
den. Die Verwesung des H a u p t b e s t a n d t h e i l s aller Vegetabilien, der Holzfa-
ser, zeigt eine E r s c h e i n u n g e i g e n t h m l i c h e r Art. Mit Sauerstoff in
Berhrung, m i t Luft u m g e b e n , verwandelt sie n m l i c h den Sauerstoff in
35 ein i h m gleiches V o l u m e n kohlensaures G a s ; m i t d e m Verschwinden des
Sauerstoffs hrt die Verwesung auf. W i r d dieses kohlensaure G a s hinweg-
g e n o m m e n u n d durch Sauerstoff ersezt, so fngt die Verwesung von
N e u e m an, d. h. Sauerstoff wird wieder in K o h l e n s u r e verwandelt. D i e

179
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Holzfaser besteht n u n aus Kohlenstoff u n d d e n E l e m e n t e n des Wassers;


von allem a n d e r n abgesehn, geht ihre V e r b r e n n u n g vor sich, wie w e n n m a n
reine Kohle bei sehr h o h e n T e m p e r a t u r e n verbrennt, grade so als ob kein
Wasserstoff u n d Sauerstoff m i t ihr in der Holzfaser v e r b u n d e n wre. D i e
Vollendung dieses Ver||35|brennungsprozesses erfordert eine sehr lange 5
Zeit; eine unerlliche B e d i n g u n g zu seiner U n t e r h a l t u n g ist die Gegen-
wart von Wasser; Alkalien befrdern ihn, S u r e n verhindern ihn, alle a n t i -
septischen Materien, schweflige Sure, Quecksilbersalze u n d brenzliche Oele
h e b e n i h n gnzlich auf. Die in Verwesung begriffne Holzfaser ist der Krper,
d e n wir Humus n e n n e n . (43, 44) In d e m s e l b e n G r a d e als die Verwesung 10
der Holzfaser vorangeschritten ist, v e r m i n d e r t sich ihre Fhigkeit zu verwe-
sen, d . h . das u m g e b e n d e Sauerstoffgas in K o h l e n s u r e zu verwandeln; zu-
lezt bleibt eine gewisse M e n g e einer b r a u n e n oder kohlenartigen S u b s t a n z
zurck, der sie gnzlich fehlt, m a n n e n n t sie Moder; sie ist das Product der
vollendeten Verwesung der Holzfaser. D e r M o d e r m a c h t d e n H a u p t b e - 15
standtheil aller Braunkohlenlager u n d des Torfes aus. In e i n e m Boden,
welcher der Luft zugnglich ist, verhlt sich der H u m u s genau, wie an der
Luft selbst; er ist eine langsame usserst a n d a u e r n d e Quelle von K o h l e n -
sure. U m jedes kleinste T h e i l c h e n des verwesenden H u m u s entsteht, auf
K o s t e n des Sauerstoffs der Luft, eine A t m o s p h r e von K o h l e n s u r e . In der 20
Cultur wird, d u r c h Bearbeitung u n d Auflockerung der Erde, der Luft ein
mglichst u n g e h i n d e r t e r u n d freier Zutritt verschafft. Ein so vorbereiteter
u n d feuchter Boden enthlt also eine A t m o s p h r e von Kohlensure, u n d
d a m i t die erste u n d wichtigste N a h r u n g fr die j u n g e n Pflanzen welche
sich darauf entwickeln soll. Im F r h l i n g e , wo die Organe fehlen, welche 25
die N a t u r b e s t i m m t hat, die N a h r u n g aus der A t m o s p h r e a u f z u n e h m e n ,
wo diese Organe erst gebildet werden, sind es die B e s t a n d t e i l e des Saa-
m e n s , welche zuerst u n d ausschlielich zur Bildung der W u r z e l n verwen-
det werden; m i t jeder Wurzelfaser erhlt die Pflanze e i n e n M u n d , eine
Lunge, e i n e n Magen. V o n d e m A u g e n b l i c k e an, wo sich die ersten W u r z e l - 30
fasern gebildet h a b e n , sind sie es, welche die F u n k t i o n e n der Bltter ber-
n e h m e n , sie fhren aus der A t m o s p h r e , in der sie sich befinden, aus d e m
B o d e n n m l i c h , N a h r u n g zu; von d e m H u m u s s t a m m t die K o h l e n s u r e
her. D u r c h Auflockerung des Bodens u m die j u n g e Pflanze e r n e u e r n u n d
vervielfltigen wir d e n Zutritt der Luft, wir begnstigen d a m i t die Bildung 35
der K o h l e n s u r e ; die Q u a n t i t t der erzeugten N a h r u n g wrde sich vermin-
dern m i t jeder Schwierigkeit, die sich im B o d e n dieser Lufterneuerung ent-
gegenstellt; bei e i n e m gewissen G r a d e der Entwicklung der Pflanze ist sie
es selbst, die diesen Luftwechsel bewirkt. Die A t m o s p h r e von K o h l e n -
sure, welche d e n unverwesten Theil des H u m u s vor weiterer Verwesung 40
schzt, wird von den feinen W u r z e l h a a r e n , d e n W u r z e l n selbst aufgesaugt

180
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

u n d h i n w e g g e n o m m e n , sie wird ersezt d u r c h atmosphrische Luft, die


ihren Platz e i n n i m m t ; die Verwesung schreitet fort, es wird eine n e u e
Q u a n t i t t K o h l e n s u r e gebildet. In dieser Zeit empfngt die Pflanze von
den W u r z e l n u n d usseren O r g a n e n gleichzeitig N a h r u n g , sie schreitet
5 rasch ihrer V o l l e n d u n g entgegen. Ist die Pflanze vllig entwickelt, sind ihre
Organe der E r n h r u n g vllig ausgebildet, so bedarf sie der K o h l e n s u r e des
Bodens n i c h t mehr. M a n g e l an Feuchtigkeit, vllige T r o c k e n h e i t des Bo-
dens h e m m e n die V o l l e n d u n g ihrer Entwicklung nicht m e h r , w e n n sie v o m
T h a u u n d der Luft soviel Feuchtigkeit empfngt, als sie zur V e r m i t t l u n g
10 der Assimilation bedarf; im heissen S o m m e r schpft sie d e n Kohlenstoff
ausschlielich aus der Luft. W i r wissen bei d e n Pflanzen nicht, welche
H h e u n d Strke i h n e n die N a t u r angewiesen hat, wir k e n n e n n u r das ge-
whnliche M a a ihrer Grsse. ... die kleine Teltower R b e wird in e i n e m
Boden, wo ihr frei steht, soviel N a h r u n g a u f z u n e h m e n , als sie k a n n , zu
15 e i n e m m e h r e r e Pfunde schweren Dickwanst. ( 4 4 - 4 6 ) Die Masse einer
Pflanze steht im Verhltni zu der Oberflche der Organe, welche bestimmt sind,
Nahrung zuzufgen. Mit j e d e r Wurzelfaser, j e d e m Blatt gewinnt die Pflanze
e i n e n M u n d u n d M a g e n m e h r . D e r Thtigkeit der Wurzeln, N a h r u n g auf-
z u n e h m e n , wird n u r d u r c h M a n g e l eine G r e n z e gesezt, ist sie im Ueberflu
20 vorhanden, u n d wird sie zur A u s b i l d u n g der v o r h a n d n e n Organe n i c h t vl-
lig verzehrt, so kehrt dieser U e b e r s c h u nicht in den B o d e n zurck, son-
dern er wird in der Pflanze zur Hervorbringung von n e u e n Organen ver-
wendet. N e b e n der v o r h a n d n e n Zelle entsteht eine n e u e , n e b e n d e m
e n t s t a n d n e n Zweig u n d Blatt entwickelt sich ein n e u e r Zweig, ein n e u e s
25 Blatt; o h n e U e b e r s c h u an N a h r u n g wren diese n i c h t zur Entwicklung ge-
k o m m e n . D e r i n d e m S a a m e n entwickelte Z u c k e r u n d Schleim verschwin-
det mit der A u s b i l d u n g der Wurzelfasern, der in d e m Holzkrper, in d e n
W u r z e l n e n t s t e h e n d e Z u c k e r u n d Schleim verschwindet m i t der Entwick-
lung der Knospen, g r n e n Triebe u n d Bltter. M i t der Ausbildung, m i t der
30 A n z a h l der Organe, der Zweige u n d Bltter, d e n e n die A t m o s p h r e N a h -
rung liefert, wchst in d e m n m l i c h e n Verhltnisse ihre Fhigkeit, N a h -
rung a u f z u n e h m e n , u n d a n Masse z u z u n e h m e n , d e n n diese F h i g k e i t
n i m m t im Verhltni wie ihre Oberflche zu. Die ausgebildeten Bltter,
Triebe u n d Zweige befrfen zu ihrer eigenen Erhaltung der N a h r u n g n i c h t
35 mehr, sie n e h m e n an U m f a n g n i c h t m e h r zu; um als Organe fortzubestehn,
h a b e n sie ausschlielich n u r die M i t t e l nthig, die F u n k t i o n zu u n t e r h a l -
ten, zu der die N a t u r sie b e s t i m m t hat, sie sind nicht ihrer selbst wegen
vorhanden. (46, 7) ||36| W i r wissen, da diese F u n k t i o n in ihrer F h i g k e i t
besteht, die K o h l e n s u r e der Luft e i n z u s a u g e n u n d u n t e r d e m Einflu des
40 Lichts, bei Gegenwart von Feuchtigkeit, ihren Kohlenstoff sich anzueig-
n e n . (47) Diese F u n k t i o n ist unausgesezt, von der ersten Entwicklung an,

181
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

in Thtigkeit, sie hrt nicht auf m i t ihrer vlligen A u s b i l d u n g . A b e r die


n e u e n , aus dieser unausgesezt f o r t d a u e r n d e n Assimilation h e r v o r g e h e n d e n
Producte, sie werden n i c h t m e h r fr ihre eigne Entwicklung verbraucht, sie
d i e n e n jezt zur weitren A u s b i l d u n g des Holzkrpers u n d aller ihr h n l i c h
z u s a m m e n g e s e z t e n festen Stoffe, es sind die Bltter, welche jezt die Bil- 5
d u n g des Zuckers, des A m y l o n s , der S u r e n vermitteln. Solange sie fehl-
ten, h a t t e n die W u r z e l n diese Verrichtung in B e z i e h u n g auf diejenigen
M a t e r i e n b e r n o m m e n , welche der H a l m , die K n o s p e , das Blatt u n d die
Zweige zu ihrer A u s b i l d u n g bedurften. In dieser Periode des L e b e n s n e h -
m e n die Organe der Assimilation aus der A t m o s p h r e m e h r N a h r u n g s - 10
Stoffe auf, als sie selbst verzehren, u n d m i t der fortschreitenden Entwick-
lung des Holzkrpers, wo der Zuflu an N a h r u n g i m m e r der n m l i c h e
bleibt, ndert sich die R i c h t u n g in der sie verwendet wird, es beginnt die
Entwicklung der Blthen, u n d m i t der A u s b i l d u n g der F r u c h t ist b e i den
m e i s t e n Pflanzen der F u n k t i o n der Bltter eine G r e n z e gesezt, d e n n die 15
P r o d u c t e ihrer Thtigkeit finden keine V e r w e n d u n g m e h r . Sie unterliegen
der Einwirkung des Sauerstoffs, wechseln in Folge derselben gewhnlich
ihre Farbe u n d fallen ab. Zwischen der Periode der Blthe u n d Fruchtbil-
d u n g entstehn in allen Pflanzen in Folge einer M e t a m o r p h o s e der vorhand-
n e n Stoffe eine R e i h e von n e u e n V e r b i n d u n g e n , welche vorher fehlten, von 20
Materien, welche Bestandtheile der sich b i l d e n d e n Blthe, F r u c h t oder des
S a a m e n s a u s m a c h e n . E i n e organisch-chemische M e t a m o r p h o s e ist n u n
der Akt der U m s e t z u n g der E l e m e n t e einer oder m e h r e r e r V e r b i n d u n g e n
in zwei oder m e h r e r e n e u e , welche diese E l e m e n t e in einer n e u e n W e i s e
gruppirt, oder in a n d e r n Verhltnissen e n t h a l t e n . Von zwei V e r b i n d u n g e n , 25
die in Folge dieser U m s e t z u n g e n gebildet werden, bleibt die eine als Be-
s t a n d t e i l in der Blthe oder F r u c h t zurck, die a n d r e wird in der F o r m
von E x c r e m e n t e n von der W u r z e l abgeschieden. Die E r n h r u n g des thieri-
schen sowie des vegetabilischen O r g a n i s m u s ist o h n e A u s s c h e i d u n g von
E x c r e m e n t e n nicht denkbar. D e r O r g a n i s m u s erzeugt nichts, sondern ver- 30
wandelt nur, seine Erhaltung u n d R e p r o d u c t i o n geschieht in Folge der M e -
tamorphose der Nahrungsstoffe, die seine E l e m e n t e e n t h a l t e n . (48, ' 9)
Blausure u n d Wasser enthalten die E l e m e n t e von Kohlensure, A m m o -
niak, Harnstoff, Cyanursure, Cyamelid, Oxalsure, A m e i s e n s u r e , M e -
lam, A m m e l i d , M e l a m i n , A m m e i i n , A z u l m i n , Mellon, Mellonwasserstoff, 35
A l l a n t o i n etc. Diese in ihrer Z u s a m m e n s e t z u n g u n e n d l i c h v e r s c h i e d n e n
Stoffe k n n e n aus Blausure u n d Wasser in c h e m i s c h e n M e t a m o r p h o s e n
der mannigfaltigsten Art wirklich gebildet werden. D e r ganze Proze der
E r n h r u n g der Organismen lt sich d u r c h die Betrachtung einer einzigen
dieser M e t a m o r p h o s e n zur A n s c h a u u n g bringen. Blausure u n d Wasser 40
. B. in Berhrung m i t Salzsure zerlegen sich augenblicklich in A m e i s e n -

182
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

sure u n d A m m o n i a k ; i n b e i d e n sind die E l e m e n t e der Blausure u n d des


Wassers, obwohl in einer a n d e r n F o r m , in andrer Weise geordnet, enthal-
ten. Es ist das Streben der Salzsure n a c h einer Ausgleichung, ( d u r c h e i n e
Base) wodurch diese M e t a m o r p h o s e bedingt worden ist. In Folge dieses
5 Strebens erleiden Blausure u n d Wasser gleichzeitig eine Z e r s e t z u n g ; der
Stickstoff der Blausure u n d der Wasserstoff in d e m Wasser treten zu einer
Basis, zu A m m o n i a k z u s a m m e n , w o m i t sich die Sure verbindet. I h r e m
Streben ist Befriedigung geworden, ihr Charakter verschwindet. A m m o n i a k
war n u r seinen E l e m e n t e n n a c h v o r h a n d e n , aber die Fhigkeit, A m m o n i a k
10 zu bilden, war da. (50) In Folge der Bildung von A m m o n i a k sind K o h l e n -
stoff u n d Wasserstoff, die a n d e r n E l e m e n t e der Blausure, m i t d e m Sauer-
stoff des zersezten Wassers, zur A m e i s e n s u r e z u s a m m e n g e t r e t e n ; die Ele-
m e n t e u n d die Fhigkeit sich zu verbinden, waren v o r h a n d e n . D i e
A m e i s e n s u r e ist also hier das E x c r e m e n t ; das A m m o n i a k reprsentirt d e n
15 durch das Organ assimilirten Stoff. D a s Organ n i m m t von d e n d a r g e b o t n e n
N a h r u n g s m i t t e l n , was es zu seiner eignen Erhaltung, was es zu seiner R e -
production bedarf. Die b r i g e n E l e m e n t e , welche n i c h t assimilirt werden,
treten z u n e u e n V e r b i n d u n g e n , z u E x c r e m e n t e n , z u s a m m e n . W h r e n d
ihres Wegs d u r c h d e n O r g a n i s m u s k o m m e n die E x c r e m e n t e des e i n e n Or-
20 gans in B e r h r u n g m i t e i n e m a n d e r n , d u r c h dessen Einwirkung sie eine
n e u e M e t a m o r p h o s e erfahren; die E x c r e m e n t e des e i n e n Organs e n t h a l t e n
die E l e m e n t e der N a h r u n g s m i t t e l fr ein zweites u n d folgendes; zulezt
werden die, keiner M e t a m o r p h o s e m e h r fhigen Stoffe d u r c h die d a z u b e -
s t i m m t e n Organe aus d e m O r g a n i s m u s entfernt. Jedes Organ ist fr seine
25 i h m e i g e n t h m l i c h e F u n k t i o n e n eingerichtet. E i n Cubiczoll Schwefelwas-
serstoff in die Lunge gebracht, wrde augenblicklichen T o d bewirken, in
d e m D a r m k a n a l wird e s u n t e r m a n c h e n U m s t n d e n o h n e N a c h t h e i l gebil-
det. (51, 2) D u r c h die Nieren werden die in Folge von M e t a m o r p h o s e n ent-
s t a n d n e n stickstoffhaltigen, d u r c h die Leber die an Kohlenstoff reichen
30 u n d d u r c h die Lunge alle Wasserstoff u n d sauerstoffreichen E x c r e m e n t e aus
d e m Krper entfernt. D e r Weingeist, die keiner Assimilation fhigen the-
rischen Oele verdunsten nicht durch die H a u t , sondern d u r c h die L u n g e .
Die Respiration ist eine langsame V e r b r e n n u n g , d. h. eine sich stets erneu-
ernde Verwesung. (52) D u r c h die Harnwege wird der berflssige Stickstoff
35 als ||37| flssiges E x c r e m e n t , d u r c h d e n D a r m k a n a l alle, keiner M e t a m o r -
phose m e h r fhigen festen Stoffe, u n d durch die Lunge alle gasfrmigen
aus d e m Krper entfernt. (53) A u s d e m in der G h r u n g gebildeten Fusell
der Kartoffeln erzeugen wir das flchtige Oel der Baldrianwurzel m i t allen
seinen Eigenschaften, aus e i n e m krystallinischen Stoff aus der W e i d e n -
40 rinde b e k o m m e n wir das Oel der Spiraea ulmaria. (Piria) W i r sind im
Stande, A m e i s e n s u r e , Oxalsure, Harnstoff, die krystallinischen Krper

183
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

in der allantoischen Flssigkeit der K u h , lauter Producte der Lebenskraft,


in u n s e r n Laboratorien zu erzeugen. (54) M e t a m o r p h o s e n v o r h a n d n e r Ver-
b i n d u n g e n gehn in d e m g a n z e n Lebensakte der Pflanzen vor sich, u n d in
Folge derselben gasfrmige Secretionen d u r c h die Bltter u n d Blthen, fe-
ste E x c r e m e n t e in d e n R i n d e n u n d flssige lsliche Stoffe d u r c h die W u r - 5
zeln. Diese Sekretionen finden Statt u n m i t t e l b a r vor d e m Beginn u n d wh-
r e n d der D a u e r der Blthe, sie v e r m i n d e r n sich n a c h der A u s b i l d u n g der
F r u c h t ; durch die W u r z e l n werden kohlenstoffreiche S u b s t a n z e n abge-
schieden u n d von d e m B o d e n a u f g e n o m m e n . In diesen Stoffen, welche u n -
fhig sind, eine Pflanze zu ernhren, empfngt der B o d e n d e n grten 10
Theil des Kohlenstoffes wieder, d e n er d e n Pflanzen im Anfang ihrer Ent-
wicklung in der F o r m von K o h l e n s u r e gegeben h a t t e . D i e von d e m B o d e n
a u f g e n o m m e n e n lslichen E x c r e m e n t e g e h n d u r c h d e n Einflu der Luft
u n d Feuchtigkeit einer fortschreitenden V e r n d e r u n g entgegen; i n d e m sie
der F u l n i u n d Verwesung unterliegen, erzeugt sich aus i h n e n wieder der 15
Nahrungsstoff einer n e u e n G e n e r a t i o n , sie g e h n in Humus ber. Die im
Herbst fallenden Bltter im W a l d e , die alten W u r z e l n der Graspflanzen auf
d e n Wiesen verwandeln sich d u r c h diese Einflsse ebenfalls in H u m u s . In
dieser F o r m empfngt der B o d e n i m G a n z e n a n Kohlenstoff m e h r wieder
als der verwesende H u m u s als K o h l e n s u r e abgab. (55, 6) Im Allgemeinen 20
erschpft keine Pflanze in ihrem Zustande der normalen Entwicklung den Boden
in Beziehung auf seinen Gehalt an Kohlenstoff; sie macht ihn im Gegentheil rei-
cher daran. (56) D e r H u m u s ernhrt die Pflanze nicht, weil er im lslichen
Z u s t a n d e von derselben a u f g e n o m m e n u n d als solcher assimilirt wird, son-
dern weil er eine langsame u n d a n d a u e r n d e Quelle von K o h l e n s u r e dar- 25
stellt, welche als das H a u p t n a h r u n g s m i t t e l die W u r z e l n der j u n g e n Pflan-
zen zu einer Zeit m i t N a h r u n g versieht, wo die ussern Organe der
a t m o s p h r i s c h e n E r n h r u n g fehlen. Die Oberflche der Erde war vor der
gegenwrtigen Periode m i t Pflanzen bedeckt, deren T r m m e r u n d U e b e r r e -
ste die Braun- u n d Steinkohlenlager bilden. Alle diese riesenhaften Pal- 30
m e n , Grser, F a r r e n k r u t e r etc gehren zu Pflanzenarten, d e n e n die N a t u r
d u r c h eine u n g e h e u r e A u s d e h n u n g der Bltter die Fhigkeit gegeben hat,
den B o d e n fr ihre N a h r u n g ganz zu e n t b e h r e n . (I.e.) Es k a n n hier n i c h t
u n e r w h n t gelassen werden, da die gewhnliche Holzkohle ... d e n H u m u s
aufs Vollstndigste vertreten k a n n . M a n k a n n in ausgeglhtem (etwas aus- 35
gewaschnen) Kohlenpulver Pflanzen z u r ppigsten Entwicklung, z u m Bl-
h e n u n d zur F r u c h t b i l d u n g bringen, wenn sie m i t Regenwasser feucht er-
h a l t e n werden. (58)

184
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

Die Assimilation des Wasserstoffs.


Die Luft enthlt d e n Kohlenstoff der Gewchse in der F o r m von K o h l e n -
sure, also in der F o r m einer Sauerstoffverbindung. Der feste Theil der
Pflanzen, die Holzfaser, e n t h l t Kohlenstoff u n d die Bestandtheile des
5 Wassers, oder die E l e m e n t e der K o h l e n s u r e + einer gewissen M e n g e
Wasserstoff. W i r k n n e n u n s das Holz e n t s t a n d e n d e n k e n aus d e m K o h -
lenstoff der K o h l e n s u r e , der sich u n t e r Mitwirkung des S o n n e n l i c h t s m i t
den E l e m e n t e n des v o r h a n d n e n Wassers verbindet. (59) Oder: die Pflanze
zerlegt u n t e r d e n s e l b e n B e d i n g u n g e n bei Gegenwart von K o h l e n s u r e das
10 Wasser, sein Wasserstoff wird m i t der K o h l e n s u r e assimilirt, w h r e n d sein
Sauerstoff abgeschieden wird; zu 100 Theilen K o h l e n s u r e m s s e n d e m -
n a c h 2,77 Theile Wasserstoff treten, um die Holzfaser zu bilden, u n d es
werden 72,35 Gewichtstheile, eine d e m G e h a l t der K o h l e n s u r e g e n a u glei-
che Q u a n t i t t Sauerstoff, die z u m Theil m i t d i e s e m Wasserstoff v e r b u n d e n
15 waren, in der F o r m von G a s abgeschieden. E i n M o r g e n Wiese, W a l d oder
b e r h a u p t cultivirtes L a n d ersezt also d e n Sauerstoff der A t m o s p h r e wie-
der, welcher d u r c h 10 Ctr Kohlenstoff bei seiner V e r b r e n n u n g in der Luft,
oder durch d e n Respirationsproze der Thiere verzehrt wird. Die Holzfaser
enthlt Kohle u n d die Bestandtheile des Wassers; es ist aber in d e m H o l z
20 m e h r Wasserstoff e n t h a l t e n als d i e s e m Verhltni entspricht; dieser W a s -
serstoffbefindet sich darin in der F o r m v o n Blattgrn, Oel, Harz u n d ber-
h a u p t in der F o r m sehr wasserstoffreicher M a t e r i e n ; fr jedes A e q u i v a l e n t
Wasserstoff, was in einer dieser F o r m e n von der Pflanze assimilirt wird,
m u 1 Aequivalent Sauerstoff an die A t m o s p h r e zurckgegeben werden.
25 (60) Die m e i s t e n Pflanzengebilde e n t h a l t e n Wasserstoff in der F o r m von
Wasser, welches sich ||38| als solches abscheiden, ersetzen lt d u r c h a n d r e
Krper; derjenige Wasserstoff aber, welcher zu ihrer Constitution wesent-
lich ist, k a n n u n m g l i c h in der F o r m von Wasser darin e n t h a l t e n sein.
Aller z u m Bestehn einer organischen V e r b i n d u n g u n e n t b e h r l i c h e Wasser-
30 Stoff wird d u r c h Zersetzung von Wasser der Pflanze geliefert. Der Assimila-
tionsproze der Pflanze in seiner einfachsten Form stellt sich mithin dar als eine
Aufnahme von Wasserstoff aus dem Wasser und von Kohlenstoff aus der Koh-
lensure, in Folge welcher aller Sauerstoff des Wassers und aller Sauerstoff der
Kohlensure, wie bei den flchtigen sauerstofffreien Oelen, dem Kautschuck etc,
35 oder nur ein Theil dieses Sauerstoffs abgeschieden wird. ( 6 1 , 2) So lt sich die
Bildung von allen stickstofffreien B e s t a n d t h e i l e n aus K o h l e n s u r e u n d
Wasserstoff m i t A u s s c h e i d u n g von Sauerstoff u n d die U m w a n d l u n g des
e i n e n i n d e n a n d e r n d u r c h A u s s c h e i d u n g von K o h l e n s u r e u n t e r Assimila-
tion von Sauerstoff erklren. (63) D i e l e b e n d e Pflanze vertritt in d i e s e m

185
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Proze das Zink; es e n t s t e h n in i h r e m Assimilationsprozesse u n t e r Aus-


scheidung von Sauerstoff, V e r b i n d u n g e n , welche die E l e m e n t e der K o h l e n -
sure u n d den Wasserstoff des Wassers e n t h a l t e n . (63, 4)

Der Ursprung und die Assimilation des Stickstoffs.

In welcher F o r m u n d wie liefert die N a t u r d e m vegetabilischen Eiwei, 5


d e m Kleber, d e n F r c h t e n u n d S a a m e n diesen fr ihre Existenz d u r c h a u s
u n e n t b e h r l i c h e n Bestandtheil? Diese Frage leicht zu beantworten, w e n n
m a n bedenkt, d a Pflanzen wachsen k n n e n i n r e i n e m Kohlenpulver b e i m
Begieen m i t Regenwasser. Das Regenwasser k a n n d e n Stickstoff n u r ent-
h a l t e n in der F o r m von aufgelster atmosphrischer Luft, oder in der F o r m 10
von A m m o n i a k . Stickstoff in der Luft k a n n d u r c h die gewaltsamsten che-
m i s c h e n Processe nicht befhigt werden, eine V e r b i n d u n g m i t irgend
e i n e m E l e m e n t ausser d e m Sauerstoff e i n z u g e h n . K e i n G r u n d v o r h a n d e n ,
da der Stickstoff der A t m o s p h r e A n t h e i l n i m m t an d e m Assimilations-
proze der Pflanzen u n d Thiere. W o h l aber das Ammoniak. D a s A m m o - 15
niak steht in der Mannigfaltigkeit der M e t a m o r p h o s e n , das es bei Berh-
rung m i t a n d r e n Krpern e i n z u g e h n vermag, d e m Wasser, was sie in e i n e m
s o e m i n e n t e n G r a d e darbietet, i n keiner B e z i e h u n g n a c h . I m r e i n e n Z u -
stande im Wasser im h o h e n G r a d lslich, fhig, m i t allen S u r e n lsliche
V e r b i n d u n g e n zu bilden, fhig, in B e r h r u n g m i t a n d r e n Krpern, seine 20
N a t u r als Alkali gnzlich aufzugeben, u n d die verschiedenartigsten direkt
e i n a n d e r g e g e n b e r s t e h e n d e n F o r m e n a n z u n e h m e n , diese Eigenschaften
finden wir in k e i n e m a n d e r n stickstoffhaltigen Krper wieder. ( 6 4 - 6 6 ) Am-
moniak ist das leite Product der Fulni animalischer Krper, Salpetersure ist
das Product der Verwesung des Ammoniaks. (67) Die Leiber aller Thiere und 25
Menschen geben nach dem Tode durch ihre Fulni allen Stickstoff, den sie ent-
halten, in der Form von Ammoniak an die Atmosphre zurck. ... Der Stickstoff
der Thiere und Menschen ist in der Atmosphre als Ammoniak enthalten, in der
Form eines Gases, was sich m i t K o h l e n s u r e zu e i n e m flchtigen Salze ver-
bindet, ein Gas, was sich im Wasser m i t ausserordentlicher Leichtigkeit 30
lst, dessen flchtige V e r b i n d u n g e n o h n e A u s n a h m e n diese n m l i c h e Ls-
lichkeit besitzen. Als A m m o n i a k k a n n sich der Stickstoff in der At-
m o s p h r e nicht b e h a u p t e n , d e n n m i t jeder C o n d e n s a t i o n des W a s s e r d a m p -
fes zu tropfbarem Wasser m u sich alles A m m o n i a k verdichten, jeder
Regengu mu die Atmosphre in gewissen Strecken von allem Ammoniak aufs 35
Vollkommenste befreien. Das Regenwasser mu zu allen Zeiten Ammoniak ent-
halten, im Sommer, wo die Regentage weit von e i n a n d e r entfernt stehn,
m e h r als im Winter oder F r h l i n g ; der R e g e n des ersten Regentages m u

186
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

davon m e h r e n t h a l t e n als der des zweiten; nach anhaltender Trockenheit ms-


sen Gewitterregen die grte Quantitt Ammoniak der Erde wieder zufhren ...
Diese Q u a n t i t t A m m o n i a k ist fr e i n e n Cubikfu Luft verschwindend
klein, dessen u n g e a c h t e t ist sie, die S u m m e des Stickstoffgehaltes von T a u -
5 s e n d e n + Milliarden T h i e r e n u n d M e n s c h e n , m e h r als h i n r e i c h e n d , um
die einzelnen Milliarden der l e b e n d e n Geschpfe m i t Stickstoff zu ver-
sehn. ( 6 7 - 6 9 ) Bemerkenswerth, d a das im S c h n e e u n d Regenwasser vor-
h a n d n e A m m o n i a k , w e n n es d u r c h Kalk entwickelt wird, von e i n e m auffal-
l e n d e n G e r u c h n a c h Schwei u n d fauligen Stoffen begleitet ist, was b e r
10 seinen Ursprung k e i n e n Zweifel lt. (70 [, 71]) Das A m m o n i a k im R e g e n -
wasser e n t h a l t e n als kohlensaures A m m o n i a k . (71) Die Gegenwart des A m -
m o n i a k s in der A t m o s p h r e erneuert sich wieder in j e d e m Z e i t m o m e n t
durch die u n u n t e r b r o c h e n fortschreitende F u l n i u n d Verwesung thieri-
scher u n d vegetabilischer Stoffe in der Luft; ein Theil des mit dem Regenwas-
15 ser niedergefallnen Ammoniaks verdampft wieder mit dem Wasser; ein andrer
Theil wird von den Wurzeln der Pflanzen aufgenommen, und indem es neue Ver-
bindungen eingeht, entstehn daraus, je nach den verschiednen Organen der Assi-
milation, Eiweistoff, Kleber, Chinin, Morphium, Cyan und die grosse Zahl der
andren Stickstoffverbindungen. (71 [, 72]) D e n entscheidensten Beweis, da es
20 das A m m o n i a k ist, was den Vegetabilien den Stickstoff liefert, giebt die
animalische D n g u n g in der Cultur der Futtergewchse u n d Cerealien. D e r
G e h a l t an Kleber, ist in d e m W e i z e n , d e m Roggen, der Gerste usserst ver-
schieden, ihre Krner, a u c h in d e m ausgebildetsten Z u s t a n d , sind u n g l e i c h
reich an diesem stickstoffhaltigen Bestandtheil. Eine Vermehrung des anima-
25 lischen Dngers hat nicht allein eine Vermehrung der Anzahl Saamen zur Folge,
sie bt auch einen nicht minder bemerkenswerthen Einflu auf die Vergrrung
des Glutengehaltes. Der animalische Dnger wirkt nun nur durch Ammoniakbil-
dung. W h r e n d 100 W e i z e n , m i t d e m am A m m o n i a k rmsten K u h m i s t ge-
dngt, n u r 11,95 % Kleber u n d 62,34 A m y l o n enthalten, gab der m i t M e n -
30 s c h e n h a r n gedngte B o d e n das M a x i m u m an Kleber, n m l i c h 35,1 % in
100 Theilen W e i z e n , also n a h e die 3fache M e n g e . In gefaultem M e n s c h e n -
h a r n ist aber der Stickstoff als kohlensaures, phosphorsaures, m i l c h s a u r e s
A m m o n i a k u n d i n keiner a n d r e n F o r m als der F o r m eines A m m o n i a k s a l -
zes enthalten. (74) In einem Boden, der einzig und allein nur aus Sand und
35 Thon besteht, gengt es, eine kleine Q u a n t i t t G u a n o b e i z u m i s c h e n , um
darauf die reichsten E r n t e n von M a i s zu erhalten. D e r B o d e n enthlt aus-
ser G u a n o nicht das Geringste (an der P e r u a n i s c h e n Kste) einer a n d e r n
organischen Materie, u n d dieser Dnger enthlt weiter nichts, wie harnsaures,
phosphorsaures, oxalsaures, kohlensaures Ammoniak und einige Erdsalze. (75)
40 W a s m a n in d e m Ge||39|treide Kleber n e n n t , heit in d e m Traubensafte ve-
getabilisches Eiwei, in d e n Pflanzensften Pflanzenleim; diese 3 Krper sind

187
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

in i h r e m Verhalten, in ihrer Z u s a m m e n s e t z u n g identisch. Das A m m o n i a k


ist es, was d e m H a u p t b e s t a n d t h e i l der Pflanzen, d e m vegetabilischen Ei-
wei, d e n Stickstoff liefert, n u r das A m m o n i a k k a n n es sein, aus d e m sich
die b l a u e n u n d r o t h e n Farbstoffe in den B l u m e n bilden. (I.e.) D e r U r i n des
M e n s c h e n u n d der fleischfressenden T h i e r e enthlt die grte M e n g e 5
Stickstoff; theils in der F o r m von p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Salzen, theils in der
F o r m von Harnstoff; der leztre verwandelt sich d u r c h F u l n i in doppelt
kohlensaures A m m o n i a k , d. h. er n i m m t die F o r m des Salzes an, was wir
im Regenwasser finden. Der Urin des Menschen ist das krftigste Dngungs-
mittel fr alle an Stickstoff reichen Vegetabilien, der Urin des Hornviehs, der 10
Schaafe, der Pferde minder reich an Stickstoff, aber immer noch unendlich rei-
cher als die Excremente dieser Thiere. ... der Stickstoffgehalt der festen Excre-
mente der Menschen und Thiere verschwindet gegen den Stickstoff in den flssi-
gen. (76) Das Gewicht des Futters u n d der Speise, welche das T h i e r zu
seiner E r n h r u n g zu sich n i m m t , vermindert sich in d e m n m l i c h e n Ver- 15
hltni, als dieses Futter, die Speise, reich, sie n i m m t in d e m s e l b e n Ver-
h l t n i zu, als das F u t t e r a r m ist an stickstoffhaltigen Bestandtheilen. M a n
k a n n d u r c h F t t e r u n g m i t Kartoffeln allein sein Pferd am L e b e n erhalten,
aber dieses L e b e n ist ein langsames Verhungern, es wchst i h m weder
Masse n o c h Kraft zu, es unterliegt einer j e d e n Anstrengung. Es ist klar, 20
da der Stickstoff der Pflanzen u n d S a a m e n , welche T h i e r e n z u r N a h r u n g
d i e n e n , zur Assimilation verwendet wird; die E x c r e m e n t e dieser Thiere
m s s e n , wenn sie verdaut sind, ihres Stickstoffs b e r a u b t sein, sie k n n e n
n u r insofern Stickstoff n o c h enthalten, als i h n e n Secretionen der Galle
u n d Eingeweide beigemischt sind. Sie m s s e n u n t e r allen U m s t n d e n we- 25
niger Stickstoff enthalten, als die Speisen, als das Futter. Die Excremente
der Menschen unter allen die stickstoffreichsten, denn, (weil d a s E s s e n i h n e n
S p a m a c h t ) gemessen sie mehr Stickstoff als sie bedrfen und dieser Ueber-
schu geht in die Excremente ber. (77) M a c h e n wir also die Felder m i t t h i e -
rischen E x c r e m e n t e n fruchtbar, so geben wir i h n e n u n t e r allen U m s t n d e n 30
weniger stickstoffhaltige Materie zurck, als wir davon als Futter, K r a u t
oder S a a m e n denselben g e n o m m e n h a b e n , wir fgen d u r c h d e n D n g e r
d e m Nahrungsstoff, d e n die A t m o s p h r e liefert, eine gewisse Q u a n t i t t
desselben h i n z u u n d die eigentlich wissenschaftliche Aufgabe fr d e n Oe-
k o n o m e n beschrnkt sich h i e r m i t darauf, dasjenige stickstoffhaltige Nah- 35
rungsmittel der Pflanzen, welches die Excremente der Thiere und Menschen
durch ihre Fulni erzeugen, dieses Nahrungsmittel fr s e i n e Pflanzen zu ver-
wenden ... Jedes thierische E x c r e m e n t ist eine Quelle von A m m o n i a k u n d
Kohlensure, welche so lange dauert, als n o c h Stickstoff darin v o r h a n d e n
ist. ... Dieses A m m o n i a k wird von d e m B o d e n theils in Wasser gelst, 40
theils i n F o r m von G a s a u f g e n o m m e n u n d eingesaugt, u n d m i t i h m findet

188
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

die Pflanze eine grre M e n g e des ihr u n e n t b e h r l i c h e n Stickstoffs vor, als


die A t m o s p h r e ihr liefert. A b e r es ist weit weniger die M e n g e von A m m o -
niak, was thierische E x c r e m e n t e d e n Pflanzen zufhren, als die F o r m , in
welcher es geschieht, welche ihren so auffallenden Einflu auf die F r u c h t -
5 barkeit des B o d e n s bedingt. D i e Culturpflanzen empfangen von der At-
m o s p h r e die n m l i c h e Q u a n t i t t Stickstoff, wie die wildwachsenden, wie
die B u m e u n d Strucher; allein es ist n i c h t h i n r e i c h e n d fr die Zwecke
der Feldwirthschaft; sie u n t e r s c h e i d e t sich d a d u r c h wesentlich v o n der
Forstwirthschaft, d a ihre Hauptaufgabe, ihr wichtigster Zweck in der Pro-
10 auction von assimilirbarem Stickstoff in irgend einer F o r m besteht, w h r e n d
der Zweck der Forstwissenschaft sich h a u p t s c h l i c h n u r auf die Production
von Kohlenstoff beschrnkt. Diesen 2 Zwecken alle Mittel der Cultur unterge-
ordnet. V o n d e m k o h l e n s a u r e n A m m o n i a k , was das Regenwasser d e m Bo-
den zufhrt, geht n u r ein Theil in die Pflanze ber, d e n n m i t d e m ver-
15 d a m p f e n d e n Wasser verflchtigt sich, j e d e r Zeit, eine gewisse M e n g e
davon. N u r was der B o d e n in grrer Tiefe empfngt, was m i t d e m T h a u
u n m i t t e l b a r d e n Blttern zugefhrt wird, was sie aus der Luft m i t der Koh-
lensure einsaugen, n u r die A m m o n i a k wird fr die Assimilation gewon-
n e n werden k n n e n . D i e flssigen thierischen E x c r e m e n t e , der U r i n der
20 M e n s c h e n u n d Thiere, m i t w e l c h e m die ersten d u r c h d r u n g e n sind, enthal-
ten d e n grten Theil des A m m o n i a k s in der F o r m von Salzen, in einer
F o r m , wo es seine Fhigkeit sich zu verflchtigen gnzlich verloren hat.
( 7 7 - 7 9 ) In d i e s e m Z u s t a n d dargeboten, geht a u c h nicht die kleinste
M e n g e davon der Pflanze verloren, es wird im Wasser gelst von d e n W u r -
25 zelfasern eingesaugt. D a h e r die W i r k u n g des Gypses auf die F r u c h t b a r k e i t
u n d Ueppigkeit einer W i e s e ... sie b e r u h t auf der Fixirung des A m m o n i a k s
der A t m o s p h r e , auf der G e w i n n u n g von derjenigen Quantitt, die auf
nicht gegypstem B o d e n m i t d e m Wasser wieder verdunstet wre. Das in
d e m Regenwasser gelste k o h l e n s a u r e A m m o n i a k zerlegt sich m i t d e m
30 Gyps auf die n m l i c h e W e i s e wie in d e n Salmiakfabriken, es entsteht lsli-
ches, nicht flchtiges schwefelsaures A m m o n i a k u n d kohlensaurer Kalk.
N a c h u n d n a c h verschwindet aller Gyps, aber seine W i r k u n g hlt, solange
n o c h eine Spur davon v o r h a n d e n ist. (80) 100 Pf. gebrannter Gyps fixiren
so viel A m m o n i a k in d e m B o d e n als 6250 Pfd reiner Pferdeharn d e m s e l b e n
35 zufhren k n n e n . ||40| N e h m e n wir n u n n a c h Boussingault an, da das
Gras y eines Gewichts Stickstoff enthlt, so steigert 1 Pf. Stickstoff, wel-
i M

ches wir m e h r zufhren, d e n Ertrag der Wiese um 100 Pfd F u t t e r u n d diese


100 Pfd Mehrertrag sind der Erfolg der W i r k u n g von 4 Pfd Gyps. Z u r Assi-
milation des gebildeten schwefelsauren A m m o n i a k s u n d zur Z e r s e t z u n g
40 des Gypses ist, seiner Schwerlslichkeit wegen (1 Theil bedarf 400 Theile
Wasser) Wasser die u n e n t b e h r l i c h s t e B e d i n g u n g ; auf trocknen Feldern und

189
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Wiesen dehalb sein Einflu n i c h t b e m e r k b a r , w h r e n d auf d i e s e n thieri-


scher Dnger, d u r c h die Assimilation des gasfrmigen k o h l e n s a u r e n A m -
m o n i a k s , was sich d a r a u s in Folge seiner Verwesung entwickelt, seine Wir-
kung n i c h t versagt. (81, 2) D i e Z e r s e t z u n g des Gypses d u r c h das
k o h l e n s a u r e A m m o n i a k geht n i c h t auf e i n m a l , s o n d e r n sehr allmhlig vor 5
sich, woraus sich erklrt, w a r u m seine W i r k u n g m e h r e r e J a h r e anhlt. (82)
E b e n s o einfach erklrt sich die D n g u n g der F e l d e r m i t g e b r a n n t e m T h o n ,
die F r u c h t b a r k e i t der e i s e n o x i d i n i s c h e n B o d e n a r t e n . ... Eisenoxid u n d
Thonerde z e i c h n e n sich vor allen a n d r e n M e t a l l o x i d e n d u r c h die F h i g k e i t
aus, sich m i t A m m o n i a k zu festen V e r b i n d u n g e n vereinigen zu k n n e n . 10
D i e Niederschlge, die wir d u r c h A m m o n i a k i n T h o n e r d e - u n d Eisenoxid-
salzen hervorbringen, sind wahre Salze, worin das A m m o n i a k die Rolle
einer Base spielt. Diese a u s g e z e i c h n e t e Verwandtschaft zeigt sich n o c h in
der merkwrdigen Fhigkeit aller eisenoxid- oder t h o n e r d e r e i c h e n M i n e r a -
lien, A m m o n i a k aus der Luft a n z u z i e h n u n d z u r c k z u h a l t e n . (I.e.) Eisen- 15
oxidhaltiger B o d e n u n d g e b r a n n t e r T h o n , dessen porser Z u s t a n d das Ein-
s a u g e n von G a s n o c h m e h r begnstigt, sind also wahre A m m o n i a k s a u g e r ,
welche sich d u r c h ihre c h e m i s c h e A n z i e h u n g vor der Verflchtigung scht-
z e n ; sie verhalten sich grade so, wie w e n n eine Sure auf der Oberflche
des Bodens ausgebreitet wre. ... M i t j e d e m R e g e n g u tritt das eingesaugte 20
A m m o n i a k an das Wasser, u n d wird in Auflsung d e m B o d e n zugefhrt.
E b e n s o energische W i r k u n g das Kohlenpulver; bertrifft sogar im frischge-
g l h t e n Z u s t a n d alle b e k a n n t e n Krper in der Fhigkeit, A m m o n i a k g a s in
s e i n e n Poren zu verdichten, da 1 V o l u m e n d a v o n 90 V o l u m A m m o n i a k g a s
in seinen Poren a u f n i m m t , was sich d u r c h bloses Befeuchten d a r a u s wieder 25
entwickelt. In dieser Fhigkeit k o m m t der K o h l e das verwesende (Eichen-
holz) Holz sehr n a h , da es u n t e r der L u f t p u m p e , von allem Wasser befreit,
72 sein eignes V o l u m e n davon verschluckt. Also j e z t leicht zu erklren
die Eigenschaften des H u m u s (der verwesenden Holzfaser). N i c h t allein er
eine lange a n d a u e r n d e Quelle von K o h l e n s u r e , s o n d e r n versieht a u c h die 30
Pflanzen m i t d e m zu ihrer Entwicklung u n e n t b e h r l i c h e n Stickstoff ...
u n s r e Felder p r o d u c i r e n m e h r Stickstoff als wir i h n e n als N a h r u n g zufh-
ren. (83, 4) Wir finden in der A t m o s p h r e , in d e m Regenwasser, im Quell-
wasser, in allen B o d e n a r t e n diesen Stickstoff in der F o r m von A m m o n i a k ,
als P r o d u c t der Verwesung u n d F u l n i der g a n z e n , der gegenwrthigen 35
G e n e r a t i o n vorangegangnen Thier- u n d Pflanzenwelt ...es ist das Ammo-
niak der Atmosphre, welches den Pflanzen ihren Stickstoff liefert. Kohlensure,
Ammoniak und Wasser enthalten in ihren Elementen die Bedingungen zur Er-
zeugung aller Thier und Pflanzenstoffe whrend ihres Lebens. Kohlensure, Am-
moniak und Wasser sind die lezten Producte des chemischen Prozesses ihrer 40
Fulni und Verwesung. Alle die zahllosen, in i h r e n Eigenschaften so u n e n d -

190
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

lieh verschiednen, P r o d u c t e der Lebenskraft n e h m e n n a c h d e m T o d e die


ursprnglichen F o r m e n wieder an, a u s d e n e n sie gebildet worden sind. D e r
Tod, die vllige Auflsung einer u n t e r g e g a n g n e n G e n e r a t i o n , ist die
Quelle des L e b e n s , fr eine n e u e . (84) A m m o n i a c = N H 3

5 Die anorganischen Bestandtheile der Vegetabilien.

Z u r A u s b i l d u n g gewisser Organe zu b e s o n d e r n Verrichtungen, e i g e n t h m -


lich fr j e d e Pflanzenfamilie, g e h r e n M a t e r i e n , die der Pflanze d u r c h die
anorganische N a t u r dargeboten werden. W i r finden diese M a t e r i e n , wie-
wohl in v e r n d e r t e m Z u s t a n d , in der Asche der Pflanzen wieder. V o n die-
10 sen a n o r g a n i s c h e n B e s t a n d t h e i l e n sind viele vernderlich je n a c h d e m Bo-
den, worauf die Pflanzen wachsen; allein eine gewisse A n z a h l davon ist fr
ihre Entwicklung u n e n t b e h r l i c h . Die W u r z e l einer Pflanze in der E r d e ver-
hlt sich zu allen gelsten Stoffen wie ein S c h w a m m , der das Flssige u n d
alles was drin ist o h n e U n t e r s c h i e d einsaugt. Diese Stoffe in g r r e m o d e r
15 geringrem M a a z u r c k b e h a l t e n o d e r wieder ausgeschieden, je n a c h d e m
sie zur A s s i m i l a t i o n verwendet werden, oder sich n i c h t dafr eignen. In
d e n S a a m e n aller G r a s a r t e n fehlt aber z.B. n i e p h o s p h o r s a u r e Bittererde in
V e r b i n d u n g m i t A m m o n i a k ; es ist in der u s s e r n hornartigen Hlle enthal-
t e n u n d geht d u r c h das M e h l in das Brot u n d ebenfalls in das Bier ber.
20 (85) Alle Pflanzen e n t h a l t e n organische S u r e n von der mannigfaltigsten
Z u s a m m e n s e t z u n g u n d Eigenschaften; alle diese S u r e n sind an B a s e n ge-
b u n d e n , an Kali, N a t r o n , Kalk oder Bittererde ... Diese Basen sind es of-
fenbar, die d u r c h ihr V o r h a n d e n s e i n die E n t s t e h u n g dieser S u r e n vermit-
teln, m i t d e m Verschwinden der Sure b e i d e m Reifen der F r c h t e , d e n
25 W e i n t r a u b e n . B., n i m m t der Kaligehalt des Saftes ab. In d e n T h e i l e n der
Pflanzen, in d e n e n die A s s i m i l a t i o n am strksten ist, wie in d e m Holzkr-
per, finden sich diese Bestandtheile in der geringsten M e n g e , ihr G e h a l t ist
am grten in d e n Organen, welche die A s s i m i l a t i o n vermitteln; in d e n
Blttern findet sich m e h r Kali, m e h r A s c h e , als in d e n Zweigen, diese sind
30 reicher daran als der S t a m m . Vor der Blthe enthlt das Kartoffelkraut
m e h r Kali als n a c h derselben. (86) D e n n die organischen Suren, ist a u c h
irgend eine alkalische Basis ebenfalls eine B e d i n g u n g ihres L e b e n s , d e n n
alle diese S u r e n k o m m e n in d e n Pflanzen als n e u t r a l e oder saure Salze
vor. Es giebt keine Pflanze, die n i c h t n a c h d e m E i n s c h e r n eine |[41| koh-
35 lensurehaltige A s c h e hinterlt, k e i n e also, in welcher pflanzensaure
Salze fehlen. ... die Q u a n t i t t e n dieser Basen, w e n n das L e b e n der Pflan-
zen a n ihre Gegenwart g e b u n d e n ist, m u u n t e r allen U m s t n d e n e b e n s o
unvernderlich sein, als es, wie m a n wei, die Sttigungscapacitt der Su-

191
I

Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

ren ist. K e i n G r u n d zu glauben, d a die Pflanze im Z u s t a n d e der freien u n -


g e h i n d e r t e n Entwicklung m e h r von der ihr e i g e n t h m l i c h e n Sure produ-
cirt, als sie grade zu i h r e m Bestehn bedarf; in d i e s e m Falle aber wird eine
Pflanze, auf welchem B o d e n sie a u c h wachsen m a g , stets eine nie wech-
selnde M e n g e alkalischer Basis e n t h a l t e n . ... Alle diese alkalischen Basen 5
k n n e n sich in ihrer Wirkungsweise vertreten ... eine dieser Basen k a n n
d a h e r in einer Pflanze v o r k o m m e n , w h r e n d sie in einer a n d e r n Pflanze
derselben Art fehlt ... die fehlende Basis m u ersezt u n d vertreten sein
d u r c h eine andre von gleichem Wirkungswerth, sie m u ersezt sich vorfin-
d e n durch ein Aequivalent von einer der a n d e r n Basen. Die Anzahl der Ae- 10
quivalente dieser Basen wren h i e r n a c h eine unvernderliche Grsse, u n d
folgt der Regel, da die Sauerstoffmenge aller alkalischen Basen z u s a m -
m e n g e n o m m e n u n t e r allen U m s t n d e n u n v e r n d e r l i c h ist, auf w e l c h e m
B o d e n die Pflanze a u c h wachsen, welchen B o d e n sie a u c h erhalten m a g .
Dieser Schlu b e z i e h t sich n u r auf die j e n i g e n alkalischen Basen, welche 15
als pflanzensaure Salze Bestandtheile der Pflanzen a u s m a c h e n ; wir finden
n u n grade diese in der A s c h e derselben als k o h l e n s a u r e Salze wieder, de-
ren Qualitt leicht b e s t i m m b a r ist. (87, 88) Es ist klar, w e n n die E r z e u g u n g
von b e s t i m m t e n u n v e r n d e r l i c h e n M e n g e n von pflanzensauren Salzen
d u r c h die E i g e n t h m l i c h k e i t ihrer (der P f l a n z e n ) Organe geboten, w e n n 20
sie zu gewissen Zwecken fr ihr Bestehn u n e n t b e h r l i c h sind, so wird die
Pflanze Kali u n d Kalk a u f n e h m e n m s s e n , u n d w e n n sie nicht so viel vor-
findet, als sie bedarf, so wird das F e h l e n d e d u r c h andre alkalische Basen
von gleichem Wirkungswerth ersezt werden; w e n n ihr keine von allen sich
darbietet, so wird sie nicht zur Entwicklung gelangen. (92) In allen China- 25
Sorten findet sich Chinasure, aber die vernderlichsten M e n g e n von Chi-
n i n , C i n c h o n i n u n d Kalk; m a n k a n n d e n G e h a l t a n d e n eigentlichen orga-
n i s c h e n Basen ziemlich g e n a u n a c h der M e n g e von fixen Basen
beurtheilen, die n a c h der E i n s c h e r u n g zurckbleiben. E i n e m M a x i m u m
der e r s t e m entspricht ein M i n i m u m der a n d e r n , grade so wie es in der T h a t 30
stattfinden m u , wenn sie sich gegenseitig n a c h ihren A e q u i v a l e n t e n ver-
treten. ... F i n d e n die W u r z e l n der Pflanze die eine Base in h i n r e i c h e n d e r
M e n g e vor, so wird sie um so weniger von der a n d e r n n e h m e n . (92, 3) D e r
Organismus der Pflanzen h a t die Fhigkeit alles d e m B o d e n wieder z u -
rckzugeben, was nicht zu s e i n e m Bestehn gehrt. (95) D i e vllige Ent- 35
wicklung einer Pflanze ist abhngig von der Gegenwart von Alkalien oder
alkalischen Erdarten. M i t ihrer gnzlichen Abwesenheit m u ihrer Ausbil-
d u n g eine b e s t i m m t e G r e n z e gesezt sein; b e i m M a n g e l an diesen Basen
wird ihre Ausbildung g e h e m m t sein. Vergleichen wir ... 2 H o l z a r t e n m i t
einander, welche ungleiche M e n g e alkalischer Basen enthalten, so ergiebt 40
sich von selbst, da die eine auf m a n c h e n B o d e n a r t e n krftig sich entwik-

192
~

Aus Justus Uebig: Die organische Chemie

kein k a n n , auf w e l c h e n die a n d r e n u r k m m e r l i c h vegetirt. 10,000 T h e i l e


E i c h e n h o l z geben 250 T h e i l e A s c h e , 10,000 Theile T a n n e n h o l z n u r 8 3 ,
10,000 Theile L i n d e n h o l z 500, W e i z e n s t r o h 440 u n d Kartoffelkraut
1500 Theile. Auf G r a n i t , auf k a h l e m S a n d b o d e n u n d H a i d e n wird die
5 T a n n e u n d F i c h t e n o c h h i n r e i c h e n d e M e n g e n alkalischer Basen finden,
auf welchen E i c h e n n i c h t f o r t k o m m e n , u n d W e i z e n wird auf e i n e m Boden,
wo L i n d e n g e d e i h n , diejenigen B a s e n in h i n r e i c h e n d e r M e n g e vorfinden,
die er zu seiner vlligen E n t w i c k l u n g bedarf. Alle Grasarten, die E q u i s e t a -
ceen z . B . e n t h a l t e n e i n e grosse M e n g e Kieselsure u n d Kali, abgelagert in
10 d e m ussern S a u m der Bltter u n d in d e m H a l m als saures k o h l e n s a u r e s
Kali; auf e i n e m Getreidefeld n d e r t sich der G e h a l t an d i e s e m Salze n i c h t
merklich, d e n n es wird i h m in der F o r m von D n g e r , als verwestes Stroh,
wieder zugefhrt. G a n z a n d e r s stellt sich dieses Verhltni auf einer
Wiese; nie findet sich a u f e i n e m k a l i a r m e n Sand oder r e i n e m K a l k b o d e n
15 ein ppiger Gras w u c h s ; d e n n es fehlt i h m ein fr die Pflanze d u r c h a u s u n -
entbehrlicher Bestandtheil, Basalte, G r a u w a c k e , Porphyr g e b e n u n t e r glei-
c h e m Verhltnisse d e n b e s t e n B o d e n z u W i e s e n ab, e b e n weil sie reich a n
Kali sind. D e r h i n w e g g e n o m m n e Kalk ersezt sich wieder bei d e m jhrli-
c h e n W s s e r n ; der B o d e n selbst ist verhltnimssig fr d e n Bedarf der
20 Pflanze unerschpflich an d i e s e m Krper. W e n n wir aber bei d e m G y p s e n
einer W i e s e d e n G r a s w u c h s steigern, s o n e h m e n wir m i t d e m H e u e i n e
grre M e n g e Kali hinweg, was u n t e r gleichen B e d i n g u n g e n n i c h t ersezt
wird. So n i m m t n a c h Verlauf v o n einigen J a h r e n der Graswuchs auf vielen
gegypsten W i e s e n ab, weil es an Kali fehlt. W e r d e n die W i e s e n dagegen
25 v o n Zeit zu Zeit m i t A s c h e , selbst m i t ausgelaugter Seifensiederasche ber-
fahren, so kehrt der p p i g e G r a s w u c h s zurck. M i t dieser A s c h e h a b e n wir
aber der W i e s e nichts weiter als das fehlende Kali zugefhrt. ( 9 5 - 9 7 ) E i n s
der merkwrdigsten Beispiele von der Unfhigkeit eines B o d e n s , W e i z e n ,
u n d b e r h a u p t G r a s a r t e n z u erzeugen, w e n n i n i h m e i n e der B e d i n g u n g e n
30 ihres W a c h s t h u m s fehlt, bietet das Verfahren eines Gutsbesitzers in der
N h e von G t t i n g e n . Er bepflanzte sein ganzes L a n d , z u m B e h u f der Pott-
ascherzeugung m i t W e r m u t h , dessen A s c h e b e k a n n t l i c h sehr r e i c h a n k o h -
l e n s a u r e m Kali ist. E i n e Folge ||42| davon war die gnzliche Unfruchtbar-
keit seiner Felder fr G e t r e i d e b a u ; sie waren auf J a h r z e h n d e h i n a u s vllig
35 ihres Kalis b e r a u b t . (98, 99) D i e Bltter u n d k l e i n e n Zweige der B u m e
enthalten die meiste A s c h e u n d das m e i s t e Alkali; was d u r c h sie b e i d e m
L a u b u n d S t r e u s a m m e l n d e n W l d e r n g e n o m m e n wird, ist b e i w e i t e m
mehr, als was das Holz enthlt, das j h r l i c h geschlagen wird. D i e E i c h e n -
r i n d e , das E i c h e n l a u b e n t h l t 6 - 9 , die T a n n e n u n d F i c h t e n n a d e l n b e r
40 8 %. Mit 2650 Pfund T a n n e n h o l z , die wir e i n e m Morgen L a n d j h r l i c h
n e h m e n , wird i m G a n z e n d e m B o d e n , b e i 0,83 % A s c h e n u r 7 - 8 Pfund a n

193
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Alkalien entzogen, aber das Moos, was d e n B o d e n bedeckt, dessen A s c h e


reich an Alkali ist, hlt in u n u n t e r b r o c h e n fortdauernder Entwicklung das
Kali an der Oberflche des so leicht von d e m Wasser d u r c h d r i n g b a r e n
S a n d b o d e n s zurck, u n d bietet in seiner Verwesung d e n aufgespeicherten
Vorrath d e n W u r z e l n dar, die das Alkali a u f n e h m e n , o h n e es wieder zu- 5
rckzugeben. (99) D i e Grasarten, die d e m M e n s c h e n zur N a h r u n g d i e n e n ,
folgen i h m wie ein H a u s t h i e r ... d u r c h h n l i c h e U r s a c h e n gezwungen, wie
die Salzpflanzen d e m M e e r e s s t r a n d e u n d Salinen etc so wie die Mistkfer
auf die E x c r e m e n t e der Thiere angewiesen sind, so bedrfen die Salzpflan-
z e n des Kochsalzes etc. K e i n e von u n s e r n G e t r e i d e a r t e n k a n n ausgebildete 10
Saamen tragen, Saamen, welche Mehl geben, o h n e eine reichliche M e n g e von
phosphorsaurer Bittererde, o h n e Ammoniak zu ihrer A u s b i l d u n g vorzufinden.
Diese S a a m e n entwickeln sich n u r in e i n e m Boden, wo diese 3 E l e m e n t e
sich vereinigt vorfinden, u n d kein B o d e n ist reicher daran als Orte, wo
M e n s c h e n u n d Thiere familienartig z u s a m m e n w o h n e n ; sie folgen d e m 15
U r i n , d e n E x c r e m e n t e n derselben, weil sie o h n e deren Bestandtheile n i c h t
z u m S a a m e n t r a g e n k o m m e n . (99, 100) S a a m e n u n d Pflanzen werden
d u r c h W i n d e u n d Vgel b e r die ganze Oberflche der Erde verbreitet,
aber sie entwickeln sich n u r da, wo sich die B e d i n g u n g e n ihres L e b e n s vor-
finden. (100) In den grossen F a b r i k e n zu Liverpool, wo die n a t r l i c h e Bor- 20
s u r e zu Borax verarbeitet wird, gewinnt m a n daraus als N e b e n p r o d u c t
viele h u n d e r t Pfunde schwefelsaures A m m o n i a k . Dieses Ammoniak stammt
nicht von thierischen Organismen; es war vorhanden vor allen lebenden Genera-
tionen, es ist ein Theil, ein Bestandtheil des Erdkrpers. (102) Jeder a u c h der
schwchste Luftzug entfhrt m i t d e n Milliarden Centnern Seewasser, welche 25
jhrlich verdampfen, eine entsprechende Menge der darin gelsten Salze und
fhrt Kochsalz, Chlorkalium, Bittererde und die brigen Bestandtheile dem fe-
sten Lande zu. (103) Das in steter Verdampfung begriffne Meer verbreitet ber
die ganze Oberflche der Erde hin, in dem Regenwasser, alle zum Bestehn einer
Vegetation unentbehrlichen Salze, wir finden sie selbst da in ihrer Asche wieder, 30
wo der Boden keine Bestandtheile liefern konnte. (I.e.) Die W u r z e l n der Pflan-
zen sind die ewig thtigen S a m m l e r der Alkalien, der Bestandtheile des
Seewassers, die der Regen zufhrt, des Quellwassers, was d e n B o d e n
durchdringt; o h n e Alkalien u n d alkalischen Basen wrden die m e i s t e n
Pflanzen nicht bestehn, o h n e die Pflanzen w r d e n die Alkalien allmhlig 35
von der Oberflche der Erde verschwinden. (104, 5)

194
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

Die Cultur.
Die atmosphrische Luft u n d der B o d e n bietet d e n Blttern u n d W u r z e l n
einerlei N a h r u n g dar. D i e erstre e n t h l t e i n e verhltnimssig unerschpf-
liche M e n g e K o h l e n s u r e u n d A m m o n i a k , i n d e m B o d e n h a b e n wir i n
5 d e m H u m u s eine stets sich e r n e u e r n d e Quelle von Kohlensure, d e n W i n -
ter h i n d u r c h huft sich in d e m Regen- und Schneewasser, womit er durchdrun-
gen wird, eine fr die Entwicklung der Blthen und Bltter ausreichende Menge
Ammoniak. (106) Bei A b w e s e n h e i t aller Feuchtigkeit erhlt sich der H u -
m u s J a h r h u n d e r t e lang, m i t Wasser benezt, verwandelt er d e n u m g e b e n d e n
10 Sauerstoff in K o h l e n s u r e ; von d i e s e m Augenblick an verndert er sich
ebenfalls n i c h t m e h r , d e n n die W i r k u n g der Luft hrt auf, sobald sie ihres
Sauerstoffes b e r a u b t ist. N u r w e n n Pflanzen in d i e s e m B o d e n wachsen, de-
ren W u r z e l n die gebildete K o h l e n s u r e h i n w e g n e h m e n , schreitet die Ver-
wesung fort, aber d u r c h lebende Pflanzen empfngt der B o d e n wieder, was
15 er verloren hat, er wird n i c h t r m e r an H u m u s . (107) N u r der D n g e r n t z -
lich, der die Eigenschaft das Wasser zu frben, gnzlich verloren h a t . (109)
In e i n e m Boden, in e i n e m Wasser, welches k e i n e n Sauerstoff enthlt ster-
b e n alle Pflanzen; M a n g e l an Luft wirkt ganz hnlich wie ein U e b e r m a an
Kohlensure. A u f sumpfigem B o d e n schliet das Wasser, was n i c h t a u s -
20 wechselt, die Luft aus, eine E r n e u e r u n g des Wassers wirkt h n l i c h wie ein
H i n z u f h r e n von Luft, d e n n das Wasser enthlt Luft in Auflsung; geben
wir d e m Wasser in d e m Sumpfe Abzug, so gestatten wir der Luft freien Z u -
tritt, der S u m p f verwandelt sich in die fruchtbarste Wiese. Ueberreste von
Vegetabilien u n d Thieren, ... in e i n e m B o d e n ... in d e n die Luft k e i n e n
25 oder n u r geringen Zutritt hat, g e h n n i c h t in Verwesung ber, e b e n weil es
an Sauerstoff fehlt; sie g e h n in F u l n i ber, zu deren Einleitung Luft ge-
n u g sich vorfindet. ... D i e ftere Lufterneuerung, die gehrige Bearbeitung
des Bodens, n a m e n t l i c h der B e r h r u n g m i t alkalischen Metalloxiden, m i t
Braunkohlenasche, g e b r a n n t e m oder k o h l e n s a u r e m Kalk, n d e r t die vorge-
30 h e n d e F u l n i in e i n e n reinen Oxidationsproze u m ; von d e m A u g e n b l i c k
an, wo alle v o r h a n d n e n organischen M a t e r i e n in den Z u s t a n d der Verwe-
sung bergehn, erhht sich die F r u c h t b a r k e i t des Bodens. D e r Sauer-
stoff ... dient n u n zur Bildung von K o h l e n s u r e . ([109,] 110) F r m a n c h e
Pflanzengattungen, besonders fr die jenigen, welche ihre erste N a h r u n g
35 von der Substanz der S a a m e n selbst empfangen, W u r z e l n u n d Zwiebelge-
wchse, ist der H u m u s vllig entbehrlich, seine Gegenwart ist ntzlich, in-
sofern ihre Entwicklung beschleunigt u n d gesteigert wird, sie ist aber n i c h t
nothwendig. In einer gewissen B e z i e h u n g ist ein U e b e r m a in d e m Anfang
der Entwicklung einer Pflanze schdlich. ... W e n n im Anfang ihrer Ent-

195
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

Wicklung die A n z a h l der Triebe, H a l m e , Zweige u n d Bltter d u r c h ein U e -


b e r m a von Nahrungsstoff aus d e m B o d e n die G r e n z e berschreitet; (die
die Luft ||43| ihr bieten kann) wo sie also zur V o l l e n d u n g ihrer Entwick-
lung, zur Blthe u n d F r u c h t m e h r Nahrungsstoff aus der Luft bedarf, als
diese b i e t e n kann, so wird sie n i c h t zur Blthe, zur F r u c h t b i l d u n g gelan- 5
gen. I n vielen Fllen reicht diese N a h r u n g n u r h i n , u m die Bltter, H a l m e
u n d Zweige vllig auszubilden. ... Sie treiben ins K r a u t u n d k o m m e n
n i c h t zur Blthe. Bei d e m Zwergobst n e h m e n wir d e n B u m e n e i n e n Theil
ihrer Zweige u n d d a m i t ihrer Bltter; wir h i n d e r n die Entwicklung n e u e r
Zweige, es wird knstlich ein U e b e r s c h u von N a h r u n g geschaffen, die 10
d a n n zur V e r m e h r u n g der Blthe u n d Vergrrung der F r u c h t von der
Pflanze verwendet wird. Das B e s c h n e i d e n des Weinstocks h a t e i n e n ganz
h n l i c h e n Zweck. (111, 12) Bei allen p e r e n n i r e n d e n G e w c h s e n , bei den
Struchern, F r u c h t u n d W a l d b u m e n , geht n a c h vlliger A u s b i l d u n g der
F r u c h t ein n e u e r e i g e n t h m l i c h e r Vegetationsproze an; whrend bei d e n 15
einjhrigen Pflanzen, von dieser Periode an, die Stengel sich verholzen, die
Bltter ihre Farbe wechseln u n d gelb werden, bleiben die Bltter der
B u m e u n d Strucher bis z u m Anfang des W i n t e r s in Thtigkeit. Die Bil-
d u n g der Holzringe schreitet fort, das Holz wird fester u n d hrter, u n d v o m
A u g u s t an erzeugen ihre Bltter kein Holz m e h r ; alle K o h l e n s u r e , die sie 20
a u f n e h m e n u n d assimiliren, wird zur E r z e u g u n g von Nahrungsstoffen fr
das knftige Jahr verwendet; anstatt Holzfaser wird jezt A m y l o n gebildet
u n d d u r c h d e n Augustsaft in allen T h e i l e n der Pflanze verbreitet ... Sehr
frher W i n t e r oder rascher Temperaturwechsel h i n d e r n die E r z e u g u n g die-
ser Vorrthe von N a h r u n g fr das knftige Jahr, das Holz wird, wie b e i m 25
W e i n s t o c k z . B . n i c h t reif, seine Entwicklung ist das folgende J a h r in engre
G r e n z e n eingeschlossen. A u s d i e s e m A m y l o n entsteht i m n c h s t e n F r h -
j a h r der Zucker u n d das G u m m i , u n d aus d i e s e m wieder die stickstoff-
freien Bestandtheile der Bltter u n d j u n g e n Triebe. M i t der Entwicklung
der j u n g e n Kartoffelpflanze, m i t der Bildung der K e i m e n i m m t der A m y - 30
longehalt der W u r z e l a b ; der Ahornsaft hrt auf, s zu sein, sein Zucker-
gehalt verliert sich m i t der A u s b i l d u n g der Knospen, der B l t h e n u n d der
Bltter. (112, 13) M a n hat m i t U n r e c h t die gegen den Herbst h i n sich in
d e n Pflanzen a n h u f e n d e n Vorrthe von Strke m i t d e m F e t t der d e m
Winterschlaf unterworfnen Thiere verglichen. (114) Die einjhrige Pflanze 35
erzeugt u n d s a m m e l t die N a h r u n g der knftigen, auf gleiche Weise wie die
p e r e n n i r e n d e ; sie speichert sie im S a a m e n in der F o r m von vegetabili-
s c h e m Eiwei, von Strkemehl u n d G u m m i auf, sie wird b e i m K e i m e n zur
A u s b i l d u n g der ersten Wurzelfasern u n d Bltter verwendet; m i t d e m Vor-
h a n d e n s e i n dieser Organe fngt die Z u n a h m e an Masse, die eigentliche Er- 40
n h r u n g an. Jeder K e i m , j e d e K n o s p e einer p e r e n n i r e n d e n Pflanze ist der

196
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie

aufgepfropfte E m b r y o eines n e u e n I n d i v i d u u m s , die im S t a m m e , in der


Wurzel aufgespeicherte N a h r u n g . (115) D i e Bltter sind v o r h a n d e n , u m
Strke, Holzfaser u n d Z u c k e r zu erzeugen; fhren wir Strke, Holzfaser
u n d Zucker d u r c h die W u r z e l n zu, so wird offenbar die Lebensfunktion der
5 Bltter gestrt ... E i n W e i z e n k o r n e n t h l t in seiner eignen M a s s e die Be-
standtheile des K e i m s u n d der ersten Wurzelfaser ||44| u n d g e n a u in d e m
Verhltni als zu ihrer Entwicklung n t h i g ist. W e n n wir diese Bestand-
theile m i t Stfrke u n d ] Kleber b e z e i c h n e n , klar, da keiner davon allein,
sondern beide zugleich a n der K e i m u n d Wu[r]zelbildung A n t h e i l n e h m e n ,
10 d e n n bei Gegenwart von Luft, Feuchtigkeit [und] einer a n g e m e n e n T e m -
peratur erleiden sie b e i d e eine M e t a m o r p h o s e . Die Strke verwandelt sich
in Zucker, der Kleber n i m m t ebenfalls eine n e u e F o r m an, beide erhalten
die Fhigkeit sich zu lsen, d. h. einer j e d e n Bewegung zu folgen. Beide
werden zur Bildung der Wurzelfasern u n d ersten Bltter vllig aufgezehrt,
15 ein U e b e r s c h u von d e m e i n e n wrde o h n e die Gegenwart einer entspre-
c h e n d e n M e n g e von d e m a n d e r n z u r Blattbildung, oder b e r h a u p t n i c h t
verwendet werden k n n e n . (115, 16) K o h l e n s u r e , A m m o n i a k u n d Wasser
sind die Nahrungsstoffe der Pflanzen; Strke, Zucker oder G u m m i dienen,
wenn sie begleitet sind von einer stickstoffhaltigen Substanz, d e m E m b r y o
20 zur ersten Entfaltung seiner E r n h r u n g s o r g a n e . (117) Gewisse K r a n k h e i t e n
von B u m e n , der s. g. H o n i g t h a u , r h r e n offenbar von e i n e m Miverhlt-
ni in der M e n g e der zugefhrten stickstofffreien u n d stickstoffhaltigen
Nahrungsstoffe her. (118) Alles brige gleichgesezt, wird n u r eine d e m
Stickstoffgehalt e n t s p r e c h e n d e Q u a n t i t t der von d e n Blttern erzeugten
25 Substanzen assimilirbar sein; fehlt es an Stickstoff, so wird eine gewisse
M e n g e stickstofffreier Substanz in irgend einer F o r m n i c h t verwendet u n d
als E x c r e m e n t e der Bltter, Zweige, R i n d e n u n d W u r z e l n abgeschieden
werden. Die Ausschwitzungen g e s u n d e r krftiger Pflanzen von M a n n i t ,
G u m m i , Z u c k e r keiner a n d e r n U r s a c h e zugeschrieben. (119)
30 U n t e r d i e s e m G e s i c h t s p u n k t e i n l e u c h t e n d , wie sehr sich die in einer
Pflanze erzeugten Producte je nach dem Verhltni der zugefhrten Nahrungs-
stoffe n d e r n k n n e n . E i n Ueberflu an Kohlenstoff, in der F o r m von K o h -
lensure d u r c h die W u r z e l n zugefhrt, wird bei M a n g e l an Stickstoff weder
in Kleber, n o c h in Eiwei, n o c h in Holz, n o c h in sonst irgend e i n e n Be-
35 standtheil eines Organs bergehn; er wird als Zucker, A m y l o n , Oel, W a c h s ,
Harz, M a n n i t , G u m m i , in der F o r m also eines E x c r e m e n t s abgeschieden
werden, oder m e h r oder weniger weite Zellen u n d Gefe fllen. Bei e i n e n
U e b e r s c h u stickstoffhaltiger N a h r u n g wird sich der Kleber u n d der G e h a l t
von vegetabilischem Eiwei u n d Pflanzenleim vermehren, es w e r d e n A m -
40 moniaksalze in d e n Sften bleiben, wenn, wie b e i m A n b a u der R u n k e l r -
b e n ein sehr stickstoffreicher D n g e r d e m B o d e n gegeben, oder die F u n k -

197
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII

tion der Bltter u n t e r d r c k t wird, i n d e m m a n die Pflanze ihrer Bltter


b e r a u b t . D i e A n a n a s i m wilden Z u s t a n d k a u m geniebar, treibt bei reichli-
c h e n thierischen D n g e r eine Masse von Blttern, o h n e da die F r u c h t
deshalb an Zucker z u n i m m t ; der Strkegehalt der Kartoffeln wchst in
e i n e m h u m u s r e i c h e n Boden, be[i] krftigem a n i m a l i s c h e n D n g e r n i m m t 5
die A n z a h l ihrer Zellen zu, w h r e n d sich der A m y l o n g e h a l t vermindert; in
d e m e r s t e m Fall mehlige, in d e m a n d e r n eine seifige Beschaffenheit. Die
R u n k e l r b e n auf m a g e r m S a n d b o d e n gezogen, e n t h a l t e n ein M a x i m u m
von Zucker u n d kein A m m o n i a k s a l z , u n d i n g e d n g t e m L a n d e verlirt die
Teltower R b e ihre mehlige Beschaffenheit, d e n n in d i e s e m vereinigen 10
sich alle B e d i n g u n g e n fr Zellenbildung. (120, 1) Die Pflanzen bedrfen
des Lichts u n d zwar des Sonnenlichts aber fr ihre F u n k t i o n e n d u r c h a u s
gleichgltig, ob sie v o m Sonnenlichte getroffen werden, oder im Schatten
wachsen, d. h. die Strahlen direkt erhalten oder nicht. Ihre F u n k t i o n e n
g e h n n u r m i t weit grrer Energie u n d Schnelligkeit im S o n n e n l i c h t e als 15
im Tageslichte oder im Schatten vor sich; es k a n n keine andre Verschie-
d e n h e i t hier gedacht werden, als bei h n l i c h e n W i r k u n g e n , die das Licht
auf c h e m i s c h e V e r b i n d u n g e n zeigt, u n d diese Verschiedenheit wird be-
m e r k b a r durch e i n e n h h e r n oder g e r i n g e m G r a d der Beschleunigung der
A k t i o n . (121, 2) | 20

198
H e f t XIII

Hl Heft XIII

Liebig. (Contin. Sieh Heft XII.)


E i n U e b e r m a a von K o h l e n s u r e tdtet die Pflanze; aber der Stickstoff bis
zu e i n e m gewissen G r a d e ist u n w e s e n t l i c h fr die Zersetzung der K o h l e n -
5 sure, ... also zur A u s b u n g von einer ihrer F u n k t i o n e n , w e n n a u c h fr die
Assimilation der d u r c h die Z e r s e t z u n g der K o h l e n s u r e n e u g e b i l d e t e n Pro-
ducte, um Bestandtheile gewisser Organe der Pflanzen zu werden, die G e -
genwart einer stickstoffhaltigen Substanz u n e n t b e h r l i c h zu sein scheint.
D e r aus der K o h l e n s u r e a u f g e n o m m e n e Kohlenstoff hat in d e n Blttern
10 eine n e u e F o r m a n g e n o m m e n , in der er lslich u n d berfhrbar in alle
Theile der Pflanze ist. W i r b e z e i c h n e n diese F o r m m i t Zucker, w e n n die
Producte s s c h m e c k e n , m i t G u m m i oder Schleim, wenn sie geschmack-
los sind, sie heissen E x c r e m e n t e , w e n n sie d u r c h die W u r z e l n (Haare u n d
D r s e n der Bltter etc) abgefhrt werden. Es ist hieraus klar, da, je n a c h
15 den Verhltnissen der gleichzeitig zugefhrten Nahrungsstoffe, die M e n g e
u n d Qualitten der d u r c h d e n L e b e n s p r o z e der Pflanzen erzeugten Stoffe
wechseln werden. Im freien wilden Z u s t a n d entwickeln sich alle Theile
einer Pflanze je n a c h d e m Verhltnisse der Nahrungsstoffe, die ihr v o m
Standorte dargeboten werden, sie bildet sich auf d e m magersten, unfrucht-
20 barsten B o d e n so gut aus, wie auf d e m fettesten u n d fruchtbarsten; n u r in
ihrer Grsse u n d Masse, in der A n z a h l der H a l m e , Zweige, Bltter, B l t h e n
oder F r c h t e b e o b a c h t e t m a n e i n e n Unterschied. W h r e n d auf e i n e m
fruchtbaren Boden alle ihre e i n z e l n e n Organe vergrssern, v e r m i n d e r n sie
sich auf e i n e m a n d e r n , wo ihr die Materialien m i n d e r reichlich zuflieen,
25 die sie zu ihrer Bildung bedarf; ihr G e h a l t an stickstoffhaltigen oder stick-

199
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

stofffreien B e s t a n d t e i l e n ndert sich m i t der b e r w i e g e n d e n M e n g e stick-


stoffhaltiger oder -freier N a h r u n g s m i t t e l . Die Entwicklung der Halme und
Bltter, Blthen und Frchte ist an b e s t i m m t e B e d i n g u n g e n geknpft, deren
K e n n t n i u n s gestattet, e i n e n gewissen Einflu auf ihren G e h a l t in i h r e n
B e s t a n d t h e i l e n auf die Hervorbringung eines M a x i m u m s an Masse auszu- 5
b e n . Die A u s m i t t l u n g dieser B e d i n g u n g e n ist die Aufgabe des Naturfor-
schers; aus ihrer K e n n t n i m s s e n die G r u n d s t z e der L a n d - u n d Forst-
wirthschaft entspringen. (123, 4) N e b e n gleichen allgemeinen B e d i n g u n -
gen des W a c h s t h u m s aller Vegetabilien, der Feuchtigkeit, des Lichts, der
W r m e u n d der Bestandtheile der A t m o s p h r e , giebt es besondre, welche 10
auf die Entwicklung einzelner F a m i l i e n e i n e n a u s g e z e i c h n e t e n Einflu
a u s b e n . Diese b e s o n d r e n B e d i n g u n g e n liegen im Boden, oder sie werden
i h n e n gegeben i n der F o r m von Stoffen, die m a n m i t d e m allgemeinen N a -
m e n D n g e r bezeichnet. (125) Die Aufgabe der Cultur ist im A l l g e m e i n e n
die vortheilhafteste Hervorbringung gewisser Qualitten, oder eines M a x i - 15
m u m s an Masse von gewissen T h e i l e n oder O r g a n e n verschiedenartiger
Pflanzen, sie wird gelst d u r c h die A n w e n d u n g der K e n n t n i der Stoffe,
die zur A u s b i l d u n g dieser Theile oder Organe u n e n t b e h r l i c h sind, oder der
zur Hervorbringung dieser Q u a l i t t e n erforderlichen B e d i n g u n g e n . ... Die
Cultur beabsichtigt im Besondren eine a b n o r m e Entwicklung u n d Erzeu- 20
gung von gewissen Pflanzentheilen oder Pflanzenstoffen, die zur E r n h -
rung der Thiere u n d M e n s c h e n oder fr die Zwecke der Industrie verwen-
det werden. Je n a c h diesen Zwecken n d e r n sich die Mittel die zu ihrer
E r n h r u n g d i e n e n . Die Mittel, die die Cultur anwendet, um feines, wei-
ches, biegsames Stroh fr F l o r e n t i n e r h t h e zu erzeugen, d e n e n vllig ent- 25
gegengesezt, die m a n whlen m u , u m ein M a x i m u m von S a a m e n durch
die n m l i c h e Pflanze hervorzubringen. Ein M a x i m u m von Stickstoff in
diesen S a a m e n bedarf wieder zu seiner Erfllung andrer Bedingung, m a n
h a t wieder andre z u bercksichtigen, w e n n m a n d e m H a l m e die Strke u n d
Festigkeit geben will, der er bedarf, um das Gewicht der A e h r e zu tragen. 30
(126[, 127]) E i n e E r h h u n g oder V e r m i n d e r u n g der Lebensthtigkeit ist
bei den Vegetabilien allein abhngig von W r m e u n d Sonnenlicht, b e r
die wir nicht willkhrlich verfgen k n n e n ; es bleibt u n s n u r die Zufh-
rung von Stoffen gestattet, die geeignet sind, d u r c h die v o r h a n d n e Thtig-
keit von d e n Organen der Pflanzen assimilirt zu werden. (127) Die Acker- 35
erde ist d u r c h die Verwitterung von Felsarten e n t s t a n d e n , von den
vorwaltenden Bestandtheilen dieser Felsart sind ihre Eigenschaften a b h n -
gig. Mit Sand, Kalk und Thon b e z e i c h n e n wir diese vorwaltenden Bestand-
theile der Bodenarten. R e i n e r Sand, reiner Kalkstein, in d e n e n ausser Kie-
selsure oder k o h l e n s a u r e m oder kieselsaurem Kalk andre anorganischen 40
Bestandtheile fehlen, sind absolut unfruchtbar. T h o n stets ein Bestandtheil

200
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie (Fortsetzung)

von fruchtbarem B o d e n ... der T h o n s t a m m t h e r von der Verwitterung


thonerdehaltiger M i n e r a l i e n , u n t e r d e n e n die verschiednen F e l d s p a t h e ,
Kalifeldspath, Natronfeldspath (Albit), Kalkfeldspath (Labrador), G l i m m e r
u n d Zeolithe die verbreitetsten u n t e r d e n e n sind, die verwittern. D i e M i n e -
5 ralien sind G e m e n g e t h e i l e des G r a n i t s , G n e u s , Glimmerschiefers, Por-
phyrs, Thonschiefers, G r a u w a c k e , v u l k a n i s c h e n Gebirgsarten, Basalt,
Klingstein, Lava. (128) ... die thonerdehaltigen Fossilien die verbreitetsten
an der Erdoberflche ... die U r s a c h e , die im T h o n Einflu auf das L e b e n
der Pflanzen ausbt, ist sein nie fehlender Kali- und Natrongehalt. D i e
10 T h o n e r d e n i m m t an der Vegetation n u r indirekt, d u r c h ihre Fhigkeit W a s -
ser u n d A m m o n i a k a n z u z i e h n u n d z u r c k z u h a l t e n , A n t h e i l ; n u r i n h c h s t
seltnen Fllen findet sich T h o n e r d e in der Pflanzenasche, in allen findet
sich aber Kieselerde, welche in d e n m e i s t e n Fllen n u r durch V e r m i t t l u n g
von Alkalien in die Pflanzen gelangt. (129) D a s Kali fehlt in k e i n e m T h o n ,
15 es ist selbst im Mergel enthalten. (130) E i n T a u s e n d t h e i l Letten, d e m
Quarz im b u n t e n Sandstein oder d e m Kalk in d e n verschiednen Kalkfor-
m a t i o n e n beigemengt, giebt e i n e m B o d e n von n u r 20 Zoll Tiefe, so viel
Kali, da ein Fichtenwald auf d i e s e m B o d e n ein ganzes J a h r h u n d e r t lang
d a m i t versehn werden k a n n . E i n einziger Cubicfu F e l d s p a t h k a n n eine
20 Waldflche m i t L a u b h o l z von 2500 M e t e r F l c h e 5 Jahre lang m i t Kali
versehn. Ein Boden, welcher ein M a x i m u m von Fruchtbarkeit besizt, ent-
hlt d e n T h o n g e m e n g t m i t a n d r e n verwitterten Gesteinen, m i t Kalk u n d
Sand in e i n e m solchen Verhltni, d a er der Luft u n d Feuchtigkeit bis zu
e i n e m gewissen G r a d e leichten Eingang verstattet. Der B o d e n in der N h e
25 u n d U m g e b u n g des Vesuvs lt sich als der Typus der fruchtbarsten Bo-
denarten b e t r a c h t e n ... Dieser aus verwitterter Lava e n t s t a n d n e B o d e n
k a n n s e i n e m Ursprung n a c h n i c h t die kleinste Spur einer vegetabilischen
Materie enthalten; J e d e r m a n n wei, da, w e n n die vulkanische A s c h e eine
Zeitlang der Luft u n d d e m Einflu der Feuchtigkeit ausgesezt gewesen ist,
30 alle Vegetabilien darin in der grten Ueppigkeit u n d Flle gedeihn. D i e
B e d i n g u n g e n dieser F r u c h t b a r k e i t sind die darin e n t h a l t n e n Alkalien, die
n a c h u n d n a c h d u r c h die Verwitterung die Fhigkeit erlangen, von der
Pflanze a u f g e n o m m e n zu werden. Bei allen G e s t e i n e n u n d Gebirgsarten
[sind] J a h r t a u s e n d e erforderlich gewesen, um sie in den Z u s t a n d der Acker-
35 erde berzufhren. ([130,] 131) N a c h d e m Aufhren des Lebens, wo die
Bestandtheile der Pfla[nze] Zerstrungsprocessen der F u l n i u n d Verwe-
sung unterliegen, erhlt der B o d e n wieder, was i h m entzogen w u r d e . (132) |
|2| E i n kohlensurehaltiges Wasser zerlegt die Gebirgsarten, welche Alka-
lien e n t h a l t e n , es empfngt e i n e n G e h a l t von k o h l e n s a u r e m Alkali. Es ist
40 klar, da die Pflanzen selbst, insofern ihre Ueberreste d u r c h Verwesung
Kohlensure erzeugen, insofern ihre W u r z e l n im l e b e n d e n Z u s t a n d e Su-

201
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

ren ausschwitzen, nicht m i n d e r krftig d e m Z u s a m m e n h a n g e der Gebirgs-


arten entgegenwirken. N e b e n der Einwirkung der Luft, des Wassers u n d
Temperaturwechsels sind die Pflanzen selbst die m c h t i g s t e n U r s a c h e n der
Verwitterung. Luft, Wasser, Temperaturwechsel bewirken die Vorbereitung
der Felsarten zu ihrer Aufschlieung, d. h. zur Auflsung der darin enthalt- 5
n e n Alkalien d u r c h die Pflanzen. A u f e i n e m B o d e n , der J a h r h u n d e r t e lang
allen U r s a c h e n der Verwitterung ausgesezt gewesen ist, von d e m aber die
aufgeschlonen Alkalien nicht fortgefhrt wurden, werden alle Vegetabi-
lien, die zu ihrer Entwicklung betrchtliche M e n g e n Alkalien bedrfen,
eine lange R e i h e von J a h r e n d u r c h h i n r e i c h e n d e N a h r u n g finden, allein 10
n a c h u n d n a c h m u er erschpft werden, w e n n das Alkali, was i h m entzo-
gen wurde, nicht wieder ersezt wird; es m u ein P u n k t eintreten, wo er von
Zeit zu Zeit der Verwitterung wieder ausgesezt werden m u , um einer
n e u e n E r n d t e Vorrath von auflsbaren Alkalien zu geben. ... N a c h e i n e m
Z e i t r a u m von e i n e m oder m e h r e r e n J a h r e n , whrend welcher Zeit das AI- 15
kali d e m B o d e n nicht entzogen wird, k a n n m a n wieder auf eine n e u e
E r n d t e r e c h n e n . Die Colonisten in Virginien fanden solchen B o d e n ; ernd-
teten o h n e D n g e r auf d e m s e l b e n Feld ein ganzes J a h r h u n d e r t lang W e i -
zen u n d T a b a k ; jezt ganze G e g e n d e n verlassen u n d i n unfruchtbares W e i -
deland verwandelt, was kein Getreide, k e i n e n T a b a k m e h r o h n e D n g e r 20
hervor bringt. E i n e m Morgen von d i e s e m L a n d e w u r d e n aber in 100 J a h r e n
in d e n Blttern, d e m Korn u n d Stroh b e r 1200 Pfund Alkali entzogen: er
wurde unfruchtbar, weil der aufgeschlone B o d e n gnzlich seines Alkalis
b e r a u b t war u n d weil dasjenige, was im Z e i t r a u m von e i n e m J a h r durch
d e n Einflu der W i t t e r u n g zur Aufschliessung gelangte, nicht hinreichte, 25
um die Bedrfnisse der Pflanze zu befriedigen. In diesem Zustande befindet
sich im Allgemeinen alles Culturland in Europa. Die Brache ist die Zeit der
Verwitterung. (133, 4) Der W e i z e n gedeiht n i c h t in reiner Holzerde, der
H a l m erhlt keine Strke u n d legt sich frhzeitig u m . Weil die Festigkeit
des H a l m s von kieselsaurem Kali herrhrt, weil das K o r n phosphorsaure Bit- 30
tererde bedarf, die i h m der H u m u s b o d e n n i c h t liefern kann, i n d e m er keins
von b e i d e n enthlt, m a n erhlt Kraut, aber keine Frucht. Ebenso gedeiht der
Weizen nicht auf Sandboden, noch auf Kalkboden, wenn er nicht eine betrchtli-
che Menge Thon beigemischt enthlt. W e i l diese B o d e n a r t e n fr dieses G e -
wchs n i c h t h i n r e i c h e n d Alkali enthalten. (135, 6) K a n n es auffallend sein, 35
d a n a c h d e m A b b r e n n e n von N a d e l h o l z w a l d u n g e n i n A m e r i c a , d u r c h
welche der B o d e n das in J a h r h u n d e r t e n g e s a m m e l t e Alkali empfngt,
L a u b h o l z gedeiht, d a Spartium s c o p a r i u m etc, lauter Pflanzen, welche
eine an Alkali hchst reiche A s c h e geben, auf Brandsttten in ppiger
Flle emporsprossen? ... 100 Theile Weizenstengel geben 15,5 Asche, 40
100 Theile trockner Gerstenstengel 8,54 Theile A s c h e , 100 Theile Hafer-

202
Aus Justus Liebig : Die organische Chemie (Fortsetzung)

Stengel n u r 4,42 A s c h e ; diese A s c h e bei allen diesen Pflanzen von einerlei


Z u s a m m e n s e t z u n g . Si[eht] m a n hier nicht genau, was die Pflanze bedarf?
Auf e i n e m u n d d e m s e l b e n Felde, das n u r eine Ernte W e i z e n liefert, lt
sich 2 X Gerste u n d 3 x Hafer b a u e n . Alle Grasarten bedrfen des kiesel-
5 sauren Kalis; es ist kieselsaures Kali, was b e i m Wssern der W i e s e n d e m
Boden zugefhrt, was in d e m B o d e n aufgeschlossen wird ... D i e M e n g e
von kieselsaurem Kali, welches in der F o r m von H e u d e n W i e s e n j h r l i c h
g e n o m m e n wird, ist sehr betrchtlich. (136, 7) D a s Kali fr die m e i s t e n G e -
wchse aber nicht die einzige B e d i n g u n g ihrer Existenz; in vielen ist es er-
10 setzbar d u r c h Kalk, Bittererde u n d N a t r o n , aber die Alkalien r e i c h e n allein
nicht hin, u m das L e b e n der Pflanzen z u u n t e r h a l t e n . I n j e d e r bis jezt u n -
tersuchten Pflanzenasche fand m a n Phosphorsure, g e b u n d e n an Alkalien
u n d alkalische E r d e n ; die m e i s t e n S a a m e n e n t h a l t e n gewisse M e n g e n da-
von, die S a a m e n der G e t r e i d e a r t e n sind reich an Phosphorsure, sie findet
15 sich darin vereinigt m i t Bittererde. D i e Phosphorsure wird aus d e m B o d e n
von der Pflanze a u f g e n o m m e n , aller culturfhige Boden enthlt b e s t i m m -
bare M e n g e n davon. I n allen Mineralgewssern hat m a n b e s t i m m t e M e n -
gen davon entdeckt. ... D i e der Oberflche der Erde am n c h s t e n liegen-
d e n Schichten von Schwefelbleilagern e n t h a l t e n kristallisirtes phosphor-
20 saures Bleioxid (Grnbleierz); der Kieselschiefer, welcher grosse Lager
bildet, findet sich an vielen Orten bedeckt m i t Kristallen von phosphorsau-
rer T h o n e r d e ; alle Bruchflchen sind d a m i t b e r z o g e n . . . . . A u s d e m B o d e n
gelangt die Phosphorsure in die S a a m e n , Bltter u n d W u r z e l n der Pflan-
zen, aus diesen in d e n O r g a n i s m u s der Thiere, i n d e m sie zur Bildung der
25 K n o c h e n , der phosphorhaltigen Bestandtheile des G e h i r n s verwendet wird.
D u r c h Fleischspeisen, Brod, Hlsenfrchte gelangt bei w e i t e m m e h r
Phosphor in den Krper als er bedarf; d u r c h d e n U r i n u n d die festen Excre-
m e n t e wird aller U e b e r s c h u wieder abgefhrt. ... O h n e P h o s p h o r s a u r e
Bittererde, welche e i n e n nie fehlenden Bestandtheil der S a a m e n der G e -
30 treidearten a u s m a c h t , wird sich dieser S a a m e n nicht bilden k n n e n ; er
wird nicht zur Reife gelangen. Ausser Kieselsure, Kali und Phosphorsure,
die u n t e r keinerlei U m s t n d e n in d e n Culturpflanzen fehlen, n e h m e n die
Vegetabilien aus d e m B o d e n n o c h fremde Stoffe, Salze auf, wovon m a n
voraussetzen darf, da sie die [eb]engenannten z u m Theil wenigstens in
35 ihren W i r k u n g e n ersetzen; in dieser F o r m k a n n m a n bei m a n c h e n Pflan-
zen Kochsalz, schwefelsaures] Kali, Salpeter, Chlorkalium u n d a n d r e als
nothwendige Bestandtheile b e t r a c h t e n . D e r Thonschiefer enthlt m e i s t e n s
E i n m i s c h u n g e n von Kupferoxid, der G l i m m e r b o d e n enthlt F l u o r m e t a l l e .
Geringe M e n g e n davon g e h n in d e n O r g a n i s m u s der Pflanzen ber, o h n e
40 da sie sich als nothwendig b e h a u p t e n lassen. (138, 9) |
|3| In den verschiednen Stadien ihrer Entwicklung bedrfen die Vegeta-

203
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

bilien ungleiche M e n g e n v o n d e n B e s t a n d t h e i l e n des B o d e n s . W e i z e n -


7 m
pflanzen lieferten i h m (de Saussure) e i n e n M o n a t vor der B l t h e % oo> 0

5 3
der B l t h e % oo u n d m i t reifem S a a m e n n u r % oo A s c h e . M a n sieht offen-
0 0

bar, d a sie d e m Boden, von der B l t h e an e i n e n T h e i l seiner a n o r g a n i -


s c h e n Bestandtheile wieder z u r c k g e b e n , aber die p h o s p h o r s a u r e Bitter- 5
erde ist im S a a m e n zurckgeblieben. (140) D i e Brache ist ... die P e r i o d e
der Cultur, wo m a n das L a n d einer fortschreitenden Verwitterung vermit-
telst des Einflusses der A t m o s p h r e berlt, in der W e i s e , d a eine ge-
wisse Q u a n t i t t Alkali wieder fhig g e m a c h t wird, von einer Pflanze aufge-
n o m m e n zu werden. Es ist klar, d a die sorgfltige B e a r b e i t u n g des 10
B r a c h l a n d e s seine Verwitterung beschleunigt u n d vergrssert; fr den
Zweck der Cultur ist es vllig gleichgltig, ob man das Land mit Unkraut sich be-
decken lt, oder ob man eine Pflanze darauf baut, die dem Boden das aufge-
schlossne Kali nicht entzieht. (1. c.) U n t e r der F a m i l i e der L e g u m i n o s e n sind
viele A r t e n ausgezeichnet d u r c h ihren geringen G e h a l t von Alkalien u n d 15
Salzen b e r h a u p t ; die B o h n e der Vicia faba e n t h l t . B. k e i n freies Alkali,
u n d a n p h o s p h o r s a u r e m Kalk u n d Bittererde n o c h n i c h t 1%; die reifen
Erbsen g e b e n im G a n z e n 1,93 Asche, darin 0,29 p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Kalk ...
D e r Buchweizen a n der S o n n e getrocknet, liefert i m G a n z e n n u r 0,681 p . c .
A s c h e u n d d a r i n n u r 0,09 Theile lslicher Salze. D i e o b e n e r w h n t e n Pflan- 20
z e n gehren zu d e n s. g. Brachfrchten, in ihrer Z u s a m m e n s e t z u n g liegt
der G r u n d , w a r u m sie d e m G e t r e i d e , was n a c h i h n e n gepflanzt wird, n i c h t
s c h a d e n ; sie e n t z i e h n d e m B o d e n k e i n e Alkalien, s o n d e r n n u r eine ver-
s c h w i n d e n d e M e n g e v o n p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Salzen. (141) Zwei Pflanzen wer-
d e n n e b e n e i n a n d e r oder h i n t e r e i n a n d e r gedeihen, w e n n sie aus d e m Bo- 25
d e n verschiedenartige M a t e r i e n z u ihrer A u s b i l d u n g n t h i g h a b e n , oder
w e n n die Stadien ihres W a c h s t h u m s , der B l t h e u n d F r u c h t b i l d u n g weit
auseinanderliegen. (142)

Die Wechselwirthschaft und der Dnger.

S c h o n lange die Erfahrung g e m a c h t , d a einjhrige Culturgewchse, auf 30


e i n e m u n d d e m s e l b e n B o d e n h i n t e r e i n a n d e r folgend, i n i h r e m W a c h s -
t h u m z u r c k b l e i b e n etc etc. F e r n e r b e o b a c h t e t , d a gewisse Pflanzen, wie
Erbsen, Klee, Lein, auf e i n e m u n d d e m s e l b e n F e l d e erst n a c h einer R e i h e
v o n J a h r e n wieder gedeihn, d a andre, wie Hanf, T a b a c k T o p i n a m b u r ,
Roggen, Hafer bei gehriger D n g u n g h i n t e r e i n a n d e r g e b a u t werden k n - 35
n e n ; d a m a n c h e d e n B o d e n verbessern, a n d r e i h n s c h o n e n , u n d die lezte
u n d hufigste Klasse d e n B o d e n angreifen oder erschpfen. Zu diesen ge-
h r e n die Brachrben, Kopfkohl, R u n k e l r b e n , Dinckel, S o m m e r u n d

204
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie (Fortsetzung)

Wintergerste, Roggen u n d Hafer; m a n r e c h n e t sie zu d e n angreifenden;


Weizen, Hopfen, Krapp, Stoppelrben, R a p s , Hanf, M o h n , K a r d e n , Lein,
Pastel, W a u , Sholz betrachtet m a n als erschpfende. (143) Hauptauf-
gabe der Wechselwirthschaft &m System der F e l d w i r t s c h a f t das e i n e n
5 mglichst h o h e n Ertrag m i t d e m kleinsten Aufwand von D n g e r erzielt ...
Sehr bald sah m a n ein, d a die Mannigfaltigkeit der Cultur so gut wie die
R u h e (Brache) die F r u c h t b a r k e i t des B o d e n s erhalte. Es war offenbar, d a
alle Pflanzen d e m B o d e n in verschiednen Verhltnissen gewisse M a t e r i e n
zurckgeben m u t e n , die zur N a h r u n g einer folgenden G e n e r a t i o n verwen-
10 det werden k o n n t e n . (144) V o n c h e m i s c h e n Principien, gestzt auf die
K e n n t n i der M a t e r i e n , welche die Pflanzen d e m Boden entziehn, u n d was
i h m in d e m D n g e r zurckgegeben wird, ist bis jezt in der Agricultur k e i n e
R e d e gewesen. (1. c.) Die W u r z e l n aller Pflanzen sondern M a t e r i e n ab, die
in i h r e m Organismus weder in Holzfaser, n o c h in Strke, vegetabilisches
15 Eiwei, Kleber etc verwandelt w e r d e n k n n e n . (147) Es unterliegt k e i n e m
Zweifel, da die W u r z e l n der Pflanzen M a t e r i e n ausschwitzen, d u r c h die
sie d e m B o d e n d e n Kohlenstoff wiedergeben, d e n sie von s e i n e m H u m u s
in ihrer frhsten Periode der Entwicklung empfangen h a b e n . (148) W e n n
u n t e r d e n Stoffen, welche von d e n W u r z e l n einer Pflanze aus d e m B o d e n
20 a u f g e n o m m e n werden, sich solche befinden, die sie zu ihrer E r n h r u n g
nicht verwendet, so m s s e n sie d e m B o d e n wieder zurckgegeben werden;
E x c r e m e n t e dieser Art k n n e n einer zweiten u n d dritten Pflanze zu ihrer
N a h r u n g dienlich, zu i h r e m Bestehn selbst u n e n t b e h r l i c h sein, allein die
in d e m Organismus der Vegetabilien d u r c h d e n E r n h r u n g s p r o z e n e u g e -
25 bildeten Materien, die also in Folge der Erzeugung von Holzfaser, A m y l o n ,
Eiwei, Kleber, G u m m i , S u r e n etc etc e n t s t a n d e n sind, sie k n n e n in kei-
ner a n d r e n Pflanzengattung zur Bildung von Holzfaser, A m y l o n , Eiwei,
Kleber etc verwendet werden. (149) Lein, Erbsen, Klee, selbst Kartoffeln
gehren zu den Pflanzen, deren E x c r e m e n t e auf T h o n b o d e n die lngste
30 Zeit zu ihrer Humificirung bedrfen, aber klar, da die A n w e n d u n g von
Alkalien, von selbst kleinen M e n g e n unausgelaugter Asche, g e b r a n n t e m
Kalke das Feld in bei w e i t e m krzerer Zeit wieder in d e n S t a n d setzen
m u , den A n b a u der n m l i c h e n Pflanze wieder zu gestatten. D e r B o d e n er-
langt in der Brache e i n e n T h e i l seiner frhern Fruchtbarkeit s c h o n da-
35 d u r c h wieder, weil in der Zeit der Brache, n e b e n der fortschreitenden Ver-
witterung die Zerstrung oder H u m i f i c i r u n g der darin e n t h a l t e n e n
E x c r e m e n t e erfolgt. E i n e U e b e r s c h w e m m u n g ersezt die Brache in kalirei-
c h e m B o d e n in der N h e des R h e i n , des Nils, wo m a n o h n e N a c h t h e i l auf
denselben Aeckern h i n t e r e i n a n d e r G e t r e i d e b a u t . Ebenso vertritt das W s -
40 sern der Wiesen die W i r k u n g der Brache; das an Sauerstoff so reiche W a s -
ser der Bche u n d Flsse bewirkt, i n d e m es sich unaufhrlich erneuert u n d

205
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

alle Theile des Bodens durchdringt, die schnellste u n d vollstndigste Ver-


wesung der angehuften E x c r e m e n t e . W r e es das Wasser allein, das der
B o d e n aufnimmt, so w r d e n sumpfige W i e s e n die fruchtbarsten sein. (151,
2)1
|4| Die Vortheilhaftigkeit des Fruchtwechsels b e r u h t auf zwei Ursa- 5
c h e n ... Bepflanzen wir e i n e n B o d e n m e h r e J a h r e h i n t e r e i n a n d e r m i t ver-
s c h i e d n e n G e w c h s e n , von welchen das erste in d e m B o d e n die anorgani-
s c h e n Bestandtheile zurcklt, welche das zweite, dieses wieder, was das
dritte bedarf, so wird er fr diese 3 Pflanzengattungen fruchtbar sein.
W e n n n u n die erste Pflanze . B. W e i z e n ist, welcher die grte M e n g e kie- 10
seisaures Kali consumirt, w h r e n d die auf i h n folgenden Pflanzen n u r eine
geringe M e n g e Kali d e m B o d e n e n t z i e h n , wie L e g u m i n o s e n , Hackfrchte
etc, s o wird m a n n a c h d e m 4 ' J a h r e wieder W e i z e n m i t Vortheil b a u e n k n -
n e n , d e n n w h r e n d 3 er J a h r e ist der B o d e n d u r c h die Verwitterung wieder
fhig geworden, kieselsaures Kali in h i n r e i c h e n d e r M e n g e an die j u n g e n 15
Pflanzen abzugeben. F r die a n d r e n organischen Bestandtheile m u fr
verschiedne Pflanzen, w e n n sie h i n t e r e i n a n d e r g e d e i h e n sollen, ein h n l i -
ches V e r h l t n i bercksichtigt werden ... die m e i s t e n dieser Pflanzen d e m
B o d e n so viel Kohlenstoff zurckgegeben, als sie in der F o r m von K o h l e n -
sure empfingen ... aber die n i c h t h i n r e i c h e n d , um gewisse Theile oder 20
Organe derselben, S a a m e n u n d W u r z e l n m i t e i n e m M a x i m u m von N a h -
r u n g zu versehn. (Wie das die Agricultur m u ) ... E i n M a x i m u m im Ertrag
steht g e n a u im V e r h l t n i zu der M e n g e der Nahrungsstoffe, die ihr in der
ersten Zeit ihrer Entwicklung dargeboten werden. Diese N a h r u n g s m i t t e l
sind K o h l e n s u r e , die der Boden in der F o r m von H u m u s , es ist Stickstoff, 25
d e n e r i n der F o r m von A m m o n i a k e r h a l t e n m u ... Die Bildung von A m -
m o n i a k k a n n auf d e m C u l t u r l a n d e n i c h t bewirkt werden, wohl aber eine
knstliche H u m u s e r z e u g u n g . Diese m u als eine H a u p t a u f g a b e der W e c h -
t
selwirthschaft u n d als 2 U r s a c h e ihrer Vortheilhaftigkeit a n g e s e h n werden.
D a s A n s e n eines Feldes m i t einer Brachfrucht, m i t Klee, Roggen, L u p i - 30
n e n , Buchweizen etc, u n d die Einverleibung der ihrer B l t h e n a h e n Pflan-
z e n in d e n B o d e n d u r c h U m a c k e r n , lst diese Aufgabe insofern, als b e i
einer n e u e n E i n s a a t die sich entwickelnde j u n g e Pflanze in einer gewissen
Periode ihres Lebens ein M a x i m u m von N a h r u n g , d. h. eine verwesende
Materie vorfindet. D e n gleichen Zweck erreicht m a n n o c h vollstndiger 35
u n d sichrer d u r c h Bepflanzung des Feldes m i t Esparsette oder Lucerne.
Diese d u r c h eine starke Wurzelverzweigung u n d e b e n so starken Bltter-
wuchs a u s g e z e i c h n e t e n Pflanzen bedrfen aus d e m B o d e n n u r einer gerin-
gen M e n g e von anorganischen Stoffen. Bis zu e i n e m gewissen G r a d e der
Entwicklung g e k o m m e n , bleibt i h n e n alle K o h l e n s u r e , alles A m m o n i a k , 40
was die Luft u n d der R e g e n zufhren; was der B o d e n n i c h t a u f n i m m t , sau-

206
w

Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie (Fortsetzung)

gen die Bltter ein; sie sind es, d u r c h welche die assimilirende Oberflche
ver4 oder 6facht wird, welche die V e r d u n s t u n g des A m m o n i a k s auf der
Erdoberflche h i n d e r n , i n d e m sie sie wie eine H a u b e bedecken. E i n e u n -
mittelbare Folge der E r z e u g u n g v o n Blattgrn u n d der brigen Bestand-
5 theile der Bltter u n d Stengel ist die ebenso reichliche A u s s c h e i d u n g von
organischen Stoffen, die der B o d e n als E x c r e m e n t e der W u r z e l n erhlt. ...
Diese Bereicherung des B o d e n s m i t Stoffen, welche fhig sind, in H u m u s
b e r z u g e h n , d a u e r t m e h r e r e J a h r e h i n d u r c h , aber n a c h einer gewissen Zeit
entstehn darauf kahle Stellen. N m l i c h n a c h 5 - 7 J a h r e n schwngert sich
10 die Erde in d e m G r a d e m i t diesen E x c r e m e n t e n , da j e d e Wurzelfaser da-
von u m g e b e n ist; in d e m auflslichen Z u s t a n d , den sie eine Zeitlang b e -
wahren, ein Theil davon wieder von der Pflanze a u f g e n o m m e n , auf welche
sie nachtheilig wirken, i n d e m sie n i c h t assimilirbar sind. Abwechselnd wer-
den Stellen auf d e m F e l d kahl u n d fruchtbar. U r s a c h e : Die E x c r e m e n t e auf
15 den k a h l e n Pltzen erhalten k e i n e n n e u e n Z u w a c h s ; d e m Einflu der Luft
u n d Feuchtigkeit preigegeben, g e h e n sie in Verwesung ber; ihr schdli-
cher Einflu hrt auf; die Pflanze findet von diesen Stellen die M a t e r i e n
entfernt, die ihr W a c h s t h u m h i n d e r t e n ; sie trifft im G e g e n t h e i l wieder H u -
m u s , (verwesende Pflanzenstoffe) an. E i n e bere u n d zweckmigere H u -
20 m u s e r z e u g u n g , als die durch eine Pflanze, deren Bltter T h i e r e n zur N a h -
rung dienen, ist wohl k a u m d e n k b a r ; als Vorfrucht sind diese Pflanzen
einer j e d e n a n d e r n G a t t u n g ntzlich, n a m e n t l i c h aber denen, welche wie
Raps u n d Lein vorzugsweise des H u m u s bedrfen, von u n s c h t z b a r e m
W e r t h e . Die U r s a c h e n der Vortheilhaftigkeit des Fruchtwechsels, die
25 eigentlichen Principien der Wechselwirthschaft b e r u h e n h i e r n a c h auf einer
knstlichen H u m u s e r z e u g u n g u n d auf der B e b a u u n g des Feldes m i t ver-
schiedenartigen Pflanzen, die in einer solchen O r d n u n g auf e i n a n d e r fol-
gen, da eine j e d e n u r gewisse Bestandtheile entzieht, whrend sie andre
t e t e
zurcklt oder wiedergiebt, die eine 2 u n d 3 Pflanzengattung z u ihrer
30 A u s b i l d u n g u n d Entwicklung bedrfen, (p. 1 5 2 - 5 6 ) W e n n n u n a u c h der
H u m u s g e h a l t eines B o d e n s d u r c h zweckmssige Cultur in e i n e m gewissen
G r a d e bestndig gesteigert w e r d e n k a n n , d e n n o c h kein Zweifel, d a der
B o d e n a n d e n b e s o n d r e n B e s t a n d t h e i l e n i m m e r rmer werden m u , die i n
d e n S a a m e n , W u r z e l n u n d Blttern, welche wir h i n w e g g e n o m m e n h a b e n ,
35 e n t h a l t e n waren. N u r in d e m Fall wird die Fruchtbarkeit des B o d e n s sich
u n v e r n d e r t erhalten, w e n n wir i h n e n alle diese S u b s t a n z e n wieder zufh-
ren u n d ersetzen. D i e geschieht d u r c h d e n Dnger. ... alle a n o r g a n i s c h e n
Bestandtheile der Thiere u n d M e n s c h e n m s s e n als D n g e r betrachtet wer-
den- W h r e n d ihres L e b e n s werden die a n o r g a n i s c h e n Bestandtheile der
40 Pflanzen, welche der a n i m a l i s c h e O r g a n i s m u s n i c h t bedurfte, in der F o r m
von E x c r e m e n t e n wieder ausgestoen, n a c h i h r e m Tode geht der Stickstoff,

207
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

der Kohlenstoff in d e n Prozessen der F u l n i u n d Verwesung als A m m o -


n i a k u n d Kohlensure wieder in die A t m o s p h r e ber, es bleibt zulezt
nichts weiter als die a n o r g a n i s c h e n M a t e r i e n , der p h o s p h o r s a u r e Kalk u n d
andre Salze, i n d e n K n o c h e n zurck. E i n e rationelle Agricultur m u die-
sen erdigen R c k s t a n d so gut wie die E x c r e m e n t e ||5| als krftigen D n g e r 5
fr gewisse Pflanzen betrachten, der d e m Boden, von d e m er in einer R e i h e
v o n J a h r e n e n t n o m m e n worden ist, wiedergegeben werden m u , w e n n
seine Fruchtbarkeit nicht a b n e h m e n soll. (156, 7) D a s H e u enthlt
1% Stickstoff; in 25 Pfund wird eine K u h tglich % Pfund Stickstoff zu
ihrer N a h r u n g assimilirt h a b e n . Diese Stickstoffmenge wrde, in Muskelfa- 10
ser verwandelt, 8,8 Pfund Fleisch in s e i n e m n a t r l i c h e n Z u s t a n d gegeben
h a b e n . Die Z u n a h m e an Masse weit weniger als die Gewicht u n d wir fin-
den in der T h a t im H a r n u n d in der M i l c h den Stickstoff, der hier zu feh-
len scheint. ... M i t h i n die flssigen Excremente worin wir d e n nicht assimi-
lirten Stickstoff zu s u c h e n ; wenn die festen auf die Vegetabilien b e r h a u p t 15
von Einflu sind, so b e r u h t er nicht a u f d h r e m Stickstoffgehalt. (159) Mit
3600 bis 4000 Pfund frischem Pferdekoth, e n t s p r e c h e n d 1000 Pfund trock-
n e m Pferdekoth, bringen wir also auf d e n A c k e r 2 4 8 4 - 3 0 0 0 Pfund Wasser,
s o d a n n : 7 3 0 - 9 0 0 Pfund vegetabilischer Materie u n d vernderter Galle, zu-
lezt geben wir d e m Acker 1 0 0 - 2 7 0 Pfund Salze u n d anorganische Substan- 20
zen. ... es sind die lauter Substanzen, die Bestandtheile des H e u e s , Strohs
u n d Hafers waren, womit das Pferd gefttert wurde. D e r H a u p t b e s t a n d t h e i l
davon ist phosphorsaurer Kalk u n d Bittererde, kohlensaurer Kalk u n d kie-
selsaures Kali, das leztre ist in d e m H e u , die erstren in d e n K r n e r n in
berwiegender M e n g e zugegen gewesen. In 10 C e n t n e r n Pferdeexcremen- 25
ten bringen wir im M a x i m o die a n o r g a n i s c h e n S u b s t a n z e n von 45 Ctrn
H e u oder von 90 Ctrn Hafer auf d e n Acker; die ist h i n r e i c h e n d , um
V/2 Ernten W e i z e n m i t Kali u n d p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Salzen v o l l k o m m e n zu
versehen. Der K o t h der K h e , des R i n d v i e h s u n d der Schafe enthlt, ausser
d e n vegetabilischen M a t e r i e n , p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Kalk, Kochsalz u n d kiesel- 30
saures Kali; das Gewicht derselben wechselt je n a c h der F t t e r u n g von
9 - 2 8 p . c , der K u h k o t h enthlt i m frischen Z u s t a n d e 8 6 - 9 0 p . c . Wasser.
Die festen m e n s c h l i c h e n E x c r e m e n t e - n a c h Berzelius - e n t h a l t e n frisch
% ihres Gewichts Wasser, ferner Stickstoff von 1/4-5 p.c., sie sind u n t e r al-
len die stickstoffreichsten. Berzelius erhielt von 100 T h e i l e n trocknen Ex- 35
c r e m e n t e n , n a c h d e m Einschern 15 Theile A s c h e , deren H a u p t b e s t a n d -
t e i l e 1 0 Theile p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Kalks u n d Bittererde waren. Gewi
k n n e n die vegetabilischen Materien, die wir in d e n E x c r e m e n t e n der
Thiere u n d M e n s c h e n auf die Felder bringen, n i c h t o h n e einigen Einflu
auf die Vegetation bleiben; i n d e m sie verwesen, liefern sie d e n j u n g e n 40
Pflanzen Kohlensure zur N a h r u n g , aber die N e b e n s a c h e , u n b e d e u -

208
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie (Fortsetzung)

t e n d ... die Q u a n t i t t des Kohlenstoffs, d e n m a n als D n g e r d e m A c k e r zu-


fhrt, betrgt n u r 5 - 8 p. c. von d e m , was m a n als Kraut, Stroh u n d F r u c h t
h i n w e g n i m m t ... Es bleibt die eigentliche W i r k u n g der festen E x c r e m e n t e
auf die anorganischen M a t e r i e n beschrnkt, welche d e m B o d e n wiederge-
5 geben werden, n a c h d e m sie i h m in der F o r m von Getreide, von W u r z e l g e -
wchsen, von g r n e m u n d t r o c k n e m F u t t e r g e n o m m e n worden waren.
( 1 6 0 - 6 2 ) In d e m K u h d n g e r , d e n E x c r e m e n t e n der Schaafe g e b e n wir
d e m Getreideland kieselsaures Kali u n d phosphorsaure Salze, i n d e n
m e n s c h l i c h e n E x c r e m e n t e n p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Kalk u n d Bittererde, i n d e n
10 E x c r e m e n t e n der Pferde p h o s p h o r s a u r e Bittererde u n d kieselsaures Kali.
In d e m Stroh, was als Streu gedient hat, b r i n g e n wir eine n e u e Q u a n t i t t
von kieselsaurem Kali u n d p h o s p h o r s a u r e Salze h i n z u ; wenn es verwest ist,
bleiben diese genau i n d e m v o n d e n Pflanzen assimilirbaren Z u s t a n d e i m
Boden. ... trotz der sorgfltigen Vertheilung u n d S a m m l u n g des D n -
15 gers ... ein Verlust einer gewissen M e n g e phosphorsaurer Salze u n v e r m e i d -
lich, d e n n wir fhren j e d e s J a h r i n d e m G e t r e i d e u n d g e m s t e t e m V i e h ein
bemerkbares Q u a n t u m aus, was d e n U m g e b u n g e n grosser Stdte zufliet.
In einer wohleingerichteten Wirthschaft m u dieser Verlust ersezt werden.
Z u m Theil geschieht die d u r c h die W i e s e n . Zu 100 M o r g e n G e t r e i d e l a n d
20 r e c h n e t m a n in D e u t s c h l a n d als n o t h w e n d i g zu einer zweckmssigen Cul-
tur 20 Morgen Wiese, die durchschnittlich 500 Ctr H e u p r o d u c i r e n ; bei
e i n e m G e h a l t von 6.82 P.C. A s c h e erhlt m a n jhrlich in d e n E x c r e m e n t e n
der Thiere, d e n e n es zur N a h r u n g gegeben wird, 3410 Pfund kieselsaures
Kali u n d p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Kalk u n d Bittererde, die d e n Getreidefeldern z u
25 G u t k o m m e n u n d d e n Verlust bis zu e i n e m gewissen G r a d decken. ... In
der Asche des Holzes, das in d e n H a u s h a l t u n g e n verbraucht wird, ersetzen
wir d e n Wiesen wieder, was sie an p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Salzen verloren h a b e n .
(162, 3) W i r k n n e n die F r u c h t b a r k e i t u n s r e r F e l d e r in e i n e m stets gleich-
b l e i b e n d e n Z u s t a n d erhalten, w e n n wir i h r e n Verlust jhrlich wieder erset-
30 zen; eine Steigerung der Fruchtbarkeit, eine E r h h u n g ihres Ertrags ist
aber n u r d a n n mglich, wenn wir m e h r wiedergeben als wir i h n e n n e h m e n .
U n t e r gleichen B e d i n g u n g e n wird v o n 2 A e c k e r n der eine so fruchtbarer
werden, je leichter u n d in je grrer M e n g e die Pflanzen, die wir darauf
kultiviren, die b e s o n d r e n Bestandtheile sich a n e i g n e n k n n e n , die sie zu
35 i h r e m W a c h s t h u m u n d ihrer Entwicklung bedrfen. ... die W i r k u n g der
thierischen E x c r e m e n t e ist ersetzbar d u r c h Materien, die ihre Bestand-
theile enthalten. In F l a n d e r n wird der jhrliche Ausfall vollstndig ersezt
d u r c h das Ueberfahren der Felder m i t ausgelaugter oder nicht ausgelaugter
Holzasche, durch K n o c h e n , die z u m grossen T h e i l aus p h o s p h o r s a u r e m
40 Kalk u n d Bittererde bestehn. (163) Die Wichtigkeit der Holzasche augen-
fllich. Die m i t kaltem Wasser ausgelaugte H o l z a s c h e enthlt kieselsaures

209
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

Kali gerade in d e m s e l b e n V e r h l t n i wie Stroh ||6| ausser d i e s e m Salze n u r


phosphorsaure Salze. Die verschiednen H o l z a s c h e n brigens e i n e n h c h s t
u n g l e i c h e n Werth, die E i c h e n h o l z a s c h e d e n geringsten, die B u c h e n h o l z -
asche den h c h s t e n W e r t h . M i t je 100 Pfund ausgelaugter B u c h e n h o l z -
asche b r i n g e n wir auf das Feld ein Q u a n t u m phosphorsaurer Salze = d e m 5
G e h a l t von 460 Pfund frischen M e n s c h e n e x c r e m e n t e n . M i t 100 Pfund
B u c h e n h o l z a s c h e bringen wir auf das F e l d eine M e n g e Phosphorsure, h i n -
reichend fr die Erzeugung von 4000 Pfd Stroh oder fr 2000 Pfd W e i z e n -
k m e r . N o c h wichtiger in dieser B e z i e h u n g die Knochen. ... D i e lezte
Quelle der Bestandtheile der K n o c h e n ist das H e u u n d Stroh, b e r h a u p t 10
das Futter, was die Thiere gemessen. K n o c h e n e n t h a l t e n 55 P. C. phosphor-
sauren Kalk u n d Bittererde, also 8 Pfund K n o c h e n so viel p h o s p h o r s a u r e n
Kalk als 1000 Pfund H e u oder Weizenstroh, oder 20 Pfund so viel, als in
1000 Pfd W e i z e n - u n d Haferkrnern sich vorfindet. (164, 5) D i e D n g u n g
eines Morgen Landes m i t 40 Pfd frischen K n o c h e n reicht hin, um 3 Ernd- 15
t e n (Weizen, Klee u n d Hackfrchte) m i t p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Salzen zu ver-
sehn ... Je feiner die K n o c h e n zertheilt, je inniger sie m i t d e m B o d e n ge-
m i s c h t sind, desto leichter wird die Assimilirbarkeit sein. (165) Als Prinzip
des Ackerbaus m u a n g e s e h n werden, d a der B o d e n in vollem Maasse
wieder erhalten m u , was i h m g e n o m m e n wird; in welcher F o r m die W i e - 20
dergeben geschieht, ob in der F o r m von E x c r e m e n t e n , oder von A s c h e oder
K n o c h e n , ist. ziemlich gleichgltig. Es wird eine Zeit k o m m e n , wo m a n
d e n Acker m i t einer Auflsung von Wassergas (kieselsaurem Kali), m i t der
A s c h e von v e r b r a n n t e m Stroh, w o m a n i h n m i t p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Salzen
d n g e n wird, die m a n in c h e m i s c h e n F a b r i k e n bereitet. (167) Es giebt 25
Pflanzen, welche H u m u s bedrfen, o h n e bemerklich zu erzeugen; es giebt
andre, die i h n e n t b e h r e n k n n e n , die e i n e n h u m u s a r m e n B o d e n d a r a n be-
reichern; eine rationelle Cultur wird allen H u m u s fr die ersten, u n d kei-
n e n fr die a n d e r n verwenden, sie wird die leztern b e n u t z e n , um die er-
s t e m d a m i t zu versehn. (167, 8) Also jezt alles d e m B o d e n gegeben, was die 30
Pflanzen fr die Bildung der Holzfaser, des Korns, der Wurzel, des Sten-
gels aus d e m B o d e n z i e h n u n d jezt z u m wichtigsten Zweck des F e l d b a u s ,
n m l i c h zur Production von assimilirbarem Stickstoff, also von M a t e r i e n ,
welche Stickstoff enthalten. Das Blatt, was d e n Holzkrper nhrt, die W u r -
zel, aus der sich die Bltter entwickeln, was d e n F r c h t e n ihre Bestand- 35
theile zubereitet, alle Theile des O r g a n i s m u s der Pflanze e n t h a l t e n stick-
stoffhaltige M a t e r i e n in sehr wechselnden Verhltnissen; die W u r z e l n u n d
S a a m e n sind besonders reich daran. ... D i e N a t u r , die A t m o s p h r e liefert
d e n Stickstoff in h i n r e i c h e n d e r M e n g e zur n o r m a l e n Entwicklung einer
Pflanze u n d ihre Entwicklung schon n o r m a l , w e n n sie n u r ein einziges 40
S a a m e n k o r n wieder erzeugt, was fhig ist, in e i n e m darauf folgenden J a h r e

210
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie (Fortsetzung)

die Pflanze wiederkehren zu m a c h e n . ... eine weise Einrichtung giebt der


Pflanze die merkwrdige Fhigkeit, bis zu e i n e m gewissen G r a d e allen
Stickstoff, der ihr dargeboten wird, in Nahrungsstoff fr das T h i e r zu ver-
wandeln. (168) W e n n es der Pflanze an Stickstoff fehlt, wird sie Kraut, a b e r
5 keine Krner, sie wird vielleicht Z u c k e r u n d A m y l o n , aber k e i n e n Kleber
erzeugen. G e b e n wir der Pflanze aber Stickstoff in reichlicher Quantitt, so
wird sie den Kohlenstoff, d e n sie zu seiner Assimilation bedarf, aus der
Luft, w e n n er im B o d e n fehlt, m i t der krftigsten Energie schpfen; wir ge-
b e n ihr in d e m Stickstoff das Mittel, um d e n Kohlenstoff aus der A t -
10 m o s p h r e in i h r e m O r g a n i s m u s zu fixiren. Als Dnger, der d u r c h s e i n e n
Stickstoffgehalt wirkt, die festen E x c r e m e n t e des Rindviehs, der Schaafe,
der Pferde gar n i c h t in Betracht zu ziehn, weil ihr G e h a l t an d i e s e m Be-
standtheil verschwindend klein ist; die m e n s c h l i c h e n E x c r e m e n t e verhlt-
nimssig reich an Stickstoff, ihr G e h a l t ist aber ausserordentlich varii-
15 rend; die E x c r e m e n t e der M e n s c h e n , die in d e n Stdten w o h n e n , wo m e h r
animalische Kost vorherrscht, reicher dran, als die von B a u e r n u n d ber-
h a u p t v o m L a n d e h e r g e n o m m e n e n ; Brod u n d Kartoffeln geben b e i m M e n -
schen E x c r e m e n t e von einer h n l i c h e n Beschaffenheit u n d Z u s a m m e n s e t -
zung, wie bei d e n Thieren. Die E x c r e m e n t e h a b e n in dieser B e z i e h u n g
20 e i n e n ungleichen W e r t h ; fr Sand- u n d Kalkboden, d e m es an kieselsau-
r e m Kali u n d p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Salzen fehlt, h a b e n die E x c r e m e n t e der
Pferde u n d des R i n d v i e h s e i n e n ganz b e s o n d e r n N u t z e n , der sich fr kali-
reichen T h o n b o d e n , Basalt, G r a n i t , Porphyr, Klingstein, selbst fr Z e c h -
steinboden ausserordentlich vermindert; fr diesen leztern M e n s c h e n d n -
25 ger das H a u p t m i t t e l seine F r u c h t b a r k e i t ausserordentlich zu steigern;
denselben N u t z e n hat er n a t r l i c h fr alle B o d e n a r t e n b e r h a u p t , aber z u r
D n g u n g der e r s t e m k n n e n die E x c r e m e n t e der Thiere nicht e n t b e h r t
werden. (169, 170) V o n d e m Stickstoffgehalt der festen E x c r e m e n t e abge-
sehn, n u r eine Quelle von stickstoffhaltigem Dnger, diese Quelle ist der
30 Harn der M e n s c h e n u n d Thiere. W i r bringen d e n H a r n entweder als Mist-
j a u c h e oder in der F o r m der E x c r e m e n t e selbst, die davon d u r c h d r u n g e n
sind, auf die Felder; es ist der H a r n , der den leztern die Fhigkeit giebt,
A m m o n i a k z u entwickeln ... I m H a r n geben wir den F e l d e r n A m m o n i a k -
salze, Harnsure, die a u s n e h m e n d reich an Stickstoff ist, u n d phosphor-
35 saure Salze, die im H a r n sich gelst befinden. (170) ||7| Bringt m a n d e n ge-
faulten Urin auf die Felder, so verdunstet ein Theil des k o h l e n s a u r e n
A m m o n i a k s m i t d e m Wasser ... D a s k o h l e n s a u r e A m m o n i a k m a c h t bei
seiner Bildung den H a r n alkalisch, in n o r m a l e m Z u s t a n d ist er sauer; w e n n
es sich verflchtigt u n d in der Luft verliert, so ist der Verlust b e i n a h e
40 gleich d e m Verlust an d e m h a l b e n G e w i c h t U r i n ; wenn wir es fixiren, d. h.
i h m seine Flchtigkeit n e h m e n , so h a b e n wir seine W i r k s a m k e i t aufs D o p -

211
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XII!

pelte erhht. ... Das d u r c h F u l n i des U r i n s erzeugte k o h l e n s a u r e A m m o -


n i a k k a n n auf mannigfaltige Weise fixirt, d. h. seiner Fhigkeit sich zu ver-
flchtigen b e r a u b t werden. D e n k e n wir u n s e i n e n Acker m i t Gyps bestreut,
d e n wir m i t gefaultem U r i n oder Mistjauche berfahren, so wird alles koh-
lensaure A m m o n i a k sich in schwefelsaures verwandeln, was in d e m Boden 5
bleibt. ... N o c h einfachre Mittel, u m alles k o h l e n s a u r e A m m o n i a k d e n
Pflanzen zu erhalten, ein Zusatz v o n Gyps, Chlorcalcium, Schwefelsure
oder Salzsure oder von s a u r e m p h o s p h o r s a u r e n Kalk, lauter S u b s t a n z e n ,
deren Prei a u s n e h m e n d niedrig ist; bis z u m Verschwinden der Alkalinitt
des H a r n s wird das A m m o n i a k in ein Salz verwandeln, was seine Fhigkeit 10
sich zu verflchtigen, gnzlich verloren hat. ( 1 7 1 - 1 7 3 ) Das A m m o n i a k ,
was sich in Stllen u n d aus Abtritten entwickelt, ist u n t e r allen U m s t n d e n
m i t Kohlensure v e r b u n d e n . K o h l e n s a u r e s A m m o n i a k u n d schwefelsaurer
Kalk (Gyps) bei gewhnlicher T e m p e r a t u r n i c h t in B e r h r u n g zu bringen,
o h n e sich gegenseitig zu zersetzen. D a s A m m o n i a k vereinigt sich m i t der 15
Schwefelsure, die K o h l e n s u r e m i t d e m Kalk zu V e r b i n d u n g e n , die n i c h t
flchtig, d. h. geruchlos sind. Bestreuen wir d e n B o d e n der Stlle von Zeit
zu Zeit m i t gepulvertem Gyps, so wird der Stall seinen G e r u c h verlieren ,
u n d nicht die kleinste Q u a n t i t t A m m o n i a k geht fr die Felder verloren.
(173, 4) Der Ackerbau der C h i n e s e n ist der v o l l k o m m e n s t e in der Welt. 20
(175) W e n n wir a n n e h m e n , da die flssigen u n d festen E x c r e m e n t e eines
M e n s c h e n tglich n u r 1% Pfund betragen ( Pfd U r i n u n d % Pfd fester Ex-
cremente), da beide z u s a m m e n 3 P. C. Stickstoff enthalten, so wir in
e i n e m J a h r 547 Pfd E x c r e m e n t e , welche 16,41 Pfd Stickstoff e n t h a l t e n ,
eine Quantitt, die hinreicht, um 800 Pfd Weizen-, Roggen-, Hafer- u n d 25
900 Pfd G e r s t e n k r n e r n d e n Stickstoff zu liefern. D i e ist bei w e i t e m m e h r
als m a n e i n e m M o r g e n L a n d h i n z u z u s e t z e n braucht, u m m i t d e m Stick-
stoff, d e n die Pflanzen aus der A t m o s p h r e saugen, ein jedes J a h r die
reichlichsten E r n d t e n zu erzielen. E i n e j e d e Ortschaft, eine j e d e Stadt
k n n t e bei A n w e n d u n g von Fruchtwechsel alle ihre Felder m i t d e m stick- 30
stoffreichsten D n g e r versehn, der n o c h b e r d i e der reichste an phosphor-
sauren Salzen ist. Bei M i t b e n u t z u n g der K n o c h e n u n d der ausgelaugten
Holzasche wrden alle E x c r e m e n t e von T h i e r e n vllig entbehrlich sein.
Die E x c r e m e n t e der M e n s c h e n lassen sich, w e n n d u r c h ein zweckmssiges
Verfahren die Feuchtigkeit entfernt u n d das freie A m m o n i a k g e b u n d e n 35
wird, in eine F o r m bringen, welche die V e r s e n d u n g , a u c h auf weite Strek-
ken hin, erlaubt. (175, 6) D e r H a r n der Pferde ist weit weniger reich an
Stickstoff u n d phosphorsauren Salzen. ... 100 Theile M e n s c h e n h a r n ent-
h a l t e n m e h r wie 4x so viel. Der K u h h a r n ist vorzglich reich an Kalisal-
zen ... Der H a r n der Schweine ist vorzglich reich an p h o s p h o r s a u r e m Bit- 40
t e r e r d e - A m m o n i a k ... (p. 178) Es ist klar, da w e n n wir die festen u n d

212
Aus Justus Liebig: Die organische Chemie (Fortsetzung)

flssigen E x c r e m e n t e der M e n s c h e n u n d die flssigen der Thiere in d e m


Verhltni zu d e m Stickstoff auf u n s e r e Aecker bringen, den wir in der
F o r m von G e w c h s e n darauf gerndtet h a b e n , so wird die S u m m e des
Stickstoffs auf d e m G u t j h r l i c h w a c h s e n m s s e n . D e n n z u d e m , welchen
5 wir in d e m D n g e r zufhren, ist aus der A t m o s p h r e eine gewisse Q u a n t i -
tt h i n z u g e k o m m e n . W a s wir in der F o r m von G e t r e i d e u n d Vieh an Stick-
stoff ausfhren, was sich davon in grossen Stdten anhuft, k o m m t a n d e r n
F e l d e r n zu gut, wenn wir ihn n i c h t ersetzen. E i n G u t , was keine W i e s e n
h a t u n d nicht Felder genug fr d e n A n b a u von Futtergewchsen besizt,
10 m u stickstoffhaltigen D n g e r von aussen einfhren, w e n n m a n auf i h m
ein M a x i m u m von Ertrag erzielen soll. A u f grssern G t e r n ersetzen die
W i e s e n den j h r l i c h e n Ausfall an Stickstoff aufs Vollstndigste wieder. D e r
einzig wirkliche Verlust an Stickstoff also beschrnkt auf das Q u a n t u m ,
das die M e n s c h e n in ihre G r b e r n e h m e n , in M a x i m o 3 Pfund fr j e d e s In-
15 dividuum, welche sich auf ein ganzes M e n s c h e n a l t e r vertheilen; die
bleibt den G e w c h s e n unverloren, d e n n d u r c h F u l n i u n d Verwesung
kehrt dieselbe in der F o r m von A m m o n i a k in die A t m o s p h r e zurck. E i n e
gesteigerte Cultur erfordert eine gesteigerte D n g u n g . ([178,] 179) W e n n
m a n erwgt, da j e d e s Pfund A m m o n i a k , welches u n b e n u z t verdampft,
20 e i n e m Verlust von 60 Pfund G e t r e i d e gleichkommt, da m i t j e d e m Pfunde
U r i n ein Pfund W e i z e n g e w o n n e n werden k a n n , so ist die Leichtfertigkeit
unbegreiflich, mit welcher grade die flssigen E x c r e m e n t e betrachtet wer-
den. (I.e.) Die frischen K n o c h e n , Wolle, L u m p e n , Haare, K l a u e n u n d H o r n
sind stickstoffhaltige Dnger, die gleichzeitig d u r c h ihren G e h a l t an
25 phosphorsauren Salzen A n t h e i l an d e m vegetabilischen Lebensprozesse
n e h m e n . (179, 80)

213
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

J. C. Loudon.
An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture etc
2 ed. L o n d o n 1831.

Part I. Agriculture considered as to its origin,


progress, and present state among different 5
Nations, Governments and Climates.

Book I. History of Agriculture


amongst ancient and modern Nations.

Agriculture is no longer an art of labour, but of science. (2) N a c h d e m Fall


des r m i s c h e n Reichs, Verfall der Agricultur in Europa, chiefly preserved 10
on the estates of the c h u r c h . (4) 1) ltes Aejypten. die canals u n d b a n k s
(Deiche, D m m e ) die still r e m a i n in Lower Ejypt u n d besonders in d e m
Delta, sind evidences des extent wozu e m b a n k i n g ( E i n d m m e n ) Irrigation
u n d drainage (Austrocknen, Abzugskanle) have b e e n carried. (6) by a suc-
cession of wheels, and gradation of a q u e d u c t s , it is said, s o m e hills, a n d 15
even m o u n t a i n s , were watered to their s u m m i t s . (I.e.) |

214
Aus Joseph Townsend: A dissertation on the poor laws

|8| A Dissertation on the Poorlaws.


By a Wellwisher to Mankind.
1786 (J. Townsend.)
R e p u b l . L o n d o n 1817.

5 Diese laws (die poorlaws), so beautiful in theory, p r o m o t e the evils they


m e a n to remedy, a n d aggravate t h e distress they were i n t e n d e d to relieve.
(2) Sagt also s c h o n v o n d e m d a m a l i g e n (1786) Zustand in England:
There never was greater distress a m o n g the poor: there never was m o r e
m o n e y collected for their relief. B u t what is m o s t perplexing is, t h a t poverty
10 and wretchedness have increased in exact proportion to the efforts which
have b e e n m a d e for the comfortable subsistence of the poor; a n d t h a t wher-
ever m o s t is e x p e n d e d for their support, there objects of distress are m o s t
a b u n d a n t etc. (7) Die n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y dieser laws is to increase the n u m -
ber of the poor, a n d greatly to e x t e n d the b o u n d s of h u m a n misery. (13)
15 T h e poor know little of the motives which stimulate the higher r a n k s to ac-
tionpride, h o n o u r a n d a m b i t i o n . In general it is only h u n g e r w h i c h can
spur a n d goad t h e m on to labour; yet o u r laws have said, they shall never
hunger. Allerdings wollen diese Gesetze sie a u c h compel to work. A b e r le-
gal constraint is a t t e n d e d m i t too m u c h trouble, violence, a n d n o i s e ;
20 creates ill will etc whereas hunger is not only a peaceable, silent, unremitted
pressure, but, as the most natural motive to industry and labour, it calls forth the
most powerful exertions. (15) A u c h die n a t r l i c h e Herrschaft b e r d e n
K n e c h t durch das A r m e n g e s e t z gebrochen. An e i n e n Magistrate appelliren
is from a superior t r i b u n a l to the inferior ... T h e wisest legislator will
25 never be able to devise a m o r e equitable, a m o r e effectual, or in any respect
a m o r e suitable p u n i s h m e n t , t h a n h u n g e r is for a disobedient servant.
( 2 1 - 2 3 ) D u r c h die A r m e n g e s e t z e der Arbeitslohn erhht. U n d : the h i g h

215
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

price of labour raises the value of provisions, a n d the high price of provi-
sions e n h a n c e s the value of labour. (30) It seems to be a law of nature, that
the poor should be to a certain degree improvident, that there may always be
some to fulfil the most servile, the most sordid, and the most ignoble offices in the
community. The stock of human happiness is thereby much increased, die delica- 5
teren sind befreit von der drudgery, und knnen hhern callings etc ungestrt
nachgehn. (39) T h e fleets a n d armies of a state would soon be in want of
soldiers a n d of sailors, if sobriety a n d diligence universally prevailed ...
M e n who are easy in their circumstances are n o t a m o n g the foremost to en-
gage in a seafaring or military life. D i e A r m e n g e s e t z e n u n v e r m e h r e n zwar 10
die improvidence, m a c h e n die poor aber n i c h t geneigt sich zu fgen in die
d e m a n d s , which the c o m m u n i t y is obliged to m a k e on the m o s t indigent
of its m e m b e r s ; it tends to destroy the harmony and beauty, the symmetry and
order of that system, which god and nature have established in the world.
( 3 9 - 4 1 ) In the Progress of society ... s o m e m u s t want; a n d t h e n the only 15
question will be this, W h o is m o s t worthy to suffer cold a n d hunger, the
prodigal or provident, the slothful or the diligent, the virtuous or the vi-
cious? (42) E r z h l t p. 42 s q q . die e r b a u l i c h e G e s c h i c h t e von den 2 Ziegen
(Bock u n d Ziege) die J o h n F e r n a n d o auf der J u a n F e r n a n d e s in der Sdsee
bei ihrer E n t d e c k u n g lie. W i e diese bald die ganze Colonie anfllen; 20
H u n g e r u n t e r i h n e n ausbricht oder a vessel in distress u n t e r i h n e n auf-
r u m t . Spter die Spanier, um d e n english privateers zu schaden, W i n d -
h u n d u n d W i n d h n d i n auf dieselbe Insel sezten. R a s c h e V e r m e h r u n g der-
selben, aber die Ziegen flchten in die craggy rocks ... n o n e b u t the m o s t
watchful, strong, and active of the dogs could get a sufficiency of food. 25
(I.e.) It is the quantity of food which regulates the n u m b e r of the h u m a n
species. In the woods u n d in d e m savage state wenige i n h a b i t a n t s ; von
diesen h a b e n aber n u r verhltnimssig wenige M a n g e l zu leiden. As long
as food is plenty they will c o n t i n u e to increase a n d multiply; ... the weak
m u s t depend u p o n the precarious b o u n t y of the strong; and, sooner or lat- 30
er, the lazy will be left to suffer the n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e of their i n d o l e n c e .
F h r e n sie n u n Gtergemeinschaft ein u n d lassen j e d e m die Freiheit z u
heirathen, they would at first increase their n u m b e r s , b u t n o t the s u m total
of their happiness, till by degrees, all being equally reduced to want a n d
misery, the weakly would be the first to perish. N e h m e n sie, to procure a 35
m o r e ample, certain a n d regular supply of food ihre Zuflucht z u m breeding
of cattle, this plenty would be of long c o n t i n u a n c e ; b u t in process of t i m e
its limits would be found. Die activsten wrden property erwerben, zahl-
reiche H e r d e n u n d F a m i l i e n h a b e n ; whilst the i n d o l e n t would either
starve or b e c o m e servants to the rich, a n d the c o m m u n i t y would c o n t i n u e 40
to enlarge till it h a d found its n a t u r a l b o u n d s , a n d b a l a n c e d the quantity of

216
Aus Joseph Townsend: A dissertation on the poor laws

food. Aehnliches R a i s o n n e m e n t b e i m Ackerbau, when all that is fertile


has b e e n cultivated to the highest pitch of industry, the progress m u s t of
necessity be stopped, a n d w h e n the h u m a n species shall ||9| h a v e m u l t i -
plied in proportion to this increase of food, it can proceed no further ...
5 T h e earth is no where m o r e fertile t h a n it is in China, n o r does any country
a b o u n d so m u c h in people; yet t h e cries of deserted children prove, t h a t
even they have found limits to their population. ... whilst m e n have appe-
tites and passions, what b u t distress a n d poverty can stop the progress of
population? T h e i n h a b i t a n t s of E u r o p e are said to have doubled their n u m -
10 bers every 500 years: from which we m a y infer that their quantity of food
has b e e n doubled in these periods. T h r o u g h o u t A m e r i c a , for the s a m e rea-
son, they have b e e n d o u b l e d every 25 years; a n d in some colonies, in the
space of 15 years. W e n n a new u n d equal division of property were m a d e in
England ... oder gar a p e r m a n e n t c o m m u n i t y of goods eingefhrt ... wird
15 n u r divertirt the occasional surplus of n a t i o n a l wealth from the industrious
to the lazy, they increase the n u m b e r of unprofitable citizens, a n d sow the
seeds of misery for the whole c o m m u n i t y ... It is well known that o u r c o m -
m o n s , without stint, starve all our cattle. H e r e we clearly see the n a t u r a l ef-
fects of that c o m m u n i t y of goods, which the poor laws would r e n d e r univer-
20 sal. ( 4 5 - 5 1 ) In respect to population, s o m e countries will reach their ne
plus ultra sooner, a n d s o m e later, according as they s u r m o u n t the obstacles
which i m p e d e their progress. This period can be retarded by i m p r o v e m e n t s
in agriculture, by living h a r d e r or by working m o r e , by extensive c o n q u e s t s
or by increasing c o m m e r c e . (54, 5) H a t ein L a n d trotz alledem reached its
25 u t m o s t limits d a n n n u r 2 r e m e d i e s : natrliche E n t h a l t e n v o m H e i r a t h e n
oder A u s w a n d e r n aller die in distress. Unnatural: Aussetzen der K i n d e r
which is the horrid practice a d o p t e d in t h e richest country u p o n earth to
preserve the c o m m u n i t y from famine. (56, 7) There is an appetite, (sagt der
Pfaffe v o m Geschlechtstrieb) w h i c h is a n d should be urgent, b u t which, if
30 left to operate without restraint, would multiply the h u m a n species before
provision could be m a d e for their support. Some check, s o m e b a l a n c e is
therefore absolutely needful, a n d hunger is the proper balance; hunger, n o t
as directly felt, or feared by the individual for himself b u t as foreseen a n d
feared for his i m m e d i a t e offspring. (57) Various are the circumstances to
35 be observed in different n a t i o n s , which t e n d to b l u n t the shafts of Cupid, or
at least to q u e n c h the torch of H y m e n . . B. G e l b d e der K e u s c h h e i t aus
religisem Aberglauben. Serail. Klugheit, b e m e r k b a r berall auf d e m Occi-
d e n t i n d e m Nichtverheiratetsein der j n g r e n S h n e ... W e n n alle heira-
theten, if all should listen to this call of n a t u r e , ... the whole world in a few
40 years would be distressed with famine. (57, 8) N e i t h e r Switzerland n o r t h e
coast of Africa, are depopulated by emigrations, because t h e quantity of

217
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

food in e a c h r e m a i n s unaltered. It is with t h e h u m a n species as with all


other articles of trade without a p r e m i u m ; the d e m a n d will regulate the
market. (61, 2)
Speculation apart, it is a fact, t h a t in England, we have m o r e t h a n we can
feed, a n d m a n y m o r e t h a n we can profitably employ u n d e r the present sys- 5
t e m of our laws. (65) N o c h m e i n t er fhle m a n n i c h t alle s c h l i m m e n Fol-
gen der Ueberpopulation in England. T h e t e n d e n c y of a law m a y be most
destructive; yet, by adventitious circumstances, the bad c o n s e q u e n c e s m a y
be checked a n d prevented for a season. (66) Bis die workhouses are com-
pletely filled, a n d even after they are full, they serve a d o u b l e purpose: they 10
disarm the magistrate, they i n t i m i d a t e the poor. (67) It has b e e n chiefly
from the want of houses t h a t the poor have n o t m o r e rapidly increased. (68)
no system can be good which does not, in the first place, encourage i n d u s -
try, economy, a n d s u b o r d i n a t i o n ; a n d in the second place, regulate popula-
tion by the d e m a n d for labour. (94) In m a n y parishes where they have no 15
manufactures, b u t the cultivation of the soil, the horses c o n s u m e the pro-
d u c e of m o r e land t h a n t h e i n h a b i t a n t s themselves require. (101)

218
Aus Joseph Townsend: A journey through Spain

Joseph Townsend. A Journey through Spain


in the years 1786 und 1787. 3 vol.
L o n d o n 1791.

vol. II.

5 T. s a g t v o n S p a n i e n : I n d e p e n d e n t of the M e r i n o Flock, m a n y of t h e great


landlords have suffered villages to go to ruin, a n d have let their estates to
graziers. (227) If we suppose, in a good climate, with plenty of food a n d
healthy habitations, the n u m b e r of children in each family on the average
to be 4, a n d the m e a n age to which they shall arrive to be 50 years; if t h e
10 m e n should marry at the age of 2 1 , a n d the w o m e n at 19, t h e n o n e couple
at the e n d of 33 years, will leave 12 d e s c e n d a n t s . In 59 years there will be
24 persons; and at the e n d of 129 J a h r e n 188 oder 90,4 x their first n u m -
ber. (360, 1) D e r Progress der Bevlkerung m a y be retarded d u r c h : 1) want
of food; C h i n a a u c h hier angefhrt als das L a n d wo population is ad-
15 vanced to the u t m o s t ability of the soil to nourish. 2) diseases. 3) want of
c o m m e r c e for the p r o m o t i o n of industry, a n d of a m a r k e t for the surplus of
its produce. 4) war in all its forms. 5) superstitious vows i m p o s e d on t h e
m o n a s t i c orders, a n d celibacy enjoined the priesthood. 6) E m i g r a t i o n of
the breeding stock, a n d transference of capitals. 7) want of land, or t h e op-
20 portunity of acquiring it by industry. 8) want of habitations. ( 3 6 2 - 4 )

219
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

Townsend sagt noch in seinem erst


citirten Buch:
On the subject of population we have h a d warm disputes, whilst some have
l a m e n t e d that our n u m b e r s are decreasing, and others with confidence
have boasted that our population has rapidly advanced; all seeming to be 5
agreed, that the wealth of a country consists in the n u m b e r of its inhabit-
ants. ||10| D i e sei a b e r n u r w a h r , wenn P o p u l a t i o n die Consequenz von
Industrie u n d frugality. (54)

220
Aus Robert Wallace: A dissertation on the number of mankind

A dissertation on the Number of Mankind


in ancient and modern Times. In which the
superior Populousness of Antiquity
is maintained.
5 E d i n b u r g h . 1753.

(von Wallace.)
Gesezt es existire n u r ein Paar; a n g e n o m m e n , d a alle marry who attain to
maturity u n d da j e d e E h e 6 K i n d e r producirt, 3 males u n d 3 females; 2
davon sollen sterben vor der E h e 1 M a n n u n d 1 female; bleiben 4 zu marry
10 u n d replenish the world: in 33 years von der Zeit, wo das original pair b e -
gan to propagate, they shall have p r o d u c e d their 6 children; u n d d a in der
1
2 Periode von 33 J a h r e n jedes der succeeding couples 6 K i n d e r producirt
u n d so fort. D a n a c h : Am E n d e der ersten Periode von 33 J a h r e n sind
6 persons living, n m l i c h das Originalpaar u n d 4 a n d r e : an d e m E n d e von
15 66 J a h r e n 12; against 100 years 24 u n d b e r das G a n z e lsst sich folgende
Tabelle m a c h e n :

221
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

Periode, Jahre Geboren Gestorben Remain in Gestorben Summe aller Die sums
des seit der seit der life to at an die leben der lezten
Schemes. lezten lezten propagate advanced in den Columne
Periode. Periode. age respectiven gesam-
Perioden. melt, 5
(addirt.)
0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2
1 33 6 2 4 0 2+ 4 6
2
2 66 / 3 12 4 8 2 6+ 8 - 2 12
3 100 24 8 16 4 12+ 16- 4 24 10
4 133 48 16 32 8 24+ 32 - 8 48
5 2
166 / 3
96 32 64 16 48+ 64- 16 96
6 200 192 64 128 32 96 + 128 - 32 192
(p. 3 u. 4)

A n d thus we shall find m a n k i n d to double themselves in e a c h period of 15


33 years, as will be evident from t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of the table. (5) D i e
t e
giebt fr die 7 Periode, also im 233 J a h r des s c h e m e , 384 E i n w o h n e r u n d
in der 37sten Periode, im 1233 J a h r des S c h e m e s eine E i n w o h n e r z a h l von
412, 316, 860, 416. (7) Die Zahl, diese R a t e des Progresses ist aber zu gro,
da sonst die M e n s c h e n m u s t have overstocked the earth long before the 20
deluge. (8) A b e r s a g t er: it is certain, t h a t they (die M e n s c h e n ) multiply ir-
regularly, a n d m a y have b e e n m o r e n u m e r o u s i n s o m e preceeding, t h a n
some s u b s e q u e n t ages; u n d da, d u r c h verschiedne U r s a c h e n , there has
never b e e n s u c h a n u m b e r of i n h a b i t a n t s on t h e earth at any o n e p o i n t of
t i m e , as might have b e e n easily raised by the prolific virtue of m a n k i n d . 25
(12) Die Ursachen dieser paucity of i n h a b i t a n t s u n d irregularity of in-
crease, sind mannigfach: natrliche u n d moralische. Erstre bald m e h r con-
stanter Natur, wie Temperatur, Clima, barrenness etc o d e r m e h r wech-
selnd, wie inclemency besondrer seasons, plagues, famines, E r d b e b e n ,
U e b e r s c h w e m m u n g e n . (12) S c h l i m m r e n Effect h a b e n die moral causes, 30
which arise from the passions a n d vices of m e n ; d a z u gehren Krieg, great
poverty, corrupt institutions sei es civiler oder religiser Art, i n t e m p e r a n c e ,
debauchery, irregular a m o u r s , idleness, luxury, u n d whatever either pre-
vents marriage, weakens t h e generating faculties of m e n , or renders t h e m
negligent or incapable of educating their children, and cultivating the earth 35
to advantage. ... I n d e e d , h a d it n o t b e e n for the errors a n d vices of m a n -
kind, and the defects of government a n d education, the earth m u s t have
b e e n m u c h better peopled, perhaps m i g h t have b e e n overstocked, m a n y
ages ago. (13) 'Twas simplicity of taste, frugality, p a t i e n c e of labour, a n d
c o n t e n t m e n t with a little, which m a d e the world so p o p u l o u s in a n c i e n t 40
times. T h e decay of these virtues, a n d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a corrupted a n d
luxurious taste, have contributed in a great m e a s u r e to d i m i n i s h the n u m -
bers of m a n k i n d in m o d e r n days. ... elegance u n d refinement, wenn dis-

222
Aus Robert Wallace: A dissertation on the number of mankind

played in public works, a n d things of a durable n a t u r e , contribute zur h a p -


piness u n d g r a n d e u r der Gesellschaft u n d sind kein H i n d e r n i fr die
populousness. But if displayed in every t h e least trifle in private life, a n d
employed to satisfy the ridiculous taste a n d whimsical fancies of e a c h par-
5 ticular citizen, m u s t c o n t r i b u t e in a great degree to d i m i n i s h the n u m b e r of
m a n k i n d , as the c o n s t a n t labour, great expence, a n d n u m b e r of h a n d s , by
which this luxury is m a i n t a i n e d , m u s t m a k e the necessaries of life scarce
a n d dear. (160) |

223
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

| i i | David Hume: Political Discourses.


E d i n b u r g h . 1752.

On the Populousness of ancient Nations.

As there is in all m e n , b o t h female a n d m a l e , a desire a n d power of genera-


tion m o r e active t h a n is ever universally exerted, the restraints, which it 5
lies u n d e r , m u s t proceed from s o m e difficulties in m e n s situation, which it
belongs to a wise legislature carefully to observe a n d remove. A l m o s t every
m a n , who thinks he can m a i n t a i n a family, will have o n e ; a n d the h u m a n
species, at this rate of propagation, would m o r e t h a n double every genera-
tion, were every one coupled as soon as he comes to the age of puberty. 10
H o w fast do m a n k i n d multiply in every colony or new settlement; where it
is an easy m a t t e r to provide for a family; a n d where m e n are no way
straitned or confin'd, as in long establish'd governments? History tells us
frequently of plagues, that have swept away the third or 4 part of a people:
Yet in a generation or 2, the destruction was n o t perceiv'd; a n d the society 15
has again acquir'd their former n u m b e r etc. (159, 60) To rear a child in
L o n d o n , till he could be serviceable, would cost m u c h dearer, t h a n to buy
o n e of the same age from Scotland or Ireland; where he h a d b e e n rais'd in
a cottage, cover'd with rags, and fed on o a t m e a l or potatoes. Those who h a d
slaves, therefore, in all the richer a n d m o r e p o p u l o u s countries, w o u ' d dis- 20
courage the pregnancy of the females, a n d either prevent or destroy the
birth. T h e h u m a n species would perish in those places, where it ought to
encrease the fastest; a n d a perpetual recruit be n e e d e d from all the poorer
a n d m o r e desert provinces. Such a c o n t i n u e d drain would t e n d mightily to
depopulate t h e state, a n d render great cities ten t i m e s m o r e destructive 25
t h a n with us. ... If L o n d o n , at present, without m u c h encreasing, n e e d s a
yearly recruit from t h e country of 5000 people, as is c o m m o n l y c o m p u t e d :

224
Aus David Hume: Political discourses

W h a t m u s t it require, if the greatest part of t h e t r a d e s m e n a n d c o m m o n


people were slaves, a n d were h i n d e r ' d from breeding, by their avaricious
masters? (167, 8)

225
1
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

(Malthus.) An Essay on the Principle of


Population, as it affects the Future
Improvement of Society. With Remarks on the
Speculations of Mr Godwin, M. Condorcet
and other writers. 5

L o n d o n . 1798.

Necessity, that imperious all pervading law of n a t u r e , restrains t h e m (Pflan-


zen u n d Thiere) within the prescribed b o u n d s . T h e race of plants, a n d the
race of animals shrink u n d e r this great restrictive law. A n d the race of m a n
cannot, by any efforts of reason, escape from it. A m o n g plants a n d a n i m a l s 10
its effects are waste of seed, sickness, a n d p r e m a t u r e death. A m o n g m a n -
kind, misery a n d vice. ... misery is an absolutely necessary c o n s e q u e n c e of
it. Vice is a highly probable c o n s e q u e n c e . (15) if the premises are just, the
a r g u m e n t is conclusive against the perfectibility of the m a s s of m a n k i n d .
(17) Population, w h e n u n c h e c k e d increases in a geometrical ratio; a n d sub- 15
sistence for m a n in an arithmetical ratio. (18) In no state that we have yet
known, has t h e power of p o p u l a t i o n b e e n left to exert itself with perfect
freedom. (19) In the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a , where the m e a n s of subsist-
ence have b e e n m o r e ample, the m a n n e r s of the people m o r e pure, a n d
consequently the checks to early marriages fewer, t h a n in any of the m o d - 20
ern states of Europe, the p o p u l a t i o n has b e e n found to d o u b l e itself in
25 years. This ratio of increase, t h o u g h short of the u t m o s t power of popu-
lation; yet as the result of actual experience, we will take as o u r rule; a n d
say, ( s c h n e Beweisfhrung) T h a t Population, w h e n u n c h e c k e d , goes on
doubling itself every 25 years, or increases in a geometrical ratio. (20, 1) In 25
d e n ersten 25 J a h r e n m a g die Subsistenz verdoppelt werden, by breaking

226
IF

Aus Thomas Robert Malthus: An essay on the principle of population

u p m o r e land, a n d b y great e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o agriculture. I n d e n n c h s t e n


25 J a h r e n it is impossible to suppose t h a t the p r o d u c e could be q u a d r u -
pled. ... T h e very u t m o s t that we c a n conceive, is, that the increase in t h e
second 25 years m i g h t e q u a l t h e present p r o d u c e . Let us t h e n take this for
5 our rule, t h o u g h certainly far b e y o n d t h e t r u t h ... This ratio of increase is
evidently arithmetical. ([21,] 22) It m a y be fairly said, therefore, (wofr?)
that the m e a n s of subsistence increase in an arithmetical ratio. Let us n o w
bring the effects of these 2 ratios together. (23) ( G r o s s e r Logiker.) Taking
the population of t h e world at any n u m b e r , a 1000 millions, for instance,
10 the h u m a n species would increase in the ratio of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
256, 512 etc u n d subsistence as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 etc. In 2 centuries
and %, the population would be to the m e a n s of subsistence = 512:10: in
3 centuries = 4096:13 u n d in 2000 years t h e difference would be almost in-
calculable, t h o u g h the p r o d u c e in t h a t t i m e would have increased to an i m -
15 m e n s e extent. (25, 26) No limits whatever are placed to the p r o d u c t i o n s of
the earth; they m a y increase for ever a n d be greater t h a n any assignable
quantity; yet still the power of p o p u l a t i o n being a power of a superior or-
der, the increase of the h u m a n species c a n only be kept c o m m e n s u r a t e to
the increase of the m e a n s of subsistence, by t h e constant operation of t h e
20 strong law of necessity acting as a check u p o n the greater power. (26) D e r
constant effort towards p o p u l a t i o n , der act selbst in d e n most vicious socie-
ties, increases the n u m b e r of people before the m e a n s of subsistence are in-
creased. Dieselbe food d a h e r u n t e r m e h r M u l e r z u theilen. D e r poor m u
daher schlechter leben, m a n c h e in grosse distress gebracht. D e r Arbeits-
25 lohn sinkt, weil der Prei der provisions steigt. W h r e n d dieser Periode
Population stationr. In der Zwischenzeit encouragirt die Wohlfeilheit der
Arbeit, die plenty of labourers, u n d ihre vermehrte Industrie die ||12| culti-
vators to employ m o r e labour u p o n their l a n d etc etc bis schlielich die
Subsistenzmittel in derselben Proportion zur Bevlkerung wie frher.
30 D a n n die Situation der Arbeiter wieder ertrglich comfortable, the re-
straints to population are in s o m e degree loosened; a n d the s a m e retrograde
u n d progressive m o v e m e n t s with respect to happiness are repeated. This
sort of oscillation oder vibration existirt in alien old states. ( 2 9 - 3 1 ) A fore-
sight of the difficulties a t t e n d i n g t h e rearing of a family, acts as a preventive
35 check; a n d the actual distresses of s o m e of the lower classes, by which they
are disabled from giving the proper food and attention to their children,
acts as a positive check, to the n a t u r a l increase of population. (62, 3) Die ef-
fects der preventiven checks, dieser restraints u p o n marriage are but to
conspicuous in the c o n s e q u e n t vices that are p r o d u c e d in almost every part
40 of the world; vices, that are continually involving b o t h sexes in inextricable
u n h a p p i n e s s . (69, 70) W e n n i c h e i n e m a r m e n M a n n Geld gebe, supposing

227
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

t h e p r o d u c e of the country to r e m a i n the same, I give h i m a title to a larger


share of that produce t h a n formerly, which share he c a n n o t receive without
diminishing the shares of others. (80) T h e poorlaws of England t e n d to de-
press the general condition of the poor in these 2 ways. Their first obvious
t e n d e n c y is to increase p o p u l a t i o n without increasing the food for its sup- 5
p o r t . . . d a d u r c h der Prei der provisions erhht, d a d u r c h ein grosser Theil
auf die parish geworfen. ... Secondly, die quantity of provisions c o n s u m e d
in workhouses u p o n a part of the society, that c a n n o t in general be consid-
ered as the most valuable part, d i m i n i s h e s the shares that would otherwise
belong to m o r e industrious, a n d m o r e worthy m e m b e r s , u n d t h u s in the 10
same m a n n e r forces m o r e to b e c o m e d e p e n d e n t . ([83,] 84) All the checks
m a y be fairly resolved into misery a n d vice. (100) F a m i n e seems to be the
last, the m o s t dreadful resource of n a t u r e . T h e power of p o p u l a t i o n is so su-
perior to the power in the earth to p r o d u c e subsistence for m a n , that pre-
m a t u r e d e a t h m u s t in s o m e shape or other visit the h u m a n race. T h e vices 15
of m a n k i n d are active and able ministers of depopulation. T h e y are the
precursors in the great army of destruction; a n d often finish the dreadful
work themselves. But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly
seasons, epidemics, pestilence, a n d plague, advance in terrific array, a n d
sweep off their t h o u s a n d s a n d ten t h o u s a n d s . Should success be still in- 20
complete; gigantic inevitable famine stalks in the rear, a n d with o n e
mighty blow, levels t h e population with the food of the world. (139, 40) Es
gilt also in every age and in every state in which m a n has existed, or does
now exist. 1) T h a t the increase of p o p u l a t i o n is necessarily limited by the
m e a n s of subsistence. 2) that p o p u l a t i o n does invariably increase w h e n the 25
m e a n s of subsistence increase. A n d 3) T h a t the superior power of popula-
tion is repressed, and the actual p o p u l a t i o n kept e q u a l to the m e a n s of sub-
sistence by misery and vice. (140, 41) t h e t r u t h is, t h a t t h o u g h h u m a n insti-
tutions appear to be the obvious a n d obstrusive causes of m u c h mischief to
m a n k i n d ; yet, in reality, they are light a n d superficial, they are m e r e feath- 30
ers that float on the surface, in c o m p a r i s o n with those deeper seated causes
of impurity that corrupt the springs, a n d r e n d e r turbid the whole stream of
h u m a n life. (177) the most n a t u r a l a n d obvious check seemed to be, to
m a k e every m a n provide for his own children. (199) D i e liegt zu G r a n d e
der institution of marriage. (200) W h e n these 2 f u n d a m e n t a l laws of so- 35
ciety, the security of property, a n d the institution of marriage, were o n c e
established, inequality of conditions m u s t necessarily follow. T h o s e who
were b o r n after the division of property, would c o m e into a world already
possessed. If their parents, from having too large a family, could n o t give
t h e m sufficient for their support, what are they to do in a world where every 40
thing is appropriated? ... It has appeared, t h a t from the inevitable laws of

228
Aus Thomas Robert Malthus: An essay on the principle of population

our n a t u r e , some h u m a n beings m u s t suffer from want. These are the u n -


happy persons who, in the great lottery of life, have drawn a blank. T h e
n u m b e r s of these c l a i m a n t s would soon exceed the ability of the surplus
produce to supply. ... Die Besitzer dieses surplusproduce werden d a n n
5 T h e i l n e h m e n lassen, who were able, a n d professed themselves willing, to
exert their strength in procuring a further surplus produce ... T h e fund a p -
propriated to the m a i n t e n a n c e of labour, would be, the aggregate quantity
of food possessed by t h e owners of l a n d b e y o n d their own c o n s u m p t i o n .
W h e n the d e m a n d s u p o n this fund were great a n d n u m e r o u s , it would nat-
10 urally be divided in very small shares. L a b o u r would be ill paid. M e n would
offer to work for a bare subsistence, a n d t h e rearing of families would be
checked by sickness a n d misery. On the contrary, when this fund was in-
creasing fast; w h e n it was great in proportion to the n u m b e r of c l a i m a n t s ; it
would be divided in m u c h larger shares. ... On the state of this fund, t h e
15 happiness or the degree of misery, prevailing a m o n g the lower classes of
people ... at present chiefly d e p e n d s . A n d on this happiness, or degree of
misery, depends the increase, stationariness, or decrease of p o p u l a t i o n .
( 2 0 3 - 2 0 6 ) the principal a r g u m e n t of this essay tends to place in a strong
point of view, the improbability, t h a t the lower classes of people in any
20 country, should ever be sufficiently free from want a n d labour, to attain
any high degree of intellectual i m p r o v e m e n t . (217, 18) It should be o b -
served, that the principal a r g u m e n t of this essay, only goes to prove the n e -
cessity of a class of proprietors, a n d a class of labourers. (287 N o t e ) U p o n
examination, it will be found, t h a t the increase (des R e i c h t h u m s im m o -
25 dernen Europa und besonders England) has b e e n chiefly in the p r o d u c e
of labour, and n o t in t h e p r o d u c e of land; and therefore, t h o u g h t h e wealth
of the n a t i o n has b e e n advancing with a quick pace, the effectual funds for
the m a i n t e n a n c e of l a b o u r have b e e n increasing very slowly; a n d t h e result
is such as might be expected. T h e increasing wealth of the n a t i o n has h a d
30 little or no tendency to better the c o n d i t i o n of the labouring poor. T h e y
have not, I believe, a greater c o m m a n d of t h e necessaries and conveniences
of life; and a m u c h greater proportion of t h e m , t h a n at the period of t h e
revolution, is employed in m a n u f a c t u r e s , a n d crowded together in close
and u n w h o l e s o m e r o o m s . (312, 13) |
35 113 j A capital employed u p o n land, m a y be u n p r o d u c t i v e to the individ-
u a l that employs it, a n d yet be highly productive to t h e society. A capital
employed in trade on the contrary, m a y be highly productive to the individ-
ual, a n d yet be almost totally u n p r o d u c t i v e to t h e society: a n d this is the
reason why I should call m a n u f a c t u r i n g labour unproductive, in compar-
40 ison of that which is employed in agriculture, a n d not for the reason given
by the french economists. (333)

229
f

Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

Gray versus Malthus. The Principles


of Population and Production investigated
etc by George Purves.
L o n d o n . 1818.

. I.) The Principle of Population. 5

(P. discuttirt die beiden Bcher v o n Gray (ganz antimalthusisch) u n d


Malthus.) ( D a s B u c h von Gray heit: H a p p i n e s s of States.) t h e n a t u r a l
progress of p o p u l a t i o n is found in no particular ratio; b u t its progress is
regulated by its various c i r c u m s t a n c e s in any given district. (14) It is to be
particularly a t t e n d e d to in dieser Frage ( n m l i c h ob die animals sich ra- 10
scher v e r m e h r e n als ihre Subsistenzmittel) t h a t animals themselves form a
portion of food; and that m o s t a n i m a l s of t h e sea, a n d m a n y of t h e land ge-
nera, including m a n , live either wholly or in part on a n i m a l s . T h e m o r e
rapidly t h e n that animals increase, t h e m o r e do they increase t h e q u a n t i t y
of n o u r i s h m e n t . (28) W e r e the supposed t e n d e n c y t h e actual fact with re- 15
spect to irrational a n i m a l s , it would by no m e a n s follow that it is so with re-
spect to the rational a n i m a l , m a n . (32) Does t h e n t h e c o m m o n average
price of food show any s y m p t o m of a p e r p e t u a l excess in t h e d e m a n d above
t h e supply? N o . T h e average profits of t h e farmer are only s u c h as are m a d e
by other dealers. Occasionally, from a deficiency, real or supposed, his 20
prices have risen far b e y o n d t h e fair average rate u n d occasionally from a
m o r e t h a n u s u a l a b u n d a n c e , t h e prices have fallen below t h e average rate.
(42, 43) D e r fair average price of subsistence ist a decisive proof, d a der
impulse given by the increasing d e m a n d was sufficient in subsistence, as in
every other b r a n c h of circuland, to raise t h e supply to t h e increased d e - 25

230
Aus George Purves: Gray versus Malthus

m a n d , a n d t h u s keep t h e former fully up to t h e latter. (44) It is an a b u n


d a n c e of subsistence w h i c h h a s a strong influence as a check. Luxury, or an
excess of eating a n d drinking, t e n d s to d e f e c u n d a t e , or to d i m i n i s h t h e
n u m b e r of births, as well as to s h o r t e n t h e lives of those who are b o r n . A n d
5 this powerful influence s e e m s to i n c r e a s e in efficacy in p r o p o r t i o n as p o p u
l a t i o n grows m o r e n u m e r o u s . (65) P o p u l a t i o n h a s n o regular n a t u r a l ratio
of increase, w h e n c o m p a r e d with t i m e . ... Subsistence, again, w h e n t h e
p r o d u c e is s p o n t a n e o u s , s e e m s little capable of any increase at all. W h e n
t h e p r o d u c e is artificial, it h a s evidently no ratio of increase of itself. T h e
10 ratio is entirely i m p r e s s e d u p o n it, or given to it by t h e cultivator. (67)

. II. Does Population Regulate


subsistence, or subsistence Population?

W e n n die M e n s c h e n originally subsisted b y t h e b o u n t y o f n a t u r e alone,


a n d were occasionally r e g u l a t e d in t h e i r n u m b e r s by t h e q u a n t i t y of food
15 with w h i c h she p r e s e n t e d t h e m , an increase of p o p u l a t i o n took this regulat
ing power out o f h e r h a n d s , a n d o f h u n t e r s m a d e t h e m regulators, i n t h e
character of cultivators a n d s h e p h e r d s . A n d from t h e m o m e n t of t h e i r c o m
m e n c i n g cultivators, they have c o n t i n u e d regulators ever since. (79) D e r
h u n t e r ist ganz regulated d u r c h die s p o n t a n e o u s supplies of n a t u r e , wie der
20 Tiger, der Lwe, der Wolf. D e r Schaafhirt regulirt einigermassen die n u m -
ber of animals w h i c h he kept, yet their feed d e p e n d e d on t h e s p o n t a n e o u s
p r o d u c e of n a t u r e . Erst der regular cultivator ist a complete regulator. (80)
M a l t h u s giebt a completely regulating power to subsistence over p o p u l a -
tion. (82) If be m e a n t only, t h a t there m u s t be a sufficient quantity of s u b -
25 sistence to feed p o p u l a t i o n , this sapient doctrine is a truism. (90) mere
abundance of subsistence wirkt d u r c h a u s n i c h t direkt auf die V e r m e h r u n g
der Bevlkerung, it h a s a strong contrary influence. Beweis 1815, w h e n t h e
u n u s u a l a b u n d a n c e , by lowering t h e price of subsistence, and, of course,
lessening t h e profits of t h e farmer a n d his m e a n s of giving e m p l o y m e n t , as
30 well as the wages of his people, h a d p e r h a p s as unfavourable an influence
against marriage, as the scarcity of 1801. (95) Subsistence h a s no level of
its own. ... Population is constantly employed . . . in raising subsistence to
its own level. (97) T h e r e is a similar e q u i l i b r i u m between t h e hats m a n u -
factured by the h a t m a k e r , a n d t h e h e a d s t h a t wear t h e m , as between t h e
35 eatables produced by t h e cultivator, a n d t h e m o u t h s that eat t h e m . But is it
the n u m b e r of hats that regulates t h e n u m b e r of h e a d s , or t h e n u m b e r of
heads the hats? (103) F r o m universal experience t h e fact in n a t u r e is, t h a t

231
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

t h e increase of population is m u c h in the inverse ratio of the quantity of


subsistence used, to the point of a bare sufficiency of m e r e necessaries.
T h e less a given n u m b e r of people c o n s u m e , on the average, the faster, on
the average, they increase: and vice versa. (129) Bei d e n T h i e r e n b e k a n n t ,
da high feeding is unfavourable to prolificness. M a n is t h u s p u t n o t on the 5
s a m e footing with a n i m a l s but with vegetables. F o r grain, turnips, cab-
bages, potatoes, are r e n d e r e d m o r e a b u n d a n t from the greater quantity of
artificial food supplied to t h e m . (132) W r e es w a h r , da population has
an uniform t e n d e n c y to rise fully or nearly to the average a m o u n t of the
m e a n s of subsistence, so w r d e there be scarcely any exportation or im- 10
portation of subsistence. Districts a n d countries would just feed t h e m -
selves; a n d there would be little or no surplus on the one h a n d , and little or
no deficiency on the other. Yet few articles can boast so m u c h importing
and exporting as subsistence, or display so m u c h fluctuation in t h e a n n u a l
a m o u n t . ([134,] 135) N e h m e n wir Berwickshire. Erste county in England, 15
wo die m o d e r n e Agricultur angewandt. Agricultur ist hier das chief m e -
d i u m of e m p l o y m e n t . Diese beschftigt in d e n least improved districts % \
|14| der Bevlkerung, aber hier n u r % bei d e m highly improved state of cul-
tivation. V o n d e m defect of e m p l o y m e n t marriage n i c h t frhzeitig in it: yet
the agricultural t e m p e r a n c e in the style of living u n d die G e s u n d h e i t rend- 20
er it productive, and its offspring healthy. So bestndig a considerable
n u m b e r of superfluous h a n d s produced, a n d these leave it to find employ-
m e n t ... T h u s a deficiency of e m p l o y m e n t , a n d the emigration arising from
it, render population stationary in a country, which produces such an im-
m e n s e surplus quantity of subsistence. (141) W h a t e v e r in a district creates 25
an additional a m o u n t of e m p l o y m e n t , has a t e n d e n c y to p r o m o t e early
marriage, as well as to retain the offspring on the spot. (142) It is the pro-
portion which the circulators, who l a b o u r at cultivation, bears to the p o p u -
lation of a given district, that regulates the quantity of subsistence pro-
duced in it; a n d it is the circumstances of these circulators, which regulate 30
that proportion. (144) It is clear, that the regulating power is as completely
in the possession of m a n with respect to subsistence, as with respect to any
other supply provided by h i m . (165)

232
F

Aus George Purves: Gray versus Malthus

B. III. Does Population tend to overstock


with respect to employment?

In p r o p o r t i o n as p o p u l a t i o n is t h i n , or increases slow, the m e m b e r s are u n


iformly, caeteris p a r i b u s , less generally or constantly employed. ... In very
5 thinly peopled regions, t h e great m a s s s p e n d m o s t of their t i m e in idleness,
or in half e m p l o y m e n t . T h e average a m o u n t of t h e d e m a n d is smaller,
while the average q u a n t i t y of b u s i n e s s d o n e by individuals is less. (169)
every a d d i t i o n to p o p u l a t i o n m u s t necessarily create a c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d d i
t i o n to e m p l o y m e n t . (173) In proof of t h e increase in the average employ-
10 m e n t arising from t h e increase of p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e is an u n r e m i t t i n g tend
ency to emigrate from t h e less to t h e m o r e p o p u l o u s districts in search of
e m p l o y m e n t : . B . v o n d e n H i g h l a n d s n a c h Lanark, von S c h o t t l a n d u n d Ir
land n a c h L o n d o n , von der Schweiz n a c h F r a n k r e i c h . A n d e r s e i t s : t h e m o r e
p o p u l o u s a district or country, the smaller is the e m i g r a t i o n from either.
15 (178) N a c h der S u b s i s t e n z t h e o r i e : Caeteris paribus, the t h i n n e r (state)
will be better e m p l o y e d a n d richer, till we r e a c h the h u n t e r ' s state which
will be the best employed, a n d richest of all except w h e n subsistence h a p
pens t o b e m o r e t h a n usually short. O n this theory, check p o p u l a t i o n a n d
a u g m e n t subsistence (were this i n d e e d at all practicable for a n y n u m b e r of
20 years) a n d you increase e m p l o y m e n t a n d wealth. (194, 5) T h e increase of
p o p u l a t i o n m u s t e i t h e r t e n d t o a u g m e n t e m p l o y m e n t a n d wealth, o r t o di
m i n i s h it. A n d to check it m u s t do t h e reverse. If t h e increase p r o d u c e s
m o r e e m p l o y m e n t a n d wealth, t h e c h e c k i n g m u s t injure t h e process a n d di
m i n i s h both. If the increase again t e n d s to lessen t h e m , the checking m u s t
25 t e n d to enlarge t h e m . T h e m o r e it is c h e c k e d t h e n etc. (195, 6) T h e in
crease of p o p u l a t i o n uniformly t e n d s to p r o m o t e luxury or t h e u s e of super
fluous food, also e m p l o y m e n t ... A u s s e r d e m , in cultivating a country, zu
erst die besten L n d e r e i e n gewhlt. In proportion as it fills, the lands m o r e
unfavourably situated, are h a d recourse to by the cultivator. N o w these
30 lands require m o r e labouring. (200, 1)

. IV. Does Population in its increase tend to augment


or diminish the average amount of Income and Wealth?

the increase of p o p u l a t i o n is t h e grand, i n d e e d the sole original cause of


the p e r m a n e n t increase of wealth. (226)

233
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

. V. Some Practical Topics, including


the effects of the 2 Theories.

T h e supply of subsistence in t h e a n n u a l crops is generally m o r e t h a n a year


before t h e d e m a n d ; a n d , if we i n c l u d e t h o s e forms of subsistence, w h i c h re
quire m o r e t h a n a year to prepare t h e m for t h e m a r k e t with profit, as t h e 5
greater p o r t i o n of cattle, it is m u c h m o r e t h a n t h a t in a d v a n c e . In case of
any p a r t i c u l a r failure of crops, or of any p a r t i c u l a r increase of p o p u l a t i o n ,
this store in a d v a n c e is drawn u p o n to supply t h e deficiency. Subsistence
in t h e green form, as potatoes, or in t h e form of m e a t in case of necessity,
is c o n s u m e d in a larger p o r t i o n t h a n u s u a l . (366) 10

234
Aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-population and its remedy

William Thomas Thornton. Overpopulation


and its Remedy. By W. Th. Thornton.
L o n d o n 1846.

ch. I. Definition of the Term Overpopulation.

Overpopulation m a y be shortly defined to be a deficiency of e m p l o y m e n t


for those who live by labour, oder a r e d u n d a n c y of the labouring class
above the n u m b e r of persons t h a t t h e fund applied to the r e m u n e r a t i o n of
labour can m a i n t a i n in comfort. (3)

ch. II. Evidences of Overpopulation


in England und Wales.

In England zeigt der lezte Census, da K i n d e r u n t e r 10 Jahren, old w o m e n


of 60 u n d old m e n of 70, verhielten sich zu der Zahl of m a l e s zwischen 20
u n d 70 = 4,566,813: 3,670,677 oder = about \% to 1. In E n g l a n d , there-
fore, the average earnings of an ablebodied m a l e adult, married or single,
ought, after supplying his own personal wants, to yield a surplus w h i c h
would suffice for t h e subsistence of 1 other persons. (9) D i e agricultural
labourers bilden, m i t A u s n a h m e der d o m e s t i c servants, the m o s t n u m e r o u s
class in the country. (11) U n t i l the late change in the poor-law, t h e laws af-
fecting the settlement of p a u p e r s virtually almost confined the english field
labourer to his native parish. (I.e.) ||15| D i e allotment holders of Lincoln-
shire and Rutland, u n d t h e y e o m e n of Cumberland und Westmoreland b i l d e n
die happiest portion der english peasantry. (Die ersten leben a u c h in

235
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

Dreckhtten, wo no k i n d h e a r t e d m a s t e r would keep a cow in. A b e r sie h a -


b e n hinlnglich Futter.) An der a n d r e n E x t r e m i t t der scale stehn die
Kerle in d e n counties of Wilts u n d Somerset. ( 1 7 - 1 9 ) In Dorsetshire k a n n in
general ein Arbeiter n i c h t m e h r earn als 8 sh. per W o c h e . E i n e w o m a n
k a n n 6 d., 8 d. oder 1 sh. d e n Tag m a c h e n , je n a c h der season, aber die Be- 5
schftigung von W e i b e r n in Agricultur ist n i c h t c o n t i n u o u s u n d des cottag-
ers wife during the year erndtet n i c h t viel b e r 2 I. 10 sh. Also ein m a n u n d
his wife 9 sh. a week, oder 23 I. 8 s. a year, to provide for 3 persons on an
average. 2 I. 10 sh. go for rent, 11. 10 sh. fr fuel, 11. 10 sh. fr soap u n d
candles, 5 l. fr clothes, lsst 12 I. 18 sh. das Jahr, oder ungefhr 8 d. % per 10
day, fr food, etwas m e h r als 2 d. % a h e a d daily. Taking the average price
of s u c h bread as is used by t h e peasantry in the W e s t of E n g l a n d to be 1 sh.
the gallon loaf of 8 lb. 11 oz. u n d t h a t of potatoes 14 d. per b u s h e l of 55 lb.,
l
2 d. / will purchase about 29 oz. of bread or 10 lb of potatoes. In Ireland ...
2

5 p o u n d s of potatos are considered no m o r e t h a n a sufficient m e a l for a la- 15


bourer. (20, 1) Ihre cottages are generally old a n d decayed; the walls are of
m u d , the floors generally of stone, b u t s o m e t i m e s of earth u n d die floors of-
ten below the level of the ground outside. (22) K n n t e er selbst m e h r fr
W o h n u n g zahlen, der labourer, as he m u s t live n e a r the farm on which he
works, he m u s t content himself with s u c h lodgings as the owners of the 20
l a n d think proper to provide. (23) N o c h s c h l i m m e r wie Dorsetshire ist Wilts
u n d Somersetshire. In Wiltshire n m l i c h wages are quite as low u n d in der
T h a t lower ... the farmers wonder how their m e n c a n live u p o n their earn-
ings. (23) Weniger Brod noch, Kartoffeln m i t Salz oft die einzige N a h r u n g .
In Somersetshire die matters n o c h schlechter. Wages are 8 s., 7 sh. u n d 25
m a n c h m a l 6 sh. a week, without any addition, except an allowance of cy-
der, worth about 15 d., which the labourer perhaps would be quite as well
without. (24) In den m e i s t e n T h e i l e n von Yorkshire u n d a n d r e n n o r t h e r n
counties die peasantry little worse off als die von Northumberland. They are
nearly as well fed, a n d they c a n n o t be worse h o u s e d . In Kent the rate of ag- 30
ricultural wages is rather above the average. ... In Norfolk (hier farms gen-
erally very large, a n d farmers m e n of considerable capital) ... Even when
e m p l o y m e n t was a b u n d a n t , a n d while wages r e m a i n e d at the old rate of
10 sh. a week, the peasantry of these 2 counties s e l d o m tasted anything bet-
ter t h a n dry bread; so that, when e m p l o y m e n t was only to be h a d every 35
other day, and the rate of wages fell to 7 or 8 sh. a week, their situation be-
c a m e truly deplorable. ( 2 4 - 2 6 ) D i e peasantry von Bedfordshire und Buck-
inghamshire nicht besser dran als die des W e s t e n von England. Diese
2 counties die principal seats von 2 m a n u f a c t u r e s , those of pillow lace u n d
straw plat, die vor 20 or 30 J a h r e n , enabled the wives a n d daughters of cot- 40
tagers to earn as m u c h as their h u s b a n d s a n d brothers. Diese M a n u f a c t u -

236
Aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-population and its remedy

ren seitdem verfallen u n d n u n brought so low, da persons engaged in


t h e m nicht % ihrer frheren earnings erhalten. D e s farmlabourer's 7, 8 oder
9 sh. a week have n o w b e c o m e the m a i n s t a y of h i s family. (26) Die R e b e c c a
Riots in Sdwales, S o m m e r 1843, zogen die Aufmerksamkeit auf d e n Stand
5 der Einwohner, die (die peasantry) s e e m to be worse off t h a n in t h e worst
parts of England. 7 sh. a week, das m i n i m u m of english agricultural wages,
are there the m a x i m u m , u n d are o b t a i n e d only by labourers in the employ-
m e n t o f landowners u n d g e n t l e m e n farmers. S u c h labourers c o m m o n l y
have their cottages rent free. D i e m e i s t e n farms small, n i c h t b e r
10 100 acres; u n d die poorer farmers pay their m e n only 8 d., 9 d. or, at most,
a shilling a day, or 6 d. or 8 d. a day m i t food, if, as is often the case, t h e
m e n board with their masters. Coarse barley bread, flummery, a n d pota-
toes, are almost their sole food, a n d m a n y of the small farmers themselves
have little else except milk, cheese, a n d bacon. T h e y s e l d o m taste any oth-
15 er a n i m a l food. ([26,] 27) D i e allgemeine A n w e n d u n g der M a s c h i n e r i e
u n d Dampfkraft auf m a n u f a c t u r e s h a t die leztren von der Stadt ins L a n d
gezogen, where the n u m b e r of workpeople required in a large establish-
m e n t is most easily procurable. E i n oder 2 decaying m a n u f a c t u r e s still
linger in the cottages of t h e poor, so wie die of pillow lace u n d straw plat,
20 in Buckingham-Bedfordshire u n d einigen a n d r e n m i d l a n d u n d western
counties; die of shirt-button m a k i n g in Dorsetshire. Viele h a n d l o o m w e a v -
ers u n d stocking m a k e r s residiren in the villages of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g dis-
tricts ... It m a y be laid down as a general rule, that, wherever agriculture is
carried on in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d of other occupations, its wages will be
25 found nearly, if n o t quite, at t h e b o t t o m of the scale. (27, 8) T h e harvests in
England, in 1834 a n d t h e 2 following years, so productiv, d a der average
Prei des corn w h r e n d dieser Periode is 44 s. 8 d. per qr, less als seit
1786 ... it has b e e n proved by experience that the difference in t h e s u m s
laid out by the labouring classes in dress etc, in cheap a n d dear years, h a s
30 m o r e effect u p o n the welfare of the manufacturers t h a n almost any other
cause whatever. (49) S c h u l d e n d h a u p t s c h l i c h der c o m m e r c i a l revulsion in
d e n U n i t e d States, der value of british exports to foreign countries fell, in
1837, um m e h r als 11 Mill. St. below its a m o u n t in 1836. A b e r die Pro-
d u c t i o n schritt fort ... T h e manufacturers in general probably fancied t h a t
35 the depression of trade would be of short duration, a n d did n o t i m m e d i -
ately perceive the ||16| necessity of contracting their operations; a n d those
a m o n g t h e m who h a d established themselves with borrowed capital, saw no
other c h a n c e of m e e t i n g their e n g a g e m e n t s t h a n by extending their busi-
ness as m u c h as possible. Every m a n u f a c t u r e consequently c o n t i n u e d to be
40 carried on with u n a b a t e d activity; u n d da die Z a h l der factories etc sehr
vermehrt war 1835 u n d 36, the quantity of goods produced, instead of fall-

237
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

ing off in proportion to the d i m i n i s h e d d e m a n d , s e e m s even to have gone


on increasing. This a b u n d a n c e of goods lowered their price, a n d their low
price caused the c o n s u m p t i o n of t h e m in foreign countries to be so largely
a u g m e n t e d , that, in 1838 a n d the 3 succeeding years, t h e average a n n u a l
value of british exports b e c a m e fast so gro als 1836 u n d viel grsser als 5
1835. Diese vermehrte exportation n z t e d e m m a s t e r m a n u f a c t u r e r n i c h t s ,
da sie d u r c h zu niedrige Preisse erkauft war. Es war i h n e n u n m g l i c h to
c o n t i n u e this course long, a n d their difficulties were a u g m e n t e d by t h e
scanty harvests of 1 8 3 8 - 4 1 , which, raising the price of food in E n g l a n d by
Y above its price in 1 8 3 5 - 6 , r e d u c e d in a corresponding degree t h e h o m e 10
2

d e m a n d for their goods. ( 5 1 , 2) In the workshops of B i r m i n g h a m a n d Wol-


v e r h a m p t o n , in the potteries of Staffordshire, a n d a m o n g the lacemakers
every where, there are n u m e r o u s instances of boys a n d girls u n d e r 10 years
of age, working 10, 12, ja 16 oder 18 S t u n d e n per Tag, yet clothed in rags,
without shoes or stockings, even in winter etc. (61) D i e ganze Z a h l von 15
Paupers, in door u n d o u t door, relieved in 585 U n i o n s in E n g l a n d u n d
Wales, E n d e des Jahrs 1844 (Ladyday) war in door 195,220 u n d o u t d o o r
1,054,462; z u s a m m e n 1,249,682; wovon 431,484 ablebodied adults of b o t h
sexes u n d 215, 742 davon m a l e adults. A b e r diese n u m b e r s waren n i c h t
constantly in the receipt of relief. D e r whole a m o u n t , e x p e n d e d u p o n pau- 20
pers, whrend des Jahres war 4 , 3 7 0 , 1 7 1 ; wovon a b o u t 938,467 ?. abzu-
z i e h n fr die expenses of establishments, salaries etc; lt 3,431,704 l. fr
den purchase of food u n d clothing. D i e average cost dieser articles fr an
i n m a t e eines workhouse ist a b o u t 2 s. 6 d. 1 week oder 6 1. 10 sh. a year; so
da 3,431,704 I. St. would suffice for t h e constant m a i n t e n a n c e , w h r e n d 25
eines Jahrs, von n u r 527,954, worauf weniger als % oder ungefhr 90,000
adult males zu r e c h n e n . (68)

M a n hat die Grafschaft Sutherland als eine sehr improved county darge-
stellt, aber: R e c e n t inquiry has discovered t h a t even there, in districts o n c e
famous for fine m e n and gallant soldiers, the i n h a b i t a n t s have degenerated 30
into a meagre a n d stunted race. In t h e healthiest situations, on hill sides
fronting the sea, the faces of their famished children are as t h i n a n d pale as
they could be in the foul a t m o s p h e r e of a L o n d o n alley. (74, 5) In Glasgow
an 30,000 poor Highlanders in den wynds u n d closes m i t thieves u n d pros-
titutes. (77, 8) (Th. beweist die Overpopulation aus dem Elend und der 35
insufficiency der salaries.)

238

Aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-population and its remedy

Causes of Overpopulation in general.

(A p e r m a n e n t deficiency of e m p l o y m e n t ) K a n n h e r r h r e n von e i n e r dimin-


ished demand for labour oder increase in the number of labourers. (114) M i s -
ery, the inevitable effect a n d s y m p t o m of overpopulation, seems to be like-
5 wise its principal promoter. (121) t h e r a p i d m i g r a t i o n s of vast m u l t i t u d e s
from o n e side of t h e globe to t h e other, w h i c h are k n o w n to have t a k e n
place in early times, could only have b e e n effected by people who pos-
sessed in their cattle perambulatory magazines of provisions. (123 d u r c h
Hirten) In a thinly peopled country, in which m a n u f a c t u r e s have m a d e
10 little progress, and foreign c o m m e r c e is u n k n o w n , a great l a n d h o l d e r would
be only e n c u m b e r e d by larger c o n t r i b u t i o n s of raw p r o d u c e t h a n his h o u s e -
hold could c o n s u m e . (126) In Norwegen, Belgien, Schweiz the originally
h a p p y condition of t h e peasantry h a s b e e n t h e cause of its own c o n t i n u -
a n c e s (144) Die N e a p o l i t a n s , Sardinier, r m i s c h e n B a u e r n sind wretched
15 now because wretchedness h a s , d u r i n g m a n y generations, b e e n t h e p o r t i o n
of their forefathers. (158) D i e E m a n c i p a t i o n der peasantry took place
m u c h earlier i m S d e n u n d Sdwesten von E u r o p a als i n a n d r e n T h e i l e n
desselben. In Italien besonders p r o m o t e d b o t h by the interposition of t h e
C h u r c h of R o m e , a n d by t h e contests b e t w e e n t h e free cities a n d t h e rural
20 barons, it was effected before t h e serfs h a d acquired any prescriptive rights
over t h e soil (wie in G e r m a n y ) , so that after their enfranchisement they
were obliged, as in F r a n c e , to cultivate t h e lands of others. Savoy i n d e e d ,
like other poor m o u n t a i n o u s regions, h a s probably b e e n always i n h a b i t e d
by petty proprietors, a n d in T u s c a n y , t h e p e r s e c u t i o n which t h e nobility en-
25 d u r e d from the d e m o c r a t i c a l g o v e r n m e n t s of t h e towns, a n d the frequent
confiscation of their estates, soon enabled t h e farmers to b e c o m e l a n d o w n -
ers. ([158,] 159) E n o u g h has b e e n said to show that misery is t h e great
p r o m o t e r of overpopulation. (160)

Causes of Overpopulation in England.

30 In Italy the natifs h a d b e e n serfs u n d e r t h e R o m a n s , and they r e m a i n e d


serfs u n d e r the G o t h i c d o m i n a t i o n . (164) Jedenfalls, u n d wie dieser W e c h -
sel i m m e r h i n bewirkt worden sein m a g , es scheint sicher da, gegen S c h l u
der schsischen Periode, die peasantry in E n g l a n d im A l l g e m e i n e n aufge-
hrt h a t t e das property ihrer lords zu sein oder irgendwas Serviles ausser
35 d e m N a m e n nach. V o n Praedial serfs waren diese villains verwandelt in |
|17| perpetual t e n a n t s of land at a quit-rent. W h e n they h a d paid t h e accus-

239
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

t o m e d dues, no further claims, either for work or goods, could be legally


m a d e u p o n t h e m by their lord, n o r could they be ousted from their land.
N u r waren sie attached to the soil, d. h. they could n e i t h e r alienate n o r
otherwise a b a n d o n their lands, nor in any way free themselves from the ob-
ligation to fulfil the conditions by w h i c h they held t h e m . (169,70) In d e n 5
3 J a h r h u n d e r t e n , die u n m i t t e l b a r der n o r m a n n i s c h e n Eroberung folgten,
m a c h t e die Civilisation sehr b e d e u t e n d e Fortschritte in E n g l a n d ; internal
a n d external trade were greatly extended, foreign c o m m o d i t i e s i n t r o d u c e d
in a b u n d a n c e , and native m a n u f a c t u r e s established a n d improved. D i e
Wichtigkeit der villain-proprietors of land increased in proportion. Die 10
m o s t considerable davon h r t e n auf zur Klasse der Arbeiter zu gehren.
W h a t services they were b o u n d by the conditions of their t e n u r e to render,
were performed by deputy, u n d die cultivation ihrer own farms was also
performed chiefly by hired labourers. V o n diesen leztren, a large body, im
Besitz von persnlicher Freiheit aber o h n e property in land, war aufgekom- 15
m e n . Sie wahrscheinlich ursprnglich e m a n c i p a t e d slaves, oder sons of
small freeholders, oder of villain occupiers of l a n d ; b u t villain t e n a n t s
themselves, after performing their b o u n d e n services to their lords, were at
liberty to serve others for wages, the lords having only a prior claim to s u c h
further services from their own b o n d s m e n as they m i g h t be willing to pay 20
for. ... Married m e n , engaged as labourers in husbandry, s e e m to have
b e e n provided with a cottage and a few acres of l a n d to cultivate, for their
own profit, in the intervals of their master's work. ([170,] 171) B e h a u p t e t ,
l
da im 12* Jh. die Arbeiter gut genhrt u n d bezahlt. E b e n s o im 1 3 u n d 14'.
(171, 2) 1349 s u c h t e n die landholders, d u r c h ihre Reprsentatives im Par- 25
lament, d u r c h das Statute of Labourers die wages of agricultural labourer to
limit. (172) Aehnliches Statut im folgenden Jahr. (Le.) 13 J a h r e spter,
1363 ein andrer Versuch gemacht, d e n h o h e n wages ein E n d e zu m a c h e n ,
by rendering t h e m useless to their receivers; u n d a law was passed (37
E d w . I I I . c. 14), enjoining carters, p l o u g h m e n , a n d all other farmerservants, 30
n o t to eat or drink excessively", or to wear any cloth except blanket a n d
russet wool of 12 d." D o m e s t i c servants, von g e n t l e m e n oder t r a d e s m e n or
artificers, were at the s a m e t i m e declared to be entitled to only o n e m e a l a
day of flesh or fish, a n d were to c o n t e n t themselves at other m e a l s m i t
milk, butter, cheese, a n d other s u c h victuals". 1388 m a c h t e das P a r l a m e n t 35
a n o t h e r tariff of wages, according to which a bailiff was to receive 13 s. 3 d.,
a m a s t e r h i n d , carter, or shepherd, 10 s., a n d a c o m m o n labourer in h u s -
bandry 6 s. 8 d. or 7 s. annually. Of course board u n d lodging were to be al-
lowed in addition. 1444, these rates were raised zu 23 s. 4 d., 20 s. u n d 15 s.
respectively, independently of food a n d of clothes of a specified value. 40
Daylabourers sollten n u r 3 d. per Tag erhalten, ausser food except in har-

240
Aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-population and its remedy

vest, w h e n they m i g h t be allowed 5 or 6. D i e s e limitations so vergeblich wie


die friihren. Wages stiegen t r o t z d e m u n d die working classes so luxuris,
d a das P a r l a m e n t scandalisirt u n d ein Statut e n a c t e d 1463, w o n a c h ser-
vants in h u s b a n d r y restricted to clothing of m a t e r i a l n o t worth m e h r als
5 2 sh. a yard u n d forbidden to wear hose of a higher price als 14 d. a pair,
oder girdles garnished m i t silver. D e r Prei of ihrer W e i b e r coverchief oder
h e a d dress sollte n i c h t exceed 12 d. 1482 diese Restrictions herabgesezt
u n d labourers in h u s b a n d r y erlaubt to wear h o s e as dear as 18 d. a pair,
w h r e n d ihre W e i b e r legal fr d e n Kopfputz 20 d. ausgeben durften. This
10 legislation, m i t Betracht des d a m a l i g e n value of m o n e y , war als w e n n j e z t
Gesetz nthig to prevent p l o u g h m e n from strutting a b o u t in velvet coats
u n d silkstockings etc. (173, 4) Scarcity of labourers in proportion to t h e d e -
m a n d im 14* u n d ersten Hlfte des 15* J a h r h u n d e r t s . (178) (Der L o h n stieg
1) d u r c h d e n auswrtigen H a n d e l im 14 u n d 15 Jh. 2) d u r c h die M i g r a t i o n
15 der freiwerdenden A r b e i t e r n a c h d e n S t d t e n ; 3) das A u f k o m m e n so der
i n n r e n M a n u f a c t u r e n u n d des i n n r e n M a r k t s ; 4) die F e h d e der weissen
u n d r o t h e n R o s e n . 5) V e r m i n d e r u n g der Bevlkerung d u r c h Pest u n d
Krieg.) t h e extension of t h e field of e m p l o y m e n t proceeded at a m u c h m o r e
rapid rate als die Bevlkerung. (184) D e r rise of wages erreichte seinen
20 zur Zeit der accession von H e n r y VII. (I.e.) t h e golden age d e r work
ing class was followed w i t h o u t any interval by t h e iron age w h i c h still sub
sists. In der M i t t e des 15' Jh. k o n n t e j e d e r M a n n o b t a i n so viel work als er
pleased at extravagant wages. N o c h 1496 u n d selbst n o c h 1514 d a c h t e Par
l a m e n t es advisable G e s e t z e z u r N i e d e r h a l t u n g des L o h n s zu erlassen, ob-
25 gleich der d a m a l s Stattfindende rise Folge der D e p r e c i a t i o n der e d l e n M e
talle war u n d sogar c o n c e a l e d a positive fall in t h e real price of labour. Bald
n a c h h e r n a h m die G e s e t z g e b u n g a new t u r n , a n d parliament, instead of at
t e m p t i n g to curtail t h e labourer's h o n e s t earnings, h a d to exercise its in
genuity in providing for t h e crowds of destitute for w h o m no work c o u l d be
30 found. E n g l a n d n i e frei von sturdy beggars ... aber die P e r s o n e n die e i n
idle vagabond life der p a t i e n t industry vorzogen ... n u n aber diese beggars
from choice ersezt by a race of beggars from necessity. R e p e a t e d statutes,
c o m m e n c i n g with o n e passed in 1494, attest t h e rapid spread of destitu
tion. Ursprnglich glaubte P a r l a m e n t es liege n o c h i m m e r an der F a u l h e i t ;
35 no other asylum, therefore, was offered to ablebodied vagrants t h a n t h e
stocks, a n d n o m i l d e r t r e a t m e n t t h a n whipping a t t h e cart's tail. U n d d a n n
zurckgeschickt in ihre G e b u r t s s t t t e n . 1535 i n d e ||18| w u r d e entdeckt,
d a diese valiant vagrants" after r e t u r n i n g h o m e , could find no work to
d o ; u n d die parish authorities were in c o n s e q u e n c e enjoined to collect vol-
40 u n t a r y contributions for t h e purpose, n o t only of relieving t h e i m p o t e n t
a n d t h e infirm, b u t of e n a b l i n g t h e strong and lusty to gain a living with

241
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

their own h a n d s . 1547, t h e n u m b e r of beggars still rapidly increasing, in


spite of the godly acts a n d statutes" ein andres passed gegen sie, das be-
k a n n t e barbarische Statut. ... T h r e a t e n e d m i t slavery, stripes, a n d death,
m e n chose to r u n every danger in seeking to better their condition, rather
t h a n p i n e with h u n g e r at h o m e , u n d beggars u n d vagabonds c o n t i n u e d 5
daily to increase. 1562 voluntary alms u n z u r e i c h e n d fr d e n relief der poor
gefunden, the parish authorities were empowered to assess persons obsti-
nately refusing to contribute. M e n d i c a n c y a n d vagabondage c o n t i n u i n g
still u n a b a t e d , 1572 power was given to tax all the i n h a b i t a n t s of a place for
the relief of its poor. 1601 endlich der A k t 43 der Elisabeth. ( 1 8 5 - 8 8 ) A u f 10
die Klster nicht die Sache zu schieben, da diese n i c h t abgeschafft bis
1535, viele J a h r e after the c o n t i n u a l increase of vagrancy h a d b e c o m e a
standing topic of parliamentary l a m e n t a t i o n . ([188,] 189) Verwandlung von
Ackerbauland in Viehweide der Hauptgrund, (p. 190 sqq.) Vor u n d einige Zeit
n a c h der abolition of villenage enthielt E n g l a n d eine grosse Zahl kleiner 15
landholders. Erstens freeholders, deren freeholds von j h r l i c h e m W e r t h von
40 sh., war zu der Zeit, wo der acre m e i s t zu e i n e m sixpence ausgeliehn,
wichtige Klasse; d a n n die tenants in villenage, oder ihre successors die copy-
holders; viele tenantfarmers, paying a rent of n o t m o r e t h a n 4 I. a year ... die
m a r r i e d servants in husbandry, die employed u p o n the estates of large pro- 20
prietors or farmers, h a t t e n a piece of ground which was seldom of less extent
als 3 oder 4 acres. Die meisten landholders aller dieser verschiednen Klassen, mit
Ausnahme der lezten, brauchten die aid of hired labourers, particularly as m u c h
land was u n d e r tillage, a n d large quantities of corn were grown. Folglich
great d e m a n d fr agricultural l a b o u r u n d da die supply limited die wages 25
very high. Aber der high rate of wages, v e r b u n d e n m i t der increasing abun-
dance and cheapness of corn in Folge von Agriculturverberung, m u s t have
r e n d e r e d tillage less profitable t h a n formerly, m o r e especially to large land-
holders, who did not c o n s u m e at h o m e the principal part of their crops, b u t
raised large quantities for sale, (190, 1) Arable lands nun in pasture verwan- 30
delt und die scheinbar i n t e r m i n a b l e corn-fields d u r c h b r o c h e n durch enclo-
sures, to prevent the sheep from straying und um n i c h t i m m e r H i r t e n z u r W a -
che nthig zu h a b e n . (191) 1487 A k t passed um diese sociale Revolution
aufzuhalten, d e n n schon b e m e r k t e m a n , d a enclosures were, b e c o m i n g
more frequent, whereby arable land, which could n o t be m a n u r e d without 35
people a n d families, was turned into pasture, which was easily rid by a few
h e r d s m e n " , u n d da tenances for years, lives, and at will, whereupon most of
the yeomanry lived, were t u r n e d into d e m e s n e s " . 1533 (Henry V I I I c.13) A k t
passed, der sehr v e r d a m m t e die practice of accumulating" farms. In d i e s e m
act statuirt, da single farms m i t flocks von 1 0 - 2 0 , 0 0 0 Schafen darauf, u n d 40
befahl, da N i e m a n d m e h r als 2000 Schafen (ausser auf s e i n e m eignen

242
w

Aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-population and its remedy

Land) h a l t e n or rent more als 2 farms solle. 1535 e n a c t e d d a der king


should have a m o i e t y der profits of land converted (subsequently to a d a t e
specified) von tillage zu p a s t u r e , bis a suitable h o u s e erected u n d das l a n d
restored to tillage. 1552 (Edward VI, 5 u n d 6.) Gesetz, das r e q u i r e d d a auf
5 allen estates as large a q u a n t i t y of land as h a d b e e n kept in tillage for
4 years together at any t i m e since t h e accession of H e n r y V I I I should be so
c o n t i n u e d in tillage. ([192,] 193) (Alles das n z t e n a t r l i c h nichts.) Aller-
dings damals Handel und Manufactur sehr aufblhend ... b u t t h e r e c a n n o t
be a greater error t h a n to suppose t h a t the substitution of one employment for
10 another is not detrimental to the workmen originally employed, if the amount of
work to be done remain the same. E v e n w h e n t h e new business is carried on
in t h e s a m e place as t h e old o n e , t h e work m a y be very u n s u i t a b l e to m e n
who have always b e e n differently employed; a n d if t h e b u s i n e s s be re-
moved to a distance, i n n u m e r a b l e difficulties will prevent t h e w o r k m e n in
15 general from following it. ([194,] 195) Am Ende des 16' Jh., in Folge des
Blhns der Stdte, stieg der Kornprei; so a strong reaction in favour of tillage.
So stieg die Nachfrage n a c h A g r i c u l t u r a r b e i t e r n u n d so ihr L o h n wieder . . .
aber n i c h t so h o c h wie frher. D i e neuen cottages in general ohne an sie atta-
chtes Land. In m o s t parishes allerdings common lands, worauf a poor h o u s e -
20 holder m i g h t keep a cow: b u t otherwise e i n labourer gewhnlich abhngig
von seiner tglichen E i n n a h m e , nominell hher, real niedriger als das income
eines cottager a few generations earlier. D e r Prei des wheat . . stieg in
100 J a h r e n von 7 sh. auf 30 sh. a qr u n d 1610 wurde 4 d., oder a b o u t a d.
less t h a n a whole sheep h a d o n c e cost, was given for a p o u n d of m u t t o n . An
25 outdoorlabourer am Anfang des 17' J h . daher, der sein eignes F o o d m i t 6
oder 8 d. a ||19| day zu kaufen h a t t e , lang n i c h t so gut dran als ein M a n n
derselben Klasse im 14' J h . m i t n u r 3 d. a day, selbst unterstellt d a der
leztre n i c h t besessen h t t e in a d d i t i o n t h e p r o d u c e of a cottage farm.
( 1 9 6 - 8 ) Dieses m o d i c u m of comfort nicht im Stand zu act as a very effec-
30 tual restraint upon population, u n d in wenigen J a h r e n die Z a h l der A r b e i t e r
gewachsen b e r das was beschftigt werden k o n n t e ... In d e n lezten
30 J a h r e n des 17' Jh. die poorrates geschzt von 600,000 zu 840,000 /.,
which, at t h e rate of relief t h e n customary, m u s t have sufficed for t h e c o n -
stant m a i n t e n a n c e of at least 100,000 persons, or % der whole p o p u l a t i o n .
35 % davon, n a c h Locke's Bericht 1697, were ablebodied ... in d e n 3 J a h r e n
e n d e d m i t 1750 der average a m o u n t is shown by p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e t u r n s
n i c h t to have exceeded 690,0001. A b e r 1776 der a m o u n t risen auf
1,521,000 /. u n d von 1 7 8 3 - 8 5 der a n n u a l average 1,912,000 l. N u n b l h t e
im 27 und 18 Jh. jeder branch of national industry so sehr als bevor c o m -
40 m e r c e u n d m a n u f a c t u r e s prospered exceedingly ... In der Agricultur Intro-
duction of turnip husbandry und artificial grasses. Also, da Nachfrage der Ar-

243
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

beit aller sorts sehr gewachsen sein m u t e beweist der gleichzeitige


increase of p a u p e r i s m a still greater increase in t h e n u m b e r of labourers.
(198, 9) while p a u p e r i s m was advancing in the m a n n e r above described,
t h e condition of the labourers w h o o b t a i n e d employment was not injured by
the competition of the unemployed, but on the contrary was gradually improving. 5
(200) (Zeigt er durch Vergleichung einer Preiliste v o n E d e n und
A. Y o u n g des 17* u n d des 18* Jahrhundert.) D i e erklrt sich T. aus d e n
poorlaws, die die Ausgleichung zwischen Nachfrage und Zufuhr verhin-
derten. (Aber Herr Thornton vergit, d a w e n n 1) Manufactur, com-
merce u n d Ackerbau blhten, 2) die M a s s e der Bevlkerung, wie aus 10
Gregory King etc hervorgeht, relativ gut lebte, viel Fleisch, Weizenbrod,
Bier consumirte, 3) der Arbeitslohn stieg und 4) die Paupers - % der Be-
vlkerung - gefttert werden konnten, sicher k e i n U e b e r s c h u der Po-
pulation ber die Subsistenzmittel stattfand. D i e Sache m u also anders
erklrt werden, nmlich das P h e n o m e n o n ) ... that the real price of labour 15
rose considerably at a t i m e w h e n the m a r k e t was greatly overstocked. (203)
W a s wesentlich mitbeitrug zur degradation der english peasantry war die
inclosure und partition of common land. (210) In 99 cases o u t of a 100, the
poor m a n has lost his rights of c o m m o n without any p e r m a n e n t equivalent.
(211) A n a t i o n can scarcely, like an individual, grow rich by m e r e parsi- 20
m o n y , for it m u s t always expend the whole or nearly the whole, of its aver-
age i n c o m e . ... At any rate, it is only m o n e y , plate, a n d jewels, t h a t are,
strictly speaking, h o a r d e d ... W e n n m a n n i c h t reason h a t t o think, da
m a n profitable dispose k a n n b e r das surplus, so producirt m a n little m o r e
t h a n m a y suffice for present use. M o n e y , plate u n d jewels sind sehr u n b e - 25
d e u t e n d e items in n a t i o n a l property, which consists chiefly of bulky arti-
cles, provisions, manufactures, buildings, ships, a n d raw materials, the an-
n u a l p r o d u c t i o n of all of which is proportioned as nearly as possible to the
expected a n n u a l c o n s u m p t i o n . T h e only articles that can be called p e r m a -
n e n t acquisitions are those which, from their durable character, m a y re- 30
m a i n long in use without being destroyed. ... n a t i o n a l i n c o m e k a n n n u r be

X a u g m e n t e d sei es durch an increase des p r o d u c e des native soil oder d u r c h


an increase of foreign imports. (221[, 222] N o t e ) Seit 1837 die Lage der agri-
cultural labourers in England noch unstreitig verschlechtert. N a c h 1836 n a h -
m e n ihre earnings ab u n d der Prei der L e b e n s m i t t e l zu. D u r c h das Gesetz 35
von 1842 - freiere Korneinfuhr - farmers verarmt, r e d u c i r t e n endlich die
items of expenditure. Die labour, am m e i s t e n u n t e r ihrer Controlle ...
d a n n (44) to the effects of the poverty of the farmers a d d e d die of a long
c o n t i n u e d drought, which p u t an almost entire stop to m a n y operations of
husbandry. (234, 5) At several places in Wiltshire, Somersetshire, Gloucester- 40
H shire u n d a n d r e n der western counties, m o s t of the cottagers 50 years ago

244
Aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-population and its remedy

waren weavers, deren chief d e p e n d e n c e was their looms, obgleich they


worked in the fields at harvest t i m e and other busy seasons. So h a l t e n sie
nieder die wages der agricultural labourers, bis sie selbst von der Agricultur
ganz abhngig geworden in Folge der removal der woollen m a n u f a c t u r e ,
5 u n d these r e d u c e d wages have b e c o m e their own portion also. (237) D i e
population of towns is rarely increased faster t h a n the m e a n s of subsist-
ence, except by i m m i g r a t i o n from rural districts. ... Town residents h a b e n
nicht dieselben i n d u c e m e n t s to marry wie dwellers in d e m country. M e h r
Gelegenheit fr c r i m i n a l gratification ihrer passions. D o m e s t i c comfort
10 k a n n i h n e n gleichgltig sein. D a s ausserordentliche grosse Verhltni der
E h e n z u r Bevlkerung in M a n c h e s t e r , Glasgow etc beweist nicht, d e n n die
portion verheirathbarer L e u t e h i e r viel grsser als anderswo ... die foul at-
m o s p h e r e worin sie leben, z u s a m m e n m i t M a n g e l a n N a h r u n g u n d Klei-
d u n g erzeugt sehr grosse Sterblichkeit u n t e r d e n K i n d e r n ... In Liverpool
15 u n d Glasgow die j h r l i c h e n deaths zahlreicher als die births ... M a n m u
die s u b u r b a n districts von d e n grossen Stdten selbst t r e n n e n . In d e m
eigentlichen m e t r o p o l i t a n district von L o n d o n , extending v o n K e n s i n g t o n
n a c h Greenwich u n d von d e m foot of Highgatehill n a c h Camberwell, t h e
births, i n 1 8 4 0 - 1 exceeded the deaths u m 8814; aber i n d e n von A r m e n
20 dicht bevlkerten Vierteln, die deaths im A l l g e m e i n e n ({201 e x c e e d e d t h e
births. D i e ist der case in d e n subdivisions d e n o m i n a t e d St M a r t i n s in the
Fields, East u n d W e s t L o n d o n , W h i t e c h a p e l , St Saviour's u n d St Olave's,
u n d Greenwich. In St. George's H a n n o v e r s q u a r e , Westminster, St Giles
u n d St George, Strand, H o l b o r n u n d der city of L o n d o n leichter excess der
25 births b e r die deaths, aber zu u n b e d e u t e n d to m a k e up for the deficiency
in first n a m e d qrs. ( 2 3 8 - 4 0 ) In einigen towns, besonders in d e n southern
und midland counties, distress u n d overpopulation producirt d u r c h d e n
transfer of m a n u f a c t u r e s formerly carried on there to m o r e advantageous
situations. (243) In der Mitte des 18* Jh., von 1750 an, giebt Th. zu, d a
30 viel Ackerland in Weide verwandelt: M e n who h a d amassed fortunes in
trade or other pursuits, a n d desired to possess suitable country residences,
if they could n o t p e r s u a d e a decayed family to part with its hereditary seat,
purchased some of the outlying lands of an estate, and cleared half a dozen farms
and a score or two of cottages to make a park. G o l d s m i t h s "Deserted Village"
35 is a picture of the desolation p r o d u c e d by such a process. (208, 9) (Herr
Thornton's Entwicklung luft darauf hinaus: Erst macht der Fortschritt
der Industrie die Bevlkerung redundant, i n d e m sie ihr die gewohnte B e -
schftigung entzieht und sie so verarmt; und dann wird die Verarmung
wieder eine Quelle zu rasch wachsender Bevlkerung. Beweis hat Thorn-
40 ton nicht d e n geringsten geliefert. D a fr die poor jeder Z u w a c h s s c h o n
redundant ist, bedarf k e i n e s B e w e i s e s ; aber d a die Bevlkerung in d e n

245
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

G a n z e n N a t i o n e n mit Verhltni zu ihren Productivkrften jemals re-


dundant war, ist zu beweisen.)

Most of t h e farmers in d e n highlands waren freeholders u n d z a h l t e n keine


R e n t e , s o n d e r n n u r die s. g. calpe, in token of their personal s u b o r d i n a t i o n
to the chief. (247) F r o m the earliest t i m e s bis vor ungefhr 60 J a h r e n (von 5
1783 u n d 4 an) Ireland was almost entirely a grazing country. N o c h 1727 a
law g e m a c h t to compel every occupier of 100 acres of land to cultivate at
least 5 acres. (258) the misery of the irish people is of no recent origin, b u t
has b e e n from t i m e i m m e m o r i a l an h e i r l o o m in the race. ... T h e chief dif-
ference is, that whereas people were o n c e starving on a short allowance of 10
m e a t , they are now starving on an equally short allowance of potatoes.
(260, 1) ... Irland, from a very r e m o t e period, has carried on a considerable
export trade; a n d the lords of the soil have always possessed, in foreign
countries, a m a r k e t for their surplus p r o d u c e . T h e y have therefore h a d good
reasons for practising economy, a n d for restricting t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n of 15
their servants to what was absolutely necessary for their subsistence. W h e n
the servants b e c a m e serfs, they were not, according to the c u s t o m in m o r e
agricultural countries, provided with portions of l a n d to cultivate for their
own support; for the estates of their lords, however extensive, could
scarcely be too large for pasturage. T h e y lived u p o n s u c h fare as their m a s - 20
ters chose to provide, went halfnaked, a n d slept u n d e r trees, or the scarcely
better shelter of a few b r a n c h e s c e m e n t e d together with m u d . W h e n they
b e c a m e enfrancised, they gained n o t h i n g b u t personal freedom. (259)

Herr Th. sagt: Whatever other r e m e d i e s m a y be prescribed, restrictions


u p o n the marriages of the poor are an indispensable part of the regimen to 25
be observed. (268) An Irish cottier is n o t miserable because he has 2 or
3 acres attached to his dwelling, b u t b e c a u s e he has to pay for this land 3
oder 4X as m u c h as it would be let for in England. (336) In Irland lange Pe-
riode von A n a r c h i e u n d Confusion n a c h der Eroberung von H e n r y I I ; be-
stndiger Krieg zwischen d e n Colonisten u n d d e n E i n g e b o r n e n acted as an 30
effectual bar to agriculture; beide P a r t h e i e n zogen es vor to keep their
property in der F o r m von flocks u n d herds, which could be driven into a
place of shelter, t h a n in corn stacks or standing crops, which m u s t have
b e e n left to the mercy of a successful invader. So blieb cattle das einzige
Product, so sehr da es oft als T a u s c h m i t t e l a n g e w a n d t . . . 100 J a h r e spter 35
lamentirt Spenser (der poet) that all m e n fell to pasturage, and n o n e to
h u s b a n d r y " ... U n t e r der Herrschaft der Elisabeth, J a m e s I u n d Karl I u n d
Cromwell - Period m a r k e d durch die rebellion der Grafen von Tyrone u n d
Tyrconnel, das massacre der Protestants p r o m o t e d by Roger M o o r e , die

246
r
Aus William Thomas Thornton: Over-population and its remedy

gleich blutige Invasion von Cromwell u n d die Confiscation von % der I n -


sel - m a c h t e Agricultur keine Fortschritte. N a c h der Revolution von 1688
y des lands nderte wieder die m a s t e r s u n d a series of p e n a l acts was enact-
u

ed gegen die r m i s c h e n Catholiken. Diese atrocious laws verboten d e n Ka-


5 tholiken lands zu kaufen oder zu h o l d t h e m by lease fr m e h r als
31 J a h r e ... So die grosse Majoritt des Volks, die Katholiken, gewaltsam
von der Agricultur ferngehalten u n d die proprietors der estates m u t e n sie
theilen u n t e r den wenigen capitalists, die gesetzlich dafr c o n c u r r i r e n
k o n n t e n u n d die diese i m m e n s e tracts n a t r l i c h n i c h t s u p e r i n t e n d k o n n -
10 ten, i n d e m sie sie fast ganz u n t e r Gras hielten. So allgemein u n d so recent
die Vernachlssigung des tillage, d a 1727 Gesetz | | 2 1 | gemacht, to c o m p e l
every occupier of 100 acres of l a n d to cultivate m i n d e s t e n s 5 acres. (257, 8)
1783 u n d 84 granted das irische P a r l a m e n t h i g h bounties on the exporta-
tion of grain u n d verbot seine Einfuhr from abroad; in Folge davon Steigen
15 des Preisses, promovirt n o c h d u r c h die d e m a n d for foreign corn in G r o -
b r i t a n n i e n n a c h d e m Anfang des Kriegs m i t F r a n k r e i c h u n d d u r c h die A b -
schaffung, 1806, aller Restrictions auf d e n corntrade zwischen d e n 2 Ln-
dern. So ausserordentliche i n d u c e m e n t d e n landholders gegeben,
pasturage in cornfields zu verwandeln; aber die tracts held by single gra-
20 ziers in general viel zu extensive to be cultivated by their actual t e n a n t s ,
daher getheilt in farms von m o r e convenient size u n d geliehn an persons
willing to u n d e r t a k e t h e m . A b e r n i c h t Capital genug in dieser Insel fr
diese pltzliche R e v o l u t i o n in h u s b a n d r y u n d die m e i s t e n von der new
race of farmers so a r m da sie ihre Arbeiter n u r z a h l e n k o n n t e n , i n d e m sie
25 i h n e n assignirten Stcke v o m G r u n d to build cabins u p o n u n d to cultivate
for their own subsistence. Z u s a m m e n m i t d e n farmers daher a considerable
body of cottiers was created u n d die Z a h l der leztren vermehrt d u r c h d e n
desire der landlords ihren politischen Einflu zu vergrssern. Das elective
franchise belonged in Irland wie in E n g l a n d zu 40 sh. freeholders, d. h. zu
30 possessors of a life interest in l a n d of the clear a n n u a l value of 40 sh. 1792
t h e privilege was c o n c e d e d to Catholics also u n d landlords b e g a n to m a n u -
facture voters by t h o u s a n d s , by granting t h e m leases for life of small
patches of land. So wurde die bulk des people converted in occupiers of
land ... Gavelkind, or the c u s t o m of dividing a father's l a n d e d property,
35 equally a m o n g his children, has always prevailed in Ireland. Starb einer der
n e u g e m a c h t e n farmers, so errichteten alle seine S h n e farms of smaller ex-
tent, a n d a cottier's son also generally inherited small pieces of g r o u n d .
... So most of the d e s c e n d a n t s of the original farmers have, in the course of
2 or 3 generations, sunk to the level of cottiers, a n d most of the original
40 cottage holdings have b e e n divided a m o n g as m a n y families as c a n con-
trive to obtain from t h e soil potatoes e n o u g h to keep t h e m alive. ( 2 5 1 - 5 3 . )

247
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

Robert Vaughan. The Age of Great Cities.


London.1843.

ch. I. On the occasion and object


of the present work. (1-10)

ch. IL On the social characteristics of Great cities 5


in ancient and modern Times.

Asia.

Stdte ursprnglich g e b a u t zur Sicherheit oder z u m H a n d e l u n d Sicher-


heit. Im ersten Fall on t h e slope of s o m e m o u n t a i n side oder along the
s u m m i t of s o m e lofty rock. Im zweiten on the b a n k of t h e river or n e a r the 10
bay of the sea. (11) Die capitals in Aejypten u n d A s i e n h a t t e n their place
on the course m a r k e d o u t by the principal rivers. (12) Im Orient die Privile-
gien der verschiednen Casten n u r sanktionirt d u r c h die Religion. All
castes are m a d e to have their i m m u n i t i e s , a n d every invasion of those im-
m u n i t i e s is b r a n d e d , n o t only as an act of civil i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , b u t as be- 15
ing also an act of impiety. D i e die einzige S c h r a n k e g e n d e n D e s p o t i s -
m u s . ([15,] 16)

248
Aus Robert Vaughan: The age of great cities

Griechenland.

Rom.

chapter III-VII.

In England prevalence of d e p r e d a t i o n in the rural districts. (245) M e n


5 change masters m o r e frequently t h a n in feudal t i m e s , b u t the m o r a l feeling
which b o u n d t h e m t o o n e m a n , o r t o o n e household, now b i n d s t h e m t o
their class or society. (289)

249
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

Th. Doubleday. The true law of Population.


L o n d o n . 1842.

T h e great general law, das vegetable u n d a n i m a l life regirt, ist, d a w e n n


eine species oder genus endangered is, a corresponding effort is invariably
m a d e by n a t u r e for its preservation a n d c o n t i n u a n c e , by an increase of fe- 5
cundity or fertility; besonders der Fall, w e n n solche danger arises von a
d i m i n u t i o n of proper n o u r i s h m e n t or food, so d a der state of depletion, or
t h e deplethoric state is favourable to fertility u n d der plethoric state, or
state of repletion, ungnstig. Daher, auf die m e n s c h l i c h e Gesellschaft an-
gewandt, in allen Gesellschaften a constant increase going on a m o n g s t t h a t 10
portion of it which is the worst supplied with food, d. h. u n t e r d e n poorest.
Dagegen u n t e r d e n e n in the state of affluence u n d well supplied m i t food
u n d luxuries a constant decrease goes on. U n t e r d e n e n who form t h e m e a n
or m e d i u m between these two opposite states die P o p u l a t i o n ist stationr.
D a r a u s folgt that it is u p o n the numerical proportion which these 3 states 15
b e a r to each other in any society that increase or decrease u p o n t h e whole
depends. (5, 6) In trees, the effect of strong m a n u r e s and overrich soils is
t h a t they r u n to superfluous wood, blossom irregularly, a n d chiefly at the
extremities of the outer branches, a n d almost or entirely cease to b e a r fruit.
(9.) Die Thiere, overfed, werden unproductiv. (14, 15) So b e i m Schaaf. In 20
accordance m i t der leanness wirft 1, 2 oder 3 L m m e r . D i e d e n Verbesse-
rern dieser Race b e k a n n t . Um die best c h a n c e of a perfect a n i m a l zu h a -
b e n , glauben sie da das Werfen von E i n e m L a m m a m b e s t e n ist u n d die
die breeders of sheep erreichen, i n d e m sie so viel F u t t e r geben, da es we-
der steril n o c h 2 oder 3 wirft, a single l a m b is almost invariably the off- 25
spring of the a n i m a l so limited. (15) |
|21[a]| Die Fischfresser u n t e r d e n M e n s c h e n besonders fruchtbar. (25)
(Highlands, Western Islands of Scotland. F a m i l i e n von 1 0 - 2 0 Kinder!) (Ir-
land, China.) W i r finden die P o p u l a t i o n thin in pastoral countries, wo be-

250
Aus Thomas Doubleday: The true law of population

sonders a n i m a l food; denser, wo gemischt m i t vegetable a l i m e n t ; denser still,


wo n u r vegetable, aber m i t plenty, densest of all, wo vegetable aber m i t scar-
city superadded. (27) extraordinary t e n d e n c i e s to propagation evinced by
b o t h sexes when semiconvalescent, after enfeebling a n d a t t e n u a t i n g ep-
5 idemics, such as fevers, pestilences, a n d plagues. (28) Decay of all systems of
nobility. Z . B . die Peers u n d Baronets of G r e a t Britain ... few, if any, of t h e
N o r m a n nobility u n d e b e n s o wenige von d e n original b a r o n e t s ' families of
King J a m e s I exist at this m o m e n t ; w e n n n i c h t fr perpetual creations,
b o t h orders m u s t have b e e n all b u t extinct. Die great majority des H o u s e of
10 Lords geschaffen seit 1760, d. h. seit 80 J a h r e n (George). (31, 2) U e b e r lezt-
res giebt er folgende Tabelle:

Numbers of Peers 1837 Number created seit 1760


Dukes 21 5 Dukes
Marquises 19 18 Marquises
15 Earls 108 58 Earls
Viscounts 17 13 Viscounts
Baronets 185 153 Baronets
350 247
Scottish Peers 16
20 25
Irish Peers 28
394 272 seit 1760. (p. 32)

Der Order der Baronets c o m m e n c e d 1611 u n t e r J a m e s I, as a m e a n s of


raising money, besonders fr d e n irish war j e n e r Periode. T h e s u m paid for
25 this h o n o u r was very large. V o n diesen, die 1611 gemacht, existiren n u r
n o c h 13 u n d von d e n e n , die er 1625 schuf, n u r n o c h 39. (33, 4) E i n G r u n d
ist natrlich die: a single failure of offspring m a k e s a gap in the body,
whilst even extra fecundity in a n o t h e r quarter is only allowed to keep up
the line. (34) Aber das n i c h t g e n g e n d e r G r u n d . Extraordinary decrease
30 der V e n e t i a n nobility, obgleich all the sons are e n n o b l e d by birth. A m e l o t
zhlte zu seiner Zeit 2500 nobles die S t i m m e im Council h a t t e n ; gegen-
wrtig (18* Jh. Anfang) n i c h t 1500, trotz der a d d i t i o n von vielen F a m i l i e n
seit j e n e r Zeit. (35) V o n 1 5 8 3 - 1 6 5 4 der sovereign council von Bern a d m i t -
ted into the bourgeoisie 487 families, wovon 379 b e c a m e extinct in Z e i t
35 von 2 J a h r h u n d e r t e n u n d 1783, blieben n u r 108 davon. V o n 1 6 8 4 - 1 7 8 4
207 Bernoise families b e c a m e extinct. (36) U n t e r d e m Kaiser Claudius sagt
Tacitus: Jisdem diebus in n u m e r u m P a t r i c i o r u m adscivit Caesar vetustis-
s i m u m q u e m q u e e Senatu, a u t q u i b u s clari parentes fuerant. Paucis j a m re-
liquis familiarum quas R o m u l u s Majorum, et Lucius Brutus M i n o r u m
40 G e n t i u m , adpellaverat: exhaustis e t i a m quas Dictator Caesar Lege Cassia,
et Princeps A u g u s t u s Lege Saenia, sublegere." (Annal. l.XI, C.25.) [37] D.

251
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

fhrt n u n Beispiele an aus Archiven b e r d e n decay der free burgesses of


certain rich a n d exclusive boroughs. (40) If it were t r u e t h a t p o p u l a t i o n has
a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y to increase equally a m o n g s t all classes, u n c h e c k e d by
anything b u t the inability to p r o c u r e subsistence, the diseases which arise
o u t of a deficiency of n u t r i m e n t , a n d t h e a b a n d o n m e n t of marriage caused 5
by poverty a n d t h e fear of it; ... the decrease of a people m u s t take place at
the b o t t o m of society, a n d n o t in t h e m i d d l e or at the top. (181)

Statement von p. 10 des Report XVII of Excise Commissioners


Date. Hard soap Soft Soap Number of
made lbs made manufacturers 10
1785 35,012,412 lbs 3,358,228 971
1790 42,074,309 3,671,425 772
1795 48,262,786 3,495,559 677
1800 54,233,311 3,528,432 652
1805 65,723,869 4,575,130 553 15
1810 72,636,296 6,146,529 510
1815 77,678,063 6,224,002 447
1820 82,379,891 7,099,297 398
1825 102,623,165 8,910,509 395
1830 117,324,321 10,209,519 309 20
1834 144,344,043 10,401,281 302 (236)

A u s d i e s e m law of P o p u l a t i o n ] folgt, da a long c o n t i n u e d depression,


down to destitution, of a whole people, will, in t h e long r u n , be revenged on
itself a n d those who caused it, by the superfluous a n d u n m a n a g e a b l e pau-
per p o p u l a t i o n which it is sure to generate. ([253,] 254) there is g r o u n d for 25
the supposition that the neutralization, or absence of alkali, in the m a l e an-
i m a l constitution, would be a direct cause of sterility, a n d its decided pres-
ence, e contrario, a cause of fruitfulness; supposing, in each case, the fe-
m a l e to be prolific by constitution. ... N o w ... a plethoric diet, i.e. of
a n i m a l food u n d wheaten bread m i t W e i n u n d Z u c k e r in c o m b i n a t i o n , ||22| 30
is a c c o m p a n i e d by a development of acid in the frame; whilst, on the con-
trary, a poor, u n w h o l e s o m e , deficient, or i n d e e d mostly vegetable n u t r i -
m e n t , t e n d s rather to an alkalescent state of t h e body, from which acid is
excluded. ( 2 7 4 - 2 7 6 )

252
Aus William Pulteney Alison: Observations on the management of the poor

W. P. Alison. M. D. Observations
on the Management of the Poor in Scotland.
E d i n b u r g h . 1840.

Sterblichkeit in E d i n b u r g h 1: auf 22 oder 2 3 . In Glasgow war die D u r c h -


5 Schnittssterblichkeit seit 1830 = 1:30 u n d 1832 u n d 1837 = 1:21 u n d
= 1:24. (VII N o t e Preface) the prevention of Disease on a large scale m a y
often be in the power of a c o m m u n i t y , although beyond the power of m a n y
of the inhabitants c o m p o s i n g that c o m m u n i t y . (I.e. VIII) D e r a m o u n t of
suffering from the c o m b i n a t i o n of poverty a n d disease, has b e e n nearly tri-
10 pled in the city of E d i n b u r g h in d e n lezten 25 J a h r e n , w h r e n d die p o p u l a -
tion n u r um 50 % sich v e r m e h r t hat. (4) D i e repeated u n d severe visitations
of fever ... are not merely the occasion of m u c h a n d widely spread suffering
a n d destitution, b u t they are ... in a great m e a s u r e the result, a n d t h e indi-
cation and test, of m u c h previous misery a n d destitution. (18) Jedenfalls ist
15 destitution a cause of the rapid diffusion of contagious fever. (19) T h e
true specific cause of the contagious fever, at least of Edinburgh, certainly
does n o t spring from any thing external to the living h u m a n body, (wie v o n
verdorbner Luft, d u r c h A u s d n s t u n g todter Krper.) (20) D a s elaborate
work der Drs Cheyne u n d Barker zeigt d a die grossen E p i d e m i e n in Irland
20 seit 1700, each of t h e m lasting fully 2 years, Folge von privations, suffer-
ings u n d der m e n t a l depression u n d d e s p o n d e n c y which naturally a t t e n d
t h e m ; n h m l i c h 1708, 1720, u n d 1731, 1 7 4 0 - 4 1 (after the great frost of
1740), 1 8 0 0 - 1 8 0 1 , after the rebellion, the transference of the seat of gov-
e r n m e n t to L o n d o n , a n d t h e scarcity of 1799 u n d 1800; u n d wieder 1817
25 n a c h der transition from t h e state of war to that of p e a c e " u n d der scarcity
of 1816 u n d 1817. (22) V o n d e n recent E p i d e m i c s in E d i n b u r g h u n d G l a s -
gow gilt dasselbe. D i e erste in Edinburgh b e g i n n e n d 1817, n a c h 2 b a d har-
vests; die nchste 1826, n a c h d e n great failures in 1825 u n d der s u d d e n

253
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

cessation, besonders of building speculations in E d i n b u r g h ; u n d die lezte,


1836, n a c h der great depression of trade b o t h in Glasgow u n d D u n d e e , m i t
welchen towns the lower orders here are m u c h c o n n e c t e d . In Glasgow die
Sache n o c h klarer, fever scheint hier to have increased a n d d i m i n i s h e d for
40 years past, nearly as it did in E d i n b u r g h , bis 1836, when, after the great 5
stagnation of trade, it b e c a m e m u c h m o r e formidable. F r 20 J a h r e vor
1815, als die Stadt rasch in R e i c h t h u m wachsend war, die Z a h l der Fieber-
p a t i e n t e n in d e m Infirmary nie b e r 130 im Jahr. In 1817, 1818 u n d 1819
belief sie sich zu 2715 oder 905 im Jahr. D a n n n a h m sie wieder betrcht-
lich a b ; h o b sich aber n a c h d e n failures 1825 u n d 1826, 1827 u n d 1828, 10
a m o u n t e d auf 3520 oder 1173 im Jahr. A n d r e increase of disease 1832;
u n d n a c h d e n great failures 1835 it spread so extensively, da die n u m b e r s
t a k e n in hospitals 1836, 37 u n d 38 a m o u n t e d auf 9740, oder 3270 im J a h r
u n d von diesen 5387 allein im J a h r 1837 ... In d e n lezten 3 J a h r e n die G e -
s a m m t z a h l der Fieberflle von Glasgow c o m p u t e d at nearly 40,000. (23, 4) 15
D i e female field labourers, sehr zahlreich in ganz Schottland, when e m -
ployed, earn only 18 d. a day, a n d are u n a b l e to provide anything for the fu-
ture. Accordingly, ceasing to be fit for work a b o u t the age of 50, they inevi-
tably b e c o m e destitute ... the n u m b e r of such poor w o m e n , in almost every
small town in Scotland, is distressing to t h i n k u p o n . ... T h e fact is, they 20
live in a condition to which t h a t of m o s t domestic a n i m a l s is a luxury. (31,
2) In Edinburgh und Schottland berhaupt Blthe des M a l t h u s i a n i s m u s ,
the towncouncil of E d i n b u r g h , a n d the M a n a g e r s of the C h u r c h Charity-
W o r k h o u s e ... refused, even last winter, at the t i m e w h e n e p i d e m i c fever
was alarmingly prevalent, to order the increased assessments which were 25
proposed. Sie wuten, da sie d a d u r c h would have very materially relieved
the sufferings vieler hlfloser W e i b e r u n d K i n d e r ... A b e r sie frchteten
d a d u r c h zu ultimately extend a n d perpetuate the k i n d of suffering which
they would temporarily relieve. (40, 1) W e r in E d i n b u r g h fhlt m u c h anx-
iety a b o u t die sufferings der poor, s e e m to be usually regarded as well- 30
m e a n i n g , weak m i n d e d m e n , who are incapable of c o m p r e h e n d i n g the
principle of population", a n d do n o t u n d e r s t a n d that the sufferings of o n e
part of the c o m m u n i t y are the proper corrective to restrain the t e n d e n c y to
u n d u e increase of n u m b e r s in the rest. (39, N o t e ) Mr Revans, der Sekretr
war to the Poor-law-Inquiry in E n g l a n d u n d Wales, which led z u m A m e n d - 35
m e n t A c t in 1834, sagt, da w e n n wir a b z i e h n das p a y m e n t of wages d u r c h
die poorrates seit 1796, (the employers of labourers having dexterously
shifted on the rate payers a great part of the b u r d e n which they only were
b o u n d to bear) and allow for the difference of population, and of the price
of corn, a n d for m a n y extraneous expenses ... charged on the poor rates ... 40
we shall find that they h a d pretty well reached their greatest height in 1680.

254
Aus William Pulteney Alison: Observations on the management of the poor

([45,] 46) D i e k o n o m i s c h e n F o l g e n dieser schottischen Rigiditt: An


irisch widow m i t 4 j u n g e n K i n d e r n , die 4 oder 5 J a h r e in E d i n b u r g h sich
aufgehalten, was refused relief from the Charity-Workhouse; ... sie u n d
ihre Kinder lebten eine Zeitlang in e x t r e m e destitution, in a close cellar, in
5 a small but crowded close. Da eines der K i n d e r v o m Fieber ergriffen, die
others soon sickened, die disease spread to the neighbours, 15 cases oc-
curred in a very limited space in a few weeks; some of which b e c a m e a
heavy b u r d e n to t h e Infirmary; o n e y o u n g w o m a n , who supported h e r aged
m o t h e r died, and t h e m o t h e r b e c o m e s a b u r d e n on the city. H o w far further
10 the evil m a y extend is yet doubtful. (192 note) |

255
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

|23| Alison. (Archibald) The Principles


of Population.

E d i n b u r g h . 1840.

t.I.
O h n e das bedachtlose H i n g e b e n an d e n Instinkt der G a t t u n g (Be) the spe- 5
cies could never have emerged from the woods. (14) Unless the principle of
increase h a d b e e n u n l i m i t e d in its operation in pastoral ages, die Pastoral-
vlker nie ihre w a n d e r n d e Lebensart verlassen. It is the feeling of want
which impels t h e m into other regions, a n d leads to the formation of differ-
ent habits. But for the rapid m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of t h e Scythian tribes they 10
would have wandered to this day u n k n o w n a n d u n c h a n g e d in the steppes of
the U k r a i n e or the plains of Tartary, a n d the n a t i o n s of E u r o p e who have
sprung from their d e s c e n d a n t s would never have existed. (18) It was the
pressure of n u m b e r s alone which compelled t h e m to leave these desert re-
gions, a n d impelled t h e m alternately u p o n the R o m a n , the I n d i a n , or the 15
Chinese empires. (I.e.) the forced m i g r a t i o n of shepherd tribes war the
m e a n s of peopling an u n i n h a b i t e d world. (19) G r e a t part of the h i g h table-
land of Asia, which shelves upwards from the N o r t h e r n O c e a n to the H i -
m a l a y a snows, at the foot of which it is 14,000 feet above the sea, is utterly
incapable of arable cultivation: districts in Tartary u n d Mongolia, 2x as 20
large as all Europe, are for ever c h a i n e d to the N o m a d State. (19) If, there-
fore, the u n l i m i t e d operation of the principle of increase is necessary in t h e
savage state to the existence of m a n , it is no less essential in the pastoral to
his extension a n d improvement. (21) T h e same want of a rapid increase in
the h u m a n species is felt in the early agricultural state. (22) D e r slow prog- 25
ress which states m a k e in enlarging their n u m b e r s in the first stages of so-

256
Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

ciety zeigen die N o t h w e n d i g k e i t einer u n l i m i t e d operation des principle of


increase fr die multiplication of m a n k i n d in these periods. Z u r Z e i t Julius
Casars die E i n w o h n e r von Britain wahrscheinlich 700,000; w h r e n d der
Heptarchie still smaller; u n t e r H e n r y V das whole Island n i c h t
5 2,500,000 souls. So in 15 centuries die n u m b e r s of the people were hardly
tripled. (23, 4) R a s c h fortschreitende Bevlkerung in d e n early ages n u r in
besonders begnstigten L n d e r e i n , wie in d e m Delta von Aejypten, der
E b e n e von M e s o p o t a m i e n , oder in d e n fields of Bengal. (24, 5) D e r rapid
progress der population in N o r d a m e r i k a h a t zu sehr falschen I d e e n in Be-
10 zug auf die probable rate of increase in the earlier ages of the world gelei-
tet. D i e Volk b e g a n n die cultivation seiner forests m i t allen advantages
and resources of civilized life at their c o m m a n d ; etc etc. (25) T h e state of
the N o r t h a m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n is n o t to be t a k e n as an example, b u t as a
contrast to the condition of m a n in the r u d e r ages of the world. (26) F r o m
15 the very earliest ages ... commerce has b e e n the great compelling force
which has driven civilized m a n into distant regions; a n d given rise to those
stations for the transit of m e r c h a n d i s e , or the m u t u a l convenience of buy-
ers and sellers, which have afterwards grown into the greatest cities. (29)
A u s s e r d e m der spirit of urban democracy ist die great moving power which
20 leads civilized m a n to settle in distant regions. (31)

Population and Subsistence.

Ein M a n n k a n n mehr t h u n als die zu s e i n e m eignen Bedarf n t h i g e food


schaffen. Dieser Excess der food, von d e m i m m e r alle a n d r e n Klassen aus-
ser der a c k e r b a u e n d e n gelebt h a b e n . (35) Solange die F r u c h t b a r k e i t des
25 Bodens unerschpft u n d die ussersten limits of increasing subsistence
have not b e e n attained, the s a m e proportion m u s t exist between t h e n u m -
bers of the cultivators, a n d the surplus p r o d u c e they can raise, as in the
earliest times, weil die n u m b e r of m o u t h s have increased in exactly t h e
same proportion as the n u m b e r of h a n d s . (36) Der B a n a n a b a u m , sagt
30 A. v. H u m b o l d t , will furnish food for 50 individuals on the same surface
which u n d e r wheat will only m a i n t a i n two. (38) Seit 1640 die A m e r i c a n e r
sich bestndig verdoppelt in je 33 J a h r e n . This long c o n t i n u e d a n d aston-
ishing multiplication for 2 centuries is the m o s t l u m i n o u s fact which t h e
history of the globe h a s yet exhibited of the fixed superiority which t h e pro-
35 duce of h u m a n labour is able to m a i n t a i n even over the m o s t rapidly in-
creasing multiplication of the species. (39, 40) M u zugegeben werden,
that every particular country, m a y by h u m a n industry, be cultivated to its
u t m o s t . . . Aber es ist falsch, d a long before this u l t i m a t e limit has b e e n at-

257
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

tained, p o p u l a t i o n h a s a t e n d e n c y to increase faster t h a n subsistence. (42,


3) (In d e m Vereinigten K i n g d o m 27,000,000 acres of land in pasture, oder
an % des land hitherto brought u n d e r cultivation. [46]) D i e G e s c h i c h t e von
E n g l a n d seit 1801 beweist, d a trotz seiner d i c h t e n Bevlkerung, t h e pow-
ers of agricultural p r o d u c t i o n in this island have kept in a d v a n c e of its pop- 5
u l a t i o n j u s t as effectually als in t h e o t h e r side of t h e A t l a n t i c - V o n
1 8 3 1 - 1 8 3 5 t h e price of every species of agricultural p r o d u c e were r u i n -
ously low. (47) G r o b r i t a n n i e n k n n t e in 5 oder 10 J a h r e n be m a d e to
m a i n t a i n double its present n u m b e r o f i n h a b i t a n t s . I n E n g l a n d u n d W a l e s
sind 27,700,000 cultivated acres; in I r l a n d 12,125,000; in Schottland an 10
5,265,000, in allem 45,090,000 u n d von diesen gegenwrtig in Cultur d u r c h
d e n Spade u n d d e n Pflug 19,237,000 acres u n d in pasturage 27,000,000.
Das ist 2 acres fr jedes h u m a n b e i n g in d e m U n i t e d K i n g d o m ; t h e n u m -
ber of i n h a b i t a n t s in G r e a t Britain u n d Ireland, in 1827, being a b o u t
23,000,000, a n d t h e s a m e proportion probably o b t a i n s at t h e present t i m e , 15
w h e n their n u m b e r s are nearly 30,000,000. N u n , a full supply of subsist-
ence for every living person in wheat is a quarter a year; so t h a t at this rate
there is only one qr raised over t h e whole empire, for every two acres of ar-
able and m e a d o w land. But an acre of arable l a n d yields im D u r c h s c h n i t t
fr ganz E n g l a n d 2 qrs 5 bushels, etwas m e h r als 2% qrs; so d a je 2 acres 20
fhig sind at t h e present average of m a i n t a i n i n g 5 h u m a n beings oder
5 times t h e present i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e empire. C a n there be t h e smallest
d o u b t d a in a few years die 1 qr per % acre m i g h t be t u r n e d i n t o 2 qr per
acre, less t h a n t h e existing average of E n g l a n d ? oder 3 qrs, still less t h a n |
|24| t h e average of m a n y of its counties? D e r erste dieser changes wrde 25
4 , der lezte 6 x der jetzigen E i n w o h n e r z a h l food geben, abgesehn v o n
d e n waste lands etc, wovon 6 M i l l i o n e n acres in arable u n d p a s t u r e l a n d s
verwandelt werden k n n e n , was zur selben R a t e a b o u t 12 M i l l i o n e n of m e n
m e h r h a l t e n k n n t e . So klar, d a 120 millions of h u m a n beings oder 180
m i t ease u n d comfort von d e m territory des U n i t e d K i n g d o m gehalten wer- 30
d e n k n n e n ; a n d supposing t h e m all t o b e m a i n t a i n e d o n w h e a t e n b r e a d
drawn from the arable, a n d b u t c h e r - m e a t , raised on t h e pasture, lands,
without any intermixture of potatoes or inferior food, w h i c h is greatly m o r e
productive. ( 4 9 - 5 1 ) It is practically k n o w n to every Scotch farmer that, by
t h e simple i n t r o d u c t i o n of tile-draining, t h e p r o d u c e of every soil, if at all 35
wet, is at o n c e raised a half, often doubled. (55) N a c h Porter: Das L a n d in-
cluded in die inclosure bills, passed seit 1826, n u r 247,000 acres; die zu der
l
Bevlkerung hinzugefgten n u m b e r s 2,703,707 souls; t h u s affording n o t / 10

of an acre per h e a d fr j e d e n a d d i t i o n a l i n h a b i t a n t . D i e Beweis von der


increased productiveness des soil. (I.e.) F r a n k r e i c h e n t h l t viel m e h r arable 40
land im Verhltni zu seiner surface als G r e a t Britain: d e n n n u r

258
Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

9,146,000 acres p e r m a n e n t l y waste out of 132,630,000 acres in its whole


area, w h r e n d die british Islands v o n 77,000,000 statute acres 15,871,000
ganz sterile u n d u n p r o d u c t i v e e n t h a l t e n . D a s arable L a n d Frankreichs also
2x das der british Islands; u n d wie viel weniger p r o d u c e des soil hier d e -
5 voted to horses u n d cattle, folgt daraus, da, w h r e n d in Great Britain das
m e a d o w u n d pasture l a n d sich auf 27 Mill, acres behuft, in F r a n k r e i c h
n u r 24 Mill, (nach C h a t e a u Vieux) D e n n o c h h a t F r a n k r e i c h n u r 3 Millions
E i n w o h n e r m e h r als G r o b r i t t a n n i e n . H t t e wenigstens 60 Mill., w e n n es
contained so viele E i n w o h n e r als G r e a t Britain, im Verhltni zu seiner
10 Oberflche; u n d bei 1 h u m a n being zu j e d e m arable acre, which is only
supposing each acre to p r o d u c e % of the average p r o d u c e of England, oder
1 qr per acre, it would m a i n t a i n 120 Mill, souls, zu 3 qrs an acre aber
360 millions. (52 Note.) W h r e n d in Polen, der great granary of E u r o p e ,
20 agriculturists erheischt w e r d e n to p r o d u c e a surplus fr 1 manufacturer,
15 u n d in A m e r i c a 12, fr d e n s e l b e n Zweck in F r a n c e n u r 2, w h r e n d in
Great Britain o n e agriculturist is able to m a i n t a i n in ordinary years above
3 manufacturers. (61) D i e beweist, d a das surplus produce der cultivators
is continually increasing as society advances. (I.e.) Da b e r h a u p t Capital
nichts ist als subsistence stored u p , da der G e s a m m t r e i c h t h u m der W e l t
20 nichts ist als die a c c u m u l a t i o n des surplus produce, of the labours der Cul-
tivators der earth in different ages, above what was requisite for their own
support - W e n n d a h e r the efforts of h u m a n p r o d u c t i o n h a d a c o n s t a n t
tendency to sink before the gigantic powers of population in the m o r e ad-
vanced stages of society, m u t e das a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t of capital have g o n e
25 on declining m i t d e m progress of its m o r e advanced stages. U n d die grad
das Gegentheil der Wirklichkeit. (62) Die wahre relation zwischen Bevlke-
rung u n d Subsistenz ist die von cause u n d effect. (63) In China, n a c h H u m -
boldt, die Oberflche beluft sich auf 463,000 square m a r i n e leagues u n d
die population, n a c h i h m , ist 175,000,000. If it were peopled in d e m s e l b e n
30 Verhltni wie die british Islands, which c o n t a i n 2,250 to t h e square
league, it would c o n t a i n 980 M i l l i o n e n oder fast 5 x seine jetzigen Einwoh-
ner; w e n n es cultivirt wre, wie G r o b r i t a n n i e n sein k o n n t e (sieh oben)
d. h. 1 acre von je 3 gewidmet der staple food of m a n , die 2 a n d r e n zu luxu-
ries, it would m a i n t a i n 2 300 M i l l i o n e n Einwohner, 12 x seine gegenwr-
35 tige Bevlkerung. D i e P e n i n s u l a of India, n a c h H u m b o l d t , enthlt
109,200 square m a r i n e leagues u n d 134 Mill. Einwohner. W r e es in d e m -
selben Maasse bevlkert wie England, so wrde es e n t h a l t e n a b o u t
250 Mill. E i n w o h n e r oder fast 2x seine present n u m b e r . (67, 8) B i o s d e m
Malthus gegenber ist auf die ursprnglichen Productivkrfte des B o -
40 dens zu verweisen ... "the m a i n point in civilized society is not what are
the productive powers of n a t u r e in t h e soil, b u t what are the m e a n s which
the h u m a n race have for getting at these powers." (77)

259
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

On the Changes in the Progress of Society


which limit the Principle of Increase.

W i e nothwendig auch i m m e r a rapid increase of m a n k i n d ist in early


times, die necessity fr diese u n l i m i t e d operation des Bevlkerungsprin-
cips hrt auf im Fortschritt der Gesellschaft u n d eine Periode k m m t , wo 5
s o m e powerful restraint zu legen auf die m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of m a n k i n d . (83)
Check in d e n artificial wants u n d habits of foresight, die der Fortschritt der
society schafft. (87) D a n n der Change, which the objects of his desire u n -
dergo in the progress of society. (89) D i e gradation of ranks. (I.e.) D i e Z a h l
der Kinder vermindert sich m i t der Contraction der H e i r a t h e n in m i d d l e 10
life, statt of early youth. (136) D i e G r o s s e n Stdte. (138)

On the Circumstances in the Progress of


Society which limit the demand for Labour.

Diese U m s t n d e sind: change in the employment of capital. (146) there is a


limit imposed to the growth of capital in every country, by the height to 15
which itself has arisen; a n d that it flows into foreign channels, when the
reservoirs at h o m e are supplied, as naturally a n d inevitably as a stream
which has fertilized its own plains descends to enrich inferior soils. (157, 8)
Change in the direction of wealth from productive to u n p r o d u c t i v e employ-
m e n t , (p. 162 sqq.) (In allen diesen Fllen, sei es eine V e r s c h w e n d u n g von 20
Einzelnen, oder von Regierungen, b e r h a u p t Verausgabung als Revenue)
t h e capital, das die Arbeit in Bewegung sezt d u r c h seine Nachfrage, is not
reproduced by their exertions, b u t is entirely dissipated. (164) the wealth
which is devoted to productive investments, in addition to the encourage-
m e n t given to the persons employed, reproduces itself in the h a n d s of the 25
spender, and p e r m a n e n t l y enriches h i m a n d his d e s c e n d a n t s ; whereas t h a t
which is s q u a n d e r e d in t h e purchase of luxuries is in great part lost to h i m
a n d his heirs, a n d reproduces itself only in the persons of those whose pro-
ductions he acquires. Also im ersten Fall doppelter emploi. (166) |
|25| T h e exchange of the surplus of o n e productive citizen against the 30
productive surplus produce of another, creates n o t only a m u t u a l encour-
a g e m e n t to industry, b u t a m u t u a l growth of capital in the h a n d s of b o t h
parties, whereas, when o n e of the parties is a m e r e idle c o n s u m e r , the
growth goes on only on o n e side. (167) Zunahme der Circulation, damit rela-
tive Depreciation des Gelds u n d Steigen der Preisse. (170 sqq.) 35

260
HBP
w

Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

Theilung der Arbeit u n d Verbesserung der Maschinerie. (181) E a c h w o r k m a n


in der cotton m a n u f a c t u r e s u p e r i n t e n d s as m u c h work as would have b e e n
d o n e by 200 or 300 sixty years ago. As m u c h work is d o n e by a steampow-
ermill m i t 750 m e n as 200,000 could do w i t h o u t machinery. (188) Die ex-
5 ports von Great Britain im D u r c h s c h n i t t der 7 J a h r e e n d e n d m i t 1806
= 2 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; im average der 7 J a h r e e n d e n d m i t 1836 7 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . D i e
Bevlkerung der island in der ersten Periode 10,942,000, in der lezten
18,000,000. Also ganz andre V e r m e h r u n g des p r o d u c e als der labourers.
(188 [,189]) In Glasgow (1840) 3000 publichouses auf 290,000 persons in-
10 eluded in 58,000 families; fast 1 p u b l i c h o u s e auf 20 families. B e w o h n t e
te
Huser ungefhr 30,000, so d a j e d e s 1 0 h o u s e appropriated to t h e sale of
spirits: a proportion u n e x a m p l e d in any other city of the globe. 1830 war
1 Public h o u s e auf 12 Huser. (190, 1) Diese Z a h l gestiegen von 1600 seit
1821, obgleich n u r 140,000 Seelen w h r e n d derselben Periode der Bevlke-
15 rung hinzugefgt. (191) the s a m e individuals, who, a year before, were re-
duced to pawn their last shreds of furniture to procure subsistence, reck-
lessly throw away the surplus earnings of m o r e prosperous times in the
lowest debauchery. (I.e.) It seems the peculiar effect of such debasing e m -
ployments, to render the c o n d i t i o n of m e n precarious at the s a m e t i m e that
20 it m a k e s their habits irregular: to subject t h e m at o n c e to the m o s t trying
fluctuations of condition, a n d the m o s t fatal improvidence of character.
(I.e.) Experience has proved ... that the proportion of marriages in these
classes is m u c h greater t h a n in the agricultural districts; a n d the increase of
population is still m o r e rapid, as the dissolution of m a n n e r s h a s multiplied
25 to an incredible degree the n u m b e r s of bastards. (192) while the improve-
m e n t of science a n d the extension of art is daily encroaching on the field
of industry in the often-debasing e m p l o y m e n t s of manufactures, t h e wide
and healthful field of agricultural o c c u p a t i o n r e m a i n s for ever o p e n to the
industry of m a n k i n d , (194) the i m p r o v e m e n t of husbandry, indeed, has a
30 directly opposed t e n d e n c y from the growth of manufactures, a n d in the lat-
er ages of society the n u m b e r of persons employed in the cultivation of the
earth is greater t h a n in its earlier periods. W h e r e agriculture has attained to
a high degree of perfection, as in Flanders, Lombardy, a n d Tuscany, t h e
value of land, a n d the great d e m a n d for its varied produce, leads to the ro-
35 tation of crops, a n d the garden system of h u s b a n d r y . This change a u g m e n t s
immensely the n u m b e r of persons engaged in its cultivation. It has b e e n
calculated, that at least d o u b l e the n u m b e r of labourers are o c c u p i e d on a
farm of equal extent in the level fields of Brabant, or on the A p e n n i n e s ,
from those d e e m e d necessary in the best cultivated parts of Britain. T h e
40 growth of agricultural wealth leads to the division of farms; the improve-
m e n t of agricultural knowledge multiplies the n u m b e r of crops which c a n

261
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

be raised from soil, the necessity for e c o n o m i s i n g b o t h space a n d l a b o u r in-


troduces the garden cultivation. By no possible contrivance c a n the same
p r o d u c e be raised from good land, as by treating it like a k i t c h e n garden
with the spade a n d the h o e ; a n d this is accordingly t h e m e t h o d adopted in
those countries where agriculture h a s b e e n longest practised with success, 5
a n d is best u n d e r s t o o d ; an extraordinary fact, der zeigt wie der M e n s c h an
die Erde g e b u n d e n etc (194, 5) Herr A l i s o n k m m t auf folgendes schne
Naturgesetz, wovon grade das Gegentheil in der Praxis existirt: It was
for no light reasons, therefore, that n a t u r e established this eternal distinc-
tion between the labour of the country a n d t h a t of the town, a n d m a d e the 10
increase of wealth a n d progress of civilisation a t t e n d e d with constant re-
straints on the e n c o u r a g e m e n t to labour, from m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a n d con-
stant ||26| increase to t h e d e m a n d for industry or agricultural employ-
ments. (197) Ferner, wird im Fortschritt der Gesellschaft das W a c h s t h u m
generis h u m a n i aufgehalten d u r c h d e n increase of horses fr L u x u s oder 15
conveyance oder agriculture. 1 Pferd erheischt so viel food als 8 persons.
(197, 8) W a h r s c h e i n l i c h n a c h den g e n a u s t e n Berichten d a die Pferde Lon-
d o n s so viel food verzehren als seine Einwohner. (198) In der Agricultur in
E n g l a n d 832,000 Pferde gebraucht; sie verzehren die food von fast 11 mil-
lions of m e n . Viel m e h r als die h u m a n labourers. (198, 9) D i e wchst im 20
Fortschritt der commercial opulence. (199) the multiplication of horses
goes on at increased ratio in the advanced stages of ... opulent societies;
a n d an a n i m a l which at first is valued only for its useful qualities, a n d as
the fellow labourer of its master, b e c o m e s in the progress of opulence, the
most costly article of luxury, a n d the principal sign of the distinction of 25
rank. (199) D a n n m i t d e m increase of wealth ebenso wichtiger change in
the food, which is c o n s u m e d by the better classes of society. Metzgerfleisch,
Butter, Ks werden ein H a u p t t h e i l der N a h r u n g der poor. (Esel!) ... 50 %
m e h r Fleisch in Britannien als Frankreich c o n s u m i r t ... In den British is-
lands b e s t i m m t 27,386,000 acres fr pasturage u n d n u r 19,135,000 fr 30
K o r n ... Die Verhltni h e r s t a m m e n d aus d e m fortgeschrittnen R e i c h -
t h u m Englands u n d d e n gestiegnen Bedrfnissen der M e h r z a h l ... D a n n
absorption of a considerable portion of grain fr Brauen u n d Destilliren u n d
Z i e h e n ghrender u n d gebrannter G e t r n k e in the later stages of society ...
N u r in fortgeschrittnen stages of society the quantity of grain c o n s u m e d in 35
this form b e c o m e s an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t in estimating the m e a n s of n a -
tional subsistence. ... Seit 1825 (reduction d a m a l s der duties) in Grobri-
t a n n i e n die Z a h l der gallons spirituser G e t r n k e gewachsen von 16 Millio-
n e n auf 24,493,000 (bis 1837) ... N a c h C o l q u h o u n wird in d e n british
isles: 40

262
Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

Consumed by man 18,750,000 qrs (grain)


Thiere (abgesehn von 11,829,000
grass, hay, straw)
Brauerei u n d Destillation 4,250,000. ( 1 9 9 - 2 0 4 )

5 A deficiency in the crop in C h i n a or H i n d u s t a n u n m i t t e l b a r gefolgt von


famine, in England it p r o d u c e s only a d i m i n u t i o n in the n u m b e r of horses,
a stoppage of the d e s t i n a t i o n from grain, a n d a general saving in t h e u s e of
bread or a n i m a l food. (205) In F r a n k r e i c h 20 Millions Agriculturists n t h i g
um sich u n d 10 m i l l i o n s Stdter etc zu e r n h r e n ; in England (Britain)
10 4 Millions fr sich u n d fr 14 millions in a n d r e n trades. (205, 6) (In F r a n k -
reich 2 cultivators m a i n t a i n 1 von d e n a n d r e n Klassen; in B r i t a n n i e n 1 cul-
tivator m a i n t a i n s 4 von d e n a n d r e n Klassen. In Polen, R u l a n d etc 15 oder
20 agriculturists erhalten 1 von d e n a n d r e n Klassen.) W h e n so large a pro-
portion as % f the fruits of the soil is c o n s u m e d in articles of luxury, the
15 rent of land rises, a n d the price of agricultural labour is e n h a n c e d long be-
fore population has reached its u t m o s t limits. (206) In d e n earlier periods
of agriculture, farms berall u n d in allen Zeitaltern small, aus M a n g e l an
Capital u n d A r m u t h der cultivators. D a n n engrossing of farms ... D i e Be-
drfni hrt auf, sobald die great operations of agriculture have b e e n c o m -
20 pleted, the principal drains m a d e , woods cleared, a n d enclosures fin-
ished ... u n d d a n n die operations der h u m a n h a n d nthiger als die des
Capitals u n d die c o m p e t i t i o n of agricultural capital fhrt d a n n zur subdivi-
sion of farms, and the change in their m o d e of cultivation. ... Das G a r t e n -
system of h u s b a n d r y verdrngt d a n n j e d e s andre. So in J a p a n . ( 2 1 8 - 2 0 )

25 Modifications of these principles


from human corruption.

W e n n redundant population existirt, von d e n o b e n entwickelten G e s e t z e n ,


die n u r der h u m a n corruption z u z u s c h r e i b e n . (225) (die n m l i c h die n a -
trlich limiting principles ber H a u f e n wirft.) Er trstet sich m e i s t e n s bi-
30 blisch: "the poor will be always with u s . " (226 W e n n er selbst nicht der
poor ist, sehr ertrglich.) ( D a m i t er b e c o m e s qualified for H e a v e n (226)
m u es Arme geben.) Schlechte Regierung. (229) B e h a u p t e n die Advoca-
ten der necessary misery der M e n s c h h e i t , d a die actual victims of oppres-
sion wenige sind im Verhltni zu d e n D u l d e r n aus U n k l u g h e i t etc die
35 richtig. Wollen sie aber b e h a u p t e n , t h a t this i m p r u d e n c e is n o t m a i n l y ow-
ing to erroneous institutions or h u m a n wickedness, and t h a t a t e n d e n c y to

263
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

increase faster t h a n subsistence can be provided in t h e m , is i n h e r e n t in h u -


m a n nature, i n d e p e n d e n t of the operation of m o r a l causes, there c a n n o t be
a greater or a m o r e fatal error. (231, 2) |
|27| Bis 1690 ungefhr (bis zur U n i o n der K i n g d o m s ) war % der g a n z e n
Bevlkerung von Schottland, a m o u n t i n g to 200,000 persons, in a state of 5
i m p o r t u n a t e a n d helpless mendicity, so grosse Proportion wie je in Irland
in its periods of greatest distress. (250, 1)

Principles of Decay and Renovation in Human Affairs.

W h e n the lower orders, as in t h e R o m a n or G r e c i a n States, are enslaved,


the social system d e p e n d s entirely on t h e valour a n d industry of the higher 10
ranks. (283)

On the Action of the Principle of Increase in the East.

1) Turkey.

Hier allgemeines System: t h e capital owerflows with riches, while the prov-
inces languish in the most extreme poverty. (314) In the rich plain of R o m e - 15
lia, in t h e vicinity of Constantinople, the cultivation is beyond m e a s u r e
wretched. T h e G r a n d Seignior publicly m o n o p o l i z e s all the corn, a n d with
it furnishes the capital. He draws his supplies from the m a r i t i m e provinces,
which are subject to a k i n d of tax called Ichtirach, consisting in the obliga-
tion do deliver to the Sultan, at a very low rate, a certain quantity of grain, 20
which he retails to others. (315) Das trkische government m a y be consid-
ered as an army e n c a m p e d , the general of which issues orders to forage the
country. (319) T h e sale of all e m p l o y m e n t s , a n d the precarious t e n u r e by
which they are held, converts the depositaries of authority into oppressors.
Justice is venal, because the Cadis have b e e n laid u n d e r contribution. All 25
persons who receive pay from the Sultan ... are liable every instant to
d e a t h a n d confiscation. This inspires fear, a n d p r o m p t s those in office to
m a k e the most of what they hold by so frail a t e n u r e . (320, 1) I n s t i t u t i o n
der A z a m s , die die I n d i v i d u e n gegen die Pachas zu s c h t z e n h a b e n . In
Stdten, sind alle die von E i n e m trade in corporations vereinigt, the chiefs 30
of which watch over the individuals composing it. E n d l i c h das village sys-
tem, which prevails almost universally over the east ... By this institu-
tion ... the whole country is divided into little c o m m u n i t i e s , who pay a cer-
tain fixed tax or rather tribute to the G o v e r n m e n t or Pacha, in

264

Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

c o n s i d e r a t i o n of w h i c h they are relieved from all further e x a c t i o n on t h e


part of these officers. (321, 2) (The p r o p o r t i o n in which e a c h individual in
t h e c o m m u n i t y is to b e a r his share of t h i s b u r d e n is ascertained with
nicety, a n d , in general, faithfully observed. [322]) Property vested in m o r t -
5 m a i n , in t h e h a n d s of t h e m i n i s t e r s of religion, is in general tolerably se
cure, a n d it is with t h e m , t h a t t h e little capital which arises from t r a d e or
c o m m e r c e , is c o m m o n l y invested. ... G e n e r a l l y speaking ... t h e hill dis
tricts of Turkey, b o t h in E u r o p e a n d Asia, are far better cultivated t h a n t h e
plains ... das t u r k i s h e m p i r e , das in E u r o p e u n d Asia e m b r a c e s 815,000 fj]
10 miles, c o n t a i n s n u r 25,000,000 i n h a b i t a n t s , also 28 per mile, n i c h t % der
p o p u l a t i o n i t c o n t a i n e d i n t h e days o f t h e r o m a n a n d persian empires u n d
k a u m m e h r als / 0 vieler c o u n t r i e s in m o d e r n E u r o p e . (323, 4)

2) Ejypt.

Die p e a s a n t s dieses L a n d e s afford a m e m o r a b l e e x a m p l e of t h e greatest


15 excess of h u m a n misery, arising solely from t h e oppression of t h e p o o r e r
classes. (327) In t h e Provinces of U p p e r Ejypt die r e t u r n s of agriculture
have b e e n estimated = 80:1 u n d die m o s t m o d e r a t e calculations zeigen
e i n e n D u r c h s c h n i t t s r e t u r n von 25 oder 3 0 : 1 . ... this fertility ... great as it
is, die s p o n t a n e o u s gift of N a t u r e : t h e m e a n s of irrigation ... neglected or
20 lost: ignorant u n d lazy die h u s b a n d m e n . (328, 9) Aejypten zeugt von der
propensity to increase, operating with t h e most force, w h e n t h e r e is t h e
least scope afforded for t h e subsistence of t h e people. (335)

3) Barbary.

T h e only ploughing which they e m p l o y is a species of scratching 6 i n c h e s


25 deep, frequently d o n e with a w o o d e n plough. T h e i r only m a n u r e is t h e an
n u a l b u r n i n g of t h e stubble. (338, 9)

4) Syria, Palaestina, Asia Minor.

P o p u l a t i o n thinly scattered a n d miserably indigent. (341) T h e plough is of


t e n no m o r e t h a n t h e b r a n c h of a tree. (I.e.) t h e cause of t h e r e m a r k a b l e
30 difference between t h e n u m b e r s of t h e people, a n d capacities w h i c h t h e
country affords for subsistence, is to be found in t h e tyranny of t h e t u r k i s h
g o v e r n m e n t . (342, 3) L i m i t e d by t h e tyranny, to which they are subjected to

265
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

the a n i m a l wants of our nature, e a c h family m a n u f a c t u r e s its own clothes,


has a portable mill to grind corn, a n d this is all t h a t they require. (346)
D r u s e n u n d M a r o n i t e n (Gebirgsbewohner) bilden A u s n a h m e . ([352,] 353)

5) India.

W h a t e v e r m a y be the p r o d u c e of their labour, the c o n d i t i o n of the peasant 5


is nearly the same: he is universally poor: for the c o n t i n u a l exactions of his
superiors leave h i m n o t h i n g b u t the necessaries of life. (354) So great is the
indigence a m o n g the artisans, that the employer is obliged in every case to
advance a certain proportion of the price of t h e m a n u f a c t u r e , in order to
e n a b l e the manufacturer to live while he is engaged in completing it. U n - 10
able to wait the market, or anticipate its d e m a n d , he c a n only follow his
t r a d e w h e n called to it by the d e m a n d s of his c u s t o m e r s ; when these fail,
he is obliged to take to some other m o d e of subsistence, and agriculture is
the general resource by which the u n e m p l o y e d manufacturers gain a pre-
carious livelihood. Over the greater part of India, the p r o d u c e is at least 3 x 15
what it is on a similar extent in England, even u n d e r the present wretched
m a n a g e m e n t ; d e n n die W r m e des Climas giebt i m m e r 2, oft 3 crops u n d
grre als hier. Ein acre will ||28| yield von 1 3 - 1 4 qrs wheat in I n d i e n jhr-
lich; in England 3 qrs der average des whole country u n d 4 is considered as
a large allowance. (357, 8) W h e n this extreme fertility of the soil is consid- 20
ered, the population of H i n d u s t a n is small ... T h o u g h the population ... is
everywhere r e d u n d a n t , it is greatly within the capabilities of subsistence
which the soil a n d the country afford. (358) the peculiarities in the condi-
tion a n d habits of the I n d i a n people; the small a m o u n t of the revenue and
of the land u n d e r tillage; the r e d u n d a n c e of the p o p u l a t i o n w h e n compared 25
with the d e m a n d for labour, and its scantiness w h e n c o m p a r e d with the
capabilities of the soil; all arise from the government, the religion, a n d ex-
isting institutions. (359) K a u m 1 acre auf 50 ist cultivirt in d e m greater
part der M a h r a t t a states. (362) the levying of rents, in ganz I n d i e n , is every-
where almost a scene of fraud and evasion on the o n e part, a n d of p l u n d e r 30
a n d oppression on the other. (364)

6) China.

C h i n a n a c h George S t a u n t o n 330, n a c h M a l t e B r u n 175 M i l l i o n e n Einwoh-


ner. (372) the labouring classes are over the whole country in a state of t h e
greatest indigence; their furniture is wretched ... N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the m o s t 35

266
Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

economical arrangements, the labouring poor are almost everywhere re-


duced to vegetable food, with a very rare a n d scanty relish of any richer
substance. ... In the great towns ... the i n d i g e n c e of the lower people can-
not be exceeded. (373) farms are universally small; a n d the division of
5 m a n u a l labour is carried to its u t m o s t length, without ever having led to
any agricultural m a c h i n e r y for the d i m i n u t i o n of the w o r k m e n employed.
(376) famine ... recurs in C h i n a in general at t h e expiration of every 3 or
4 years. (377)

7) Japan.

10 the m e t h o d of h u s b a n d r y , universally adopted, is the garden style; the soil


is all t u r n e d up by t h e spade, a n d incredible pains are t a k e n in weeding the
crops. (393) of luxuries they have no conception. (395) with the exception
of the emperor, no person has the m e a n s of getting rich in J a p a n b u t t h e
m e r c h a n t ; and this class of m e n frequently a c c u m u l a t e considerable
15 wealth; b u t the profession is, nevertheless, universally despised. (395)

8) Persia and Affghanistaun.

Artificial wants are u n k n o w n a m o n g the labouring classes in Persia; t h e


fare of the poor is simplest imaginable; the use of a n i m a l food or luxuries
of any kind is u n k n o w n . ... their only luxury consists in the m u l t i t u d e of
20 horses. (402) T h e whole plain of M e s o p o t a m i a is susceptible of an artificial
supply of water. ... Aber: T h e old c h a n n e l s for the conveyance of water
were neglected or allowed to get into disrepair during some of the tartar in-
vasions; the insecurity of property, u n d e r s u b s e q u e n t dynasties, r e n d e r e d
their restoration impossible; the richest p l a i n in the world was i m m e d i a t e l y
25 converted into a moving sand; a n d t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g waters of t h e E u -
phrates a n d the Tigris, fed by the eternal snows of the Caucasus, have, for
ages, rolled their u n d i s t u r b e d waters to the I n d i a n Ocean. (403)

On the Action of the Principle of Increase in Europe.

In der Lombardei die Bauern, i n h a b i t i n g a country which a b o u n d s in wine,


30 it is seldom they drink anything b u t water; their clothing is scanty a n d
wretched; their dwellings destitute of all t h e comforts of life. On the public
roads, in the villages, in the cities, the traveller is assailed by m u l t i t u d e s of

267
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

beggars. Die proprietors residiren alle in d e n Stdten. Das land is all let to
middlemen, who relet their farms to the actual cultivators, a n d such is the
a c c u m u l a t e d weight t h u s heaped u p o n the farmers that, in spite of the
riches of the soil, they can barely procure the necessaries of life. T h e first
crop goes to the landlord, die peasantry m u subsist on the m o r e precar- 5
ious u n d u n c e r t a i n returns of the second harvest. D i e cultivators h a b e n
m e i s t a piece of land m i t 1 oder 2 cows ... by yielding the people a subsist-
ence and nothing more, it gives an improper a n d uncalled for facility to their
increase. (454, 5) Dasselbe oppressive u n d r u i n o u s system of m i d d l e m e n in
d e n states von P a r m a , M o d e n a u n d d e m district von P a d u a . (455) In N e a - 10
pel u n d Sicilien die cottagers live on chestnuts, or other casual a n d u n s u b -
stantial n u t r i m e n t , instead of the rich a n d wholesome diet which the c o u n -
try affords ... whatever the country produces is owing to the m i l d n e s s of
the climate or the goodness of the soil, aber fast nichts der industry or skill
der E i n w o h n e r (458) Italien k n n t e 2x seine jetzige E i n w o h n e r z a h l reich- 15
licher e r n h r e n als die jetzige: Schwer to estimate the capabilities of a
country where the plains yield d o u b l e a n d triple crops, the hills an inex-
haustible supply of oil a n d wine, the m o u n t a i n s a p e r m a n e n t provision
from their chestnut forests, a n d the highest s u m m i t s a range of the finest
a n d coolest pasturage. (463) ||29| In Spanien residiren die l a n d e d proprie- 20
tors i m m e r in den Stdten, die great nobles zu M a d r i d . (464) A l m o s t all
the farms are too large: cultivation is generally n o t attempted on the half of
it, a n d large quantities of arable land everywhere lie in a state of N a t u r e .
(464, 5) Spanien enthielt frher eine viel grre Bevlkerung. (465) D a s
k i n g d o m von G r e n a d a enthielt u n t e r d e n M o o r s 3 Mill. Einwohner, jezt 25
n u r n o c h 661,000. (466) D e r B o d e n b e r a l l von N a t u r sehr fruchtbar. (467)
Alcavalas tax of 14 % auf W a a r e n , so oft they pass from h a n d to h a n d . ... it
affects heritable as well as movable property. (467, 8) Millones % auf W e i n ,
Oel, butchers m e a t etc. (468) The laws of the Mesta ... 5 millions of sheep,
u n d e r the sanction of a particular code, n o t only fail to enrich the land on 30
which they feed, b u t effectually prevent its cultivation. Die C o m p a n y der
M e s t a besizt grossen Einflu, e n o r m e u n d schamlose Privilegien. Ein be-
sondres T r i b u n a l : "The H o n o u r a b l e Council of the Mesta," which superin-
t e n d s the preservation of these i m m u n i t i e s . ... the cultivated l a n d s which
lie near the route which the flocks take, suffer the greatest depredations; 35
der court entscheidet sich fast i m m e r in favour of its own servants. A u c h
die c o m m o n lands devastated d u r c h die i m m e n s e flocks which traverse
t h e m ... 5 millions of sheep annually migrating in this m a n n e r , n o t only
convert an i m m e n s e tract of highly valuable land into pasturage, b u t pre-
vent any agricultural produce being ever raised u p o n it. (469, 70) Das 40
grte U e b e l Spaniens ( n a c h J o v e l l a n o s , T o w n s e n d , C a m p o m a n e s , L a -

268
Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

borde etc) ist das engrossing of large estates in d e n h a n d s von I n d i v i d u e n ,


die weder Mittel n o c h N e i g u n g h a b e n es zu verbessern. Fast ganz A n d a l u -
sien in den h a n d s der D u k e s von O s u n a , Alba, M e d i n a Coeli; der leztre
claims by descent fast ganz Catalonia. % von Spanien gehalten v o n d e n
5 families of M e d i n a Coeli, Alba, Infantado, u n d some other grandees, the
archbishops of Toledo, Compostella, Valencia, Seville, M u r c i a etc u n d a
few of the religious orders; t h e nobles a n d the clergy possess nearly the
whole country; u n d der major part der lands belonging diesen great pro-
prietors is u n d e r grass. Sie leben in cities u n d berlassen alles d e m m a n -
10 agement der stewards ... andres U e b e l die great possessions of towns. An
vielen Pltzen h a b e n sie l a n d e d estates, oft 10 oder 15 miles in diameter.
Diese tracts are c o m m o n property a n d of course n o t h i n g is d o n e to im-
prove t h e m . E n t s t a n d e n w h r e n d der wars der Moors u n d Christen, when
the peasants des country were compelled to herd together into towns for
15 their m u t u a l protection. D a h e r im S d e n Spaniens, wo diese* wars pre-
vailed, i n d e p e n d e n t farms, d e t a c h e d from e a c h other, k a u m zu sehn. N e a r
the village you see grain, olives u n d vines; beyond this all is desolate. A
foreigner would hardly credit t h e extent of land which is necessarily waste
by being kept in a state of c o m m o n t y t h r o u g h o u t the m i d d l e a n d s o u t h e r n
20 province of Spain ... To complete t h e evils arising from this unjust m o n o p -
oly of land, the system of entails u n d mortmain tenure prevails m e h r in Spa-
nien als irgend wo sonst, locks up the l a n d of the chief proprietors in t h e
h a n d s of its present possessors; a n d n o t only prevents either capital or in-
dustry from being exerted on the estates which are subject to these fetters,
25 but raises the price of the whole land in t h e country to a m o s t exorbitant
a n d r u i n o u s height. ... It has b e e n observed by C a m p o m a n e s , that A n d a l u -
sia, obgleich eine der fruchtbarsten Provinzen Spaniens, is destitute of in-
dustry; weil das land occupied by a few proprietors whose estates pass by
entail. T h e bulk der people sind daylabourers, who only find occasional
30 e m p l o y m e n t . H e n c e , clothed in rags and wretchedness, they crowd into
cities, where they o b t a i n a scanty livelihood by the b o u n t y of ecclesiastics.
( 4 7 0 - 3 ) In Spain ... resoluto j u r e dantis, resolvitur jus accipientis; a n d this
has checked b o t h the progress of wealth towards farming, a n d t h e exertions
of the cultivators, by the precarious n a t u r e of the t e n u r e by which they held
35 their possessions. (474) A u s n a h m e , plus ou m o i n s , Catalonia. H i e r das
establishment of feus or emphyteutic contracts has broken down the |
|30| landed property. Wo die System etablirt, h o h e r G r a d von I n d u s t r i e .
Every parish that will till or feu at a m o d e r a t e price is sure to be cultivated;
but the great lord who will never sell any, is equally sure of perpetuating
40 deserts to the disgrace of t h e country. ... Wo die lords die n i c h t wollen
number of wastes in Catalonia u n d selbst in dieser industrious province 288

269
1

Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

deserted villages. In a country where the farmers are absolutely destitute of


capital, a n d where there is no such thing to be seen as a g e n t l e m a n residing
on his estate, leicht to see d a cultivation can m a k e no progress where the
labourer is not possessed in property of t h e soil which he improves. (476, 7)
Valencia ist frei von den oppressive taxes which desolate the greater part 5
der spanischen M o n a r c h i e . Die, v e r b u n d e n m i t der extreme fertility des
soil, u n d der absence der great proprietors, has i n d u c e d the a d m i r a b l e cul-
tivation u n d die happy appearance dieser Provinz. (478) A b e r Biscaya das
einzige E x a m p l e of a p o p u l a t i o n completely happy u n t e r der Spanish m o n -
archy. (Siehe S w i n b u r n e , F i s h e r , M a r s h a l l ) Diese Provinz eigentlich n u r 10
u n t e r spanischer Protection; being a small republic u n i t e d to a great m o n -
archy. K e i n e royal taxes ausser d e m d o n a t i v e Biscay d u r c h kein state of
the province regirt. (479[, 480])
Portugal. In der reichen u n d fruchtbaren Provinz von Alenteijo the privi-
leges belonging to the flocks der nobles, e q u a l those of the m e s t a in Spain 15
u n d a t t e n d e d m i t denselben r u i n o u s effects. T h e s a m e evils from the enor-
m o u s size of estates, u n d der prevalence of entails, to which the prevalence
of estates held in j o i n t t e n a n c y is to be added, which are generally covered
with heath. T h e principal obstacle to t h e progress of agriculture, however,
is the extreme badness of the roads, which r e n d e r the riches of n a t u r e , 20
wholly unavailing b o t h to their possessors a n d the state. A u s n a h m e Provinz
Minho, 900,000 souls, obgleich das whole country consists of ridges of gran-
ite m o u n t a i n s intersected with precipitous vales. Die steep acclivities der
hills are cut into terraces and planted m i t m a i z e , while the slopes are
covered with vines, a n d yield the finest fruits. ... the whole country m i t 25
A u s n a h m e des d e m monastery g e h r e n d e n property, is in the h a n d s of the
actual cultivators, which is the real cause of the prosperity of t h e province.
(Link, Silviera.) (480, 1) In der g a n z e n pyrenischen Halbinsel: In the prov-
inces where the n u m b e r s of the people are m o s t scanty, the indigence t h a t
prevails is the greatest; while in those where industry a n d property have 30
b e e n suffered to establish themselves, vast n u m b e r s are m a i n t a i n e d in
comfort a n d affluence. (481, 2)

Action of the Principle of Increase


in the United States of America.

Seit 1640, wo die P u r i t a n e r in A m e r i c a gelandet, sie sich i m m e r verdoppelt 35


in 23 J a h r e n . (542) 1790 waren sie 3,929,128 u n d 1830: 12,856,165. (I.e.)
Das valley des Mississippi, der richest part of A m e r i c a , enthlt b e r 1 Mill.

270
Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

square geographical miles, oder an 14 x die area der British islands, h a t


sich die population in d e n lezten 40 J a h r e n 31 x vermehrt, w h r e n d in der-
selben Periode in d e n g a n z e n Vereinigten Staaten n u r verdreifacht.
(543[, 544]) D u r c h E m i g r a t i o n z u m grossen T h e i l von E u r o p a u n d d e m
5 amerikanischen K s t e n l a n d . (544) So was, wie dieser grosse Strom v o m
Osten von A m e r i c a n a c h d e m W e s t e n , aus der Civilisation in die W i l d n i
n o c h n i e gesehn. Vast as were the savage m u l t i t u d e s which a m b i t i o n or lust
of p l u n d e r in G e n g i s k h a n or T i m o u r b r o u g h t down from the plains of Tar-
tary to overwhelm the o p u l e n t regions of the earth, they are as n o t h i n g
10 compared to the ceaseless flood of h u m a n beings which is now in its t u r n
sent forth from t h e abodes of civilized m a n into the desert parts of the
world. M i n d e s t e n s 300,000 persons j h r l i c h cross the Alleghany m o u n -
tains ... their war is with the forest a n d t h e m a r s h , n o t against the cor-
rupted cities of longestablished m a n . (545) S t e a m Navigation is the vital
15 m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n by w h i c h this extraordinary activity is propelled
into distant regions. (547) D a s T h a l des Mississippi, w e n n so dicht bevl-
kert wie Frankreich, k n n t e allein e n t h a l t e n 250 Mill, souls. (Europa bis zu
den Ural m o u n t a i n s enthlt 227 Mill.) (548) In A m e r i c a zuerst scheint das
a t t a c h m e n t der owners des soil zu ihren little freeholds to be entirely oblit-
20 erated ... |
| 3 1 | However long a n d happily a proprietor m a y have lived u p o n his little
d o m a i n , he is always ready to sell it if he can m a k e any profit by t h e trans-
action; and putting himself a n d his family with all his effects on board t h e
first steamboat, transport himself to a different part of the country a n d
25 c o m m e n c e , perhaps at the distance of s o m e 100 miles, the great a n d en-
grossing work of a c c u m u l a t i n g m o n e y . D i e peculiarity, ganz u n b e k a n n t in
irgend einer frhren Periode der G e s c h i c h t e - t h e Nomad Agricultural State.
( 5 5 0 - 2 ) E r giebt i m A p p e n d i x z u T . I :

Countries. Population Territory in Verhltni per


30 1825. square marine square league,
leagues.
America 34,284,000 1,186,930 29
Ruland 54,000,000 616,000 87
Nordamerika 19,650,000 607,337 32
35 Sdamerika 12,161,000 571,300 21
Asiatisch Ruland 2,000,000 465,600 4
Chinese Empire 175,000,000 463,200 377
United States 10,220,000 174,300 58
China proper 150,000,000 128,000 1172
40 Buenos Ayres 2,300,000 126,800 18
India 101,000,000 109,200 925

271
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

[Countries.] [Population [Territory in [Verhltniper


1825.] squaremarine squareleague.]
leagues.]
United States west
vom Mississippi 366,000 96,600 4 5
United States east
vom Mississippi 9,404,000 77,700 121
British India 73,000,000 90,100 810
Die 15 states on the
Atlantic der United 10
States 7,421,000 30,900 240
Austrian Empire. 29,000,000 21,900 1324
Germany. 30,500,000 21,300 1432
Spain und Portugal 14,619,000 18,150 805
France und Corsica 30,616,000 17,100 1790 15
Spain 11,446,000 15,000 763
Italy 20,100,000 10,240 1967
British Islands 21,200,800 10,000 2120
Prussia 11,663,000 8,900 1311
England 12,218,500 4,840 2524 20
Mexico 1,770,000 3,800 465
Schweiz 1,940,000 1,330 1175
Aejypten 2,489,000 1,400 1737
Holland. 2,100,000 900 1330
Valencia 1,200,000 640 1874 25
Departements of the
Charente in France 347,000 186 1865
(p. 572 aus Humboldt.)

T.II

t h e acquisition of land, w h e n u n a c c o m p a n i e d by political oppression, is 30


n o t only t h e strongest s t i m u l u s to industry, b u t t h e m o s t powerful security
against t h e u n d u e increase of t h e people. (39) W h a t in t h e e n d is to distin
guish t h e french p e a s a n t s from t h e ryots of H i n d o s t a n ? (73)

On the Corn Laws.

T h e m o n e y r a t e of wages, wholly i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e price of provisions 35


from year to year, is entirely regulated by it, o t h e r things b e i n g equal, from
10 J a h r e to 10 J a h r e . (418) . r e c h n e t fr 1 8 3 5 - 1 8 3 7 as being
1 4 8 , 0 5 0 , 0 0 0 Manufacturwaaren, wovon ausgefhrt n u r 48,500,000 also,
m e h r als % fr d e n i n n e r n C o n s u m . (427) t h e ||32| m a n u f a c t u r e s for t h e ex-

272
Aus Archibald Alison: The principles of population

l
port sales hardly p r o d u c e / des a n n u a l i n c o m e derived from the industry
u

of the nation, and will bear no proportion, weder in Grsse n o c h Wichtig-


keit, weder zu den agriculturists n o c h d e n m a n u f a c t u r e r s des h o m e m a r k e t .
t e n
Die ersten produce 5 x, die 2 a b o u t double, t h e value annually created by
5 the manufacturers for the export sales. (428) U n s r e foreign m a n u f a c t u r e s
nicht y deren d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e agriculture a n d h o m e m a n u f a c t u r e s of
5

the kingdom. (429)


N a c h Porters Progress of the N a t i o n : (fr 1827)
Acres Acres Acres Summary
10 cultivated uncultivated unprofitable
England 25,632,000 3,454,000 3,256,400 32,342,400
Wales 3,117,000 530,000 1,105,000 4,752,000
Scotland 5,265,000 5,950,000 8,523,930 19,738,930
Ireland 12,125,280 4,900,000 2,416,664 19,441,944
15 British Islands 383,690 166,000 569,469 1,119,159
46,522,970 15,000,000 15,871,463 77,394,433 (P. 435)
a quarter per h u m a n being die average c o n s u m p t i o n fr ein ganzes Jahr.
(436) quarter = 8 bushels. (I.e.) while every i n h a b i t a n t of A m e r i c a con-
s u m e s 19 sh. and 6 d. worth of british m a n u f a c t u r e s , of the W e s t i n d i e s 3 I.
20 10 sh. worth, of Australia 111, worth, every i n h a b i t a n t of Prussia takes off
only 3 d. worth davon u n d of R u s s i a n u r 6 d. worth. (447) C o n s u m p t i o n per
Kopf in
Great Britain Preussischer France
Zollverein
25 Zucker per Kopf 17.1 lbs 3.9 lbs 4.3 lbs
Tea 1 % of an ounce
Salt 22 16 13
Cotton goods 9.2. 4.35.
Wool 4 1.67
30 Woollen cloth 5 ells 2.17 ells
4
Coal 10 / tons 5 1 tons.
(Bowrings Report on Prusso-Germanic League. 26, 29) [p. 459]

While the descendants of t h e dwellers in the cities of the plain have


hardly expanded b e y o n d the first cradle of m a n k i n d , the children of t h e
35 desert have covered the globe. ... to the vigour of the h e r d s m e n who p e n e -
trated from the centre of Asia t h r o u g h the wilderness of Europe, the glories
of m o d e r n civilisation are entirely to be ascribed. (466) 1575 Peru con-
tained 8,280,000 souls, enthlt n u n , Chili eingeschlossen, n u r n o c h
2,500,000. (474) W r e das Chinesische R e i c h bevlkert wie das brittische
40 es wrde statt 175 M i l l i o n e n 971 e n t h a l t e n . (482) Palestine, which formerly
was so richly cultivated in g a r d e n a n d terrace husbandry, m i g h t again be

273
Londoner Hefte 1850-1853 Heft XIII

converted by irrigation into a land flowing with milk a n d honey. T h e des-


erts of M e s o p o t a m i a , now so barren, were overloaded in a n c i e n t t i m e s with
the riches of n a t u r e ; and nothing b u t a renewed distribution of the waters
of the E u p h r a t e s is necessary to revive t h e p r o d u c e of the soil; a n d in all
the plains of Persia, now for the m o s t part deserted, traces of a system of ir- 5
rigation are to be seen equal to the boasted work des m i l a n e s e territory.
... there is hardly any country in the world except Peru, where rain does
n o t fall in sufficient quantities, if carefully collected, to furnish the m e a n s
of artificial watering ... H u m b o l d t erwhnt, da dieselbe R u m d e in W e i -
z e n n u r food fr Zwei, im Banana Crop fr 50 I n d i v i d u e n food giebt ... 10
S u c h is the produce of the soil in Ceylon (Heber) da whole families are
frequently m a i n t a i n e d for successive generations on the fruit of a single
tree u n d es ist nicht u n u s u a l to see part of a cocoa tree alienated as a
separate property. ( 4 8 5 - 7 ) T h e fertility of the soil over the whole globe is
constantly increasing, from the a n n u a l decay of vegetable matter, the addi- 15
tion of a n i m a l droppings or r e m a i n s , a n d the washing down of the soil from
superior situations. ... D a s Deposit der a m e r i c a n lakes is daily forming an
alluvial soil below their waves, which at no distant period will convert t h e m
into vast morasses, and ultimately into fertile plains; the e n o r m o u s masses
of wood and earth which are rolled down by the rivers ||33| of the new 20
world, are incessantly producing beds of c o m b i n e d vegetable a n d a n i m a l
matter, from which the u t m o s t luxuriance of vegetation will hereafter
spring; and in the i m m e n s e marshy plain which forms the centre of N e w
Holland, the powers of vegetation are unceasingly acting, and preparing in
silence the extension of the earth. (487, 8) Das Meer: those who are 25
alarmed at the possibility of a geometrical increase of h u m a n beings, c o m -
pared with the extent of the terraqueous globe, would do well to consider
the rate of multiplication in the finny tribes, c o m p a r e d with the b o u n d l e s s
surface of the sea. U n d das M e e r gleich prolific in allen Z o n e n . G r a d e in
d e n Eisgegenden sind annually impelled those s t u p e n d o u s shoals which 30
carry to temperate zones the inexhaustible riches of a n i m a t e d life. ... die
multiplication der aquatic tribes gesichert in regions wo der foot des m a n
l
is never destined to approach. (490) W e n n / o des irischen Volks engagirt
2

wrde in Fischerei womit die coasts dieser island a b o u n d u n d der Rest en-
gagirt in der Cultur des Bodens, wrde die d o u b l e t h e riches des country. 35
... In d e n s e l b e n waves, worin die Fische, zu finden an inexhaustible supply
of salt. (491) Die field of subsistence ist n o c h almost u n t o u c h e d . (492) It
is impossible to guess even at t h e a m o u n t of those vast shoals which a n n u -
ally migrate from the n o r t h a n d s o u t h poles to the t e m p e r a t e latitudes. (I.e.)
While m a n in the old world is pining u n d e r the miseries etc an insect in 40
the Pacific (Die Coralle) is calling a new world into existence, a n