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KARL MARX

FRIEDRICH ENGELS
GESAMTAUSGABE
(MEGA)
VIERTE A B T E I L U N G

EXZERPTE NOTIZEN MARGINALIEN

BAND 12

HERAUSGEGEBEN VON DER


INTERNATIONALEN MARX-ENGELS-STIFTUNG
AMSTERDAM
KARL MARX
FRIEDRICH ENGELS
EXZERPTE
UND NOTIZEN
SEPTEMBER 1853 BIS
JANUAR 1855
TEXT

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Inhalt

Text Apparat

Verzeichnis der Abkrzungen, Siglen und Zeichen 1019

Einfhrung 1025

ERSTER TEIL: EXZERPTE


UND NOTIZEN VON KARL MARX

Karl Marx: Exzerpte zur Geschichte

der Diplomatie (Heft 1-4) 5 1063

Heft 1
Exzerpte a u s Werken von David Urquhart, Georg
Friedrich von Martens, George Henry Francis und
anderen Autoren sowie a u s Hansard's parliamentary
d e b a t e s und Correspondence relative to the affairs of
the Levant 7 1065
Exzerpte a u s The Russians in Moldavia and Wallachia.
2 ed. 7
Exzerpte a u s Heinrich von Brandt: Ruland's Politik
und Heer in den lezten Jahren 15
Exzerpte a u s T h e Greek and Eastern Churches 17
Exzerpte a u s John Mason Neale: Introduction to the
history of the Holy Eastern Church 29

V
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte a u s Valerian Krasinski: Lectures on the
religious history of the Slavonic nations 30
Exzerpte a u s Augustin Theiner: Die Staatskirche
Rulands im J a h r e 1839 31
Exzerpte a u s Charles de Martens, Ferdinand de
Cussy: Recueil manuel et pratique de traits,
Conventions et autres a c t e s diplomatiques. T. 1 35
Exzerpte a u s Valerian Krasinski: Lectures on the
religious history ... (Fortsetzung) 37
Exzerpte a u s Hansard's parliamentary d e b a t e s . Third
series 39
Vol.37. 1837 39
Vol. 4 3 . 1838 42
Exzerpte a u s David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in
the West, North, and South. 2 ed. 44
Exzerpte a u s David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in
the West, North, and South (Fortsetzung) 60
Exzerpte a u s Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri
einer diplomatischen Geschichte der europischen
Staatshndel und Friedensschlsse seit dem Ende
d e s 15ten Jahrhunderts bis zum Frieden zu Amiens 65
Exzerpte a u s George Henry Francis: Opinions and
policy of Palmerston 88
Exzerpte a u s John McNeill: Progress and present
position of Russia in the East 97
Exzerpte a u s George Henry Francis: Opinions and
policy of Palmerston (Fortsetzung) 100
Exzerpte a u s Correspondence relative to the affairs of
the Levant. Pt. 1-3 105
Exzerpte a u s Hansard's parliamentary d e b a t e s . Third
series (Fortsetzung) 113
Vol. 54. 1840 113
Vol. 55. 1840 114
Vol. 56. 1841 116
Vol.59. 1841 119
Vol. 55. 1840 119

VI
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Vol. 88. 1846 125
Vol. 19. 1833 125
Vol. 22. 1834 126
Vol. 20. 1833 126
Vol. 22. 1834 128
Vol. 21.1834 133
Vol. 32. 1836 134
Exzerpte a u s Hansard's parliamentary d e b a t e s
(Fortsetzung a u s Heft XXIV der Londoner Hefte
1850-1853) 139
Vol. 88. 1846 139
Vol. 89. 1847 142
Vol. 90. 1847 142
Vol. 9 1 . 1 8 4 7 146
Vol. 96. 1848 148
Vol. 98. 1848 167
Vol. 5. 1831 167
Vol. 6. 1831 168
Vol. 9. 1832 168
Vol. 13. 1832 169
Vol. 14. 1832 169
Vol. 19. 1833 170
Vol. 22. 1834 171
Vol. 3 1 . 1 8 3 6 173
Vol. 32. 1836 173
Vol. 37. 1837 174
Vol. 38. 1837 174
Vol. 4 3 . 1838 174
Vol. 39. 1838 175
Vol. 55. 1840 177

Heft 2
Exzerpte a u s britischen Zeitungen 179 1151
Notizen 179
Exzerpte a u s britischen Zeitungen 180
1 October 180
Monday. October, 3 181
Wednesday. October, 5 182
Thursday. October, 6 183
Friday. October, 7 184
Monday. October, 10 185
15 October. Tallis. Saturday 187

VII
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Monday. October, 17 188
19 October. Mittwoch 191
October 2 1 . Friday 193

Notizen 194

Heft 3
Exzerpte a u s Werken von Georg Friedrich von Martens
und Franz Schuselka sowie a u s Correspondence relative
to the affairs of the Levant und a u s The Portfolio 195 1168
Exzerpte a u s Correspondence relative to the affairs of
the Levant (Fortsetzung) 195
Exzerpte a u s Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri
einer diplomatischen Geschichte der europischen
Staatshndel (Fortsetzung) 260
Exzerpte a u s The Portfolio. Vol. II 301
Exzerpte a u s Franz Schuselka: Die Orientalische, d a s
ist Russische Frage 304
Exzerpte a u s Correspondence relative to the affairs of
the Levant (Fortsetzung) 305
Exzerpte a u s Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri
einer diplomatischen Geschichte der europischen
Staatshndel (Fortsetzung) 312

Heft 4
Exzerpte a u s Werken von David Urquhart, William Cargill,
C s a r Famin, Jules de Brval und William Barnes sowie
a u s R e a s o n s for demanding investigation into the
c h a r g e s against Lord Palmerston und a u s The Portfolio 319 1194
Literaturliste 319
Philologische Notizen a u s David Urquhart: An appeal
against faction 320
Exzerpte a u s R e a s o n s for demanding investigation
into the c h a r g e s against Lord Palmerston 321
Exzerpte a u s William Cargill: Address to the South
Shields Chamber of Commerce 322

VIII
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte a u s David Urquhart: La crise 325
Exzerpte a u s David Urquhart: An appeal against
faction 326
Exzerpte a u s The Portfolio (Fortsetzung) 329
Exzerpte a u s C s a r Famin: Histoire de la rivalit et du
protectorat d e s glises chrtiennes en Orient 340
Exzerpte a u s Jules de Brval: Mazzini jug par lui
m m e et par les siens 361
The Austro-Turkish treaty (Draft) 362
Exzerpte a u s William Barnes: A philological grammar,
grounded upon English, and formed from a
comparison of more than sixty languages 364

Karl Marx: Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens (Heft


1-5) 369 1217

Heftl
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Griechenlands, Frankreichs und
Spaniens a u s Werken von Henry Headley Parish,
Terence McMahon Hughes, Sebastin de Minano,
Manuel de Marliani, Augustin Thierry sowie anderen
Autoren und Schriften 371 1219
Inhaltsverzeichnis 371
Exzerpte a u s Henry Headley Parish: The diplomatic
history of the monarchy of G r e e c e from the year 1830 375
Notiz zu J o s S e g u n d o Florez: Espartero. Historia de
su vida militar y poltica y de los g r a n d e s s u c e s o s
contemporneos 395
Notiz zu John Esaias Warren: Notes of an attach in
Spain in 1850 396
Exzerpte a u s Una plumada sobre la ndole y tendencia
de la revolucin en E s p a a 397
Exzerpte aus: Espartero. Su p a s a d o , su presente, su
porvenir 399

IX
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte a u s The crisis of Spain. 2. ed. 402
Exzerpte a u s Terence McMahon Hughes: Revelations
of Spain in 1845 411
Exzerpte a u s Sebastin de Minano: Rvolution
d'Espagne. Examen critique 459
Bibliographische Notizen 493
Exzerpte a u s Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la
E s p a a moderna 494
Exzerpte a u s Augustin Thierry: Essai sur l'histoire de
n d
la formation et d e s progrs du Tiers tat. 2 d. 513

Heft 2
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens a u s Werken von
Robert Southey, John Bigland, William Walton, Manuel
de Marliani, J o s Mara de Toreno sowie anderen
Autoren und Schriften 581 1310
Exzerpte a u s The political constitution of the Spanish
monarchy 581
Notiz zu Charles Romey: Histoire d'Espagne 593
Exzerpte a u s Robert Southey: History of the
Peninsular war 594
Exzerpte a u s J o s e p h Bonaparte: Mmoires et corres-
pondance politique et militaire du roi J o s e p h 616
Exzerpte a u s Constitution dcrte par l'assemble
constituante. 1791 620
Exzerpte a u s Robert Southey: History of the
Peninsular war (Fortsetzung) 622
Exzerpte a u s John Bigland: Histoire d'Espagne depuis
la plus ancienne p o q u e jusqu' la fin de l'anne 1809 626
Literaturliste 629
Exzerpte a u s William Walton: The revolutions of Spain 630
Exzerpte a u s Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la
E s p a a moderna (Fortsetzung) 644

Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte a u s J o s Mara de Toreno: Historia del
levantamiento, guerra, y revolucin de E s p a a 645
Exzerpte a u s Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la
E s p a a moderna (Fortsetzung) 664

Heft 3
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens a u s Werken von
Dominique de Pradt, Heinrich von Brandt, J o s Mara de
Toreno, G a s p a r Melchor de Jovellanos sowie anderen
Autoren 665 1351
Centraijunta (Draft) 665
Exzerpte a u s Dominique de Pradt: Mmoires
historiques sur la rvolution d'Espagne 666
Exzerpte a u s Heinrich von Brandt: The two Minas and
the Spanish guerillas 670
Exzerpte a u s Dominique de Pradt: Mmoires
historiques sur la rvolution d'Espagne (Fortsetzung) 671
Exzerpte a u s Heinrich von Brandt: The two Minas and
the Spanish guerillas (Fortsetzung) 674
Exzerpte a u s J o s Mara de Toreno: Historia del
levantamiento, guerra, y revolucin de E s p a a
(Fortsetzung) 683
Exzerpte a u s Diodorus Siculus: Bibliotheca Histrica 702
Exzerpte a u s Dominique de Pradt: Mmoires
historiques sur la rvolution d'Espagne (Fortsetzung) 703
Exzerpte a u s Dominique de Pradt: De la rvolution
actuelle de l'Espagne et de s e s suites 705
Exzerpte a u s J o s Mara de Toreno: Historia del
levantamiento, guerra, y revolucin de E s p a a
(Schlu) 707
Exzerpte a u s G a s p a r Melchor de Jovellanos: Informe
de la Sociedad econmica de Madrid al Real y
Supremo Consejo de Castilla en el expediente de ley
agraria 717

XI
Inhalt

Text Apparat

Heft 4
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens a u s Werken von
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, Henry Winter Davis,
Evaristo San Miguel, J o s e p h Blanco White, Christopher
Clarke, Pedro de Urquinaona, Franois-Ren de
Chateaubriand, Sebastin de Minano, William Walton,
Victor Du Hamel, Manuel de Marliani, Michael J o s e p h
Quin sowie anderen Autoren und Schriften 727 1380
Exzerpte a u s Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos: Informe
de la Sociedad econmica de Madrid (Fortsetzung) 727
Exzerpte a u s Henry Winter Davis: The war of Ormuzd
and Ahriman in the nineteenth century 732
Exzerpte a u s Evaristo S a n Miguel: Memoria sucinta
sobre lo acaecido en la columna mvil de las tropas
nacionales al mando del comandante general de la
primera division Don Rafael del Riego 738
Exzerpte a u s J o s e p h Blanco White: Letters from Spain 740
Exzerpte a u s Christopher Clarke: An examination of
the internal state of Spain 745
Exzerpte a u s John Bramsen: Remarks on the North of
Spain 762
Exzerpte a u s The last days of Spain 763
Exzerpte a u s Pedro de Urquinaona: La E s p a a bajo el
poder arbitrario de la Congregacin Apostlica 774
Exzerpte a u s Santiago Perez: Who is the liberator of
Spain? 790
Exzerpte a u s The Holy Alliance versus Spain 793
Exzerpte a u s Franois-Ren de Chateaubriand:
Congrs de Vrone. Guerre d'Espagne. T. 1 796
Exzerpte a u s Sebastin de Minano: Rvolution
d'Espagne. Examen critique (Fortsetzung) 809
Exzerpte a u s William Walton: The revolutions of Spain
(Fortsetzung) 817

XII
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte a u s Victor Du Hamel: Historia constitucional
de la Monarqua espaola 823
Exzerpte a u s Carta los editores del
Espaol-Constitucional 827
Exzerpte a u s Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la
Espaa moderna (Fortsetzung) 831
Exzerpte a u s Michael J o s e p h Quin: A visit to Spain 838
Bibliographische Notizen 851

Heft 5
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens a u s Werken von
Victor Du Hamel, Dominique de Pradt, Evaristo San
Miguel, Richard Ford, Vicente Pou, Manuel de Marliani,
Michael J o s e p h Quin sowie a u s The Edinburgh Review
und The Economist 853 1438
Inhaltsverzeichnis 854
Exzerpte a u s Victor Du Hamel: Historia constitucional
de la Monarqua espaola (Fortsetzung) 855
Notiz zu Fastos e s p a o l e s efemridas de la guerra
civil, d e s d e octubre de 1832. T. 1. 2 874
Exzerpte a u s Dominique de Pradt: Garanties
demander l'Espagne 875
Exzerpte a u s Evaristo San Miguel: De la guerra civil de
Espaa 876
Exzerpte a u s Richard Ford: An historical enquiry into
the unchangeable character of a war in Spain 880
Exzerpte a u s Vicente Pou: L'Espagne en la crise
prsente 885
Exzerpte a u s Richard Ford: An historical enquiry into
the unchangeable character of a war in Spain
(Fortsetzung) 889
Exzerpte a u s Vicente Pou: L'Espagne en la crise
prsente (Fortsetzung) 890
Exzerpte a u s Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la
Espaa moderna (Fortsetzung) 893

XIII
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte a u s Michael J o s e p h Quin: A visit to Spain
(Schlu) 901
Exzerpte a u s Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la
E s p a a moderna (Fortsetzung) 908
Notizen zu Manuel de Miraflores: Memorias para
escribir la historia contempornea de los siete
primeros a o s del reinado de Isabel II 939
Exzerpte a u s The Edinburgh Review. Februar 1823 bis
J a n u a r 1824 940
Exzerpte a u s The Economist. 6. J a n u a r 1855 943
The commercial crisis in Britain (Draft) 946

ZWEITER TEIL: EXZERPTE


UND NOTIZEN VON FRIEDRICH ENGELS

Literaturliste 949 1471

Bibliographie zur Revolution 1848/49 951 1472

Notizen zur russischen Militrorganisation und

Heeresstrke whrend d e s Krimkriegs 969 1479

Notizen zur Ordre de bataille d e s 1. Treffens der

russischen Armee" 982 1482

Exzerpte a u s Werken von Johann Nobili und Arthur

Grgey 983 1484

Donau-Armee 992 1488

Exzerpte und Notizen zur Belagerung der Festung

Silistria in den Jahren 1828, 1829 und 1854 994 1489

Notizen zur Belagerung der Festung Silistria im Juni

1854 997 1492

Balaclava 998 1494

Notizen zur Strke der russischen, britischen,


franzsischen und trkischen Truppen auf der Krim 1004 1497
XIV
Inhalt

Text Apparat

REGISTER UND VERZEICHNISSE

Namenregister 1501

Literaturregister 1617
1. Bcher, Artikel und a n d e r e nichtperiodische
Publikationen 1617
2. Periodika 1670

Verzeichnis der im Apparat ausgewerteten Quellen


und der benutzten Literatur 1673
1. Archivalien 1673
2. Gedruckte Quellen 1673
a. Quelleneditionen 1673
b. Periodika 1678
c. Zeitgenssische Publikationen 1678
3. Nachschlagewerke 1682
4. Forschungsliteratur 1686

Sachregister 1711

Verzeichnis der Abbildungen


Aus The Russians in Moldavia and Wallachia. Exzerpte zur
Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 1. Seite 1 9
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates und Georg Friedrich
von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte.
Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 1. Seite 23 77
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates. Exzerpte zur
Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 1. Seite 83 121
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant.
Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 3. Seite 1 197
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer
diplomatischen Geschichte. Exzerpte zur Geschichte der
Diplomatie. Heft 3. Seite 37 261
Aus Csar Famin: Histoire de la rivalit et du protectorat.
Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 4. Seite 12 343
Aus William Barnes: A philological grammar. Exzerpte zur
Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 4. Seite 24 367
Aus William Barnes: A philological grammar. Exzerpte zur
Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 4. Seite 25 und 26 368

XV
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Griechenlands, Frankreichs und
Spaniens. Heft 1. Inhaltsverzeichnis 373
Aus Henry Headley Parish: The diplomatic history of the
monarchy of Greece. Exzerpte zur Geschichte
Griechenlands, Frankreichs und Spaniens. Heft 1. Seite 1 374
Aus Terence McMahon Hughes: Revelations of Spain in
1845. Exzerpte zur Geschichte Griechenlands, Frankreichs
und Spaniens. Heft 1. Seite 21 413
Aus Augustin Thierry: Essai sur l'histoire de la formation et
des progrs du Tiers tat. Exzerpte zur Geschichte
Griechenlands, Frankreichs und Spaniens. Heft 1. Seite 65 515
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens. Heft 2. Seite 7 589
Aus Dominique de Pradt: Mmoires historiques sur la
rvolution d'Espagne und Heinrich von Brandt: The two Minas
and the Spanish guerillas. Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens.
Heft 3. Seite 3 667
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens. Heft 4. Seite 4 735
Aus Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la Espaa
moderna. Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens. Heft 5. Seite 30 931
Bibliographie zur Revolution 1848/49. Seite 5 965
Notizen zur russischen Militrorganisation und Heeresstrke
whrend des Krimkriegs. Seite 1 971
Notizen zur russischen Militrorganisation und Heeresstrke
whrend des Krimkriegs. Seite 5 977
Aus Johann Nobili Der Winter-Feldzug 1848-1849 in Ungarn
und Arthur Grgey: Mein Leben und Wirken in Ungarn.
Seite 1 985
Balaclava. Seite 2 999
Notizen zur Strke der russischen, britischen, franzsischen
und trkischen Truppen auf der Krim 1005
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates. Exzerpte zur
Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 1. Seite 16 1035
Karte: Spanien. Aus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon fr das
deutsche Volk. Ein Handbuch zur Verbreitung gemeinntziger
Kenntnisse und zur Unterhaltung. Bd. 1-4. Bd. 4. Leipzig:
F. A. Brockhaus 1841. Zwischen Seite 226 und 227 1045
Aus Terence McMahon Hughes: Revelations of Spain in 1845
und Sebastin de Minano: Rvolution d'Espagne. Examen
critique. Exzerpte zur Geschichte Griechenlands, Frankreichs
und Spaniens. Heft 1. Seite 38 1225
The political constitution of the Spanish monarchy. London
1813. Titelblatt 1311

XVI
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Robert Southey: History of the Peninsular war. Vol. 3. London
1832. Titelblatt 1312
Joseph Bonaparte: Mmoires et correspondance politique et
militaire du roi Joseph. T. 4. Paris 1854. Titelblatt 1317
Collection des constitution, chartes et lois fondamentales des
peuples de l'Europe et de deux Amriques. T. 1. Paris, Rouen
1823. Titelblatt 1318
William Walton: The revolutions of Spain. Vol. 1. London
1837. Titelblatt 1321
Jos Mara de Toreno: Historia del levantamiento, guerra y
revolucin de Espaa. T. 2. Madrid 1835. Titelblatt 1322
Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens. Heft 2. Seite 26 1327
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos: Obras. Nueva ed. T. 7.
Barcelona 1840. Titelblatt 1355
Aus Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos: Informe de la Sociedad
econmica de Madrid. Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens.
Heft 3. Seite 21 1356
The last days of Spain. London 1823. Titelblatt 1385
Aus Manuel de Marliani: Historia poltica de la Espaa
moderna. Exzerpte zur Geschichte Spaniens. Heft 4. Seite 34 1393
Michael Quin: A visit to Spain. London 1823. Titelblatt 1394
Karte: Ungarn nebst Siebenbrgen, Slawonien, Kroatien und
Gallizien. Aus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon fur das deutsche
Volk. Ein Handbuch zur Verbreitung gemeinntziger
Kenntnisse und zur Unterhaltung. Bd. 1-4. Bd. 4. Leipzig:
F. A. Brockhaus 1841. Zwischen Seite 516 und 517 1485

XVII
KARL MARX
FRIEDRICH ENGELS
EXZERPTE UND NOTIZEN
SEPTEMBER 1853
BIS JANUAR 1855
ERSTER TEIL
EXZERPTE UND NOTIZEN
VON
KARL MARX
Karl Marx
Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie
(Heft 1)
Exzerpte aus Werken von David Urquhart,
Georg Friedrich von Martens, George Henry Francis
und anderen Autoren sowie aus
Hansard's parliamentary debates und
Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant

| 1 | 1853. Sept.
The Russians in Moldavia and Wallachia.
( Si viene di bassa a gran fortuna
pi con la fraude che con la forza.
5 Machiavelli. Discorsi. Cap. XIII)
2 ed. London. 1849.

Die wallachische S p r a c h e a sort of O r i e n t a l I t a l i a n . (3) Roumans n e n n e n


sie sich selbst; V l a c h s o d . W a l l a c h i a n s die natives v. M o l d a u w a l l a c h e i
v. ihren N a c h b a r n g e n a n n t . (1. c.) a. 1393 t h e Wallachians c o n c l u d e d a
10 treaty m. Bajazet, w i t h w h i c h originates t h e claim of the P o r t e to the sov-
ereignty of these p r o v i n c e s . Dieser Treaty, o d . as it is generally t e r m e d ,
the C a p i t u l a t i o n w a s as follows:
Art. 1. "We, Bajazet, in c o n s e q u e n c e of o u r e x t r e m e c o n d e s c e n s i o n
towards Wallachia, w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h its reigning Prince, h a s m a d e
15 submission to o u r invincible e m p i r e , resolve a n d decree, t h a t this c o u n t r y
shall c o n t i n u e t o b e g o v e r n e d b y its o w n laws; a n d t h a t t h e P r i n c e o f Wal-
lachia shall h a v e full liberty to declare w a r a g a i n s t his n e i g h b o u r s , a n d to
m a k e peace w i t h t h e m , w h e n a n d h o w i t shall a p p e a r best t o h i m : a n d
that he shall possess t h e r i g h t of life a n d d e a t h over his subjects."
20 Art. 2. All the C h r i s t i a n s w h o , h a v i n g formerly e m b r a c e d t h e M a h o m -
edan religion, w o u l d n o w leave t h e t e r r i t o r y o f o u r e m p i r e a n d r e t u r n t o
the Christian f o r m o f w o r s h i p , shall b e respected, a n d n o t claimed b y us.

7
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Art. 3. "All t h e W a l l a c h i a n s w h o m a y c o m e i n t o t h e t e r r i t o r y of o u r
e m p i r e , on their o w n business, shall be e x e m p t f r o m all k i n d s of c o n -
t r i b u t i o n , a n d n o b o d y shall d i s t u r b t h e m o n a c c o u n t o f their m o d e i n
dressing.
Art. 4. T h e Princes (always Christians) shall be c h o s e n by t h e m e t r o - 5
p o l i t a n a n d the b o y a r d s .
Art. 5. Fixes t h e a m o u n t of t h e t r i b u t e w h i c h is to be p a i d a n n u a l l y . "
(p. 5)
Moldavia did n o t yield to t h e t u r k i s h P o w e r until u p w a r d s of a c e n t u r y
h a d elapsed from the s i g n a t u r e of the Wallachian treaty; a. 1513 it a c - 10
k n o w l e d g e d the sovereignty of the P o r t e on t e r m s n o t less f a v o u r a b l e .
T h e s e a n c i e n t treaties form t h e basis of the r e l a t i o n s . . . b e t w e e n t h e P r i n -
cipalities a n d t h e P o r t e . . . confirmed b y successive S u l t a n s , a c k n o w l -
e d g e d t o b e valid a n d subsisting, b y t h e R u s s i a n G o v . , t h e P o r t e , t h e
i n h a b i t a n t s of the Principalities. 15
F r o m 1710 d a t e s die diplomatic c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d t h e
Principalities; Peter der Gr. c o n c l u d e d a t r e a t y m. Demetrius Cantemir,
P r i n c e of Moldavia: Art. 1. Moldavia shall c o m p r i s e all the t e r r i t o r y sit-
u a t e d between t h e D n i e s t e r a n d the Budjak. All t h e fortresses on the left
b a n k of the P r u t h shall b e l o n g , as of right, to M o l d a v i a . Art. 2 M o l d a v i a 20
shall n o t p a y a n y t r i b u t e to R u s s i a . Art. 3 T h e H o s p o d a r b i n d s himself to
m a i n t a i n 10,000 soldiers, w h o s e p a y shall be p r o v i d e d by R u s s i a . Art. 4.
R u s s i a shall never interfere in the affairs of t h e c o u n t r y ; a n d no R u s s i a n
shall be p e r m i t t e d to m a r r y or p u r c h a s e l a n d s in M o l d a v i a . [5, 6]
Art. 5. T h e title of t h e prince shall be Serene H i g h n e s s , P r i n c e a n d sole 25
R u l e r of M o l d a v i a , t h e ally of Russia.
Shortly afterwards Peter succeeded in i n d u c i n g t h e P r i n c e of Wallachia
to c o n c l u d e a similar c o m p a c t . Peter nichts d e s t o weniger g e k l o p f t f a i n
to p u r c h a s e a safe r e t r e a t i n t o his o w n d o m i n i o n s by bribes a d m i n i s t e r e d
to t h e T u r k i s h generals. N u n d a s t u r k i s h G o v . , fr a c e n t u r y , c u s t o m of 30
selecting the rulers o f M o l d a v i a a n d Wallachia n o t f r o m a m o n g s t t h e n a -
tives of those countries, b u t from the G r e e k s of the Fanar. These G r e e k s ,
m e m b e r s of a few f a v o u r e d families, p e r m i t t e d to reside within the walls
of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , in t h e q u a r t e r from w h e n c e t h e y derive their appel-
l a t i o n of Fanariots, w e r e e d u c a t e d to t h e business of S t a t e . F r o m t h e i r 35
k n o w l e d g e of Western l a n g u a g e s a n d d i p l o m a t i c u s a g e s , they were selec-
ted to fulfil the i m p o r t a n t duties of interpreters; a n d by their influence
w i t h t h e D i v a n w h i c h their talents c o m m a n d e d , t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e for-
eign affairs of the t u r k i s h E m p i r e , b e c a m e in a g r e a t m e a s u r e c o m m i t t e d
to their charge, the t r i b u t a r y sceptre of M o l d a v i a u. W a l l a c h i a w a s t h e 40
highest object of their a m b i t i o n , the title w h i c h they a c q u i r e d by its p o s -
session w a s t r a n s m i t t e d to their d e s c e n d a n t s , a n d it afforded if r e t a i n e d

8
Aus The Russians in Moldavia and Wallachia.
Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 1. Seite 1
Aus The Russians in Moldavia and Wallachia

for a few years, facilities for a m a s s i n g a f o r t u n e sufficiently a m p l e to |


|2| s u p p o r t the dignity of a princely h o u s e , families of Cantacuzene,
Mavrocordato, Kalttmaki u. o t h e r s , are derived f r o m this o r i g i n . [ 7 , 8]
T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e r Fanariots always d i s a s t r o u s to t h e Principalities.
5 the p r e s e n t s by w h i c h t h e H o s p o d a r p u r c h a s e d his elevation m u s t be re-
p a i d by taxes e x t o r t e d f r o m his subjects: their sufferings w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d
t o t h e D i v a n , a n d t h e D i v a n h a d , d u r i n g t h a t season o f c o r r u p t i o n a n d
decay, its o w n r e a s o n s for b e i n g ever d i s p o s e d to g r a n t t h e m s u c h relief
as a c h a n g e of rulers afforded. T h e r a p i d succession of princes a u g m e n t -
10 ed the evil, a n d it w a s principally u n d e r t h e pretext of checking this abuse,
t h a t Russia interfered at t h e close of the last, a n d the c o m m e n c e m e n t of
the p r e s e n t century, i n t h e i n t e r n a l affairs o f M o l d a v i a a n d Wallachia
a n d the T u r k i s h E m p i r e . [8] D i e first s t i p u l a t i o n respecting t h e Princi-
palities is art. 16 of t h e Treaty of Kainardji (1774). By t h a t article " t h e
15 P o r t e consents t h a t a c c o r d i n g to the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e 2 Principalities,
the Ministers o f t h e I m p e r i a l C o u r t o f R u s s i a m a y s p e a k i n t h e i r favour;
and promises to take into consideration such representations conform-
ably t o t h e a m i t y a n d respect w h i c h i t h a s for t h e P o w e r s " . D u r c h d e n
treaty of Bucharest (1812) R u s s i a o b t a i n e d for herself the cession of
l
20 nearly / of M o l d a v i a , t h e p r o v i n c e of B e s s a r a b i a . D i e Convention of
2

Ackermann (in 1826) u. der treaty of Adrianople did n o t confer a n y right


of sovereignty on R u s s i a . Art. 5 des treaty of Adrianople: " T h e Princi-
palities of M o l d a v i a a n d Wallachia h a v i n g by a c a p i t u l a t i o n p l a c e d
themselves u n d e r t h e suzeraint of the S u b l i m e P o r t e , a n d Russia having
25 guaranteed their prosperity, it is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e y shall preserve all
the privileges a n d i m m u n i t i e s g r a n t e d t o t h e m i n virtue o f their c a p i t u -
lation, w h e t h e r by the treaties c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n t h e 2 I m p e r i a l C o u r t s ,
or by t h e H a t t i Sheriffs issued at different times. In c o n s e q u e n c e t h e y
shall enjoy t h e free exercise of their religion, perfect security, a n a t i o n a l
30 a n d i n d e p e n d e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the full liberty of trade. " . . . the R u s -
sian G e n e r a l s , d u r i n g t h e w a r , w h i c h t e r m i n a t e d w i t h the Treaty o f A d r i a -
nople, h a d busied themselves w i t h p r e p a r i n g a constitution for e a c h of t h e
Principalities, u n d e r t h e n a m e of an organic statute... [9,10] 52 Art. des
Organic Statute f Wallachia: "every act or decision of t h e G e n e r a l
35 Assembly a n d t h e Prince, w h i c h shall be c o n t r a r y to the privileges of the
Principality, to t h e Treaties or Hattischeriffs, w h i c h h a v e b e e n m a d e for
the benefit of t h e Principality, as also contrary to the rights of the Sover-
eign and protecting Courts, shall be h e l d null a n d v o i d . " R u s s i a t h u s
succeeded in o b t a i n i n g t h e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t , in a p u b l i c d o c u m e n t , of
40 her a s s u m e d title of Protectress of the Principalities... D e r t r e a t y of

11
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

|\ A d r i a n o p l e j e d o c h p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e Organic Statute (then incomplete)


s h o u l d n o t in a n y w a y infringe on t h e rights of t h e P o r t e . . . [11]
In 1837, on t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of a n e w edition of the Organic Statute,
R u l a n d verlangt die E i n s c h r e i b u n g d e r W o r t e : " T h i s h o w e v e r (nmlich
t h a t the Assembly m i g h t , with t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e H o s p o d a r , m a k e such 5
c h a n g e s i n t h a t S t a t u t e a s s h o u l d b e c o m e necessary) c a n n o t t a k e place
w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f the Sovereign a n d p r o t e c t i n g C o u r t . " (Sans l e
c o n s e n t e m e n t d e l a C o u r suzeraine e t protectrice.) T h e p r o p o s a l w a s m e t
b y a decided a n d i n d i g n a n t negative o n the p a r t o f t h e W a l l a c h i a n A s -
sembly. A b e r R u s s i a inspired t h e P o r t e to issue a firman, r e q u i r i n g these 10
d a n g e r o u s w o r d s t o b e inserted i n t h e O r g a n i c S t a t u t e . . . t h e firman
c o n t r o v e r t s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l right o f t h e W a l l a c h i a n p e o p l e t o regulate
t h e i n t e r n a l affairs o f their c o u n t r y a t their o w n discretion; a n d its p r o -
visions never w e r e accepted by the Wallachian Assembly. [12,13] . . . In
d e n palaces d e r Wallachian n o b l e s or B o y a r d s , t h e l u x u r y of the E a s t 15
unites w i t h the refinement of the West. Yet t h e m a s s of t h e p e o p l e is s u n k
i n abject w r e t c h e d n e s s . . . R o a d s there are next t o n o n e . T h e b e a t e n
t r a c k s over which, w h e n h a r d e n e d b y s u m m e r , t h e B o y a r d , d r a w n b y
6 or 8 horses, d a s h e s rapidly e n o u g h , are i m p a s s a b l e in w i n t e r . . . [14]
Diese P r o v i n c e s " h a v e w i t h e r e d b e n e a t h t h e s h a d o w of R u s s i a n p r o t e c - 20
t i o n . " . . . the ancient laws der Principalities i n m a n y respects m o s t i m p e r -
fect. A large p r o p o r t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n re||3|mains in a s t a t e of a b s o -
lute serfdom; the B o y a r d in suits with a foreigner is a b o v e t h e law; t h e
t r i b u n a l s are o p e n t o the c h a r g e o f wholesale c o r r u p t i o n . . . a n influen-
tial, t h o u g h m o d e r a t e p a r t y a m o n g s t t h e nobility, h a d l o n g been d e s i r o u s 25
t o r e f o r m these evils. T h e p r e d o m i n a n t influence o f R u s s i a , o n t h e o t h e r
h a n d , h a s b e e n actively a t w o r k t o frustrate s u c h designs. T o b e suspected
of e n t e r t a i n i n g p a t r i o t i c sentiments was equivalent to b e i n g excluded
f r o m p u b l i c e m p l o y m e n t ; subserviency t o R u s s i a n interests w a s t h e sure
title t o p r o m o t i o n . . . t h e P r i n c e d o w n t o t h e m e a n e s t e m p l o y , k n e w t h a t 30
he held his office at the pleasure of the R u s s i a n C o n s u l . . . [15] R u s s i a
m a i n t a i n e d a n a r m y o f 30,000 m e n i n B e s s a r a b i a . . . S o m e B o y a r d s ,
F r h l i n g 1848, h a d p r e s e n t e d a p e t i t i o n to t h e Prince of M o l d a v i a
d e m a n d i n g certain reforms; the Prince, a c t i n g u n d e r t h e influence o f the
R u s s i a n C o n s u l , h a d n o t only refused their request, b u t h a d t h r o w n t h e m 35
i n t o p r i s o n . T h e c o m m o t i o n p r o d u c e d by these events furnished the j
r e q u i r e d pretext: the Russian army crossed the frontier (25 June 1848),
a n d a p p r o a c h e d J a s s y . . . [16] T h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f R u s s i a a t t h e
Western C o u r t s asserted, t h a t t h e G e n e r a l i n c o m m a n d h a d acted o n his .]
o w n responsibility " t h a t the R u s s i a n t r o o p s e n t e r e d M o l d a v i a w i t h o u t 40 a
a n y o r d e r s from t h e C a b i n e t of St. P e t e r s b u r g h , ihr Z w e c k t h e m a i n t e - 1

12
Aus The Russians in Moldavia and Wallachia

n a n c e or e s t a b l i s h m e n t of o r d e r , t h a t they would be withdrawn when the


occasion had ceased, t h a t t h e entry w a s on t h e authority of the Hospodar,
a n d there was n o d i s p o s i t i o n for t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t e r r i t o r y " . . . ( E r k l -
r u n g v. Palmerston, on q u e s t i o n p u t by Dudley Stuart, H. o. C, Septem-
5 ber 1 1848.)... [17] R e p o r t s frequently circulated of t h e a p p r o a c h i n g re-
tirement o f the R u s s i a n t r o o p s . . . a s t h e affairs o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e b e c a m e
daily m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d , t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f M o l d a v i a b y t h e R u s s i a n s
c a m e to be r e g a r d e d as un fait accompli.In t h e m e a n t i m e der Hospodar
of Wallachia, less e x p o s e d to t h e influence u. m o r e r e m o t e f r o m t h e a i d of
10 Russia, h a d , on t h e 23 J u n e 1848 g r a n t e d to his subjects r e f o r m s of a
m o r e i m p o r t a n t n a t u r e t h a n h a d been refused t o t h e M o l d a v i a n s , these
reforms d u r c h a u s n i c h t infringe o n t h e r i g h t o f t h e S u l t a n a s sovereign
p a r a m o u n t of t h e Principalities, a b e r v e r n i c h t e n d f. R u l a n d " O r g a n i c
Statute". Russian Ambassador at Constantinople schchtert das turkish
15 Ministry ein b e r die d a n g e r o u s t e n d e n c y der W a l l a c h i a n r e f o r m s , u. in
einem manifest a n die C a b i n e t s o f E u r o p e e r k l r t its i n t e n t i o n t o inter-
fere, by force of a r m s , in t h e affairs of t h e Principality. August 1848 a
large R u s s i a n force crossed t h e P r u t h o n its m a r c h t o B u c h a r e s t . T u r k i s h
g o v e r n m e n t sendet a T u r k i s h force i n t o Wallachia, p l a c e d u n d e r t h e c o m -
2 0 m a n d o f S u l e y m a n P a c h a . . . t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f Wallachia m a d e k e i n e
demand of protection an Ruland, on the entrance of the Turkish
a r m y . . . [18,19] T h e W a l l a c h i a n s c o n s e n t e d d a die P r o v i s i o n a l G o v .
should be replaced by a c o m m i s s i o n of 3 p e r s o n s , n o m i n a t e d by t h e
P a c h a , to execute t h e duties of t h e princely office, v a c a n t by t h e flight of
2 5 the H o s p o d a r Bibesco u . D e p u t a t i o n sent t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e m . p r o p o s -
als for modifying t h e original d e m a n d s d e r W a l l a c h i a n s , so as to m e e t t h e
views o f t h e t u r k i s h G o v . . . . R u l a n d d r o h t d e m D i v a n , w e n n n i c h t mit,
ohne T r k e i der n e u e n O r d n u n g d e r D i n g e ein E n d e z u m a c h e n . D i v a n
applied t o t h e a m b a s s a d o r s o f E n g l a n d u . F r a n c e for advice, e m p f o h l e n
30 to a d o p t t h e line of policy enjoined by R u s s i a . S u l e y m a n P a c h a a c c o r -
dingly recalled, F u a d Effendi a p p o i n t e d , t h e t u r k i s h a r m y a d v a n c e d
u p o n B u c h a r e s t , a n d o c c u p i e d t h a t c a p i t a l on September 25. [20] F u a d
Effendi c o m m u n i c a t e s f i r m a n t o t h e leading B o y a r d s a n n u l l i n g t h e C o n -
stitution of J u n e 2 3 . Pretext: its t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s Socialism (state of
35 serfdom in d e r C o n s t i t u t i o n abgeschafft u. p o r t i o n des l a n d o w n e d by t h e
p e a s a n t i h m c e d e d als p r o p e r t y , a b e r zugleich i n diesem A r t . X I I I p r o -
vided t h a t t h e l o r d s h o u l d b e indemnified b y t h e S t a t e , for t h e l a n d given
u p a n d t h e loss o f his p e a s a n t s ' l a b o u r . ) . . . t h e m e a s u r e s o f t h e D i v a n
dictated by R u s s i a t h e R u s s i a n C o m m i s s a r y , ||4| G e n e r a l Duhamel,
4 0 a c c o m p a n i e d , a n d , i n fact, c o m m a n d e d t h e T u r k i s h a r m y , a n d t h e T u r k -
ish firman w a s issued m. his c o n c u r r e n c e . [ 2 1 ] . . . 10 days a f t e r w a r d s , t h e

13

Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

R u s s i a n a r m y i n v a d e d t h e principality, u . o n t h e 10th o f O c t o b e r , i t w a s
notified t o F u a d Effendi b y G e n e r a l D u h a m e l , t h a t h e o c c u p i e d t h e p r o v
ince militarily i n t h e n a m e o f t h e E m p e r o r his m a s t e r . . . . All a u t h o r i t y ,
civil, military, legal, illegal u s u r p e d or exercised by t h e R u s s i a n soldiery.
A W a l l a c h i a n officer, a subject of t h e P o r t e , w a s a r r e s t e d , in t h e very 5
h o u s e of O m e r P a c h a , t h e T u r k i s h C o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f . A british subject
a r r e s t e d u. c a r r i e d off to a d i s t a n t p r i s o n . Alle R e v o l u t i o n r e , R u s s e n -
feinde a r r e s t e d u. still d e t a i n e d in p r i s o n . . . they seized also t h e revenues
der Principality, revised t h e c o m m e r c i a l tariff, a n d f o r b a d t h e e x p o r t of
W a l l a c h i a n p r o d u c e . . . D i e Principalities obliged to s u p p o r t , at their o w n 10
cost, t h e i m m e n s e m i l i t a r y force, w i t h w h i c h , in spite of all their energetic
p r o t e s t s , R u s s i a insists o n o v e r r u n n i n g t h e c o u n t r y [ 2 2 , 2 3 ] . . .
50,000 R u s s i a n s . Contributions in money at first levied for their s u p p o r t
blieben generally i n t h e p o c k e t s der officers b y w h o m they w e r e received.
D i e c o m m o n soldiers u n t e r d e s were c o m p e l l e d to live by pillage. T h e 15
m i s e r a b l e i n h a b i t a n t s o f m a n y villages s o u g h t refuge a m i d s t t h e s n o w s o f
t h e C a r p a t h i a n s f r o m this d o u b l e e x t o r t i o n . W h e n i t b e c a m e evident,
t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l a r m y w a s i n d a n g e r o f s t a r v a t i o n , t h e E m p e r o r gener-
ously p e r m i t t e d t h e so-called Wallachian G o v e r n m e n t to o p e n a credit at
St. P e t e r s b u r g h , t h a t they m i g h t be e n a b l e d to p r o v i d e for t h e expenses of 20
t h e R u s s i a n t r o o p s ; a n d t h e Principalities a r e n o w r a p i d l y i n c u r r i n g a
large n a t i o n a l d e b t t o his I m p e r i a l Majesty . . . N u n pretext, t h a t she
h o l d s these c o u n t r i e s as a p l e d g e for h e r o w n p e c u n i a r y i n d e m n i t y . ( 6 - 2 5 )
" u n t i l R u s s i a has locked the door of her house", so n a n n t e A l e x a n d e r d e n
Besitz v. C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . (29) t h e v a l u e of c o t t o n twist is a b o u t 2 t h e 25
v a l u e o f t h e r a w m a t e r i a l w h i c h h a s b e e n w o r k e d u p i n m a k i n g it, t h e
a v e r a g e value o f t h e p l a i n a n d p r i n t e d calicoes, o f w h i c h o u r e x p o r t s
consist, is a b o u t 5 x g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of t h e r a w m a t e r i a l . (35) t u r k i s h
tariff for all m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s v. 3 zu 5 % on t h e a c t u a l v a l u e .
([35,] 36) 30

I
m

14
Aus Heinrich von Brandt: Rulands Politik und Heer

Ruland's Politik u. Heer


in den lezten Jahren.
Berlin. 1852.

Zar ein n u m e n s a c r u m , d a s heilige R u l a n d , d e r r e c h t g l u b i g e R u u s . . .


5 (3) N a p o l e o n n a n n t e d e n m o b . Paris le p l u s sditieux et rebelle", d e n
v. Wien le p l u s b t e " d e n Berlins le p l u s i n f m e et l c h e " . (21) A u f r u f
an s. R u s s e n , v. N i c h o l a s , (28. M r z ) , wo er sagt, d a in Frankreich
e n t s t a n d e n A u f r u h r u . Gesetzlosigkeit sich b e r D e u t s c h l a n d gestrzt
etc. etc, die F r e c h h e i t k e n n e keine G r e n z e n m e h r u. richte n u n i n i h r e m
10 W a h n s i n n s c h o n die A u g e n a u f d a s i h m v. G o t t a n v e r t r a u t e R u l a n d " .
M i t u n s ist G o t t ! D a s merket Euch, ihr Heiden u. unterwerft Euch, denn
mit uns ist Gott." (24) 6 Juli 1848 E r k l r u n g des C z a r s , er w e r d e in seiner
u n e i g e n n t z i g e n u . w o h l w o l l e n d e n G e s i n n u n g gegen die d e u t s c h e C o n -
federation v e r h a r r e n , solange sie die N e b e n s t a a t e n u n a n g e t a s t e t lassen.
15 (26)
D i e E n t w i c k l u n g der russischen Militaermacht h a t m i t d e r des r u s -
sischen R e i c h s gleichen Schritt g e h a l t e n . (33) Z u r Zeit, als R u l a n d die
M a c h t der T r k e n b r a c h , P o l e n z e r t r m m e r t e u . seinen politischen E i n -
f l u a u f E u r o p a e n t s c h i e d e n geltend m a c h t e , die russischen A r m e e n n i c h t
2 0 sehr zahlreich. 18,000 M a n n z e r s p r e n g t e n 100,000 M a n n a m K a h u l ; die
Tage v . O c z a k o w , I s m a e l B e n d e r , a m L a r g a p p s a h e n k a u m 40,000 M a n n
b e i s a m m e n u. alle Erfolge gegen P o l e n d u r c h v e r h l t n i s m i g kleine
Heere e r k m p f t . Mickiewicz versichert, d a d a s russische N a t i o n a l g e f h l
aus dieser Zeit s t a m m t . (1. c.) |
25 | 5 | N a c h der Deutschen Wehrzeitung", ( N . 242. 1850) S t r k e der r u s -
1
sischen A r m e e : 17 C o r p s , in 74 D i v i s i o n e n , 2 4 1 ^ B r i g a d e n , 322 R e g i m e n -
1
tern, 889 B a t a i l l o n e n , 3 2 5 ^ B a t t e r i e n , 1469V E s c a d r o n e n , 4900 C o m p a -
2

gnien n e b s t 5 0 ' / P a r k s . (34) B a t a i l l o n e d e r R u s s e n z h l e n j e 1004 M a n n .


2

(42) D i e active A r m e e , die z u n c h s t ins F e l d zu r c k e n b e s t i m m t , 6 C o r p s ,


30 jedes 50 B a t a i l l o n e , 32 E s c a d r o n e u. 160 G e s c h t z e , d a h e r ziemlich g e n a u
= 50,000 C o m b a t t a n t s . (46) 2 ihrer C o r p s im K n i g r e i c h Polen, 2 in d e n

15
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

G o u v e r n e m . Mohilew, Wilna, Wolhynien u. P o d o l i e n , ein 5' in d e r ehe-


m a l . U k r a i n e u. Bessarabien, ein 6* in d e n G o u v e r n e m . M o s k a u , Tula,
S m o l e n s k u. Orel. - 3 R e s e r v e - C a v a l l e r i e - C o r p s , im sdlichen R u l a n d
vertheilt. (I.e.) Die 8 I n f a n t e r i e c o r p s u. 4 R e s e r v e - K a v a l l e r i e - C o r p s , a u f
400,000 M a n n u . 1200 K a n o n e n a n z u s c h l a g e n , d a z u 5 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0 K o s a k e n . 5
D i e '/3 d e r russischen M a c h t , der a m b e s t e n a u f einen K r i e g m . d e m
Westen abgerichtete Theil der A r m e e . (48) e n o u g h t o b e killed, e n o u g h
t o b e t a k e n , a n d e n o u g h t o r u n a w a y " . (54) R u l a n d z h l t a u f 95,710
M e i l e n seiner e u r o p . Besitzungen n u r 62,000,000 Seelen; u n t e r seinen
51 G o u v e r n e m e n t s a b e r 29, die im D u r c h s c h n i t t 1500-2000 Seelen p e r 10
Meile u. diese bilden d e n K e r n des russischen R e i c h s . N m l i c h :
Poltawa ... 1989 M a n n p r o Meile, T a m b o w . . . 1456, W o r o n e s c h . . .
1371, K i e w . . . 1757, O r e l . ' . . 1750, M o s k a u . . . 2 3 2 3 , W l a d i m i r . . . 1446, Tula
. . . 2 2 1 1 , N i s c h . N o w g o r o d . . . 1343, S m o l e n s k . . . 1148, J a r o s l a w . . . 1557,
K a l u g a . . . 1755 u. d a s K n i g r e i c h P o l e n 2122 M a n n a u f die n M e i l e . (59) 15
A s t r a c h a n freilich . . . 9 9 E i n w o h n e r a u f n M e i l e , O l o n e t z . . . 9 5 u . A r c h a n -
g e l . . . 2 1 . . . R u l a n d s stdtische B e v l k e r u n g n u r 5,328,400 E i n w o h n e r .
Im L a n d e d e r D o n ' s c h e n K o s a k e n n u r 1 S t a d t auf 1943 M e i l e n , in O r e n -
b u r g e b e n s o a u f 398 etc. A b e r i n O r e n b u r g d a g e g e n a u f 1000 Seelen
853 Pferde etc (59). 20
N e u e r e Schriftsteller b e r R u l a n d . Arsenieff, T e n g o b o r s k i , K o e p p e n ,
H e r r m a n n , H a x t h a u s e n , Beer, M l l e r , E r m a n , P i a t o n S t o r c h etc.
Jedes R e g i m e n t s c h o n i m F r i e d e n seine R e s e r v e - u . sein D e p o t - B a t a i l -
lon. Beide s t a r k genug, u m d e n s t r k s t e n Verlust, d e n ein R e g i m e n t i n
1-2 F e l d z g e n erleiden k a n n , zu ersetzen; d e r N a c h s c h u b f. K a v a l l e r i e u. 25
Artillerie ist diesem a n a l o g organisirt. (61) R u l a n d i n d e m R e i c h t h u m
seiner Pferde M i t t e l , d e n T r a n s p o r t v. T r u p p e n zu erleichtern, wie kein
a n d r e s L a n d . (61)
V o n H e r b s t bis E n d e F e b r u a r 1828-9 k a m e n bei der russischen A r m e e
v . 150,000 M a n n : 210,108 E r k r a n k u n g e n v o r . I m N o v e m b e r s t a r b e n 30
2 7 , 3 % in den Regimentslazarethen, 4 5 , 6 % in stehenden Hospitlern,
S u m m e 7 2 , 9 % . I m J . 1831 lag */ der A r m e e i n P o l e n i m L a z a r e t h . N a c h
3

officiellen Berichten im J. 1849 b e i der 191,587 M a n n s t a r k e n russischen


A r m e e i n U n g a r n n u r 8735 K r a n k e , ( 4 , 5 % der H e e r s t r k e ) , v . diesen
s t a r b e n 3209, ( 3 6 , 7 % derselben o d . 1,6% d e r g e s a m t e n H e e r e s s t r k e ) . 35
(65) G e w h n l i c h n i m m t m a n a n , d a die m i t t l e r e Z a h l d e r K r a n k e n i n
e i n e m H e e r 5 , 2 6 % u. d a v. diesen 1,39 o d . 1,08 sterben. (66) Oesterreich
h a t 3 die R u s s e n zu seiner R e t t u n g n a c h D e u t s c h l a n d gerufen, 1735
(zur A u f r e c h t e r h a l t u n g d e r p r a g m a t i s c h e n S a n k t i o n ) , 1756 ( u m P r e u e n
zu vernichten) u. 1849 ( u m Oesterreich zu retten.) (77) 40

16
Aus The Greek and Eastern Churches

The Greek and Eastern Churches;


their History, Faith, and Worship.
London 1853.

D i e d o m i n i o n d e r G r e e k c h u r c h e x t e n d s over m o r e t h a n '/ o f the p r o - 4

5 fessedly C h r i s t i a n w o r l d . H e r rites are followed f r o m t h e icegirt m o n -


astery of Solovetsky on t h e W h i t e Sea, a l o n g the shores of the A d r i a t i c
Gulf, to the conical-roofed c h u r c h e s of A b y s s i n i a f r o m t h e m i n e s of
Siberia t o the desert o f S i n a i a m i d s t the s n o w s o f K a m t s c h a t k a a n d i n
the t o r r i d clime of S o u t h e r n I n d i a . (7) |
10 |6| Jerusalem, Antioch, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople (324 u n d e r
C o n s t a n t i n , the b i s h o p s o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , w h o h a d formerly b e e n s u b -
ject to the higher d i g n i t a r y of Heraclea, i n d e p e n d e n t a n d u l t i m a t e l y a
superior influence) D o r t die 5 P a t r i a r c h s . . . Q u e s t i o n s of precedence were
hotly c o n t e n d e d ; Alexandria h a d to resign h e r claim to the p r i m a c y of the
15 East; a n d C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , t h e y o u n g e s t of the p a t r i a r c h a t e s , r a n k e d
second only to R o m e . (a. 381) elevated to equality w i t h Rome (a. 4 5 1 , at
l
the council of C h a l c e d o n . ) . . . [10,11 ] for a c e n t u r y a n d \ the limits of 2

their ( R o m e u . C o n s t a n t i n o p l e p a t r i a r c h a t ' s ) s e p a r a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n s f o r m -
ed a c o n s t a n t g r o u n d of a l t e r c a t i o n . . . n o t u n f r e q u e n t l y a t e m p o r a r y
20 suspension of c o m m u n i o n b e t w e e n t h e 2 c h u r c h e s , as d u r i n g t h e Arian
controversy. A t o n e t i m e . . . i n t e r c o m m u n i o n i n t e r r u p t e d for 6 8 years
merely on the g r o u n d of h a v i n g differed a b o u t a d i s p u t e d succession to
the p a t r i a r c h a t e o f A n t i o c h . . . after t h e council held a t C h a l c e d o n ,
a. 4 5 1 , the Monophysite p a r t y severed from t h e e a s t e r n c o m m u n i o n , a n d
25 formed i n t o a sect. E m p e r o r Zeno p u b l i s h e d a. 482 t h e f a m o u s edict
called the Henoticon, or D e e d of U n i o n , gives a decided t e s t i m o n y
against the e r r o r s of N e s t o r i u s u. E u t y c h e s , b u t yet f o r b o r e to recognise
the acts of C h a l c e d o n as valid. P o p e Felix II e x c o m m u n i c a t e d Acacius,
the Constantinopolitan p a t r i a r c h . T h e 3 o t h e r p a t r i a r c h s siding with the
30 latter, the O r i e n t a l a n d O c c i d e n t a l c h u r c h e s r e m a i n e d in o p e n hostility

17
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

(35 J a h r e ) , u n t i l at length t h e former c o n c e d e d the p o i n t , a n d gave in her


t h t h
f o r m a l a d h e s i o n t o the c a n o n s o f C h a l c e d o n . . . I n t h e 7 a n d 8 c e n -
t u r i e s . . . [12, 13] q u e s t i o n of image-worship raised by L e o t h e I s a u r i a n
a n d t h e I c o n o c l a s t s . . . t h e council of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a. 754, c o n d e m -
n a t o r y of images, subsequently r e g a r d e d a m o n g t h e G r e e k s as a 5
t h
7 general C o u n c i l , its a u t h o r i t y always denied b y t h e L a t i n s : L a t i n s lay
n d
g r e a t stress o n t h e o p p o s i t e decisions o f the 2 N i c e n e council, c o n v e n e d
by t h e e m p r e s s I r e n e , a. 787, w h i c h the E a s t e r n c h u r c h in their t u r n
refuse to a c c o u n t oecumenical... q u e s t i o n of t h e procession of the Holy
Spirit (in t h e council of Toledo a. 400 o d . n a c h a n d e r e n 589), t h e S p a n i s h io
c h u r c h h a d inserted i n t h e creed o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e the w o r d s "filioque".
[14] D i e f o r m u l a h a d previously s t o o d : " T h e H o l y G h o s t w h i c h p r o c e e d -
e t h f r o m the F a t h e r . " D i e a l t e r a t i o n a f t e r w a r d s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e
c h u r c h e s of F r a n c e a n d G e r m a n y , a. 767, t h e G r e e k s accused their o p p o -
n e n t s of heresy on this p o i n t . . . P o p e Leo III (a. 809) expressed his 15
a p p r o b a t i o n of the t e n e t . . . the insertion finally a d o p t e d by P o p e Nicho-
las I; a n d it h a s r e m a i n e d to this d a y an i m p a s s a b l e b a r r i e r between the
oriental a n d the p a p a l c o m m u n i o n s . . . a. 858 d e r e m p e r o r Michael III
d e p o s e s I g n a t i u s from t h e p a t r i a r c h a l t h r o n e , elevated in his place Pho-
tius, o n e well skilled in theological lore b u t a l a y m a n a n d a minister of 20
state. [15] a. 861, a large s y n o d declared this elevation legal . . . P o p e
N i c h o l a s a. 862 at R o m e p a s s e d a violent sentence of e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n
on P h o t i u s a n d his a d h e r e n t s , a sentence w h i c h P h o t i u s speedily r e t o r t e d
o n his a d v e r s a r y , c h a r g i n g h i m with v a r i o u s e r r o r s o f d o c t r i n e a n d o f
practice. K a i s e r Basilius reinstated I g n a t i u s . C o m m u n i o n b e t w e e n the 25
c h u r c h e s w a s restored; a n d o n the p a t r i a r c h ' s d e a t h , t h e recall o f P h o t i u s
w a s suffered for a while to p a s s u n n o t i c e d . A d i s p u t e arising as to w h e t h -
e r t h e B u l g a r i a n s s h o u l d belong t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f R o m e o r o f C o n -
s t a n t i n o p l e , a n d the e m p e r o r d e t e r m i n a t e l y o p p o s i n g their transference
to t h e R o m i s h see, t h e P o p e r e n e w e d t h e sentence of e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n 30
a g a i n s t P h o t i u s a n d all the b i s h o p s a n d priests w h o h a d received c o n s e -
c r a t i o n at his h a n d s . . . a. 7053 Michael Cerularius, p a t r i a r c h of C o n s t a n -
tinople, revived all t h e a c c u s a t i o n s of false d o c t r i n e a n d e r r o n e o u s
c u s t o m against R o m e , m i t fresh g r o u n d s of c o m p l a i n t , z. B. (still con-
stituting a m a r k e d difference between t h e E a s t e r n a n d Western rituals) 35
t h a t i n t h e celebration o f t h e E u c h a r i s t t h e R o m a n i s t s m a d e use o f u n l e a v -
ened b r e a d . H e a t o n c e suppressed all t h e G r e e k m o n a s t e r i e s w h i c h u s e d
the L a t i n l a n g u a g e a n d followed the L a t i n ritual. I n d i g n a n t ||7| r e m o n -
strance v . Seiten des P o p e , v e r s t r k t d u r c h e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n . D e r
e m p e r o r b a t L e o IX 3 L e g a t e n n a c h C o n s t a n t i n o p l e zu schicken, a b e r die 40
n e g o t i a t i o n s unsuccessful. N e i t h e r the p a t r i a r c h n o r t h e legates w o u l d

18
Aus The Greek and Eastern Churches

yield a j o t a ; a n d t h e latter at length p l a c e d on t h e g r e a t altar of St. S o -


p h i a the w r i t t e n D e e d of A n a t h e m a , c u t t i n g off M i c h a e l a n d all his
a d h e r e n t s f r o m fellowship with R o m e . T h i s act virtually e x c o m m u n i -
cated the w h o l e E a s t e r n C h u r c h , t h e s e p a r a t i o n p r o v e d a lasting o n e . W h -
5 r e n d der folgenden 800 J. frequent b u t fruitless a t t e m p t s to b r i n g a b o u t a
re-union, t h e m o s t n o t e d der projects d e b a t e d in t h e councils of L y o n s u.
F l o r e n c e . K a i s e r Michael Palaeologus sucht f. reconciliation als S c h u t z
f. sein Reich. D i e representatives beider P a r t h e i e n m e e t at Lyons, a 1274,
a n d a s h o w o f h a r m o n y w a s restored. D i e n u r a t t a i n e d b y t h e deposi-
10 tion of the patriarch Joseph, w h o p r o v e d refractory u. d u r c h die elevation
in his stead of t h e m o r e subservient John Bekkus. Eigentlich n u r ein
C o m p a k t zwischen d e m P o p e u . d e m greek E m p e r o r . . . . N o s o o n e r h a d
Andronicus a s c e n d e d t h e imperial t h r o n e t h a n he s u m m a r i l y repealed this
u n i o n , compelled B e k k u s t o a b d i c a t e , a n d r e s t o r e d the aged J o s e p h . . . .
15 150 J. s p t e r John Palaeologus ( i m p e r a t o r ) w h o , d i s m a y e d at t h e i m m i -
n e n t d a n g e r of his e m p i r e , h o p e d t h a t , by a re-alliance with the L a t i n s , he
should b e defended against the i n r o a d s o f the T u r k s . H e h a s t e n e d i n
person t o Italy with t h e t h e n p a t r i a r c h J o s e p h a n d m a n y o f his clergy.
A council, u n d e r Eugenius IV (Pope) o p e n e d at Ferrara u. r e m o v e d
20 to Florence in 1439. By v a r i o u s artifices, t h e G r e e k s i n d u c e d to accede to
the t e r m s laid d o w n b y t h e p a p a l p a r t y , w h e r e b y they w e r e r e q u i r e d t o
acknowledge t h e twofold p r o c e s s i o n of the Spirit, the existence of p u r -
gatory, t h e s u p r e m a c y of the P o p e , a n d the lawfulness of using unleav-
ened b r e a d . M a r k o f E p h e s u s a l o n e s t o o d p r o o f a g a i n s t entreaties, bribes
25 u. menaces ... the m a i n b o d y d e r G r e e k c h u r c h i n d i g n a n t at t h o s e
c o n c e s s i o n s . . . die sie g e m a c h t h a d n o s o o n e r left F l o r e n c e t h a n , accusing
the Latins of h a v i n g w o n t h e m by deceit, d r e a d etc, r e t u r n e d w i t h in-
creased p e r t i n a c y to their o w n faith. . . . T h e virtual a n n e x a t i o n of Lithua-
nia to Poland in 1386 h a d a l r e a d y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e latter a consider-
30 able leaven of P o p i s h influence . . . Jesuit college at W i l n a . R e n e w e d ef-
forts t o b r i n g the Polish G r e e k s u n d e r t h e sway o f R o m e . [16-19] S y n o d
of Brest-Litofsky, w h e r e , in the y e a r 1596, u n d e r the auspices of Sigis-
mund III u. h e a d e d by their h i e r a r c h , the m e t r o p o l i t a n of Kieff, g r e a t
n u m b e r s of t h o s e w h o h a d a d h e r e d to the G r e e k faith in Galicia, Hun-
te gory, Poland, a n d Little or Red Russia, acquiesced in all the t e r m s p r o -
posed by the council of F l o r e n c e , save t h a t w h i c h referred to the
" F i l i o q u e " . T h e o n l y s t i p u l a t i o n they m a d e was, t h a t i n their w o r s h i p
they m i g h t r e t a i n t h e Slavonic l a n g u a g e , u. observe the c e r e m o n i e s of t h e
Slavonic ritual. T h i s p a r t y received t h e n a m e of Uniates, or United
40 Greeks; a n d a b o u t y/ millions a r e still to be f o u n d in the A u s t r i a n d o -
2

minions. It is b u t a few y e a r s since t h e Uniates of Little R u s s i a , to t h e

19
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

n u m b e r of 2 millions, were received b a c k i n t o t h e M u s c o v i t e b r a n c h of


t h e E a s t e r n C h u r c h , o n their solemn d i s a v o w a l o f t h e p o p e ' s su-
p r e m a c y . . . [20, 21] t h e last official c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e E a s t e r n u.
W e s t e r n c h u r c h e s , s o o n after t h e accession of Pio IX, w h o , in J a n u a r y ,
1848, f o r w a r d e d a letter to t h e C h r i s t i a n s of t h e E a s t , e x h o r t i n g t h e m to 5
r e t u r n t o t h e u n i t y o f t h e c h u r c h etc . . . die greek P a t r i a r c h s replied i n t h e
f o r m o f " A n Encyclic Epistle o f t h e O n e H o l y C a t h o l i c a n d A p o s t o l i c
C h u r c h t o t h e faithful e v e r y w h e r e " , w h e r e i n t h e y u r g e d their r e a s o n s for
p r o t e s t i n g against t h e western d o c t r i n e o f t h e d o u b l e p r o c e s s i o n , a n d t h e
w e s t e r n i n n o v a t i o n s respecting b a p t i s m , holy o r d e r s , a n d t h e c o m m u n i o n 10
o f t h e laity i n o n e k i n d only. D a s D o c u m e n t d a t e d " M a y , 1848, I n d i c -
t i o n 6", signed by Anthimus of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , Hierotheus of A l e x a n d r i a ,
Methodius of A n t i o c h , Cyrill of J e r u s a l e m , a n d several of their respective
ecclesiastics. (11-23) |

| 8 | Progress and Present state 15


of the Greek Church.
W h r e n d des J h . die Persian a r m y u n d e r Chosroes c o m m i t t e d grievous
d e p r e d a t i o n s in several of t h e p a t r i a r c h a t e s ; i n r o a d s of t h e Saracens, w h o
m a d e themselves m a s t e r s of Antioch (634), Jerusalem (637) a n d finally of
Alexandria (640). Turks succeeded in m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r h o l d of Syria, 20
E g y p t , a n d P a l e s t i n e . I n 1453 C o n s t a n t i n o p l e falls i n t o t h e h a n d s o f t h e
T u r k s . V o n n u n a n die e a s t e r n c h u r c h n u r n o c h i n a s t a t e o f vassalage . . .
[25,26] t h e Russian branch ... is c o m p r i s i n g 3/4 of t h e " o r t h o d o x " e a s t . . .
P h o t i u s u . after h i m I g n a t i u s , sent t e a c h e r s t o Kieff a n d t h e n e w religion
s p r e a d r a p i d l y ... [30, 31] O l g a getauft v o m P a t r i a r c h zu C o n s t a n t i n o p e l , 25
u. Constantin Porphyrogenitus ( e m p e r o r ) s t o o d s p o n s o r for h e r at t h e
f o n t . I h r g r a n d s o n , Vladimir the Great d e c i d e d to e m b r a c e t h e E a s t e r n
f o r m of Christianity. H a v i n g a t t a c k e d a n d t a k e n possession of Kherson,
h e w r o t e t o t h e G r e e k E m p e r o r s , Basil a n d Constantine, d e m a n d i n g t h e i r
sister A n n a i n m a r r i a g e , a n d i n t i m a t i n g t h a t t h i s a l o n e w o u l d save t h e i r 30
c a p i t a l f r o m a n assault. E r h i e l t sie n a t r l i c h , a n d s t i p u l a t e d only t h a t Vla-
d i m i r s h o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y profess C h r i s t i a n i t y . A s s o o n a s t h e princess
arrived a t K h e r s o n , t h e R u s s i a n m o n a r c h w a s b a p t i s e d b y t h e n a m e o f
Basil. He r e s t o r e d t h e c o n q u e r e d city to t h e G r e e k s , t a k i n g a few priests
as his only captives, as well as s o m e c h u r c h vessels a n d relics for his o n l y 35
t r o p h i e s . . . R e t u r n i n g t o K i e w , h e h a d his 1 2 sons b a p t i s e d , a n d issued
an edict for t h e universal o v e r t h r o w of i d o l a t r y in his d o m i n i o n s . . .
richtete schools ein u . m a n y m o t h e r s w e p t bitterly over t h e c h i l d r e n sent

20
Aus The Greek and Eastern Churches

t h i t h e r " i m a g i n i n g the use of letters to be a species of i n c a n t a t i o n , c o n -


nected w i t h t h e d e a d l y art of n e c r o m a n c y " . . . [32-34] f. 6 J h h . the R u s -
sian C h u r c h g o v e r n e d b y m e t r o p o l i t a n s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e c h u r c h o f C o n -
s t a n t i n o p l e ; s o m e o f t h e m G r e e k s sent direct f r o m the p a t r i a r c h , o t h e r s
5 R u s s i a n s elevated to office by a s y n o d of their o w n b i s h o p s , b u t w h o
afterwards received t h e p a t r i a r c h a l s a n c t i o n . T h e y resided at Kieff till
1240, w h e n the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h a t city by the M o n g o l s c a u s e d t h e r e m o v -
al of their see to Vladimir, w h e n c e it w a s t r a n s f e r r e d in 1320 to Moscow.
th
(hieen n o c h "Metropolitan of Kieff" till t h e m i d d l e of the 1 5 century,
10 w h e n the r e s t o r e d city of Kieff, h a v i n g a m e t r o p o l i t a n of its o w n , subject
t o L i t h u a n i a , t h e R u s s i a n d i g n i t a r y received t h e d e s i g n a t i o n , M e t r o p o l -
itan of M o s c o w a n d all R u s s i a ) . Isidore, w h o b e c a m e m e t r o p o l i t a n in
1434, p r e s e n t at t h e council of F l o r e n c e , gave in his a d h e s i o n , m u t e a b e r
n a c h h e r n a c h R o m fliehen etc. In 1467 P o p e Paul II h o p e d to gain
15 g r o u n d in R u s s i a by b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e m a r r i a g e of John Vasilovich ...
Sophia, the heiress of t h e G r e e k E m p e r o r s (in c o n s e q u e n c e of which
alliance, t h e a r m s of t h e G r e e k e m p e r o r s , consisting of a 2 - h e a d e d eagle,
were a s s u m e d as the insignia of t h e R u s s i a n czar), t r a i n e d in t h e d o c t r i n e s
of the F l o r e n t i n e council. A b e r in R u s s i a sie wieder o r t h o d o x . . . [35]
20 After t h e seizure of Constantinople by the Turks, the R u s s i a n b i s h o p s
instituted their o w n m e t r o p o l i t a n s until the t i m e of czar Theodore, w h o ,
being at e n m i t y . . . s u l t a n . . . f o r m e d the i d e a of establishing a p a t r i a r -
chal t h r o n e in R u s s i a . Joachim, p a t r i a r c h of A n t i o c h , being on a visit to
the czar's d o m i n i o n s , Dionysius, the m e t r o p o l i t a n of M o s c o w , refused to
25 yield precedence to h i m . In June, 1588, Jeremiah II (of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e )
having been d e p r i v e d of his office by A m u r a t h a n d h a v i n g s o u g h t a
t e m p o r a r y a s y l u m in R u s s i a , t h e c z a r eagerly u r g e d his request, which,
either t h r o u g h policy, or t h r o u g h c o n s t r a i n t , w a s at o n c e g r a n t e d . Job,
w h o h a d succeeded t o t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n dignity, w a s c o n s e c r a t e d w i t h
30 great p o m p as an i n d e p e n d e n t p a t r i a r c h . . . t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of this office
m e t with the a p p r o v a l o f t h e o t h e r p a | | 9 | t r i a r c h s , w h o rejoiced t h a t their
n u m b e r w a s t h u s a g a i n raised to 5 by their a d o p t i o n of R u s s i a in t h e va-
c a n t place o f R o m e . . . (the original idea o f C o n s t a n t i n e G r e a t i n e s t a b -
lishing t h e p a t r i a r c h a t e s w a s t h e division of the ecclesiastical j u r i s d i c t i o n
35 into 4 only, as c o r r e s p o n d i n g m. d e m a p p o i n t m e n t of t h e 4 p r a e t o r i a n
prefects in the civil g o v e r n m e n t . A b e r Juvenal, b i s h o p of J e r u s a l e m , as-
s u m e d the title, a n d a t his u r g e n t e n t r e a t y w a s c o n f i r m e d b y t h e e m p e r o r
t h
T h e o d o s i u s a s t h e 5 p a t r i a r c h , w h i c h dignity w a s ratified a t t h e council
o f C h a l c e d o n . ) D i e P a t r i a r c h s wollten d a d e r R u s s i a n r a n k als d e r
th
40 5 u. last. C z a r insisted d a Moscow p r e c e d e n c e of J e r u s a l e m u. A n t i o c h ,
yielding only t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e a s t h e " o e c u m e n i c a l p a t r i a r c h " , a n d t o

21
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

A l e x a n d r i a a s t h e " o e c u m e n i c a l j u d g e " , (leztrer Titel f i r s t given t o T h e o -


p h i l u s , or P h i l o t h e u s , p a t r i a r c h of A l e x a n d r i a a. 1015, u n t e r E m p e r o r
Basil I I . ) . . . [36, 37] Die M u s c o v i t e p a t r i a r c h s w e r e o n l y 10 in n u m b e r , of
w h o m t h e m o s t f a m o u s were Philaret u. Nikon. D e r f o r m e r [was] father
to the t h e n reigning E m p e r o r Michael, f o u n d e r of the p r e s e n t R o m a n o f f 5
d y n a s t y . . . N i k o n a s c e n d e d t h e p a t r i a r c h a l t h r o n e i n 1 6 5 3 . . . [38] Bis
z u r Zeit des P a t r i a r c h e n A d r i a n d a s p a t r i a r c h a l office m. g r e a t reverence
v. d e n czars b e h a n d e l t a n d it h a d even been c u s t o m a r y for t h e m on
P a l m s u n d a y t o lead b y the bridle a n ass o n w h i c h t h e p a t r i a r c h r o d e
t h r o u g h t h e streets of M o s c o w , in c o m m e m o r a t i o n of t h e S a v i o u r ' s e n t r y 10
t o J e r u s a l e m . O n A d r i a n ' s d e a t h , 1700, t h e R u s s i a n b i s h o p s w e r e as-
s e m b l e d for t h e p u r p o s e of electing a successor, s t o p p u t to their p r o -
ceedings by t h e u n e x p e c t e d e n t r a n c e of Peter the G r e a t , w h o a d d r e s s e d
t h e m i n t h e concise b u t a u t h o r i t a t i v e sentence " I a m y o u r p a t r i a r c h ! " a n d
f o r t h w i t h he a p p o i n t e d Stephen Yavoursky g u a r d i a n of t h e p a t r i a r c h a t e , 15
as a k i n d of p r o t e m p o r e vice r e g e n t . . . [40] i n s t i t u t e d a s y n o d for j u r i s -
diction in spiritual affairs . . . the czar s u b m i t t e d his project (of synod) to
t h e a p p r o b a t i o n of the E a s t e r n p a t r i a r c h s , erhielt sie v. J e r e m i a h v. C o n -
s t a n t i n o p e l (23 S e p t e m b e r 1723) "Holy Legislative Synod" ... u r s p r n g -
lich 12 m e m b e r s , resident in M o s c o w - spter, M i t g l i e d e r z a h l w e c h s e l n d 20
n a c h Willen des C z a r , n a c h P e t e r s b u r g h v e r l e g t . . . Andrer Zweig der
orientalischen Kirche: die i n h a b i t a n t s der Asiatic P r o v i n c e called Iberia,
l
or Georgia christianisirt im 4 J h h . ( d u r c h N u n i a ) their vicinity to t h e
Armenians led these to j o i n t h e latter in s e p a r a t i o n from the G r e e k s . . .
50 J. spter they m a d e k n o w n to the p a t r i a r c h of A n t i o c h their r e t u r n to 25
t h e o r t h o d o x faith. Yielded spter h o m a g e t o t h e C o n s t a n t i n o p o l i t a n
p a t r i a r c h only by the p a y m e n t of a t r i b u t e , h a v i n g for 1500 J. p a t r i a r c h s
o f their o w n , w h o g o v e r n e d their c h u r c h w i t h o u t t h e slightest interference
from a n y superior a u t h o r i t y . . . f o r m a l r e u n i o n w i t h the O r i e n t a l c h u r c h
in 1801, w h e n the R u s s i a n d o m i n i o n w a s fully established in their terri- 30
t o r y . T h e i r ecclesiastical affairs are n o w a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e a r c h b i s h o p
o f Tifiis, u n d e r the sanction o f the P e t e r s b u r g h s y n o d . . . U n d e r t h e sway
of t h e s a m e R u s s i a n conclave is also t h e Montngrine c h u r c h . . . at p r e s -
ent t o l e r a t e d in their rejection of images, crucifixes u. pictures. I h r e aver-
sion to t h e P o p e extreme . . . [41-44] In Greece after h a v i n g been w r e s t e d 35
f r o m Turkey, a u c h a "Holy Governing Synod", t h e d u e o r g a n i s a t i o n of
w h i c h effected at N a u p l i a in A u g u s t , 1833. It consists of 1 p r e s i d e n t ,
1 r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n e r , a n d a few s u p e r n u m e r a r i e s . It h a s s u p r e m e p o w e r
in m a t t e r s ecclesiastical, t h e king retaining o n l y the right of s a n c t i o n i n g
a n d investing the b i s h o p s w h o m it elects . . . Servia is a u t o c e p h a l u s , its 40
m e t r o p o l i t a n a t Belgrade h a v i n g the a u t h o r i t y , t h o u g h n o l o n g e r t h e title

22
Aus The Greek and Eastern Churches

of a p a t r i a r c h . . . t h e p r e s e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e e x t e n d s
merely over t h e G r e e k s i n Galicia, Slavonia, T u r k e y , A n a t o l i a , a n d t h e
I o n i a n Isles. H e possesses a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o m e , b u t t h e o t h e r p a t r i a r c h s
are m o s t l y d e p e n d e n t on h i m for s u p p o r t . T h e "Pope and Patriarch of
5 Alexandria" lives in ||10| Cairo, b u t h a s t h e r e o n l y 2 c h u r c h e s left. In An-
tioch, t h e few w h o a d h e r e to t h e " o r t h o d o x " E a s t e r n faith, m e e t o n l y in a
p r i v a t e dwelling, or in t h e recesses of a m o u n t a i n g r o t t o , while t h e i r
p a t r i a r c h resides at Damascus. T h e p a t r i a r c h of Jerusalem, as h a s b e e n
t h e c u s t o m since early in t h e 17 t h c e n t u r y , is for t h e m o s t p a r t r e s i d e n t at
10 C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . this J e r u s a l e m p a t r i a r c h r e t a i n s t h e right of n o m i
n a t i n g his successor; or, if he dies w i t h o u t h a v i n g so d o n e , t h e "brethren of
the Holy Sepulchre", a 150 in n u m b e r , p r o c e e d to c h o o s e s o m e o n e in his
stead. N a c h Neale, exclusive of t h e U n i a t e s u. d e r heretical sects, d e r s t a t e
der Eastern Church: In Russia... 50,000,000. In Turkey ... 12,000,000. In
15 t h e k i n g d o m of Greece with Montenegro . . . 800,000. In t h e Austrian do
minions 2,800,000. In the patriarchate of Alexandria ... 5,000; In the
patriarchate of Antioch, including the autocephalous metropolitanate
of Cyprus ... 150,000; in dem patriarchate of J e r u s a l e m ... 15,000.
Z u s . : 65,770,000. (25^47)

20 Tenets of the Greek Church.

T h e Eastern Church d i s o w n s t h e p o p e ' s s u p r e m a c y , b u t she d o e s n o t


disbelieve t h e c h u r c h ' s infallibility. [48] S h e a d v o c a t e s t h e u s e of Scrip
t u r e , b u t she lays as firm a h o l d on t h e validity of t r a d i t i o n . She d i s a v o w s
w o r k s o f s u p e r e r o g a t i o n , a n d disclaims t h e d o c t r i n e o f indulgences; b u t
25 she a b o u n d s in w o r k s of self-righteousness, enjoins confession, confers
a b s o l u t i o n , requires p e n a n c e s , a n d e n c o u r a g e s m o n k e r y , her liturgies at
test t h a t she practically believes i n t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n . O p p o s i t e t o t h e
idea o f p u r g a t o r y , she d o e s n o t h e s i t a t e t o offer h e r p r a y e r s for t h e
repose o f t h e d e p a r t e d . C o n d e m n s i m a g e - w o r s h i p , b u t allows t h e a d o -
30 r a t i o n of p i c t u r e s , offers h e r p r a y e r s to t h e Virgin u. t h e saints, t a k e s
delight in relics, believes in miracles, u. a t t a c h e s an u n t o l d efficacy to t h e
act o f signing m . d e m cross . . . t h e liturgies d e r E a s t e r n C h u r c h a n d its
various sects a r e computed to number 67. t h e sources f r o m w h i c h t h e y a r e
derived a r e 3 : t h a t of J e r u s a l e m , a s c r i b e d to J a m e s ; t h a t of A l e x a n d r i a ,
35 a t t r i b u t e d to M a r k ; u. die of Edessa, said to o w e its origin to T h a d d a e u s .
the l a t t e r i s used o n l y a m o n g t h e N e s t o r i a n s . t h a t o f J a m e s i s r e a d only i n
some c h u r c h e s , o n t h e d a y o f his festival. T h e s t a n d a r d r i t u a l s a r e t h o s e
modifications o f St. J a m e s ' w h i c h a r e followed a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; n a m e -

23
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

ly, t h a t of St. C h r y s o s t o m , which is in o r d i n a r y use, a n d t h a t of St. Basil,


w h i c h is s u b s t i t u t e d for it on certain a p p o i n t e d d a y s . . . [49] On " O r -
t h o d o x y S u n d a y " , the first S a b b a t h in L e n t , a 3 fold " a n a t h e m a " p r o -
n o u n c e d against each of the 60 e r r o r s w h i c h they d e e m to exist, or to h a v e
existed, in o t h e r c h u r c h e s . In t h e russian c h u r c h this service is s o m e w h a t 5
curtailed . . . [50] decisive voice of t h e Eastern Church in t h e d e c l a r a t i o n at
t h e council of B e t h l e h e m (1672): "All Scripture is n o t to be r e a d by t h e
u n t r a i n e d . " [ 5 2 ] I n t h e v a r i o u s retreats of Mount Athos a l o n e , t h e r e a r e
no less t h a n 40,000 m o n k s a n d h e r m i t s . Celibacy is n o t b i n d i n g on t h e
G r e e k priests, w h o a r e divided i n t o 2 classes, t h e "black" or "monastic" 10
u. die "white" or "secular" clergy. T h e h i e r a r c h y are c h o s e n f r o m a m o n g
t h e f o r m e r class . . . A n old m a n u s c r i p t preserved a m o n g t h e Nestorians:
"I swear, t h a t were it possible for the devil to a t t a i n t h e priesthood, a n d
w i t h his h a n d t o b r e a k t h e o b l a t i o n , a n d c o m m u n i c a t e t h e r e o f t o m e ,
I w o u l d receive it from h i m , a n d h o l d it as t h o u g h it h a d b e e n b r o k e n by 15
S i m o n P e t e r . " . . . [57,58] in 1672, the council of B e t h l e h e m expressed
th
conviction, ( 1 7 article) " t h a t in the celebration of this m y s t e r y (des
A b e n d m a h l s ) o u r L o r d Jesus C h r i s t is present, n o t in a figurative or
i m a g i n a r y m a n n e r , n o r etc etc . . . [60] b u t verily a n d indeed; so t h a t after
t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n of t h e b r e a d , the || 111 b r e a d is changed, transubstantiated, 20
transmuted, transformed into the very true b o d y a n d b l o o d of o u r L o r d
w h i c h w a s b o r n in B e t h l e h e m . . . a n d t h a t t h e w i n e is converted and tran-
substantiated i n t o t h e very t m e b l o o d of the L o r d e t c " . . . [61] difference
b e t w e e n the E a s t e r n a n d the Western C h u r c h e s a s t o the precise t i m e
w h e n t h e averred c h a n g e t a k e s place, t h e R o m a n i s t s a t t r i b u t i n g it to t h e 25
c o n s e c r a t i n g w o r d s : "this is my b o d y , t a k e , e a t " etc u. die Orientals assig-
n i n g it to their s u b s e q u e n t i n v o c a t i o n of the H o l y Spirit, a n d " t h e blessing
o f t h e gifts" . . . [63] (48-67) T h e c o m m o n p e o p l e t a u g h t t o a d d r e s s t h e
Virgin as " t h e only c o m f o r t of the h u m a n r a c e " , they l e a r n to r e g a r d h e r as
such, while t h e S a v i o u r a n d his finished w o r k are d e p r e c i a t e d in their 30
esteem . . . c o m p r o m i s e between p o p u l a r c l a m o u r a n d theological convic-
tions. It w a s decreed t h a t images s h o u l d be strictly p r o h i b i t e d , while r o u g h
p a i n t i n g s were a l l o w e d t h e r o u g h e r , the m o r e o r t h o d o x . I t i s said t h a t
o n e of t h e greatest c o m p l i m e n t s p a i d to T i t i a n w a s t h e c o m p l a i n t of a
G r e e k priest, t h a t this artist's figures s t o o d o u t so fearfully f r o m the c a n - 35
vass t h a t it w o u l d be as i n n o c e n t to kneel before a s t a t u e as before o n e of
his p a i n t i n g s , (the t a u n t o f the M o h a m m e d a n , a n d the v i g o r o u s efforts o f
the I c o n o c l a s t s , c o n t r i b u t e d to the t e m p o r a r y a b j u r a t i o n of all likenesses
of saints in the c h u r c h e s of the E a s t ; b u t it is easy to i m a g i n e h o w m u c h
t h o s e w h o h a d b e e n long a c c u s t o m e d to offer their d e v o t i o n s before a 40
visible object, m u s t h a v e felt at a loss w h e n all such objects w e r e r e m o v e d

24
Aus The Greek and Eastern Churches

from their gaze.) . . . [68, 69] R e i s e n d e b e r russische B a u e r n : "Whose like-


ness is that? t h e old w o m a n replied, crossing herself as she s p o k e , It is our
only Lord God St. Nicholas. "... [71] t h e G r e e k s reject in toto t h e d o c t r i n e
of predestination ... [73] O n e m a r k e d characteristic of t h e d e v o t i o n s in t h e
5 E a s t e r n service-books is t h e a m p l i t u d e of their a d o r a t i o n . . . [77] M a s s i v e
o r n a m e n t s o f gold a n d silver, splendid r o b e s o f velvet a n d satin, a d o r n e d
with jewellery a n d e m b r o i d e r e d w o r k ; richly d i g h t a l t a r - c l o t h s , a n d fra-
grantly fuming incense, a r e a s m u c h t h e p r i d e o f t h e O r i e n t a l a s o f t h e
O c c i d e n t a l c h u r c h . . . [79] T h e interior of G r e e k c h u r c h e s is m o s t generally
10 cruciform; a n d t h e exterior s u r m o u n t e d by at least a simple d o m e , a n d
often 5 . . . In c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e p r o h i b i t i o n of bells by t h e m a n d a t e of t h e
T u r k s , t h e u s u a l call t o w o r s h i p , b o t h a m o n g t h e " o r t h o d o x " a n d a m o n g
t h e heretics of t h e E a s t , is effected by striking on a b o a r d w i t h a h a m -
m e r . . . . great bell of Moscow, i n d i s p u t a b l y t h e largest bell in the world
15 (Turks i m a g i n e , t h a t t h e s o u n d drives a w a y g o o d spirits), t h e w h o l e weight
a m o u n t i n g t o 443,772 p o u n d s . . . . P r e a c h i n g i s b u t little r e s o r t e d t o , save
th
d u r i n g L e n t . I n t h e 1 7 c e n t u r y i t w a s positively f o r b i d d e n i n R u s s i a . . .
E n o r m e L n g e der Liturgie. M a s s e r e p e t i t i o n s . . t h e w o r d s , " K y r i e
E l e i s o n " " L o r d h a v e m e r c y " a r e r e p e a t e d after s o m e p r a y e r s 12, o r even
20 40 or 50 times ... t h e r u b r i c varies so greatly for every d a y in t h e y e a r (die
prayers, die Z u h r e r u n p r o v i d e d m. b o o k s ) as well as every service of t h e
day, t h a t i t n o t only f i l l s 2 0 folio v o l u m e s , b u t r e q u i r e s a n a d d i t i o n a l t o m e ,
entitled " T h e R e g u l a t i o n " to serve as a g u i d e for t h e right use of all t h e
o t h e r s . . . . I n T u r k e y p r e a c h i n g confined t o t h e higher e c c l e s i a s t i c s ; . . .
25 a m o n g the Copts the patriarch alone preaches, but once a y e a r . . . . T h e
dialect in t h e C o n s t a n t i n o p o l i t a n office-books differs f r o m t h e classic
G r e e k only i n t h e a d d i t i o n o f theological t e r m s . . . T h r o u g h o u t t h e C z a r s '
d o m i n i o n s , D i v i n e service is p e r f o r m e d in t h e Slavonic, u n d e r s t o o d by
c o m p a r a t i v e l y few a m o n g t h e p e o p l e . . . t h i r d ecclesiastical l a n g u a g e t h e
30 Georgian, b u t h e r e a g a i n t h e civil differs widely f r o m t h e s a c r e d dialect,
each h a v i n g its distinct a l p h a b e t . . . T h e p s a l m s a n d h y m n s a r e s u n g b y t h e
choir; i n s t r u m e n t s of all k i n d s a r e excluded . . . [82-84] 226 set d a y s of
abstinence i n t h e year, including t h e W e d n e s d a y a n d F r i d a y i n e a c h week,
which a r e r e g u l a r fast-days. T h e G r e e k s r e g a r d S a t u r d a y like a second
35 S a b b a t h , a c c o u n t i n g it a feast-day i n s t e a d of a f a s t . . . [99] e s t i m a t i o n of
relics . . . W h a t J e r u s a l e m w a s t o t h e Israelites, Kieff i s t o the R u s s i a n s . . .
[105,106] theatrical c h a r a c t e r w h i c h m a r k s n e a r l y all services of t h e
Greeks. I

25

Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

. |12| Worthies of the Greek Church:

Irenaeus, Athenagoras, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origines, Dyonisius t h e


G r e a t (an A l e x a n d r i a n p a t r i a r c h ) , Gregory Thaumaturgus. (In d e n ersten
3 J h h . ) Im 4 J h h . Eusebius P a m p h i l i u s , Peter t h e m a r t y r , D i d y m u s t h e
Blind, A t h a n a s i u s , G r e g o r y N a z i a n z e n , G r e g o r y of N y s s a , E p h r a i m 5
Syrus. Basilius ( b o r n 320 at C a e s a r e a ) . Chrysostomus (geb. 347) [113-117],
t h
John of Alexandria, t h e A l m o n e r . (| 620), John Damascenus ( 8 c e n t u r y )
Cyrillus u. Methodius. (9' J h h . ) a modified f o r m of t h e Cyrillic a l p h a b e t
b e i n g still e m p l o y e d in the R u s s i a n s e r v i c e - b o o k s . . . the J a c o b i t e
m a p h r i a n Gregory Abulpharagius o d . B a r - H e b r u s . ( b o r n at M a l a t i a in 10
A r m e n i a , 1226.) Gennadius, p a t r i a r c h of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e p u b l i s h e d
a. 1453 a confession of the G r e e k faith . . . [127-134] Platon's " S u m m a r y
of Christian Divinity" ...

Heretics and Sectaries of the Greek Church.

. . . Influence of the A l e x a n d r i a n school of p h i l o s o p h y u p o n the early 15


t h e o l o g y of t h e Orientals . . . [137] Nestorius tried u. c o n d e m n e d zu E p h e -
sus, a. 431 ... [140] Im 5, 6, 7 J h h . Nestorianism s p r e a d t h r o u g h Persia,
C h a l d e a u . Syria, p e n e t r a t i n g even t o I n d i a , T a r t a r y u . C h i n a . A t t h e
p r e s e n t t i m e , its s t r o n g h o l d is in the m o u n t a i n o u s districts of Persia . . .
[141] "Chaldaeans" n u n die v. den N e s t o r i a n s g e n a n n t die h a v e e m b r a c e d 20
t h e R o m a n faith, for the m o s t p a r t , f o u n d i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f t h e
T i g r i s . . . D a s N e s t o r i a n P a t r i a r c h a t e h e r e d i t a r y f r o m uncle t o n e p h e w or,
w h e r e t h e r e is no n e p h e w , to a y o u n g e r b r o t h e r . ... n u m b e r of t h e N e s t o -
r i a n s stated in 1841 to be 140,000 . . . [144] Monophysites. U n t e r dieser
general d e s i g n a t i o n c o m p r e h e n d e d the 4 m a i n b r a n c h e s of schismatics 25 ;
f r o m the O r i e n t a l C h u r c h : Syrian Jacobites, Copts, Abyssinians, Arme-
nians ... D i e J a c o b i t e s n e n n e n die " o r t h o d o x G r e e k s " Melchites or king-
followers ... Syrian Jacobites ( a b o u t 150,000) g o v e r n e d by a P a t r i a r c h (so
called of A n t i o c h , b u t resident at a c o n v e n t n e a r Merdin); der seit 878 h a s
always a s s u m e d the n a m e of Ignatius. T h e i r s e c o n d dignitary, the p r i m a t e 30
of Tagrit, resides n e a r M o s u l , a n d is t e r m e d a "maphrian" (fruitbear-
er) ... s o m e Romanist Jacobites in Syria, m. a p a t r i a r c h of their o w n at
A l e p p o . . . (In 1847 t h e b i s h o p o f M e r d i n h a d g o n e over t o t h e c h u r c h o f
R o m e ) . . . D i e Egyptian Jacobites or C o p t s a b o u t 200,000, h a b e n A n t i - ,1
patriarch of Alexandria ( n e n n t sich so, b u t like the G r e e k p a t r i a r c h of 35 1

26
Aus The Greek and Eastern Churches

t h a t city, resides at C a i r o ) , their sect in E g y p t a decided p r e d o m i n a n c e .


S o m e few M o s l e m o b s e r v a n c e s a r e a d o p t e d b y t h e m . . . . [146-148] T h e
Nubian Jacobites, w i t h o u t a single exception, l a p s e d i n t o M o h a m m e d -
th
a n i s m in the 1 2 c e n t u r y . . . . P a p a l C o p t s very few . . . Abyssinians h a b e n
5 no p a t r i a r c h a t e of their o w n , b u t u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e J a c o b i t e
p a t r i a r c h in C a i r o , their abuna of Axum (their only b i s h o p ) is a l w a y s a
f o r e i g n e r ( a b o u t a million der A b y s s i n i a n C h r i s t i a n s ) ; in t h e o r d i n a n c e
of t h e eucharist, t h e y observe a m a r k e d respect of p e r s o n s , giving larger
portions of the breadlo individuals of h i g h e r r a n k . . . [149-151] church of
10 Armenia r e m a i n e d in the c o m m u n i o n m. der G r e e k C h u r c h till after the
decrees o f C h a l c e d o n ; d a n n a u s A b n e i g u n g gegen die N e s t o r i a n s , a d o p -
ted Eutychianism, ( m o n o p h y t i s m ) ( t e m p o r a r y reconciliation u n t e r P h o -
tius m. der G r e e k C h u r c h ) . [154] Between t h e J a c o b i t e s u. A r m e n i a n s
t h
there w a s , in the 1 1 c e n t u r y , a p a s s i n g s h o w of u n i o n , f o u n d e d on t h e i r
15 c o m m o n a b h o r r e n c e of t h e M e l c h i t e d o c t r i n e . S p t e r t r e n n t e n sich wie-
der, the A r m e n i a n s being followers of E u t y c h e s r a t h e r t h a n of B a r a -
d a e u s , a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , believing the Divinity u . H u m a n i t y o f the
i n c a r n a t e O n e to h a v e been j o i n e d in o n e single, n o t in o n e compound
n a t u r e . 3 p a t r i a r c h a t e s a m o n g t h e A r m e n i a n s , d e r h c h s t e Catholicos (or
20 p a t r i a r c h ) of E t c h m i a d z i n (subject to R u s s i a since 1828), w h o h a s u n d e r
his jurisdiction the w h o l e o f T u r c o m a n i a , o r A r m e n i a M a j o r . T h e next i n
r a n k der catholicos of Sis (in Cilicia) w h o h a s a limited p r o v i n c e in Syria,
u. d e n s o u t h of A n a t o l i a . D e r 3' C a t h o l i c o s , t h a t of Aghtamar ( a n island
in ||12a| L a k e Van), h o l d s his sway over K o o r d i s t a n . T h e r e are s o m e
25 m i n o r p a t r i a r c h s 1 at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , w h o presides over T u r k i s h A r m e -
nia, 1 at J e r u s a l e m , for t h e A r m e n i a n s of Palestine u. 1 zu K a m e n i e t z , for
those i n R u s s i a a n d P o l a n d . T h r o u g h t h e c h a n g i n g f o r t u n e s o f war, a n d
t h r o u g h the claims of m e r c a n t i l e interests, the A r m e n i a n s h a v e b e e n scat-
tered t h r o u g h o u t m a n y l a n d s , (nearly 4 millions.) their t r a d e r s a m o n g t h e
30 wealthiest a n d t h e m o s t liberal in the c o m m e r c i a l w o r l d . L i t e r a t u r e h a s
also been p r o m o t e d a m o n g t h e m . . . w h e r e v e r A r m e n i a n c h u r c h e s a r e
opened, schools a r e established, a n d scientific p u r s u i t s e n c o u r a g e d . . . .
[155,156] Papal Armenian Church. In the T u r k i s h E m p i r e , t h e r e a r e
45,000 Armenian Uniates, besides o t h e r s in Italy, H u n g a r y , a n d R u s -
35 sia. ... Monothelites ( c o n d e m n e d at the council a. 680 at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ) ;
but their views are said t o h a v e been a d o p t e d a n d l o n g held b y t h e
followers of Marc, a m o n k of M o u n t L e b a n o n . T h e M a r o n i t e s b e l o n g
t h
n o w t o the c o m m u n i o n o f R o m e . . . . I n t h e 7 c e n t u r y t h e Paulicians,
arose i n t h e c o u n t r i e s adjacent t o A r m e n i a . [157] reject b a p t i s m a n d t h e
40 L o r d ' s supper, t h e y a d o p t e d likewise an allegorizing system of Bible
interpretation; denied P a p a l s u p r e m a c y , priestly d o m i n a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l

27
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

rule, m o r t u a r y p r a y e r s , c r e a t u r e - i n v o c a t i o n , a n d the a d o r a t i o n alike o f


relics, images, pictures, crucifixes, a n d crosses. I m ^ J h h . g e z w u n g e n
flchten. Einige n a c h Bulgarien. S p t e r rest of t h e m forced to e m i g r a t e ,
d r a w a w a y from the R o m i s h c h u r c h the Cathari of Italy, u. die Albigen-
ses of F r a n c e . In B o h e m i a , t o o , t h e y p a v e d t h e w a y for t h e R e f o r m a t i o n . 5
V o n d e n P a u l i c i a n s also originated the G r e e k sect, in Bosnia in 1197, w h o
u n d e r t h e n a m e of Bogomili h a v e c o n t i n u e d . . . [158,159] In Russia
20 v a r i o u s sects. ( R a s k o l n i k s , or schismatics,) a m o u n t i n g in all to a b o u t
5 millions. Chief cause of dissension w a s t h e c o r r e c t i o n of t h e service-
b o o k s i n N i k o n ' s time, m a n y h a v i n g a d h e r e d t o t h e a n c i e n t c e r e m o n i e s , 1 0
a n d calling themselves Starovertsi, or believers of t h e old faith. T h e y
possess between 20 u. 30 m o n a s t e r i e s , . . . t h e eucharist they never cele-
b r a t e ; a n d b a p t i s m is a d m i n i s t e r e d only at t h e a p p r o a c h of d e a t h . . . The
Duchobortsi ("wrestlers w i t h the spirit") exist in der U k r a i n e u. t h e c o u n -
t r y of t h e D o n - c o s s a c k s f r o m a very r e m o t e p e r i o d ; seit m i d d l e des 15
th
1 8 c e n t u r y b r o u g h t p r o m i n e n t l y i n t o notice. T h e i r views a singular c o m -
p o u n d of Gnosticism, Rationalism, Quakerism, a n d Brethrenism ...
reject every external rite, c e r e m o n y u. o b s e r v a n c e . . . [161] T h e Malakani,
a n d r e russische Sekte, located principally i n t h e C r i m e a , t h o u g h f o u n d
scattered, m o r e or less t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e of R u s s i a , n e n n e n sich 20
selbst "Spiritual C h r i s t i a n s " . (66-164)

28
Aus John Mason Neale: Introduction to the history of the Holy Eastern Church

Rev. J. M. Neale.
Introduction to the history
of the Holy Eastern Church. Appendix.
London 1851.
5 Synopsis of the Eastern Church in 1850.
I.) Patriarchate of Constantinople Metrop. Abps. Bps. Total
A.) Turkish Empire Proper 83 2 31 116
B.) Out of the Turk. Emp. Prop.
a) Ionian Islands. 3 2 2 7
10 Wallachia 1 - 3 4
Moldavia 1 - 2 3|
j 131 Servia. 1 - 3 4
Venice. 1 1
II.) Patriarchate of Alexandria. 4 4
15 III.) Patriarchate of Antioch 16 16
IV.) Patriarchate of Jerusalem 6 1 6 13
V.) Patriarchate of all the Russias
A. Russia. 4 24 32 60
B.) Georgia. 1 1 3 5
20 VI.) Cyprus. 1 3 4
VII.) Austria. 1 10 11
VIII. Mount Sinai. 1 1
IX.) Montenegro 1 1
X. Greece. 36 36
25 Total 123 32 131 286
The 4 Patriarchats 4
Summa 290. [5]

29
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Count Valerian Krasinski:


Lectures on the Religious History
of the Slavonic Nations.
London 1849.

,e
D a s s e l b e 2 Edition (u. diese wird citirt) u n t e r d e m Titel: 5
Sketch of the Religious History of the Slavonic Nations. Edinburgh.
1851.
In 1551 a general s y n o d held at M o s c o w e n a c t e d a c o d e of ecclesias-
tical laws called Stoglav, i . e . the 100 C h a p t e r s . (269) In 1764, t h e
Empress Catherine confiscated all the estates of t h e C h u r c h ; w h i c h c o n - 10
t a i n e d a b o u t 900,00 m a l e serfs, a n d assigned p e n s i o n s to b i s h o p s , c o n -
v e n t s etc. Peter der Gr. h a t t e s c h o n declared t h a t t h e c o n v e n t s s h o u l d n o t
a c q u i r e a n y l a n d e d p r o p e r t y , either b y gifts o r p u r c h a s e , a n d subjected
the estates o f the c h u r c h t o t h e general t a x a t i o n . ( 2 6 9 ) . . . the clergy f o r m s
a s e p a r a t e caste in Russia; a n d it is a very r a r e o c c u r r e n c e t h a t a p e r s o n 15
b e l o n g i n g to a n o t h e r class d o e s enter t h e c h u r c h , the sons of t h e clergy
m u s t follow the v o c a t i o n s of their fathers . . . to the monastic orders are
reserved all higher g r a d e s o f t h e h i e r a r c h y i n t h e G r e e k C h u r c h . . . I n
1839 several b i s h o p s o f t h e U n i t e d G r e e k C h u r c h o f P o l a n d w e r e i n d u c e d
by the R u s s . gov. to declare a wish to s e p a r a t e f r o m R o m e , a n d to 20
d e m a n d a u n i o n with the R u s s . E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h . T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n w a s
followed by an u k a s e , o r d e r i n g all t h e u n i t e d c h u r c h e s to i m i t a t e the
e x a m p l e o f their b i s h o p s . T h e m o s t stringent m e a s u r e s were a d o p t e d t o
effect a wholesale conversion; a n d a great n u m b e r of clergymen . . . p u n -
ished by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to Siberia, i m p r i s o n m e n t etc . . . [270] Raskolniks 25
( s c h i s m a t i c s ) . . . (contin. p. 17) |

30
Aus Augustin Theiner: Die Staatskirche Rulands

Ii4| Die Staatskirche Rulands im Jahre 1839.


Nach den neuesten Synodalberichten,
dargestellt von einem Priester
aus der Congregation des Oratoriums.
5 Schaffhausen. 1844.

Sektenwesen.
N e u e r A u f s c h w u n g der I r r l e h r e " seit A n f a n g des 1 6 ' J h h . Einflu d a r -
auf: die Einfhrung der Leibeigenschaft u. die Verberung der Kirchenb-
cher. (228) R a s c h e A u s b r e i t u n g v. Sekten in R u l a n d . In der W a h l einer
10 Sekte geniet der Leibeigne A r t v. Freiheit, e n t s c h d i g t ihn f. d e n Verlust
der brgerlichen. D e r leibeigene R u s s e tiefen H a gegen die L a n d e s k i r -
che, deren grosser Missionr die K n u t e . (231) U n t e r w i r f t er sich ihr, so
wird er m i t Leib u. Seel Leibeigner. (1. c.) A n h n g e r der Sekten . . . n i c h t
B e a m t e , Adliche, w o h l a b e r K r m e r , G e w e r b t r e i b e n d e . (sind F r e i g e l a n e
15 meist od. S h n e v. F r e i g e l a n e n ) , fast alle a u s g e d i e n t e n S o l d a t e n , B a u -
ern. (232) Peter I (der G r o s s e ) errichtete a. 1717 eine geheime Inquisiti-
onskanzlei. Er w a r politischer u. religiser G r o s s i n q u i s i t o r seines Volkes.
(235) - R a s k o l n i k e n , A b t r n n i g e . -
1702 befahl P e t e r I d u r c h U k a s e , d a die R a s k o l n i k e n in d e n S t d t e n
20 eine grosse A b g a b e zahlen, u. z u r A u s z e i c h n u n g eine k u p f e r n e M n z e ,
w o r a u f ein langer B a r t dargestellt, a m H a l s e t r a g e n sollten. N a c h U k a s
v. 4 J u n i 1721 m u t e n die R a s k o l n i k e n o h n e A u s n a h m e alle A b g a b e n
doppelt bezahlen. (239) 20 M a i 1731 U k a s v. Anna, d u r c h d e n sie befahl
alle Z a u b e r e r h i n z u r i c h t e n u. zu v e r b r e n n e n (1. c.) V o n Catharina II ein
25 U k a s v. 14 D e c . 1762, w o d u r c h die u n t e r Alexis M i c h a e l o w i t s c h n a c h

31
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Polen ausgewanderten Raskolniken unter glnzenden Anerbietungen zur


R c k k e h r n a c h R u l a n d eingeladen. Sie blieben in P o l e n , a. 1771 floh
d e r g r t e T h e i l d e r K a l m c k e n an der Wolga, in 30,000 K i b i t k e n , 4 Per-
s o n e n a u f eine gerechnet, 120,000 M e n s c h e n , d a r u n t e r allein 30,000 Strei-
ter in die kirgisch-kaikasische Steppe, um d e n politischen u. relig. 5
B e d r c k u n g e n der R e g . z u e n t g e h n . E b e n s o . 1714 f l o h eine 40,000
K i b i t k e n s t a r k e H o r d e v. 160,000 nagaischer Tartaren des g o v e r n m e n t s
Astrakan n a c h d e r K r i m r n u n t e r die t r k i s c h e O b e r h o h h e i t . D i e russi-
schen S e k t e n sehr r a s c h ausgebreitet u n t e r K a t h a r i n a , P a u l I u. A l e x a n -
d e r (alle 3 wild gegen sie). W u r d e n eine M a c h t . . . [240] Z w e i H a u p t - 10
klassen der Sekten: Erste: M i t P r i e s t e r t h u m , Popowschtschina, Zweite, die
alles P r i e s t e r t h u m u. a u c h die S a k r a m e n t e verwerfen, Bespopow-
schtschina. I h r e A n h n g e r P o p o w s k i u . B e s p o p o w s k i . . .
U n t e r der Bespopowschtschina s u c h t N i c o l a u s b e s . 3 S e k t e n m. F e u e r
u. Schwert a u s z u r o t t e n : 1) die C h r i s t o w t s c h i n a , 2) die Molakani u. 3) die 15
Duchoborski. D i e C h r i s t o w i w h l e n a u s ihrer M i t t e E i n e n M a n n u . E i n e
F r a u , beide ausgezeichnet d u r c h ihre S c h n h e i t u. v e r e h r e n sie als C h r i -
stus u. seine heilige M u t t e r ; u m r i n g e n sie m. e i n e m R a t h v. 12 B a u e r n als
A p o s t e l verehrt. . . . D i e D u c h o b o r e n A r t politischrelig. F r e i m a u r e r . . .
[241, 242] b e i n a h e % R u l a n d s , i. e. des landeskirchlichen R u l a n d s , K e t - 20
zer. [245] - V o n d e m W i d e r s t a n d n i c h t zu b e r w l t i g e n , v e r s p r e c h e n
i h n e n die Bischfe u. M i s s i o n r e die B e i b e h a l t u n g eines Theils ihrer
G e b r u c h e , die n i c h t gar zu grell gegen die o r t h o d o x e K i r c h e , w e n n sie
sich n u r vereinen. D i e heit die Gleichglubigkeit ( E d i n o w e n i e ) a n n e h -
m e n . . . . [248, 249] P e r s e c u t i o n et souffrances de l'glise c a t h o l i q u e en 25
R u s s i e p a r u n ancien conseiller d ' t a t d e Russie. P a r i s 1 8 4 2 " . . . [250]
Anzahl der Protestanten ( R e f o r m i r t e L u t h e r a n e r etc) im russischen R e i c h
k a u m 2 M i l l i o n e n . . . [252] D i e protestantischen F r s t e n t c h t e r , w e n n in
die russische F a m i l i e eingeheirathet, m s s e n sich als H e i d i n n e n n o c h ein-
m a l in R u l a n d taufen lassen . . . [256] A u s einer E h e , wo d e r eine Theil 30
( M a n n od. F r a u ) griechischer Profession, k n n e n n u r griechische K i n d e r
h e r v o r g e h n . . . N u r der griechische Priester d a r f eine gemischte E h e ein-
w e i h e n . . . [268] A u f diese Weise findet m a n bereits in d e n O s t s e e p r o v i n -
zen, i n E s t h l a n d m e h r als i n Liefland, i m K u r l a n d a m wenigsten, eine
M e n g e zwitterhafter D e u t s c h - R u s s e n in allen S t n d e n u. K l a s s e n der 35
Gesellschaft. V o n d e n ||15| v o r n e h m s t e n F a m i l i e n des d e u t s c h e n A d e l s a u f
diese Weise einzelne S t m m e ins russische E l e m e n t h i n b e r gezweigt,
s o d a bereits die meisten F a m i l i e n in einen russischen o d . russisch-grie-
chischen u. in einen d e u t s c h e n o d . d e u t s c h - l u t h e r i s c h e n zerfallen. So
giebt es z. B. russische u. d e u t s c h e K o r f s , Vietinghfe, O s t e n - S a c k e n s etc 40
(240-269). I n d e n P r o v i n z e n des U r a l g e b i r g e s u . Sibirien d a s S e k t e n w e -

32
Aus Augustin Thener: Die Staatskirche Rulands

sen u n t e r den K r o n b a u e r n a m meisten verbreitet. (247) D i e Irrlehre zieht


sich v o m U r a l h e r a b bis z u m K a s p i s c h e n M e e r , steigt v . den n r d l i c h s t e n
P o l a r g e g e n d e n d u r c h Sibirien bis z u m a s o w s c h e n u . schwarzen M e e r her-
unter, u. schlngelt sich v o n da d u r c h d a s H e r z R u l a n d s bis in die
5 Ostseeprovinzen hinauf. (226) D e r K a i s e r , die Ministerien des Kriegs, des
I n n e r n , d e r K r o n d o m n e n , d e r Polizei, Senat, R e i c h s r a t h , M e t r o p o l i t e n ,
Erzbischfe, Bischfe in B e w e g u n g um sie a u s z u r o t t e n (243) Judenver-
folgung. 1 Million d a v o n im g a n z e n R e i c h . B e k e h r t v. 1836-9: 1618 See-
len zur russischen K i r c h e . (312)
10 G e l d e r a u s d e m K i r c h e n f o n d s d e r k a t h o l i s c h - r u t h e n i s c h e n K i r c h e ge-
n o m m e n u m sie zu russificiren". 1833. [235,236] So im Jh. 1836 n i c h t
weniger als 46,777 U n i r t e in die russische K i r c h e hinein getrieben,
gepeitscht u. g e k n u t e t . (331) 1837 d e r k a t h o l . J u g e n d die Schulen ge-
schlossen, gezwungen in die der S c h i s m a t i k e r zu gehn, russische L a n d e s -
15 s p r c h e etc etc general g e w o r d e n , b e a u f t r a g t , G e w a l t zu laufen, if needed;
Schlern, Seminaristen, L e h r e r n alle k a t h o l . L e h r - u. A n d a c h t s b c h e r
w e g g e n o m m e n u. die d e r russischen K i r c h e dafr gegeben. A. 1837 die
g e s a m m t e u n i r t e Geistlichkeit u n t e r die u n m i t t e l b a r e G e r i c h t s b a r k e i t des
heiligen S y n o d s gesezt. (338) A u s s e r der heiligen K n u t e ( a u c h n o c h
20 37, 38, 39) n o c h Bajonette, D e g e n , K a n o n e n , K e r k e r , V e r b a n n u n g u.
E i n z i e h u n g der G t e r a n g e w e n d e t . (339) N o c h 1840 d r a k o n i s c h e Blut-
gesetze gegen die k a t h o l . Priester, die u n i r t e G l u b i g e r c k b e k e h r e n soll-
ten. ([339,] 340) D i e G e s a m m t z a h l der 1839 B e k e h r t e n (russisch) so n a c h
P r o t a s o w , 2,000,000. (I.e.) D e r K a t h o l i k rechnet, d a es n u r 1,574,215.
25 (I.e.) K a i s e r n a h m der b e k e h r t e n Geistlichkeit U k a s v. 5. J a n . 1842 alle
ihre grossen G t e r u. Leibeignen (der K l s t e r u. K i r c h e n ) a b . (341) S t a t t
dessen fixes J a h r g e h a l t . (I.e.) D i e k a t h o l i s c h e n G u t s b e s i t z e r ( r u t h e n i -
schen) w e r d e n d u r c h u n e r h r t e u. n a m e n l o s e B e d r c k u n g e n genthigt, in
allen D r f e r n , w o e s n u r eine H a n d v o l l schismatischer B a u e r n h a t , o r t h o -
30 doxe K i r c h e n auf ihre eignen K o s t e n zu b a u e n . (344) Z u r Schismatisi-
r u n g v. P o l e n w e r d e n tglich k a t h o l . K i r c h e n in russische u m g e w a n d e l t ,
u. die Praxis der M i s c h e h e n m. u n e r b i t t l i c h e r Strenge d u r c h g e f h r t . (1. c.)
U e b r i g e n s e r k l r e n wir u n s als stets u n t e r w o r f n e n S o h n E u r e r H e i -
ligkeit als u n s e r m obersten Chef in geistlichen S a c h e n u. u n t e r z e i c h n e n
35 uns als I h r e n geistigen S o h n , bereit zu I h r e n Befehlen." (Peter, Peters-
burg. 30. Sept. 1721 In einem Brief an den P a t r i a r c h v. C o n s t a n t i n o p e l ,
worin er i h m die A u f h e b u n g des russischen P a t r i a r c h a t s u. seine E r s e t -
zung d u r c h d e n S y n o d . ) [65] ( D e r P a t r i a r c h v. C o n s t a n t i n o p e l v e r s c h o b
durch 2 volle J. die B e s t t i g u n g . 66) K l e r u s weniger als d e r lezte u n v e r -
40 heirathete L o h n b e d i e n t e , der in P e t e r s b u r g d o c h m i n d e s t e n s 20 R u b e l
des M o n a t s , also 240 R u b e l des J. h a t , P o p e n u r 70 R u b e l des J. D e r

33
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

russische Priester m u sich, fr d e n M a n g e l an fixer B e s o l d u n g , bei Tau-


fen, T r a u u n g e n , S e g n u n g e n , Begrbnissen etc e n t s c h d i g e n , wo er eine
soviel wie m g l i c h ansehnliche B e s o l d u n g fordert, t r i n k t , it, so l a n g er
k a n n , n o c h L e b e n s m i t t e l f. F r a u u. K i n d m i t n i m m t , die m i t i h m , ausser
bei h n l i c h e n Gelegenheiten, d e n g r t e n Theil des J a h r e s h u n g e r n m s - 5
sen R u s s i s c h e S p r i c h w o r t : Bin ich e t w a ein Priester, d a ich 2 m a l essen
sollte?" ([161,] 162)

Gerichtsflle in den einzelnen Eparchien


Eparchien. Klerus. 1836.
Orel. 3,594. 114 10
Kursk. 3,643. 99
Kasan. 1,990. 67
Wjatka 2,230 1|

|16| S u m m i r t m a n die A n z a h l aller in d e n J. 36, 1837, 38 u. 39 v. d e m hei-


ligen S y n o d u. in d e n heiligen E p a r c h i a l b e h r d e n in U n t e r s u c h u n g gezo- 15
g e n e n Geistlichen, die sich auf 15,443 beluft, so ergiebt sich, d a in
te
diesen 4 J. stets der 6 v. den 102,456 Geistlichen w e g e n Verbrechen in
U n t e r s u c h u n g gezogen u. bestraft w u r d e . (163) ]

34
Aus Charles de Martens, Ferdinand de Cussy: Recueil manuel et pratique de traits

[Charles de Martens, Ferdinand de Cussy:


Recueil manuel et pratique de traits,
conventions et autres actes diplomatiques.
T. 1. Leipzig 1845.]

5 |17| Trait,
conclu prs du village de Koutschouc Kaynardji,
d. d. 10 Juillet 1774.

Art. VII. La sublime P o r t e p r o m e t de protger c o n s t a m m e n t la religion


chrtienne et ses glises; et aussi elle permet aux ministres de la cour imp-
lo riale de Russie de faire d a n s t o u t e s les occasions des reprsentations t a n t
en faveur de la nouvelle glise C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ( d o n t il sera m e n t i o n
l'art. X I V ) - q u e p o u r ceux q u i la desservent, p r o m e t t a n t de les p r e n d r e
e n considration, c o m m e faites p a r u n e p e r s o n n e d e confiance d ' u n e
puissance voisine et sincrement amie.
15 Art. VIII II sera libre et p e r m i s a u x sujets de l'empire de Russie, t a n t
sculiers qu'ecclsiastiques, de visiter la sainte ville de J r u s a l e m et a u t r e s
lieux dignes d ' a t t e n t i o n . Il ne sera exig de ces plerins et v o y a g e u r s p a r
qui q u e ce puisse tre, ni J r u s a l e m , ni ailleurs, ni sur la r o u t e , a u c u n
charatsch, c o n t r i b u t i o n , d r o i t ou a u t r e i m p o s i t i o n ; m a i s ils s e r o n t m u n i s
20 de p a s s e p o r t s et firmans, tels q u ' o n en d o n n e a u x sujets des a u t r e s
puissances amies. P e n d a n t leur sjour d a n s l'empire o t t o m a n , il ne leur
sera fait le m o i n d r e t o r t ni offense, m a i s au c o n t r a i r e ils s e r o n t s o u s la
protection la plus rigide des lois. [114]

35
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Art. XIV. A l'exemple des a u t r e s puissances, on p e r m e t la h a u t e


c o u r t d e Russie, o u t r e l a chapelle btie d a n s l a m a i s o n d u ministre, d e
c o n s t r u i r e d a n s u n q u a r t i e r d e G a l a t a , d a n s l a r u e n o m m e Bey-Oglu,
u n e glise publique du rite grec, laquelle sera t o u j o u r s s o u s la p r o t e c t i o n
des ministres de cet e m p i r e et l'abri de t o u t e gne et de t o u t e avanie. 5
Art. XVI w o r i n R u l a n d die p r i n c i p a u t de Valachie a n d M o l d a v i a
z u r c k g i e b t a n die P o r t e u n t e r d e r B e d i n g u n g : 2 ) d e n ' e m p c h e r a u c u -
n e m e n t l'exercice libre de la religion c h r t i e n n e et de ne m e t t r e a u c u n
obstacle la c o n s t r u c t i o n de nouvelles glises et la r p a r a t i o n des
a n c i e n n e s e t c [3)] de r e s t i t u e r a u x c o u v e n t s et [aux] a u t r e s particuliers 10
les terres et possessions ci-devant eux a p p a r t e n a n t e s , q u i leur o n t t
prises c o n t r e t o u t e justice. 4) d ' a v o i r p o u r les ecclsiastiques l'estime
particulire q u e leur tat exige. [116,117]
Art. XVII. L ' e m p i r e de Russie restitue la sublime P o r t e t o u t e s les les
de l'Archipel qui se t r o u v e n t sous sa d p e n d a n c e , et la sublime p o r t e de 15
son c t p r o m e t : 2) q u e la religion chrtienne ne sera p o i n t expose
m o i n d r e o p p r e s s i o n n o n plus q u e les glises, et qu'il ne sera mis a u c u n
e m p c h e m e n t leur c o n s t r u c t i o n ou r p a r a t i o n ; pareillement q u e ceux
qui les desservent ne s e r o n t ni o p p r i m s ni o u t r a g s . [118]
C o n v e n t i o n Explicative du trait conclu K a y n a r d j i , le 10 Juillet 1774, 20
signe C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , le 10 M a r s , 1779. [162]

Trait de Paix, etc le 14 Sept. 1829.


(Adrianople.)
Art. XV. Aile traits, c o n v e n t i o n s et stipulations arrts et c o n c l u s dif-
frentes p o q u e s e n t r e la c o u r impriale de R u s s i e et la s u b l i m e P o r t e 25
O t t o m a n e , sauf les articles a u x q u e l s il a t d r o g p a r le p r s e n t t r a i t de
p a i x , s o n t confirms d a n s t o u t e leur force et valeur. (228)

36
Aus Valerian Krasinski: Lectures on the religious history (Fortsetzung)

Krasinski. (contin. v. p. 13)


1

A great c o m m o t i o n i n t h e R u s s i a n c h u r c h p r o d u c e d b y t h e e m e n d a t i o n
o f t h e Scriptures a n d t h e d e v o t i o n a l b o o k s , effected u n d e r t h e Tzar A l e -
xius . . . d u r i n g t h e l o n g p e r i o d o f t h e M o n g o l d o m i n a t i o n , t h e w h o l e
5 c o u n t r y fell i n t o a state of g r e a t b a r b a r i t y . . . clergy s u n k i n t o t h e grossest
i g n o r a n c e a n d c o r r u p t i o n . . . t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f all t h e sacred a n d d e v o -
t i o n a l b o o k s , e n t r u s t e d t o i g n o r a n t copyists, b e c a m e g r a d u a l l y s o disfig-
u r e d , t h a t their sense w a s often entirely lost, a n d the text of o n e c o p y
1 differed f r o m t h a t of a n o t h e r . . . . [276] Several efforts w e r e m a d e in v a i n
10 to correct t h e sacred b o o k s , at last t h e P a t r i a r c h N i c o n a s s e m b l e d a
council for t h a t p u r p o s e a t M o s c o w i n 1654, a t w h i c h the P a t r i a r c h o f
A n t i o c h , t h a t o f Servia, a n d 5 6 b i s h o p s w e r e p r e s e n t ; a n d i t decided u p o n
correcting t h e S c r i p t u r e s a n d t h e liturgical b o o k s used for t h e R u s s i a n
C h u r c h . . . differences b e t w e e n t h e Tzar Alexius a n d t h e P a t r i a r c h |
15 |18| N i c o n , w h i c h e n d e d in t h e d e p o s i t i o n of the latter by a c o u n c i l in
1664 . . . b u t i t w a s f i n a l l y decided b y t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d c o u n c i l . . . t h e
text o f t h e Scriptures a n d t h e liturgical b o o k s w a s f i x e d i n c o n f o r m i t y t o
the oldest Slavonic m a n u s c r i p t s . . . a n d p r i n t e d . . . . [277] D i e G e g n e r , die
; Raskolniks dieser V e r n d e r u n g s p r e a d their o p i n i o n s over all Siberia, t h e
- 20 c o u n t r y of t h e C o s s a c k s of t h e D o n , a n d in different o t h e r d i s t a n t p r o v -
j inces . . . A great n u m b e r of t h e m e m i g r a t e d to P o l a n d , a n d even to Tur-
key, w h e r e t h e y f o r m e d n u m e r o u s s e t t l e m e n t s ... do n o t differ f r o m t h e
established c h u r c h i n d o c t r i n e , b u t m e r e l y i n s o m e o u t w a r d observances,
arid i n r e t a i n i n g t h e u n c o r r e c t e d text o f t h e sacred b o o k s ... t h e separa-
*( 25 t i o n w a s r e n d e r e d c o m p l e t e by P e t e r t h e G r e a t , his m e m o r y is a b o m i -
^ n a t e d b y t h e R a s k o l n i k s , a n d s o m e o f t h e m m a i n t a i n t h a t h e w a s t h e real
Antichrist. . . . [279] D i e a d h e r e n t s des old text, die zahlreichste K l a s s e der
I R a s k o l n i k s , call themselves: Starovertzi ... Yedinovertzi (coreligion-
I ists.) . . .

37
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

It is Strange to find a m o n g s t the illiterate p e a s a n t r y of R u s s i a religious


o p i n i o n s of such a spiritual c h a r a c t e r as t h o s e h e l d by t h e Malakanes ...
i. e. to meet amongst that peasantry doctrines which were entertained by
t h e Gnostics, w h o b e l o n g e d t o t h e m o s t intellectual classes o f t h e R o m a n
society. S u c h is t h e case with t h e Duchobortzi, or Combattants in spirit. 5
(285)
Martinists (by m e a n s of m a s o n i c lodges) . . . Religis w i r k e n d e free-
m a s o n r y . (292) (Stifter: Chevalier St. M a r t i n geb. 1743, | 1803) |

38
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates

[Hansard's parliamentary debates.


Third S e r i e s .

Vol. 3 7 . London 1 8 3 7 . ]
|19| Vixen. H. o. C. March 17. 1837.

5 Roebuck. S o m e time a g o , a vessel w a s fitted o u t , a n d before she p r o -


ceeded t o h e r d e s t i n a t i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n w a s m a d e i n the r e g u l a r q u a r t e r
t o t h e Secretary o f S t a t e for F o r e i g n Affairs t o ascertain w h e t h e r t h e r e
was a n y i m p r o p r i e t y or d a n g e r to be a p p r e h e n d e d if a vessel l a n d e d
g o o d s i n a n y p o r t o n t h e Circassian coast. T h e a p p l i c a t i o n w a s m a d e
10 because fears of d a n g e r w e r e e n t e r t a i n e d f r o m t h e interference of R u s s i a .
T h e answer r e t u r n e d b y t h e n o b l e L o r d , t o t h e m e r c h a n t s w h o applied
was, to l o o k to The Gazette; a n d finding no i n d i c a t i o n s w h a t e v e r in
The Gazette of a n y a c k n o w l e d g m e n t of B l o c k a d e , a n d t h e r e b y c o n c l u d -
ing t h a t t h e b l o c k a d e w a s n o t recognised b y t h e Brit. G o v . , a n d t h a t t h e y
15 were n o t p r e c l u d e d by a u t h o r i t y f r o m l a n d i n g g o o d s a n d m e r c h a n d i s e in
a Circassian p o r t b e l o n g i n g to an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n , t h e y d i s p a t c h e d a
vessel; a n d w h e n at the p o r t it w a s seized by a R u s s i a n ship-of-war,
a n d t h e m a s t e r a n d crew w e r e i m p r i s o n e d . . . T h e Circassians a r e i n p o s -
session of a l m o s t t h e w h o l e of their coast, R u s s i a possessing o n l y
20 3 p o i n t s m e r e forts. On a c o a s t e x t e n d i n g m a n y h u n d r e d s of miles,
Russia possesses only these 3 isolated forts. All t h e rest of Circassia is in
the h a n d s o f t h e Circassians themselves . . . R u s s i a m a y e n d e a v o u r t o
o b t a i n possession of all t h e w o r l d , a n d I r e g a r d h e r efforts w i t h indiffer-
ence; b u t the m o m e n t she interferes w i t h o u r c o m m e r c e I call u p o n t h e
25 G o v . of this c o u n t r y to p u n i s h t h e aggression. . . . I d e n y t h a t T u r k e y h a d
any right to cede Circassia to R u s s i a . B u t even if T u r k e y h a d a r i g h t to

39
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

cede Circassia to R u s s i a , yet, seeing t h a t R u s s i a is n o t in possession of


Circassia, I m a i n t a i n t h a t R u s s i a h a s no right to p r o c l a i m a b l o c k a d e of
the c o a s t o f Circassia. S o w e n i g als die U . St., w e n n S p a i n , d a s h a t n o c h
nicht yielded her rights to S o u t h A m e r i c a , were to cede i h n e n die p r o v -
ince of M e x i c o , u. A m e r i c a were to declare the p o r t of T a m p i c o in a state 5
of b l o c k a d e . . . . I w a n t to k n o w if the Brit. G o v . h a s a c k n o w l e d g e d the
t r e a t y of A d r i a n o p l e ? . . . firing off a battery of protocols . . . [621-626]
m o v e d for "a c o p y of all c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e G o v . of this c o u n -
t r y a n d t h e G o v ' s o f R u s s i a a n d T u r k e y , . . . relating t o t h e t r e a t y o f
A d r i a n o p l e , as well as to all t r a n s a c t i o n s or n e g o t i a t i o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h 10
the o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e p o r t s a n d territories o n the shores o f the Black Sea
by R u s s i a since t h e t r e a t y of A d r i a n o p l e " . [628]
Mr. Ewart. If R u s s i a were allowed to p r o c e e d as she h a d p r o c e e d e d ,
t h e Black Sea w o u l d s o o n b e c o m e a mare clausum to Brit, c o m m e r c e .
[628,629] 15
Palmerston. ... the belligerents h a v e t h e right to b l o c k a d e , if t h a t b l o c k -
a d e be effective a n d consistent w i t h usage. It m u s t n o t be a m a t t e r of
p a p e r , b u t t h e r e m u s t be t h e presence of force. . . . I referred h i m ( M r .
Bell) | 2 0 | to t h e Gazette, w h e r e he w o u l d find that no blockade had been
communicated or declared to this country by the Russ. Gov., consequently 20
none was acknowledged... as far as t h e extension of t h e R u s s i a n frontier
i s c o n c e r n e d o n the m o u t h o f the D a n u b e , the s o u t h o f the C a u c a s u s , a n d
t h e shores of t h e Black Sea . . . which is certainly n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e
s o l e m n d e c l a r a t i o n m a d e b y R u s s i a i n the face o f E u r o p e p r e v i o u s t o the
c o m m e n c e m e n t of the Turkish w a r . . . . [631, 633, 635] 25
Maclean. I n the manifesto p u b l i s h e d b y R u s s i a . . . n o m e n t i o n w a s m a d e
of a b l o c k a d e or a n y m u n i c i p a l regulations, b u t it w a s expressly stated,
t h a t t h e Vixen w a s seized because she w a s guilty of smuggling. . . . [637]
Hume:... if it was possible for l a n g u a g e to disguise a p l a i n a n d simple
q u e s t i o n , u n d o u b t e d l y the n o b l e L o r d ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e h a d effected t h a t 30
object; a n d a l t h o u g h M r . Bell, i n r e p e a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , p u s h e d h i m very
h a r d , still t h e n o b l e L o r d h a d ingenuity e n o u g h t o e v a d e i t . . . B u t the
n o b l e L o r d h a d n o t only e v a d e d M r . Bell, h e h a d sat d o w n w i t h o u t
telling t h e H. o. C. w h o w a s in a c t u a l possession of t h e Circassian coast
at t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t w h e t h e r it really b e l o n g e d to R u s s i a , a n d 35
w h e t h e r it w a s by r i g h t of a violation of fiscal r e g u l a t i o n s , or in conse-
q u e n c e o f a n existing b l o c k a d e , t h a t the Vixen h a d b e e n seized. W i t h all
deference t o the n o b l e L o r d , h e conceived i t t o b e his d u t y t o give a n
u n e q u i v o c a l answer to a Brit, m e r c h a n t m a k i n g inquiries on t h a t s u b -
ject . . . If t h a t w e r e n o t the d u t y . . . w h a t w a s the use of the Foreign-office 40
at all? . . . [641,642]

40
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates

Robinson. T h e r e w a s i n fact n o b l o c k a d e . T h e r e w a s n o m a r i t i m e force


e m p l o y e d . R u s s i a ' s right c o u l d only h a v e arisen o u t o f w h a t t h e n o b l e
L o r d h a d called municipal, b u t w h a t R u s s i a called sanatory, r e g u l a t i o n s .
B u t he h a d never h e a r d of a n y s a n a t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h subjected a
5 vessel a n d c a r g o to be seized, a n d p e r s o n s on b o a r d to be i m p r i s o n e d ,
u n l e s s . . . in c o n s e q u e n c e of a wilful v i o l a t i o n of rules previously p r o -
m u l g a t e d . . . [644]
O ' Coniteli W h e n he h e a r d t h e n o b l e L o r d r e a d t h e letters respecting t h e
seizure o f t h e Vixen, h e c o u l d n o t help calling t o m i n d t h e expression o f
10 Talleyrand, t h a t l a n g u a g e h a d b e e n i n v e n t e d to conceal t h o u g h t s . . . If
R u s s i a instituted a b l o c k a d e of t h e p o r t s of N o r w a y , to r e n d e r it effective
it w o u l d be necessary t h a t a notification s h o u l d a p p e a r in t h e Gazette;
b u t i f t h a t p o w e r chose t o b l o c k a d e t h e p o r t o f A r c h a n g e l , (against its
revolted subjects), it w o u l d n o t be necessary to notify t h e m a t t e r in the
15 Gazette, because it w o u l d be merely a subject of m u n i c i p a l regulation. In
this case, M r . Bell perfectly justified in s e n d i n g o u t his vessel, for he h a d
been t o l d to refer to t h e Gazette to see w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s ||21| a b l o c k a d e
or n o t . It w a s clear, therefore, from this o b s e r v a t i o n of the n o b l e L o r d ,
t h a t h e did n o t a t t h a t time c o n s i d e r the c o a s t o f Circassia a s a n y p a r t o f
20 the R u s s i a n territory. A g a i n , in 1826, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e subject m a t t e r
o f q u a r r e l b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d t h e P o r t e , i t w a s a g r e e d t h a t n o sort o f
c o m m e r c i a l a d v a n t a g e s h o u l d b e g a i n e d o n this c o a s t b y either p a r t y .
This c o u n t r y k o n n t e R u s s i a also nicht gain possession of by t h e t r e a t y of
A d r i a n o p l e . This c o u n t r y c o u l d n o t b e t o u c h e d b y R u s s i a b y a n y m u n i c -
25 ipal r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d , therefore, no seizure of a Brit, vessel c o u l d be j u s t i -
fied on t h e p a r t of R u s s i a , on t h e g r o u n d t h a t it was e n g a g e d in illicit
t r a d i n g . . . the only safe m o d e of settling this m a t t e r , w a s by t a k i n g such
steps a s t o let R u s s i a k n o w t h a t E n g l a n d w a s d e t e r m i n e d t o enforce t h e
p r o t e c t i o n of Brit, subjects . . . [646]
30 Dudley Stuart. R u s s i a h a d p u t f o r w a r d a justification of the b l o c k a d e ,
in the first place, on t h e g r o u n d t h a t Circassia w a s a hostile c o u n t r y , a n d
afterwards t h a t it was merely for the p u r p o s e of enforcing m u n i c i p a l
regulations, a n d h a d r e s o r t e d from t h e o n e p l e a t o t h e o t h e r a t h e r will
a n d pleasure . . . T h e vessel laid in t h e p o r t w h e r e it w a s seized for
35 36 h o u r s before it was interfered w i t h at a l l . . . The noble Lord apparently
wished the House to infer that Russia had possession of the country ...
[647,648] the w a n t o f v i g o u r a n d alacrity t o defend the h o n o u r o f t h e
country w h i c h t h e n o b l e L o r d h a d displayed, w a s most culpable ... t h e
conduct of no f o r m e r minister h a d ever b e e n so vacillating, so hesitating,
40 so uncertain, so c o w a r d l y , w h e n an insult h a d b e e n offered to Brit. S u b -
jects . . . n o t m o r e t h a n 2 y e a r s a g o h a d a vessel, t h e C h a r l e s Spencer,

41
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

belonging to a Brit, subject, been seized by R u s s i a in the Black Sea,


u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s equally objectionable. H o w m u c h longer, h e w o u l d
ask, did t h e n o b l e L o r d p r o p o s e t o allow R u s s i a t h u s t o insult G r e a t
Brit., a n d t h u s t o injure Brit, c o m m e r c e ? . . . A c c o u n t s h a d b e e n received
in t o w n t h a t d a y t h a t t h e Vixen h a d been c o n d e m n e d , a n d t h a t in t h e 5
m o s t revolting w a y t o this c o u n t r y . T h e Brit, f l a g was hoisted, t h e n h a u l -
e d d o w n , a n d t h e R u s s i a n f l a g hoisted i n its stead; a n d t h e c a p t a i n a n d
crew were sent, n o t to L o n d o n , b u t to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . The noble Lord
was degrading England by holding her out in the character of a bully
haughty and tyrannical to the weak, ||22| humble and abject to the strong . . . 10
the R u s s i a n s c o n c e r n e d i n t h a t o u t r a g e were r e w a r d e d with d e c o r a -
t i o n s . . . t h e D u k e o f Wellington did n o t recognise t h e t r e a t y o f A d r i a -
n o p l e . [652-655]

[Vol.43. London 1838.]


H. o. C. June 21. 1838. 15

Sir S. Canning rose to m o v e for t h e a p p o i n t m e n t of a Select C o m m i t t e e ,


t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e following allegations m a d e b y M r . G e o r g e Bell (das
Schiff w u r d e seized by a R u s s i a n m a n - o f - w a r in the B a y of S o u d j o u k -
K a l ) T h e vessel sailed f r o m L o n d o n o n O c t o b e r 29, a n d a r r i v e d a t C o n -
s t a n t i n o p l e on N o v . 19 . . . t h e Vixen w a s sent to t h e P o r t of S e b a s t o - 20
p o l . . . t h e ship a n d c a r g o i n the e n d c o n d e m n e d , o n t h e g r o u n d o f a
v i o l a t i o n of the fiscal regulations of t h e c o u n t r y . T h e decision of t h e
R u s s . G o v . received a t S e b a s t o p o l o n J a n u a r y 2 7 ... t h e m a s t e r a n d crew
w e r e p u t o n b o a r d the Ajax, the c a p t o r , a n d d e s p a t c h e d t o O d e s s a ,
w h e n c e . . . afterwards s e n t . . . to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . [903, 904]. T h e parties 25
interested in the vessel, t h e c a p t a i n , crew, a n d s u p e r c a r g o , all gave evi-
d e n c e t h a t , at t h e time of t h e c a p t u r e , no Russian force was in possession
of Soudjouk-Kal ... [908] the o w n e r s were r u i n e d m e n . . . U r q u h a r t recall-
ed . . . In a d d i t i o n to t h e u n f o r t u n a t e effects of this t r a n s a c t i o n of t h e
Vixen to the parties concerned, it h a d led R u s s i a to fix h e r a t t e n t i o n on 30
Circassia . . . we were compelled to s t a n d still a n d see R u s s i a t u r n a large
force u p o n it to s u b d u e it to her o w n p u r p o s e s . . . [914, 915]
Stanley.... Diese restriction h a d been c o m m u n i c a t e d in the m o s t for-
m a l m a n n e r t o M r . M a n d e v i l l e a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , expressly for t h e infor-
m a t i o n o f the Brit. M e r c h a n t s , a n d t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e n o b l e L o r d 35
( P a l m e r s t o n ) , w h o h a d for 6 years in his possession t h e notification of
these restrictions . . . [932] it h a d b e e n t h e practice of f o r m e r G o v ' s to

42
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates

c o m m u n i c a t e t o t h e c o m m i t t e e a t L l o y d ' s t h e fact o f such notifications


h a v i n g b e e n received . . . " T h e Circassian d e c l a r a t i o n (Stanley liet
U r q u h a r t ' s Brief a n P a l m e r s t o n ) o f i n d e p e n d e n c e h a d been p u b l i s h e d
after m a t u r e deliberation, a n d several w e e k s ' c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h differ-
5 ent b r a n c h e s of t h e G o v . , in a periodical c o n n e c t e d w i t h the F o r . D e p a r t -
m e n t ; Circassia w a s m a r k e d a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n t r y o n a m a p revised
by y o u r L o r d s h i p " . . . [937]
Peel: In 1831 the noble Lord received a distinct intimation from Russia,
that she meant to establish fiscal rights on t h e coast of Circassia ... Be-
10 tween A p r i l 19 a n d M a y 2 3 , ||23| a r e m a r k a b l e c h a n g e f r o m official decla-
r a t i o n t o satisfaction o c c u r r e d a l l a p p a r e n t l y i n d u c e d b y the a s s u r a n c e
received f r o m C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e , t h a t T u r k e y h a d ceded the c o a s t i n
q u e s t i o n t o R u s s i a b y t h e t r e a t y o f A d r i a n o p l e ? . . . W h y did h e n o t p r o -
test against t h a t U k a s e ? (rev.) Y o u told M r . Bell t h a t R u s s i a h a d n o right
15 to d e m a n d d u e s , t h o u g h she m i g h t h a v e to b l o c k a d e the coast...
[949, 950, 952] /

43
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

|46| David Urquhart.


Progress of Russia in the West,
North, and South.
2 ed. London 1853.

18 August, H. o. Lords: "all treaties b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d T u r k e y were 5


a b o l i s h e d by this act (the invasion of the Principalities) a n d he therefore
expected t o h e a r t h a t t h e English S q u a d r o n w a s inside o f the D a r d a n e l -
l e s . " (Lord Clanricarde) L o r d Clarendon " a g r e e d in every t h i n g t h a t h a s
fallen f r o m his n o b l e friend", a n d " c o n s i d e r e d t h e entire e v a c u a t i o n of
t h e Principalities as a sine qua non of a n y a g r e e m e n t w h a t e v e r " . 10
( V I I I , Preface t o t h e second edit.) I n the Principalities n o w r e a d y
1,500,000 q r s for e x p o r t a t i o n t o E n g l a n d . ( I X I.e.) A n offer w a s m a d e t o
t h e E m p e r o r o f C h i n a t o s u p p o r t h i m a g a i n s t the i n s u r g e n t s , o n c o n d i -
t i o n of his ceding Little T h i b e t , w h i c h is only 20 d a y s ' m a r c h from C a l -
c u t t a . (I.e. n o t e ) A lie h a s b e e n placed on t h e lips of E u r o p e in t h e w o r d 15
Russo-Greek C h u r c h , (p. X I.e.)
" N o n C o n f o r m i s t s " " O l d Believers" (Starovirtz) i n R u s s i a , m a i n t a i n -
ing the original faith . . . objects of the m o s t bitter p e r s e c u t i o n s on t h e
p a r t o f the R u s s i a n gov., a n d the familiar t e r m they a p p l y t o the E m p e r o r
is "Antichrist". T h e recent m o v e m e n t s t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h e 20
M a l o - R u s s i a n s , a m o u n t i n g to a b o u t 10,000,000, is principally a t t r i b u t a -
ble t o this schism a n d persecution. ( V i l i , I X ) T h i s c h a n g e i n R u s s i a
P r o p e r h a s r e q u i r e d 5 centuries a n d a q u a r t e r , for it b e g a n in the y e a r
1330. (IX) Seit 1846, t h e S u l t a n h a s b e c o m e t h e i m m e d i a t e p r o t e c t o r of
the Starovirtz. (XII) R u s s i a terrifies the P o w e r s by a t h r e a t to act a l o n e , 25
a n d t h e n they r u s h f o r w a r d t o yield t o her their s u p p o r t , o n the p r e t e x t o f
clogging h e r action. (1. c.) T h e n she c a n use the a u t h o r i t y of t h e S u l t a n to
establish h e r s u p r e m a c y o v e r the O r i e n t a l C h u r c h . (I.e.) E u r o p e s a n c -
t i o n s R u s s i a n intervention, by c o - o p e r a t i n g in it. (1. c.) She (Russia) h a s

44
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

to w o r k o u t a war between England and France, a n d a European revolu-


tion. ( X I I I ) T h e Christians of T u r k e y . . . 13,000,000, t h e Greeks n o t exce-
eding 1 million. (1. c.) t h e half of t h e m strangers, dispersed t h r o u g h o u t t h e
different cities. (1. c.) every o t h e r r a c e (except t h e Turks) h a t e s a n d despi-
5 ses these G r e e k s . (1. c.)
Wallachians a n d Moldavians 4,500,000; the Bulgarians, the d e s c e n d a n t s
of the T a r t a r s of the Volga 4,500,000 ( s o m e of t h e m M u s s u l m a n s ) ; t h e
Bosnians, including t h e Serbians a n d Illyrians 3,000,000 (1,000,000 v. ih-
n e n M u s s u l m a n s a n d 500,000 R o m a n C a t h o l i c s ) Albanians 1,500,000,
10 half of t h e m C h r i s t i a n s of t h e E a s t e r n C h u r c h , half of t h e m M u s s u l m a n s .
] 3
(1. c.) / o f t h e M u s s u l m a n s allied i n b l o o d t o t h e R u s s i a n s , a n d o f t h e
3 4

C h r i s t i a n s , s o u t h of the D a n u b e , to the T u r k s . (I.e.) Treaty of Unkiar


Skelessi w a s b u t to last for 8 years, c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e f r e e d o m of t h e
t h
D a r d a n e l l e s w o u l d b e r e s t o r e d o n the 8 o f July 1841 . . . a b e r n u n d e r
th
15 t r e a t y of t h e 1 3 of July 1841. ( X X V ) (schlo die F l o t t e n f. immer a u s
v. den D a r d a n e l l e s )
Speech of Mr. Anstey, Febr. 23, 1848. ( A n t r a g auf i m p e a c h m e n t gegen
P a l m e r s t o n . ) O u r i m p o r t a t i o n s o f foreign g r a i n s 1 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . ( X L I I )
Memoirs of Lord Malmesbury.
20 "for t h e last century, the only h i s t o r y is t h a t of R u s s i a . " (LVIII)
"its ( F r a n c e ) internal state results f r o m the r e a c t i o n of d i p l o m a t i c p r o -
ceedings in Spain, Turkey, D e n m a r k , H u n g a r y , e t c . " (I.e.) |
|47| " t h e r e v o l u t i o n s o f t h a t year, (1848) a n d t h e w a r s o f t h a t w h i c h
succeeded it, are n e i t h e r isolated incidents, n o r h a v e t h e y s p r u n g f r o m
25 local a n d distinct causes. At C o p e n h a g e n , P r e s b u r g , P a r i s , Vienna, Ber-
lin, B u c h a r e s t , a n d P a l e r m o , the g e r m s h a d b e e n severally c u l t u r e d , t h e
i n s t r u m e n t s p r e p a r e d , a n d t h e p a r t s distributed. T h e w a r l i k e o p e r a t i o n s
t h a t e n s u e d w e r e equally directed b y the s a m e h a n d . " (LVIII, L I X )
D u H a m e l , i n t h e St. P e t e r s b u r g h J o u r n a l calls a t t e n t i o n o f t h e R u s -
30 sian public to t h e fact t h a t " t h e c u r r e n t y e a r c o m p l e t e s 3 centuries of
nearly uninterrupted a m i c a b l e relations b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d the British
p u b l i c . " O p p o s i t i o n gegen R u s s i a v . E n g l a n d e n d e t e i m m e r " w i t h entire
satisfaction" on t h e sacrifice of t h e S t a t e , or interest, w h i c h h a d given rise
to the discharge of n o t e s , or t h e p a r a d e of ships in line. In 1801, D e n -
35 m a r k , in 1807, D e n m a r k ; in 1822, Spain; in 1827, Persia; in 1829, Turkey;
in 1831, P o l a n d ; in 1833, the D a r d a n e l l e s ; in 1836, t h e q u a r a n t i n e on t h e
D a n u b e ; in 1837, the Vixen a n d Circassia; in 1838, Persia; in 1846, C r a -
cow; in 1849 H u n g a r y a n d its exiles; in 1850, G r e e c e ; in 1853, M o l d a v i a
a n d Wallachia. ( L X V I ) .

45
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Part I. Spain.
If F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d differ in p u r p o s e , they are o n e in c h a r a c t e r . T h e i r
object is n o t t h e c o n q u e s t of Spain, b u t c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n themselves,
t h e y h a v e ever on their lips "the good of Spain". (10)
Besides t h e S p a n i a r d s , E u r o p e p r e s e n t s 4 primitive races n o t infected 5
with the vulgarisms o f L o n d o n a n d P a r i s t h e Jews, the T u r k s , the G i p -
sies, a n d t h e R u s s i a n s . (13)
Revolt of the Isle of Leon. In the c o u r s e of the y e a r 1819, t r o o p s h a d
b e e n collected in t h e arsenal of C a d i z , called Isle of L e o n , destined for
t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s s o l d i e r s drafted f r o m t h e w h o l e a r m y , w i t h the 10
view of purifying it of restless spirits e n g e n d e r e d by t h e w a r of I n d e p e n d -
ence a n d o f d a n g e r o u s o p i n i o n s evolved b y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e F r e n c h .
W u r d e n r e t a i n e d in a confined a n d inattractive c a n t o n m e n t . . . for m a n y
m o n t h s . . . it w a s of public n o t o r i e t y t h a t a revolt w a s p r e p a r i n g . N o t o -
risch, the views of the gov. were held to be a m y s t e r y solvable only by the 15
s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t these projects h a d high s u p p o r t . T h e general went t o
M a d r i d t o represent the d a n g e r h e w a s d e p o s e d . T w o c a p t a i n s o f m e n -
of-war r e p o r t e d their vessels w h i c h were t o t r a n s p o r t the t r o o p s t o A m e r -
ica to be u n s e a w o r t h y t h e y were deprived of their c o m m a n d . In a
w o r d , n o t h i n g w a s left u n d o n e to f o m e n t d i s c o n t e n t a n d to e n c o u r a g e 20
insurrection; t h e C o n s p i r a c y w a s perfectly public. (31) R u s s i a h a d given
t o t h e gov. o f W a s h i n g t o n the a s s u r a n c e t h a t she w o u l d p r e v e n t the
sailing of t h e Spanish expedition, a n d h a d given h e r guarantee that it
should never quit the port of Cadiz. (33) the P r o c l a m a t i o n in Isle de Leon
of the Cadiz Constitution of 1812 h a d been the w o r k of R u s s i a . (34) 25
Congress of Verona. " R u s s i a a l o n e " , says M. de C h a t e a u b r i a n d , " a n -
swered energetically, Yes, to all the p r o p o s a l s of F r a n c e . She is r e a d y to
w i t h d r a w her a m b a s s a d o r , she i s r e a d y t o give t o F r a n c e every m o r a l a n d
material s u p p o r t w i t h o u t restriction a n d w i t h o u t c o n d i t i o n . " (43) R u s s i a
p r o p o s e d from F r a n c e t o the Conference w h a t t h e F r e n c h G o v . never 3 0
projected; (Villle g a b d e m C h a t e a u b r i a n d entgegengesezte I n s t r u k t i o -
n e n ) C h a t e a u b r i a n d useful ally of R u s s i a . (49 [, 50])
Invasion of 1823. T h e minister w a s no l o n g e r Villle, b u t C h a t e a u -
b r i a n d , s u d d e n l y transferred t o t h e F o r e i g n Office, a n d dismissed s o s o o n
as the Spanish o p e r a t i o n w a s c o m p l e t e d . (61) 35
Quadruple alliance, Marriage question. " O u t of the Spanish Marriages
c a m e t h e confiscation of C r a c o w , a n d , within a s h o r t t i m e , the fall of
L o u i s Philippe a n d t h e r e v o l u t i o n o f 1848, o n w h i c h t h e C o s s a c k s entered
H u n g a r y . " (73)

46
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

Part II. Hungary.


Part III. The Scandinavian Kingdoms.

the great c h a n g e a n d e x p e r i m e n t n o w in p r o g r e s s , is t h e assimilation of


people to p e o p l e by t h e p r o c e s s of ||48| t h o u g h t . (150)
5 Treaty of G u s t a v u s I I I w i t h D e n m a r k : " t o m a i n t a i n t h e Principle of
the Baltic as a close Sea, w i t h the g u a r a n t e e of its c o a s t a g a i n s t all acts of
hostility, violence, or aggression w h a t e v e r , a n d further to e m p l o y for t h a t
p u r p o s e all the m e a n s in t h e p o w e r of t h e respective c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s " .
It t h u s fell to the lot of G u s t a v u s I I I to establish the m a r i t i m e , as of
10 C h a r l e s X I I , t h e military p o w e r of R u s s i a . (159) W h e n A l e x a n d e r m e t
B e r n a d o t t e at A b o , in 1812, it w a s secretly a r r a n g e d between t h e m t h a t
Sweden a t the general pacification s h o u l d n o t reclaim F i n l a n d , a n d t h a t
R u s s i a s h o u l d o b t a i n for h e r N o r w a y , a s a n equivalent. I n t o this ar-
r a n g e m e n t E n g l a n d entered. (162, 3) treaty of Kiel between E n g l a n d a n d
15 D n e m a r k . E n g l a n d revives the former treaties of Peace a n d Commerce,
b u t n o t of Guarantee, i n d e e d E n g l a n d t o o k to herself Heligoland, a p o r -
tion of the G o t t o r p territory, the possession of w h i c h she h a d guaranteed
in 1721. (165)
O n t h e extinction o f the m a l e line o f F r e d e r i c k I I I , D e n m a r k , a c c o r d -
20 ing to the Lex Regia, is a s s u m e d to go to Prince Frederick of Hesse, a n d
Schleswig Holstein to t h e D u k e of A u g u s t e n b u r g . (!) By t h e m a r r i a g e of a
d a u g h t e r o f the C z a r t o P r i n c e F r e d e r i c k , t h e w h o l e m a y b e secured t o
Russia, on the p r e t e x t of p r e v e n t i n g a p a r t i t i o n . ([176,] 177) T h e A r c h -
duchess h o w e v e r dies, P r i n c e F r e d e r i c k of Hesse is t h e n cast aside. (179)
25 Charles F r e d e r i c k , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the y o u n g e r of G o t t o r p line,
having, d u r i n g the Swedish w a r , lost Schleswig, a n d r e t a i n i n g only a
p o r t i o n o f Holstein, b u t being a c c o r d i n g t o the peculiar a n d a n o m a l o u s
practice of these D u c h i e s , co-regent w i t h t h e K i n g , s o u g h t in 1720 t h e
s u p p o r t of Peter I of R u s s i a . ( 1 8 1 , 2) He conferred u p o n the C z a r t h e
30 h a n d of his d a u g h t e r . (183) D e r son des d u k e raised to the I m p e r i a l
t h r o n e u n d e r the n a m e of Peter III (184) wollte sein H o l s t e i n e r o b e r t .
Assassinirt by his wife CatherineII. (I.e.) In 1767 C a t h e r i n e b a r g a i n e d
for a c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r of her s o n ' s rights, w h i c h w a s ratified by h e r
son, afterwards the E m p e r o r Paul, in 1773. D a b e i a Secret Alliance in
35 consequence of which D e n m a r k s o o n f o u n d herself c o n s t r a i n e d to j o i n
Russia against Sweden, a n d h e n c e f o r w a r d b o u n d i n subserviency . . . T h e
claim of R u s s i a w a s twofold: it affected a p o r t i o n of Schleswig, a n d a
p o r t i o n o f Holstein; t h e f i r s t w a s d r o p p e d entirely a n d u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y .
T h e father o f Peter h a d b e e n even c o n s t r a i n e d t o d r o p the title o f Schles-

47
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

wig. E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e h a d b o u n d themselves i n a t r e a t y o f g u a r a n t e e
th
(1720, 1 6 J u l y u. 18 A u g u s t , severally r e n e w e d a n d confirmed
16 A p r i l 1727, a n d 15 M a r c h , 1742) to defend t h e k i n g in t h e p o s s e s s i o n
o f D e n m a r k a g a i n s t " a n y foreign P o w e r w h a t e v e r w h o s h o u l d c o m e a n d
a t t a c k i t " . Prussia, A u s t r i a , a n d even R u s s i a herself h a d acceded to this 5
a r r a n g e m e n t ; therefore no p r e t e n s i o n s in 1773 c o u l d be set u p o n Schles-
wig. (185) As to H o l s t e i n , t h e claim itself b o r e b u t on a little m o r e t h a n '/4
of t h e d u c h y . Its a d m i s s i o n involved a division of t h e fief, t h e Indivisi-
bility of w h i c h w a s a f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t of t h e L a w by w h i c h H o l s t e i n
c o u l d a l o n e be inherited. S t a t t dessen erhielt R u l a n d t h e c o u n t i e s of 10
D e l m e n h o r s t u. O l d e n b u r g . She erected t h e m i n t o a Duchy of Oldenburg,
a n d placed t h e m u n d e r t h e a p p a r e n t l y i n d e p e n d e n t sway o f t h e j u n i o r
branch of the H o u s e of G o t t o r p . These counties h a d been transferred to
D e n m a r k i n 1676 i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f a n a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h t h e D u k e o f
P l o e n , t h e next heir to G u n t h e r , t h e last C o u n t w h o died in t h a t year, a n d 15
on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t "if t h e male line of t h e R o y a l h o u s e s h o u l d b e c o m e
extinct, t h a t t h e 2 counties s h o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e m a n d their m a l e descend-
a n t s , a n d likewise t o the A g n a t e s o f t h e princely H o u s e " . (186, 7 ) B r e m e n
s t a n d s i n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f O l d e n b u r g a s ||49| H a m b u r g d o e s i n t h a t o f
H o l s t e i n ; it c o m m a n d s t h e e n t r a n c e of t h e Weser as H o l s t e i n d o e s t h a t of 20
t h e E l b e . T h e s e 2 rivers are t h e sole outlets of G e r m a n y , a n d t h e posses-
sor o f t h e m , i f equally possessed o f t h e S o u n d a n d t h e E y d e r , h o l d s t h e
communication of the whole of the N o r t h . T h e arrangement with Paul
a s t o H o l s t e i n h a d therefore reference only t o t h e m a l e d e s c e n d a n t s o f
F r e d e r i c k I I I . O n their extinction t h e H o l s t e i n e q u i v a l e n t reverted t o 25
Russia, and the G r a n d D u c h y of Oldenburg to the D u k e of Augusten-
b u r g . (187) Shortly after t h e d e a t h of t h e A r c h d u c h e s s (des C z a r s T o c h -
ter, F r a u v. P r i n z F r i e d r i c h . H e s s e n ) 1846 erschien d e r offne Brief des
Knigs v. D n e m a r k . . . t h e results of t h e m e a s u r e were so u n m i s t a k e a b l e
t h a t they m u s t be assigned as its object. (188) t h e m e a s u r e keine b o n a fide 30
o n e . (190) T h e suggestion o f t h e Letters P a t e n t d i d n o t o f c o u r s e c o m e
f r o m St. P e t e r s b u r g , b u t f r o m P a r i s ; it w a s offered as a m e a n s of e s c a p i n g
from Russia. At that moment the Spanish marriages in preparation u.
L o u i s P h i l i p p e seeking to gain R u s s i a to secure himself a g a i n s t t h e effects
of his r u p t u r e w i t h E n g l a n d . (190) T h e object of C h r i s t i a n V I I I w a s to 35
p r e s e r v e t h e Integrity of the Succession. (191) (a m a x i m s o o n c o n v e r t e d
i n t o " I n t e g r i t y o f t h e M o n a r c h y " ) T h e L e x R e g i a virtually r e p e a l e d i n its
2 p r i n c i p a l p r o v i s i o n s . It settles (Section 19) conjointly t h e succession of
D e n m a r k a n d N o r w a y u . d e n A b s o l u t i s m u s als G r u n d g e s e t z . E r e m a -
n a t e s f r o m a king of Denmark and Norway, der nicht m e h r existirt seit 40
d e n W i e n e r Vertrgen. D e r A b s o l u t i s m u s a u f g e h o b e n d u r c h C h r i -

48
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

stian V I I I i n t r o d u c i n g " a C o n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r m o f G o v e r n m e n t " , " t h e h e -


r e d i t a r y a n d a b s o l u t e c h a r a c t e r a n d q u a l i t y o f t h e M o n a r c h y w e r e essen-
tially c o m b i n e d . " " t h e a b s o l u t e c h a r a c t e r c a n n o t b e a t t a c k e d w i t h o u t
d e s t r o y i n g t h e h e r e d i t a r y . " (192) M i t d e r C o n s t i t u t i o n i t r e m a i n e d t o
5 revert to t h e a n t e r i o r state, or to c r e a t e a n e w o n e . In t h e o n e case t h e
c r o w n o f D e n m a r k a g a i n b e c o m e s elective; i n t h e o t h e r , y o u m u s t deal
with t h e succession o f t h e C r o w n a s y o u h a v e with t h e I n s t i t u t i o n s o f the
c o u n t r y . (193) P r i n c e F r e d e r i c k of H e s s e so s o o n excluded as he lost his
wife. (I.e.) B e h a u p t e t C h r i s t i a n V I I I h t t e w e d e r a u s liberalism od. i n a d -
10 vertence a u f d a s scheme to p r o p o s e a Constitution "for t h e w h o l e of his
s t a t e s " . (194) t h a t D e n m a r k s h o u l d h a v e , o u t o f h e r o w n h e a d , devised
a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i o n w i t h D e n m a r k i s t o o p r e p o s t e r o u s t o believe.
(196)
" I t w a s only t h e wish t o p r e v e n t t h e R a d i c a l a n d R e p u b l i c a n elements
15 of G e r m a n y f r o m exercising a n y p e r n i c i o u s influence t h a t h a d m o v e d
Prussia to the steps she h a d a d o p t e d ; t h e idea of a N o r t h A l b i n g i a n
R e p u b l i c b e i n g a p t t o e n d a n g e r D e n m a r k a s well a s t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g
frontier o f G e r m a n y . " ( N o t e o f M a j . W i l d e n b r u c h t h e P r u s s i a n Pleni-
p o t e n t i a r y t o t h e D a n . G o v . , A p r i l 8 , 1848) " t h e K i n g (of P i e d m o n t ) c o n -
20 sidered himself in d u t y b o u n d to t a k e m e a s u r e s in o r d e r to p r e v e n t t h e
m o v e m e n t in L o m b a r d y , f r o m t a k i n g a R e p u b l i c a n d i r e c t i o n . " ( N o t e by
the S a r d i n i a n m i n i s t e r P a r e t o t o t h e brit. A m b a s s . a t Turin
M a r c h 2 3 , 1848.) T h e k i n g o f P r u s s i a p r o l o n g e d t h e w a r , b y e n s u r i n g the
defeat of his o w n t r o o p s a n d his allies; he sacrificed at t h e settlement all
2 5 h e h a d c o n t e n d e d for b y a r m s ; n o t b e i n g t h e r e t o c o n s t r a i n e d , b u t a c t i n g
as a p a r t y to e n t r a p o t h e r s . ([203,] 204) t h e k i n g succeeded in t u r n i n g on
the Poles t h e p o p u l a r frenzy excited a g a i n s t R u s s i a ; t h e n a diversion was
furnished i n t h e D u c h i e s for t h e y o u n g f e r v o u r s o t r o u b l e s o m e a t F r a n k -
fort, so a l a r m i n g at Berlin. B u t it w a s n o t t h a t a d o o r w a s to be o p e n e d
30 to military enterprise; r e v o l u t i o n w a s to be s h a m e d by discomfiture, a n d
to be p u t d o w n ||50| by disgrace. (205) B e i m t r e a t y of 52 A m e n d m e n t
p r o p o s e d by P r u s s i a "l'intgrit de la monarchie Danoise demeurera
intacte", w h r e n d i m P r o p o s e d d r a u g h t die M c h t e n u r s p r e c h e n . d e m
R e c h t eventuell die Succession zu regeln u. zu faciliter die a r r a n g e m e n t s
35 aux m o y e n s desquels " les liens q u i r a t t a c h e n t les D u c h s de H o l s t e i n et
de Schleswig la M o n a r c h i e D a n o i s e d e m e u r e n t i n t a c t e s " . P r e u s s e n ,
d u r c h d e n w r d i g e n B u n s e n u n t e r d r c k t die E r w h n u n g selbst dieser
Duchies (210)
The War. 10,000 D n e n e n t e r t h e D u c h i e s , t h e h a s t y g a t h e r i n g of t h e
4 0 Duchies a m o u n t t o only h a l f t h e n u m b e r , f l y a t t h e f i r s t s h o c k , m e t o n
the 23 April in their flight 14,000 P r u s s i a n s crossing t h e E y d e r to their

49
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

s u p p o r t , t h e a r m y s o lately i n p u r s u i t w a s e x p o s e d t o b e i n g a n n i h i l a t e d ,
finding itself h e m m e d in its s u d d e n r e t r e a t b e t w e e n a d y k e a n d a defile on
t h e N o r t h of Schleswig; b u t t h e first exercise of t h e Prussian authority
w a s to sound the recall, t h e r e a s o n assigned b e i n g t h a t it w a s t h e hour for
dinner. (213) (N. I.) 5
T h e Hanoverians, Mecklenburgers, Oldenburgers, Brunswickers, p o u r
in by railways, a n d G e n e r a l Wrangel at t h e h e a d of 50,000 m e n , 5 t h e
n u m b e r o f t h e r e t r e a t i n g foe, a t 4 o'clock A . M . I n f a n t r y u n d e r a r m s ,
cavalry m o u n t e d . E r s t at 9 o'clock o r d e r zu " m a r c h " gegeben. T h e Prus
sians were p u s h e d o u t so as to outflank the retreating force, on t h e r i g h t u. 10
o n t h e left. T h e confederates, u n d e r t h e D u k e o f B r u n s w i c k u . G e n e r a l
H a l k e t t , fell u p o n t h e m . Immediately was sounded the Prussian recall.
D u k e of B r u n s w i c k , after a s t o r m y discussion m. G e n e r a l Wrangel, re
fused t o t a k e a n y f u r t h e r p a r t i n t h e C a m p a i g n . T h e D a n e s h a d positively
b e e n suffered t o r e t u r n , a n d c a r r y off t h e b a g g a g e t h e y h a d a b a n d o n e d , 1 5
b r i n g i n g t h e i r h o r s e s t o r e y o k e t o t h e w a g g o n s a n d g u n s . ( . I I . ) (214)
D a n i s h force expelled. N u n n e g o t i a t i o n s o p e n e d m i t D e n m a r k ? N o .
G e n e r a l Wrangel e n t e r e d J u t l a n d by o r d e r s f r o m Berlin. (1. c.) ( . I I I . )
D a n e s w e r e i n t h e isle o f Alsen (15,000 m e n ) : t h e y w e r e o b s e r v e d b y
53,000 C o n f e d e r a t e s , whilst t h e m a i n b o d y of G e n e r a l Wrangel, who had 20
taken care to carry with him the Schlesw. Holsteiners, w e r e in J u t l a n d . He
remained perfectly inactive. T r o t z d e r s u p e r i o r force of g e n e r a l H a l k e t t ,
s t a t i o n e d o p p o s i t e t h e isle o f Alsen, t h e D a n e s were a l l o w e d t o c r o s s t h e
strait, to establish a tte de pont, to c o n s t r u c t a b r i d g e , to seize on t h e
heights w h i c h c o m m a n d e d it, o n t h e m t o build r e d o u b t s , a n d p l a n t h e a v y 25
artillery. W h e n these w o r k s h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d , h e c o m m e n c e d o p e r -
a t i o n s , by besieging them, he placed his troops in a half-circle round Dp-
pel; this p o i n t b e i n g in direct c o m m u n i c a t i o n with t h e t t e du p o n t a n d
t h e island, c o u l d in a single night be occupied by t h e D a n i s h force w h i c h
w o u l d t h e n find itself in t h e c e n t r e of t h e G e r m a n s a n d be a b l e by a sortie 30
t o b e a t a n d d e s t r o y t h e m i n detail. T h i s was foreseen b y t h e w h o l e a r m y
o f t h e besiegers, except t h e G e n e r a l . . . O n t h e 2 8 o f M a y , a t t h e d a w n o f
t h e d a y , t h e D a n e s fell u p o n t h e G e r m a n s w i t h their entire force. H a l k e t t
sent a i d e s - d u - c a m p to o r d e r o n e division after a n o t h e r ; each in succes-
sion a r r i v e d t o o late. G e n e r a l W r a n g e l h a d r e t u r n e d i n t o Schleswig, 35
4 days before the catastrophe of Dppel, t h e d i s t a n c e w a s 20 leagues, er
r i c h t e t ' s a u c h so ein to arrive t o o late f. die s u p p o r t d e r G e r m a n s . . .
M u r m u r s o f t h e a r m y b e a t e n a n d baffled a t every t u r n b y a n inferior
force . . a t t a c k n u n m a d e o n t h e D a n i s h r e d o u b t s , P r u s s i a n g u a r d led t o
t h e s t o r m , u n f o r t u n a t e ; at all events it c o u l d n o t l o n g e r be said t h a t t h e 40
Prussian G e n e r a l h a d o r d e r s , t o s p a r e t h e D a n e s a n d e x p o s e t h e C o n -
federates! ( . IV) [215,216]

50
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

N u n D e n m a r k u. the Confederation come to an arrangement. D a r i n


die D u c h i e s g a n z vergessen. N u n E n g l a n d strides i n t o t h e a r e n a a s a
M e d i a t r i x . R e s u l t : 6 m o n t h s are afforded ||511 to t h e belligerents to r e c r u i t
their s t r e n g t h . T h i s c o u r s e of E n g l a n d is perfectly parallel to t h a t of
Prussia, w h o secured victories to Denmark while she lent armies to the
duchies. (. V.) [216, 217]
Campaign of1849 o p e n e d by t h e e n t r a n c e of 20,000 D a n e s i n t o Schles
wig. D u c h i e s a n e a r l y e q u a l force, consisting, h o w e v e r , in a c o n s i d e r a b l e
degree o f G e r m a n v o l u n t e e r s a n d P r u s s i a n s . C o m m a n d e d b y t h e Prussian
General Bonin. S o o n arrive 50,000 t r o o p s of t h e C o n f e d e r a t e s , of w h i c h
n e a r l y t h e half w e r e P r u s s i a n s ; i n fact, t h e d u c h i e s furnished t o t h e k i n g
of P r u s s i a a Siberia a n d a Circassia, w h e r e t h e t u r b u l e n t f o u n d o c c u p a
t i o n a n d t h e seditious r e p o s e . ( . VI.) [217]
D a n e s speedily d r i v e n b a c k u . following t h e m t h e Schleswig-Holstei-
ners e n t e r e d J u t l a n d , a n d w e r e s o o n j o i n e d b y t h e P r u s s i a n s , u n d e r Gene
ral Pritwitz. Er theilt this powerful a r m y in 2 b o d i e s : t h e o n e , c o m p o s e d of
H e s s i a n s u. P r u s s i a n s , sent in p u r s u i t of a b o d y of D a n e s , of their
3

number; t h e Schleswig-Holsteiners, 14,000, d e s p a t c h e d to blockade Fri-


dericia, which w a s open to sea, of which the Danes had the command! T h e
heights of G o u l s k , 3 leagues f r o m t h e fortress, were c r o w n e d with
r e d o u b t s , these t a k e n b y assault, a n d t h e victors p u r s u i n g t h e fugitives
m i g h t h a v e e n t e r e d t h e fortress w i t h t h e m , when again the Prussian recall
sounded, t h e a r m y sat d o w n before t h e place to besiege it. Fridericia
laying o n t h e sea, c o m m a n d e d b y t h e D a n i s h n a v y i n t o t h e place w h i c h
y o u p r o p o s e t o besiege t h e e n e m y c a n t h r o w a t p l e a s u r e a n y a m o u n t o f
m e n , a n d r e m o v e f r o m it, if necessary, t h e g a r r i s o n . General Bonin wei
das. T h e r e c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a p o i n t selected m o r e available for
wasting t h e time a n d e x h a u s t i n g t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e C o n f e d e r a t e s , a n d
affording to t h e D a n e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y of striking w i t h o u t risk a fatal
blow. ( N o . VII) [217, 218]
1) t h e besieging fort at F r i d e r i c i a , o p p o s e d to t h e D a n i s h g a r r i s o n ;
2) an a r m y o p p o s i t e Alsen; 3) a n o t h e r at J u t l a n d , t h e 2 l a t t e r b e i n g o p -
posed to 2 D a n i s h c o r p s . On t h e 3 p o i n t s t h e n u m e r i c a l m a j o r i t y (der
D e u t s c h e n ) , a c t i n g on t h e offensive. D i e 2 D a n i s h c o r p s in A l s e n u. J u t -
land give their several a n t a g o n i s t s t h e slip, ( c h a p p e n t ) u. die w h o l e
Danish army is concentrated at Fridericia. Die Confederates do n o t m a r c h
to s u p p o r t t h e besiegers, n o r is t h e siege raised a n d t h e force c o n c e n t r a t e d ;
it is left scattered r o u n d t h e place in its t r e n c h e s , a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , o n e
fine m o r n i n g it is cut to pieces; its c a m p t a k e n , 50 g u n s fall i n t o t h e h a n d s
of the Danes. ( N o . IX)

51
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

D i e Operations der D a n e s kein G e h e i m n i ; t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s were


daily seen entering t h e place, a n d , after t h e besieged w e r e k n o w n far to
o u t n u m b e r t h e besiegers, still w e r e t h e m e n k e p t i n t h e e n t r e n c h m e n t s ,
but the fire ceased. T h e e x p l a n a t i o n offered w a s t h a t it w a s n o t advisable
to e x a s p e r a t e t h e enemy, w h o s e fire, however, n e v e r ceased. E x a s p e r a t i o n 5
d e r t r o o p s . ( . I X . ) [218]
T r o t z d e m die forces d e r C o n f e d e r a t e s n o c h weit b e r l e g e n d e n D a n e s .
F r e d e r i c i a is in J u t l a n d ; they only m a i n t a i n e d a p o s t of their o w n ; they
h a d no m a n in Schleswig. A g a i n t h e military operations cease; a g a i n an
armistice introduced to prepare for the resumption of hostilities in the fol- 10
lowing year. ( . X ) . [219]
Armistice. A line d r a w n f r o m Tondern to Flensburg, to be o c c u p i e d on
e i t h e r side b y n e u t r a l s ; t h e p a r t i e s h a v i n g t o e v a c u a t e entirely; Swedes
u. Norwegians on the N o r t h , Prussians u. Oldenburgers on the South.
U n t e r d e s die M u s c o v i t e s p o u r i n g d o w n t h e C a r p a t h i a n s . A triumvirate 15
n u n a p p o i n t e d f. die g o v e r n m e n t der D u c h i e s . D i e d u c h i e s a l t o g e t h e r
w i e d e r e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a r r a n g e m e n t ; D e n m a r k n e n n t 1, P r u s s i a 1,
E n g l a n d 1 f u n c t i o n a r y . ( C o l o n e l Hodges) ( r e p u d i a t e d v. b e i d e n Seiten
u. e b e n d e s w e g e n i m p o s e d , P a l m e r s t o n ) ( . X I ) |
|52[ Campaign of 1850. Armistice r e a c h e d its t e r m . P r u s s i a h a s with- 20
d r a w n f r o m t h e C o n t e s t , t h e D u c h i e s were rejoiced a t t h i s result. Swedes
u . N o r w e g i a n s also e m b a r k e d u . sent h o m e . D e n m a r k a s s e m b l e d
40,000 m e n m . 9 6 g u n s . W a r u m d a c h t e n sie n i c h t a n a c c o m o d a t i o n ? N e w
incentives a n d s t i m u l a n t s h a d , h o w e v e r , b e e n f o u n d requisite a t C o p e n
h a g e n . F r a n c e sent G e n e r a l F a b v i e r , a n d R u s s i a herself h a d c o m e for- 25
w a r d a t l e n g t h t o smile o n t h e u n d e r t a k i n g . S h e allowed h o p e s o f a
subsidy t o b e e n t e r t a i n e d , sent a s q u a d r o n t o h o v e r o n t h e c o a s t s , a n d ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e u s e o f s t e a m e r s for t h e t r a n s p o r t o f t r o o p s , l e n t . . .
" m o r a l s u p p o r t " . T h e D u c h i e s crossed t h e E y d e r , i n o r d e r t o a n t i c i p a t e
t h e D a n e s in securing t h a t important line of defence, which crosses the 30
Isthmus at Isted. Schleswig 100 miles in l e n g t h u. n i c h t 50 in b r e a d t h ; b u t ,
i n fact, t h e a r e n a w a s f u r t h e r n a r r o w e d t o its s o u t h e r n extremity, a n d
consisted in the maintenance of those strong positions, w h i c h f r o m t h e
remotest times h a d been the barrier of the N o r t h m e n against the Ger
m a n s . . . [220-223] T h e d u c h i e s m o v e d a c r o s s t h e E y d e r 30,000 m e n m i t 35
80 g u n s , chiefly of large calibre, leaving 4 b a t t a l i o n s of reserve. A cause
way (chausse) a n d m i l i t a r y r o a d leads f r o m Flensburg (where t h e D a n e s ,
e n t e r i n g f r o m J u t l a n d , o r arriving b y sea, w o u l d effect their j u n c t i o n )
s o u t h w a r d t h r o u g h t h e centre o f t h e p r o v i n c e t o t h e t o w n o f Schleswig.
On b o t h sides t h e c o u n t r y difficult f r o m b r o k e n g r o u n d u. defensible 40
p o s i t i o n s , b u t principally because interspersed w i t h b o g s (jonc d e m a r a i s )

52
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

a n d m a r s h e s : s o m e 5 or 6 miles in a d v a n c e of Schleswig, a n a t u r a l line of


defence c o m p o s e d of lakes, m a r s h e s , steep (escarps) b a n k s of rivers,
extend across f r o m east t o west. T h e c a u s e w a y p a s s i n g b y t h e village o f
I d s t e d is inclosed in a g o r g e (gosier), t h e heights on t h e left b e i n g b a c k e d
5 by t h e lake of "Lang S", a n d on t h e r i g h t by a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s m a r s h -
es. T h e heights o n b o t h sides were c r o w n e d b y b a t t e r i e s o f w h i c h t h e
crossing f i r e enfiladed t h e passage, a n d these were s t r e n g t h e n e d b y f i e l d -
w o r k s a n d r e d o u b t s . H e r e were s t a t i o n e d t h e m a s s o f t h e forces o f t h e
D u c h i e s a n d o f their artillery. H a d t h e D a n e s b e e n repulsed i n a n a t t a c k
10 u p o n this p o s i t i o n , t h e y m u s t h a v e a b a n d o n e d their offensive a t t i t u d e
a n d t h e w a r w o u l d h a v e t e r m i n a t e d . O n t h e 2 4 ' J u l i 1850, t h e D a n i s h
t h
a r m y a p p e a r e d before I d s t e d , a n d d r o v e i n t h e o u t p o s t s . O n t h e 2 8 , a t
2 o'clock, they m a d e a n a t t a c k o n every p o i n t , s e n d i n g o u t d e t a c h m e n t s
right u . left, t o a t t e m p t t h e p a s s a g e s b e y o n d t h e m a r s h e s u . b e y o n d t h e
15 lake. R e p u l s e d on all p o i n t s u. at S t o l k lost 4 g u n s u. their best G e n e r a l ,
Shleppegrell . . . at 9 o'clock, after 7 h o u r s also, again b r o u g h t on t h e
charge a n d a g a i n repulsed, t h e troops der D u c h i e s inferior by 10,000 m e n
u. their sole business w a s to defend their strong position, w a r e n 24 h o u r s
u n t e r Waffen gewesen, s u s t a i n e d 1 a s s a u l t in t h e n i g h t u. 1 in t h e m o r n i n g ,
20 exhausted u. d i s o r d e r e d . They were led out into the plain u n t e r d e m Vor-
w a n d to pursue their advantage. W h e n well a d v a n c e d , a fresh b o d y of
10,000 D a n e s falls u p o n t h e m , drives t h e m b a c k , a n d enters t h e e n t r e n c h -
m e n t s m. d e n fugitives. [224] D i e d a s w o r k v. General Willisen. ( N o . X I I )
Willisen, after losing a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n by an a m b u s c a d e , a n d sacrific-
25 ing a b o u t 4000 m e n , he fell on t h e s o u t h , n e v e r s t o p p i n g until he h a d
placed b e h i n d h i m t h e fortress o f R e n d s b u r g . A b a n d o n i n g t h e w h o l e o f
Schleswig, h e w i t h d r e w b e h i n d t h e E y d e r . H i s a r m y , t h o u g h defeated,
received reinforcements, w h i c h raised it far a b o v e its c o m p l e m e n t w h e n it
t o o k t h e f i e l d , whilst t h a t o f t h e D a n e s , w h i c h h a d suffered n e a r l y
30 as m u c h as its a n t a g o n i s t , received no r e i n f o r c e m e n t w h a t e v e r . H e r e
Willisen c o u l d ||53| a t t a c k t h e m a t a n y p o i n t w i t h t h e w h o l e force, a n d
annihilate t h e m separately; he selects their 2 e x p o s e d p o s i t i o n s to the
extreme right a n d left; he a t t a c k s at both, a n d is repulsed. T h u s e n d s t h e
c a m p a i g n . ( . X I I I . ) Willisen returns home. [228, 229]
35 S t a t t eines armistice b e k o m m e n die d u c h i e s this t i m e 20,000 A u s t r i a n s .
A u s t r i a owes H u n g a r y to t h e C z a r , h e r o c c u p a t i o n will n o t cease till a
d i p l o m a t i c act, b e a r i n g n o l o n g e r o n t h e d i s p u t e s o f t h e p a r t i e s b u t o n the
succession of the Crown, shall h a v e d e c i d e d t h a t m a t t e r according to Rus
sia's views,to t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of all t h e r i g h t s for w h i c h t h e a n t a g o n i s t s
40 have been c o n t e n d i n g , a n d w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m t h e D a n i s h p e o p l e all
faculty of d i s p o s i n g of themselves. ([229,] 213-230)

53
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Treaty of May 8, 1852.


W h i l s t the w a r c o n t i n u e d , n o t a whisper t r a n s p i r e d respecting the suc-
cession ... to an u n e x p e c t e d q u e s t i o n in t h e H. o. C. P a l m e r s t o n c o n -
fusedly replied by a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e r e w e r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s affecting
t h e succession; b u t this was all t h a t w a s e x t r a c t e d . . . In the course of
1851, the Protocol of Warsaw, of May 24, p r i n t e d in the p a p e r s . . . die
P r o t o c o l s h o u l d leave the impression t h a t it w a s an affair which c o n -
c e r n e d n o foreign p o w e r . . . i t w a s b e t w e e n B r a n c h e s o f t h e H o u s e o f
O l d e n b u r g alone . . . it specified the r e n u n c i a t i o n s of t h e p e r s o n s set
aside . . . a b e r die s t a t e m e n t of t h e P r o t o c o l in reference to t h e r e n u n c i a -
tions o b t a i n e d w a s n o t true. D a m a l s not a letter of renunciation h a d been
expedited or signed. Sie w u r d e n erst obtained 3 on July 18, 2 on August 3,
1 on August 16, 2 on Sept. 13. ( K n i g v. D e n m a r k v e r s p r a c h in diesem
P r o t o c o l indemnities t o the claimants) . . . R u s s i a n o w reasserts h e r
claims, whilst declaring h e r i n t e n t i o n s of enforcing t h e m , s h o u l d t h e p r e s -
ent c o m b i n a t i o n c o m e t o fail! A m S c h l u des P r o t o c o l l s t h a t "in L o n d o n
t h e necessary n e g o t i a t i o n s m u s t t a k e place, t o give t o this act the c h a r -
acter of a E u r o p e a n t r a n s a c t i o n " . . . this W a r s a w P r o t o c o l between D e n -
m a r k a n d R u s s i a w a s b u t the e c h o of one already secretly signed nearly a
year before between the 4 Powers at London, o b t a i n e d after p r o l o n g e d u.
s t r e n u o u s struggles. English minister acting m . R u s s i a ; D e n m a r k w a s h e r
m e r e t o o l . . . [232-234] d u r c h die griech. Scheisse. B r u n n o w wollte abrei-
sen u . d a f r d i e t o a v e r t g i e b t P a l m e r s t o n his s i g n a t u r e t o the L o n -
d o n Protocol of July 4, 1850 ... L o r d Derby's administration 1852. " t h e
t r a n s a c t i o n w a s b r o u g h t t o t h a t p o i n t w h e r e the C o n f e r e n c e h a d only t o
a p p e n d their s i g n a t u r e s " . . . [235] Artikel d e r T i m e s v o m 11 M a y (der
Vertrag geschlossen am 8 M a y ) . [236] N o t a line a p p e a r e d in a n y o t h e r
p a p e r . . . . [237] Prince Christian . . . By fixing on h i m R u s s i a forces 7 re-
n u n c i a t i o n s from the C o g n a t e s , t h a t o f Princess L o u i s a included, a n d
cuts o u t t h e w h o l e o f t h e A g n a t e s , w h o w o u l d c o m e i n after h e r a n d
before her h u s b a n d as C o g n a t e s . She a d m i t s h i m on c o n d i t i o n of exclud-
ing t h e F e m a l e s a n d the indirect b r a n c h e s o f his o w n line, s o t h a t o n their
failure t h e w h o l e of the ascending a n d d e s c e n d i n g L i n e s are utterly ex-
cluded. . . . H e h a s f i r s t t o r e n o u n c e all right i n his o w n p e r s o n ; h e h a s
secondly to accept the office merely as a delegation f r o m his w i f e P r i n -
cess L o u i s a brings the inheritance exclusive of Holstein. P r i n c e C h r i s t i a n
brings the H o l s t e i n inheritance ... " T h e E m p e r o r , says the D a n i s h r e p o r t ,
h a s deigned to transfer the exercise of the rights w h i c h he m a y h a v e on
Holstein to the Prince of G l c k s b u r g a n d his m a l e d e s c e n d a n t s " . . . In all
the a d j u s t m e n t s care h a s been t a k e n t o ensure t h e invalidity; P r e t e n d e r s
c a n b e raised u p against h i m o n every field a n d o n every principle. . . .

54
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

Wegener (Defence for the full H e r e d i t a r y R i g h t ) sagt: " s h o u l d Prince


C h r i s t i a n a n d his son die w i t h o u t m a l e successors, w h o w o u l d t h e n inher-
i t ? . . . D e n m a r k w o u l d b e ||54| disinherited b y the a b o l i t i o n o f t h e Lex
Regia, H o l s t e i n w o u l d invite a c r o w d of P r e t e n d e r s A u g u s t e n b u r g ,
5 G l c k s b u r g , R u s s i a a n d O l d e n b u r g P r i n c e s " . . . [238-240] H o l s t e i n n u n
c a n n o t be g o t rid of, it is a millstone fastened r o u n d D e n m a r k ' s n e c k . . .
All o t h e r claims are a b o l i s h e d by treaty, the H o l s t e i n claims a l o n e
r e m a i n . . . the H e i r to the fraction of H o l s t e i n will find himself H e i r to
the entire M o n a r c h y . . . [241] Wegener, p. 21 in d e r angefhrten Schrift
10 sagt: " T h e a b r o g a t i o n of t h e Succession by Lex R e g i a m a k e s t h e H o u s e
o f G o t t o r p the sole legitimate P r e t e n d e r t o H o l s t e i n : t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f
the Principle of t h e 'Indivisibility of the Monarchy' enables the P r e t e n d e r
t o e x t e n d his claims t o t h e w h o l e o f t h e D a n i s h K i n g d o m . C o u l d t h e
G r e a t P o w e r s h a v e signed a t r e a t y to c h a n g e first principles, m a k e t h e
15 Danish M o n a r c h y a Russian G o t t o r p secundo-geniture." ... towards the
end of 1852 M r . Wegener's p a m p h l e t circulated in the C o p e n h a g e n Diet.
. . . [242] S u p p o s i n g R u s s i a to e x t e n d h e r d o m i n i o n , or h e r influence, over
D e n m a r k , t h e n if t h e D u c h i e s w e r e s e p a r a t e d , the present Canal of the
Eyder m i g h t be enlarged for t h e passage of Sea-going vessels, a n d n o t
20 only w o u l d t h e c o n t r o l l i n g p o w e r of t h e S o u n d be destroyed, b u t a chan-
nel opened, saving a circuitous navigation of nearly 400 miles ... [245] In
the n e g o t i a t i o n s n o t a w o r d is d r o p p e d respecting the g r a n d D u c h y of
Oldenburg, it is ceded to R u s s i a (infolge des t r e a t y v. 1773) absolutely by
silence. If so, w h a t claim c a n she h a v e on H o l s t e i n . [247] . . . Coalition
25 ministry, t u r n s n o t t h e i n f a m o u s c o m p a c t to shreds . . . [249] R u s s i a
h a v i n g o b t a i n e d her enfeoffment of the S o u n d keeps the a t t e n t i o n of
E u r o p e fully occupied a b o u t t h e keys o f t h e C h u r c h o f J e r u s a l e m .
(232-255) N e v e r h a s D e n m a r k b e e n i n m o r e a b s o l u t e d e p e n d e n c e u p o n
R u s s i a t h a n a t present, a n d , i n such r a p i d d o w n w a r d p r o g r e s s from the
30 s u m m i t of i m a g i n a r y success. (255)
D a s Warsaw protocol of June 2, 1850. (257)
Treaty relative to the succession of the Crown of Denmark (signed L o n -
d o n , M a y 8, 1852, Ratifications e x c h a n g e d at L o n d o n J u n e 19, 1852).
Preamble. H e r Majesty t h e Q u e e n etc. t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t
35 the maintenance of the integrity of the Danish Monarchy, as c o n n e c t e d
with the general interests of the balance of power in E u r o p e , is of high
i m p o r t a n c e to t h e preservation of peace, a n d t h a t an a r r a n g e m e n t by
which the succession to the whole of the dominions now united u n d e r t h e
sceptre o f His M a j e s t y the k i n g o f D e n m a r k , s h o u l d devolve u p o n t h e
40 male line, to the exclusion offemales, w o u l d be t h e best means of securing
the integrity of t h a t M o n a r c h y , h a v e resolved, at the invitation of H i s

55
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

D a n i s h Majesty, (das W a r s a w e r P r o t o c o l l angeblich initiirt v. D e n m a r k ,


u m e u r o p i s c h e S a n k t i o n i n L o n d o n z u erhalten, obgleich ein J a h r v o r -
h e r in L o n d o n o h n e D e n m a r k a b g e m a c h t ) to conclude a Treaty, in o r d e r
to give to the arrangements relating to such an order of succession, an
a d d i t i o n a l pledge of stability by an act of European acknowledgment: 5
Article I. After h a v i n g t a k e n into serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e interests of
H i s M o n a r c h y , H . M . the K i n g o f D e n m a r k with t h e assent o f H . R .
H i g h n e s s t h e Hereditary Prince, a n d of his nearest cognates, entitled to
t h e succession by the R o y a l L a w of D e n m a r k , as well as in c o n c e r t w i t h
H. M. the E m p e r o r of all the R u s s i a s , Head of the elder branch of the 10
House of Holstein-Gottorp, h a v i n g declared his wish to regulate t h e o r d e r
of succession in his d o m i n i o n s , in such m a n n e r t h a t , in default of issue
m a l e in a direct line f r o m K i n g F r e d e r i c k I I I of D e n m a r k , his C r o w n
s h o u l d devolve u p o n his H . t h e Prince C h r i s t i a n o f Schleswig-Holstein-
S o n d e r b u r g - G l c k s b u r g , a n d u p o n the issue of the m a r r i a g e of t h a t 15
P r i n c e w i t h h e r H. the Princess L o u i s a of S.-H.-S.-G., b o r n a Princess of
H e s s e , by o r d e r of P r i m o g e n i t u r e , f r o m male to male; t h e H i g h C o n t r a c t -
ing parties, a p p r e c i a t i n g the wisdom of the views (!) which h a v e deter-
mined the eventual adoption of that arrangement, engaged by c o m m o n
c o n s e n t , in case t h e c o n t e m p l a t e d c o n t i n g e n c y s h o u l d be realised, to ac- 20
k n o w l e d g e in H. H. the Prince C h r i s t i a n of S.-H.-S.-G. a n d his issue m a l e
in t h e direct line by his m a r r i a g e w i t h the said Princess, t h e right of
succeeding to the whole of the d o m i n i o n s n o w u n i t e d u n d e r t h e sceptre of
H . M . the K i n g o f D e n m a r k . |
1551 Art. II. T h e H i g h C o n t r a c t i n g Parties, a c k n o w l e d g i n g as permanent 25
the principle of the integrity of the D a n i s h M o n a r c h y , e n g a g e to t a k e i n t o
c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e further p r o p o s i t i o n s w h i c h H . M . t h e K i n g o f D e n -
m a r k m a y d e e m i t expedient t o a d d r e s s t o t h e m , i n case (which G o d
forbid) the extinction of the issue male, in t h e direct line, of H. H. the
P r i n c e C h r i s t i a n of S.-H.-S.-G. by his marriage w i t h H. H. t h e Princess 30
L o u i s a of S.-H.-S.-G., b o r n a Princess of Hesse, s h o u l d b e c o m e i m m i -
nent.
Art. HI. It is expressly u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e reciprocal rights a n d o b -
ligations of H. M. the K i n g of D e n m a r k , a n d of t h e Germanic Confedera-
tion, c o n c e r n i n g the D u c h i e s of Holstein a n d L a u e n b u r g , rights a n d obli- 35
g t i o n s established b y the F e d e r a l A c t o f 1815, a n d b y t h e existing F e d e r a l
right, shall n o t be affected by t h e p r e s e n t Treaty. [258-260]
Malmesbury, Kubeck, A. Walewski, Bunsen, Brunnow, Rehausen. ( M a y 8,
1852.)
1) T h e Protocol of June 2, 1850, in its first article, merely conveys the 40
unanimous desire of t h e p o w e r s , which the p r e s e n t s t a t u s gave of t h e

56
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

possessors of t h e D a n i s h C r o w n may be maintained in its integrity,


w h e r e a s by article 2 of the t r e a t y of M a y 8, 1852, the principle of t h e
"integrity of t h e D a n i s h M o n a r c h y " is laid d o w n a n d recognised as a
permanent one.
d
5 2) the P r o t o c o l of J u n e 2, 1850, in its 2 article, d o e s not actually [alter]
the r i g h t of succession in D e n m a r k a n d in Schleswig-Holstein, as it is
a n n o u n c e d to h a v e b e e n altered by art. 1 of t h e t r e a t y of M a y 8, 1852;
b u t it is only declared to be a very wise view of t h e K i n g of D e n m a r k to
intend to alter the succession in the R o y a l D y n a s t y , in o r d e r to facilitate
10 those m e a s u r e s , by m e a n s of w h i c h t h e D a n i s h M o n a r c h y m a y eventually
be k e p t together. (257, 8)
Separate Peace of Preussen, 2 Juillet 1850 m. Denmark in w h i c h n o t h -
ing w a s s t i p u l a t e d in reference to t h e causes of t h e w a r . "Paix pure et
simple", a p e a c e w i t h a secret article: "Article secret: 2 Juillet, 1850. S. M.
15 le R o i de Prusse s'engage p r e n d r e p a r t a u x n e g o t i a t i o n s d o n t S. M. le
R o i de D a n e m a r c prendra l'initiative l'effet de rgler l ' o r d r e de succes-
sion d a n s les tats runis sous le sceptre de S. M. D a n o i s e . " (209) W h y
was this article secret? H a v i n g t h u s tied up h e r h a n d s , she ostensibly
figured in the conferences as a rcusant. She refused to sign, w i t h E n g -
20 land, D e n m a r k , a n d R u s s i a , t h e P r o t o c o l originally p r o p o s e d , a n d while
she t h u s held o u t t o t h e D u c h i e s the s e m b l a n c e o f p r o t e c t i n g their inter-
ests, she m a d e h e r a d h e s i o n t o t h e P r o t o c o l c o n t i n g e n t o n t h e modifying
of o n e of the original p h r a s e s in s u c h a m a n n e r as to exclude the very
m e n t i o n of their existence, a n d the s u b s t i t u t i o n of a n o t h e r which implied
25 t h a t "Integrity of Monarchy" w h i c h h a s b e e n c o n s t r u e d to signify t h e
extinction of the D u c h i e s . (209, 10)
In t h e t r e a t y of M a y , t h e A g n a t i c succession is p a s s e d over w i t h o u t
m e n t i o n , w h e t h e r a s t o claims u p o n the D u c h i e s , o r a s t o C o g n a t i c claims
u p o n D e n m a r k . (264)
30 In 1232 t h e Duchy of Schleswig a p p e a r s as a H e r e d i t a r y M a l e Fief of
the C r o w n o f D e n m a r k . I n 1459, t h e D u c h y reverted t o t h e C r o w n a s a n
Escheat o n failure o f right heirs o f D u k e A t h o l . I n 1460, t h e r i g h t o f
electing a D u k e a n d C o u n t from a m o n g s t t h e heirs of C h r i s t i a n I w a s
established. In 1570 u. 1642, I m p e r i a l d i p l o m a s for t h e c o u n t i e s of O l d e n -
35 burg and Delmenhorst to the Danish Kings and the D u k e s of Holstein,
with reversion to their a g n a t e s . In 1580, the division t o o k p l a c e i n t o
R o y a l a n d D u c a l , o r G o t t o r p p o r t i o n s . I n 1608, D u k e J o h n G o t t o r p ,
with t h e s a n c t i o n of C h r i s t i a n IV, as Suzerain of Schleswig, entailed t h e
succession i n the G o t t o r p p o r t i o n u p o n his eldest m a l e heir i n right o f
40 p r i m o g e n i t u r e . In 1610 Frederick III established an a n a l o g o u s family
statute for the R o y a l p o r t i o n . I n 1721, t h e r e u n i o n o f the G o t t o r p D u c h y
with t h e r o y a l D u c h y o f Schleswig t o o k place.

57
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

C a t h e r i n e of Russia, in t h e p r o v i s i o n a l t r e a t y of 1767, u n d e r t o o k t h a t
all t h e surviving princes of t h e H o u s e of H o l s t e i n - G o t t o r p s h o u l d
r e n o u n c e , a n d b y the treaty o f 1773 the c o u n t i e s o f O l d e n b u r g a n d Del-
m e n h o r s t were ceded b y t h e K i n g o f D e n m a r k i n e x c h a n g e , a s a n en-
d o w m e n t for t h e y o u n g e r b r a n c h e s . (264-6) 5
3 dissolutions of the D a n i s h d i e t . . . the D u c h i e s were n o t represent-
ed . . . on J a n u a r 28, 1852 a R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n h a d p r o m i s e d t h e insti-
t u t i o n o f a G e n e r a l D i e t . . . H e r e was a n o p p o r t u n i t y o f c r u s h i n g t h e
c o n s t i t u t i o n by the weight of E u r o p e . . . t h e n e w D i e t w a s elected w i t h a
view of t h e message, a n d the G o v e r n m e n t w a s f a v o u r e d in an e x t r a - 10
o r d i n a r y m a n n e r b y a n internal schism. B a u e r n f r e u n d e . T h e p o p u l a r
p a r t y h a d the c o m m a n d o f t h e lower H o u s e , a n d h a v i n g b e e n t h e m o s t
violent in the w a r , it w a s n o w m o s t zealous for t h e R o y a l message. M e t
in M a r c h 1853. S u r r e n d e r imperiously ||56| r e q u i r e d by the G o v . in the
n a m e of an "European necessity", m e n a c e d in case of c o n t u m a c y w i t h a 15
w i t h d r a w a l o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n . [268-270] O p p o s i t i o n t o o k their chief
s t a n d u p o n the Lex Regia a b o l i s h e d by t h e m e s s a g e . . . 45 gegen 97 votes,
3
der G o v . o p p o s e d , which, a s w a s r e q u i r e d , w a s its rejection. O n this
4

the D i e t w a s a g a i n dissolved . . . T h e prevailing sense bei der n e u e n W a h l


t h a t of fatigue, t h e i n t i m a t e conviction t h a t of helplessness . . . N o t a 20
single l a n d e d P r o p r i e t o r was r e t u r n e d for the L o w e r H o u s e . T h e r a n c o u r
o f t h e T e n a n t - R i g h t question excluded t h e distinguished m e n w h o h a d
f i g u r e d i n the former D i e t s , a n d n o t o n e o f the liberal m e m b e r s w h o h a d
v o t e d against the g o v e r n m e n t w a s re-elected, t h e f o r m s of a c o n s t i t u t i o n -
al assent o b t a i n e d to a m e a s u r e e x t o r t e d by violence. ( 2 7 1 , 2) 25
G e r m a n y m a y l o o k f o r w a r d t o see R u s s i a a m e m b e r o f t h e G e r m a n
C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n respect t o the D u c h i e s o f H o l s t e i n a n d L a u e n b u r g .
(273) (Aachner Zeitung, J u n e 24). " N o m a n s h u t his eyes to t h e t e n d e n c y
o f t h e reigning H o u s e o f R u s s i a t o i n t r o d u c e itself i n t o t h e G e r m a n i c
C o n f e d e r a t i o n in its quality of Sovereign of the D u c h i e s of H o l s t e i n a n d 30
L a u e n b u r g , over which it p r e t e n d s t h a t it will h a v e to exercise p o w e r
after t h e d e a t h of P r i n c e C h r i s t i a n of G l c k s b u r g . " (Wanderer, 24 J u n i )
T h e late p r i m e m i n i s t e r (A. W . M o l t k e ) , all b u t i n p l a i n w o r d s , p r o -
claimed his d e p e n d e n c e u p o n R u s s i a , in his place in t h e Diet. ([273,] 274)
T h e D u c h i e s , n o t D e n m a r k , give R u s s i a t h e E y d e r , t h e m o u t h o f the 3 5
E l b e , a n d the position of R e n d s b u r g ; in a w o r d , t h e h o l d over t h e c o m -
m e r c e of G e r m a n y by its m a i n river arteries, a n d over t h e will of G e r -
m a n y by access to t h e railways, for t h e transfer of h e r t r o o p s . (277)
"A Strait which brings the power of the land to control the navigation of
the seas. " (280) S o m e 20,000 vessels passiren ihn, t h a t traffic consists of 40
grain, timber, spars, h e m p a n d iron. (1. c.) In d e r t r k i s c h e n u. d n i s c h e n

58
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South

N a t i o n political vitality is c o n c e n t r a t e d in the capital; the maritime power


of both has been destroyed by E n g l a n d , a n d R u s s i a h a s c o n s t r u c t e d a
powerful arsenal a n d fortress, w h i c h from a n e q u a l distance p e r m a n e n t l y
m e n a c e s b o t h C r o n s t a d t for C o p e n h a g e n , S e v a s t o p o l for C o n s t a n t i -
5 n o p l e . (281) t h e D a r d a n e l l e s lie between t u r k i s h t e r r i t o r y on b o t h sides;
the S u n d b e t w e e n those o f D e n m a r k a n d Sweden. (282) R u s s i a forced
u p o n the D a r d a n e l l e s ; she m a i n t a i n s t h e toll o f t h e S o u n d . T h e t i m e w a s
w h e n she loudly d e m a n d e d t h e freedom of t h e Baltic. (283) the K i n g s of
D e n m a r k originally e n a c t e d these tolls w h e n t h e y ruled the 3 S c a n d i n a -
10 vian k i n g d o m s . (I.e.) W h e n in M a r c h 1848 t h e P r u s s i a n t r o o p s w e r e
a b o u t to i n v a d e the D u c h i e s , o n e of the incentives a d m i n i s t e r e d to t h e
p o p u l a r e n t h u s i a s m , w a s the s h a m e o f s u b m i s s i o n t o the S o u n d D u e s .
(285) D e r erweiterte C a n a l d u r c h die E y d e r w r d e s h o r t e n the distance t o
the coasts of Prussia u. d e m B o t h n i a n G u l f by nearly 400 miles, u. d e r
15 t h r o u g h Sweden, die distance to t h e N o r t h a n d t h e G u l f of F i n l a n d by
a b o u t 300. (I.e.) G o t h a C a n a l u . E y d e r C a n a l n o t large e n o u g h for sea-
going vessels. (286) |

59
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

|28| Urquhart, Progress etc.


[Fortsetzung]
Donau u. Circassia u. Commercial treaty.

In 1831 R u s s i a established a n o m i n a l q u a r a n t i n e on t h e C a u c a s i a n c o a s t
not in her possession ...In 1836, she established a q u a r a n t i n e to intercept 5
vessels entering t h e D a n u b e , a n d a r r o g a t e d t h e r i g h t o f sending t h e m t o
O d e s s a t o p e r f o r m q u a r a n t i n e . (294) t h e r o b b e r y f r o m E u r o p e o f its
p r i n c i p a l river by care for its health. (300) the marshy islands forming the
Delta of the Danube are u n i n h a b i t e d a n d utterly valueless, except as a
s t a t i o n c o m m a n d i n g t h e river in w a r , a n d for t h a t p u r p o s e o n l y in so far 10
as they a r e fortified. T h e y were ceded to R u s s i a at t h e t r e a t y of A d r i a -
n o p l e , by which any fortification on them was prohibited. T h e p l a g u e ,
h o w e v e r , is in t h o s e c o u n t r i e s the fierce e n e m y of m a n k i n d . . . quaran-
tines were therefore excepted from these sweeping restrictions a g a i n s t all
c o n s t r u c t i o n s w h a t e v e r within 6 miles of t h e river, a n d so on the u n - 15
i n h a b i t e d a n d useless islands a l a z a r e t t o w a s built. B u t if s a n i t a r y regu-
lations are established, they m u s t b e enforced; a n d t h e m e t h o d o f enforc-
ing t h e m is by g u n s . T h e s e were, therefore, placed in such a m a n n e r as to
c o m m a n d t h e vessels passing u p t h e river. (304)
(Protocol ( C a n n i n g s d u r c h Wellington in P e t e r s b u r g g e m a c h t , w e g e n 20
der G r e e k I n s u r r e k t i o n of A p r i l 4, 1826) [305] (Verwandelt in t r e a t y
July 6, 1827) t h a t t r e a t y did b i n d e a c h of t h e allies n o t to a c q u i r e terri-
t o r y , n o r to suffer it to be acquired.) [306] (Russian d e c l a r a t i o n of w a r
d . d . A p r i l 2 6 , 1828. M a n i f e s t o a t its close d . d . O c t o b e r 1 , 1829. O n
Sept. 9 1829, before the signature of t h e Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e , t h e P o r t e 25
gave h e r f o r m a l a d h e s i o n to all the decisions of t h e L o n d o n conference,
n a c h h e r zu d e m t r e a t y of July 6, 1827. [309] L o r d A b e r d e e n , at t h e c o n -
clusion of t h e w a r , v e n t u r e d to p e n a d e s p a t c h to St. P e t e r s b u r g , reserv-

60
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South (Fortsetzung)

ing t o the K i n g t h e right " o f j u d g i n g o f t h e sacrifices w h i c h T u r k e y w o u l d


b e called u p o n t o m a k e " )
I n Bezug auf die D o n a u folgender A r t i k e l i m t r e a t y o f A d r i a n o p l e :
" t h e frontier line will follow t h e c o u r s e o f t h e D a n u b e t o the m o u t h o f
5 St. G e o r g e , leaving all t h e islands f o r m e d by t h e different b r a n c h e s in t h e
possession of R u s s i a . T h e r i g h t b a n k will r e m a i n as formerly, in t h e
possession o f t h e O t t o m a n P o r t e . I t is, h o w e v e r , agreed, t h a t t h a t r i g h t
b a n k , from the p o i n t w h e r e the a r m o f St. G e o r g e d e p a r t s f r o m t h a t o f
Souline, shall remain uninhabited to a d i s t a n c e of 2 hours (6 miles) f r o m
10 the river, a n d t h a t no k i n d of s t r u c t u r e shall be raised there; a n d in like
manner, on t h e islands, w h i c h will r e m a i n in t h e possession of the c o u r t
of R u s s i a . W i t h t h e exception of quarantines w h i c h will be there estab-
lishhed, it will n o t be p e r m i t t e d to m a k e a n y other e s t a b l i s h m e n t or for-
tification." (311)
15 R u l a n d errichtet 2 J. s p t e r Q u a r a n t i n e , z u n c h s t n i c h t on the D a -
n u b e , s o n d e r n auf d e r a n d e r n Seite des E u x i n e . On A u g u s t 8, 1831, the
R u s s i a n c a b i n e t a d d r e s s e d a d e s p a t c h to its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e at C o n s t a n t i -
n o p l e i n f o r m i n g h i m o f the " c o n s t a n t care d e v o t e d b y o u r g o v e r n m e n t i n
o r d e r to preserve t h e neighbouring foreign countries f r o m t h e c o n t a g i o u s
20 disease arising from T u r k e y " , a n d of its i n t e n t i o n to subject to s a n i t a r y
regulations " t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w h i c h freely exist between t h e i n h a b i t -
ants of the Caucasus and the neighbouring Turkish provinces". " I t b e c o m e s
indispensable t h a t y o u s h o u l d c o m m u n i c a t e t h e above mentioned regula-
tions to t h e foreign missions at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , as well as to the O t t o m a n
25 G o v . itself." " T h e English gov. c o u l d n o t escape f r o m a decision; t h e r e
was n o alternative b e t w e e n p r o t e s t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g t h e notification i n
the 'Gazette', all such notifications b e i n g p u b l i s h e d in the 'Gazette';
indeed the M i n i s t e r is p e r s o n a l l y liable in t h e c o u r t s of ||29| law for
d a m a g e a c c r u i n g f r o m such suppression. B u t m e r e silence sufficed so far
30 as R u s s i a w a s c o n c e r n e d , for thereafter no step c o u l d be t a k e n a g a i n s t
the Treaty, a n d , therefore, while t h e P r o t e s t w a s n o t m a d e , n e i t h e r was
the Notification p u b l i s h e d . To a v o i d this last difficulty, t h e c o m m u n i c a -
tion was not made direct, b u t t h r o u g h t h e minister at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ;
while suppressed in E n g l a n d , it w a s exhibited by t h e C o n s u l at C o n s t a n -
35 tinople a n d so all vessels w e r e w a r n e d off t h e c o a s t . " (312) t h e c u r i o u s
p a r t is t h a t these regulations h a d no existence . . . T h e Q u a r a n t i n e in itself
h a d n o existence . . . R u s s i a ' s d o c t r i n e s o n c o n t a g i o n . . . f r a m e d exclusive-
ly for the g o o d of " F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s " . It h a s b e e n a r g u e d for R u s s i a ,
that the regulations existed for A n a p a a n d R e d o u t K a l e w h e r e t h e r e w e r e
40 q u a r a n t i n e s , a n d t h a t as to the rests of t h e coasts t h e p r o h i b i t i o n to
a p p r o a c h w a s a R e g u l a t i o n . T h e n w h y does she a p p r o a c h ? (313)

61
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

s u d d e n d e v e l o p m e n t of the t r a d e of t h e Principalities c o m m e n c e d in
1834 . . . on February 7, 1836 a p p e a r e d the U k a s e to intercept vessels "pro-
ceeding on their voyage up the Danube" a n d send t h e m to Odessa. . . .
W h e n s u r r e n d e r e d by T u r k e y the c h a n n e l a v e r a g e d a d e p t h of 12 feet, in
the b e g i n n i n g of 1836 it h a d b e e n r e d u c e d to 8 . . . " T h u s " , sagt die Times 5
( M a r c h 2 , 1836) " R u s s i a t o h e r o t h e r i m p o r t a n t possessions will a d d t h a t
o f a n i r o n gate b e t w e e n the D a n u b e a n d t h e E u x i n e . " (314)
I t m a t t e r e d n o t w h e t h e r t h e vessel c a m e from L i v e r p o o l o r Trebizond,
o r w a s destined for Turkish o r R u s s i a n p o r t s , a n d a s i n t h e " R e g u l a t i o n "
for Circassia, C u s t o m h o u s e a n d Q u a r a n t i n e are j u m b l e d t o g e t h e r , so 10
h e r e . " T h i s q u a r a n t i n e , in so far as regards the Customs, is to be r e g u l a t e d
by the s a m e laws as the p r e s e n t Q u a r a n t i n e of B a z e r t c h e c k . " Before
t h
a d v e n t u r i n g o n the u k a s e o f the 7 F e b r u a r y she h a d felt her w a y b y the
forced visit of vessels, the inspection of their p a p e r s , t h e e x a c t i o n of fees,
facts b r o u g h t to the k n o w l e d g e of the Brit. F o r e i g n Office 2 m o n t h s 15
before t h a t u k a s e . T h e chief p a r t n e r o f t h e p r i n c i p a l English H o u s e a t
th
B u c h a r e s t writes on t h e 7 December 1835: "I saw M r . S t r a n g w a y s t o -
d a y , a n d t o l d h i m t h a t I h a d i n f o r m a t i o n t o - d a y f r o m 2 c a p t a i n s of ves-
sels I h a v e h a d arrived from the D a n u b e , t h a t they w e r e b o t h r e q u i r e d to
s h o w their p a p e r s t o t h e R u s s i a n c o m m a n d a n t a t t h e m o u t h o f t h a t river, 20
settled with a b o u t 100 t r o o p s on the Turkish side, a n d t h e y were told t h a t
t h e r e were 3 a n d 4 dollars to be p a i d w h e n their p a p e r s w e r e r e t u r n e d to
t h e m signed... M. S t r a n g w a y s desired me to furnish t h e details for L o r d
P a l m e r s t o n . " . . . T h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a (art. 109) declares t h a t t h e " N a v i -
g a t i o n of Rivers a l o n g their w h o l e course, f r o m t h e point where each of 25
them become navigable to its mouth, shall be entirely free." Art 111 " t h e
a m o u n t o f the duties shall, i n n o case, exceed t h o s e n o w (1815) p a i d " ,
a n d " o increase shall t a k e p l a c e except with t h e c o m m o n c o n s e n t of t h e
States b o r d e r i n g on t h e river." By art. 113, " e a c h S t a t e shall be at t h e
expense of k e e p i n g in g o o d repair the T o w i n g P a t h s " , a n d "shall m a i n - 30
tain t h e necessary w o r k s i n o r d e r t h a t n o o b s t r u c t i o n shall b e experienced
b y the n a v i g a t i o n " . . . . E x c i t e m e n t der British n a t i o n u . v o n all E u r o p e ,
p a p e r s u n a n i m o u s i n their d e n u n c i a t i o n s ; t h e leading c o m m e r c i a l cities
sent u p petitions t o P a r l i a m e n t , p r a y i n g for " p r o t e c t i o n " a n d resistance
to " t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t s of R u s s i a " . A d d r e s s to the K i n g . . . a M a j o r i t y of 35
t h e H . o . C . r e a d y t o v o t e a n A d d r e s s , e m b o d y i n g t h e a p p e a l o f the m e r -
c h a n t s , a n d further p r a y i n g for the a d o p t i o n o f m e a s u r e s for t h e e n t r a n c e
of a British s q u a d r o n i n t o the Black Sea. ([314,] 315) [
j 301 P a t r i c k S t e w a r t ' s m o t i o n . 20 April 1836) T h e M i n i s t e r c o n c u r r e d
to the s t a t e m e n t a n d resisted the Address. [316] . . . it entered i n t o no 40
m a n ' s m i n d t o d o u b t t h a t t h e q u a r a n t i n e a n d tolls o n t h e D a n u b e w o u l d

62
Aus David Urquhart: Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South (Fortsetzung)

be r e m o v e d . In P a r l i a m e n t the m a t t e r w a s never revived: t h e r e is no


trace o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e R u s s i a n c a b i n e t o n t h e subject: b u t t h e
q u a r a n t i n e still s t a n d s on t h e I s l a n d s of Leti. (316, 17)
th
27 April 1836 schreibt M r . Bell an P a l m e r s t o n . A n t w o r t v. d e m F o r -
5 eign Office d. d. May 5, 1836, signed J. Backhouse: "I am directed by
V i s c o u n t P a l m e r s t o n , to a c q u a i n t y o u t h a t his L o r d s h i p has called upon
the law adviser for the Crown for his opinion as to the regulations promul-
gated by the Russian ukase of February 7, 1836; b u t in t h e m e a n t i m e ,
L o r d P a l m e r s t o n directs m e t o a c q u a i n t y o u w i t h respect t o t h e latter
10 p a r t of y o u r letter, t h a t it is the o p i n i o n of H. M . ' s gov., t h a t no toll is
justly d e m a n d e d by the R u s s i a n a u t h o r i t i e s at t h e m o u t h of the D a n u b e , +
a n d t h a t y o u h a v e acted p r o p e r l y in directing your agents to refuse to pay
it." (317) t h e b o l d letter of the minister p u t s an e n d to all resistance, no
o p i n i o n of t h e l a w officers ever a p p e a r s ; a n d n o w a R u s s i a n toll is e x a c t - . .
15 ed in London and Liverpool on every English vessel sailing for the Turkish
p o r t s of the D a n u b e . (318)
W h i l s t t h e impression prevailed t h a t v i g o r o u s m e a s u r e s w e r e t o b e
t a k e n , the idea a r o s e of sending a trading vessel direct to Circassia. T h i s
m a t t e r w a s being discussed by t h e chief a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e k i n g so w a r m l y
20 entered i n t o it, that a letter was written by his private secretary, stating the
great service to his country which any merchant might so render. T h i s letter
w a s s h o w n to M r . Bell, a n d was t h e origin of t h e v o y a g e of t h e Vixen.
[318,319]
U p t o this t i m e a B l o c k a d e h a d a l o n e b e e n h e a r d of. T h e R u s s i a n
25 cruisers h a d frequently d e t a i n e d a n d w a r n e d off n e u t r a l vessels . . . If
there was blockade t h e r e w a s war, a n d t h e r e c o u l d be n e i t h e r q u a r a n t i n e
n o r c u s t o m - h o u s e regulations . . . Bell schreibt an P a l m e r s t o n , if " t h e r e
were any restrictions on t r a d e recognised by H. M . ' s g o v e r n m e n t " , as if
n o t , he i n t e n d e d to send t h i t h e r a vessel w i t h a c a r g o of salt. L o r d P a l m -
30 erston answers " Y o u a s k me w h e t h e r it w o u l d be for your advantage to
engage, in a speculation in salt in the p r o v i n c e of W a l l a c h i a " , a n d tells
h i m t h a t it is for c o m m e r c i a l firms to j u d g e for themselves in d e t e r m i n i n g
" w h e t h e r they shall enter i n t o or decline c o m m e r c i a l s p e c u l a t i o n s " . Bell
asks wieder " w h e t h e r or n o t H. M . ' s g o v e r n m e n t recognise The Russian
35 Blockade on the Black Sea to t h e S o u t h of the river K o u b a n ? " N o w he is
referred to the "Gazette, in w h i c h all the N o t i f i c a t i o n s , such as those
alluded to by you, are m a d e " . T h e r e h a v i n g a p p e a r e d in the Gazette nei-
ther Notification of "Blockade" n o r of "Restrictions", Bell is satisfied a n d
the Vixen sails. Sein " b r o t h e r is to go as s u p e r c a r g o , a n d he is sent to
40 Constantinople w i t h despatches from the Foreign Office. T h e r e he is in-
formed by the A m b a s s a d o r ( P o n s o n b y ) of t h e ' R e s t r i c t i o n s ' , b u t is

63
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

told, t h a t R u s s i a has no right whatever to prescribe regulations for that


trade." T h e vessel sailed, a n d was seized for b r e a k i n g t h e Blockade (such
d o c u m e n t s as will p r o v e t h a t the s c h o o n e r Vixen w a s e m p l o y e d on a
blockaded coast! Admiral Lazareff to Mr. Childs, D e c . 24, 1836.), a n d
confiscated on Nov. 25,1836. On A p r i l 19, 1837 (5 M o n a t e spter) t h e 5
R u s s i a n gov. is "requested to state t h e r e a s o n s on a c c o u n t ||311 of w h i c h it
h a s t h o u g h t itself w a r r a n t e d to seize a n d confiscate in time of peace, a
merchant-vessel b e l o n g i n g to British subjects." All specification of the
place w h e r e the seizure t o o k place is avoided; it is on t h e B l a c k sea. T h e
justificatory r e a s o n s , a c c o r d i n g to L o r d P a l m e r s t o n , a r e : 1) the receiving 10
o n b o a r d a c a r g o n o t allowed t o b e i m p o r t e d a t all; second, a n a t t e m p t t o
t r a d e at a Russian port w h e r e t h e r e is no c u s t o m - h o u s e . . . Despatch of
May 23, 1837, w h i c h closes the affair: " H . M ' s G o v . , considering, in t h e
first place, t h a t Soujouk K a l e , w h i c h was acknowledged by Russia, in t h e
Treaty of 1783 as a T u r k i s h possession, n o w b e l o n g s to R u s s i a , as stated 15
by Count Nesselrode, by virtue of the t r e a t y of A d r i a n o p l e . . . see no
sufficient reason to question t h e right of R u s s i a to seize a n d confiscate t h e
Vixen." T h e t h e n Brit. A m b a s s a d o r denied t h e P o w e r of T u r k e y to dis-
p o s e of Soujouk Kale to R u s s i a from " t h e a b s e n c e of a n y legitimate
subjection to t h e S u l t a n " . Besides, t h e r e w a s no de facto possession, no 20
less t h a n 36 Brit, subjects h a v i n g offered t e s t i m o n y or m a d e affidavit to
t h e c o n t r a r y . (319-21)
O n M a r c h 17, 1837, L o r d P a l m e r s t o n declared t h a t R u s s i a ' s acquisi-
tions o n t h e D a n u b e a n d i n Circassia were v i o l a t i o n s o f h e r pledges,
(p. 321) 25
O n July 6 , 1840, L o r d P a l m e r s t o n declared t h a t t h e Treaty o f V i e n n a ,
did a p p l y t o the n a v i g a t i o n o f the D a n u b e . . . this d e b a t e a r o s e o u t o f a n
a t t e m p t to give effect to a t r i p a r t i t e t r e a t y p r o p o s e d by A u s t r i a , b e t w e e n
herself, E n g l a n d , a n d Turkey, with a view of o v e r b e a r i n g t h e interference
of R u s s i a in t h e D a n u b e , . . . It is to m e e t this a t t e m p t t h a t t h e minister 30
brings in t h e Treaty of V i e n n a . . . (322) |

64
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

| 5 7 | Martens (Georg Friedrich von)


Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte
der europischen Staatshndel
u. Friedensschlsse seit dem Ende
des 15. Jhh. bis zum Frieden
von Amiens.
Berlin. 1807.

Sammlungen v. Staatsvertrgen u. andern Urkunden:

J. Du Mont: c o r p s universel et d i p l o m a t i q u e du d r o i t des gens, A m s t e r -


10 d a m et la H a y e 1 7 2 6 - 3 1 , T. I - V I I I (folio). D a z u Rousset s u p p l m e n t s
au corps universel etc 1739. (t. I - V o d . t. I X - X I I I fol.); w o v o n T. I (IX)
das recueil des anciens traits v. Barbeyrac (1495 J. v o r bis 800 n. C h . G e -
burt) etc Als H a n d s a m m l u n g : J. J. Schmau corpus j. g. academicum
Leipzig. 1730. 1731. 1.1, I I . 8. (1096-1731) Chr. Koch t a b l e des traits
15 entre la F r a n c e et les puissances t r a n g r e s etc Bale. 1802. 1.1, II. 8.
(1618-1787). Martens: Prcis du d r o i t des gens. v. Ompteda L i t t e r a t u r
d. Vlkerrechts. Bolingbroke letters on the s t u d y of history. De Mably. le
droit public de l ' E u r o p e etc P a r i s 1747.

65
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Europa Ende des 15' Jhh.

Frankreich: R u n i o n aller Pairies Jaiques vollendet. Geistlichkeit u. Adel


geschwcht durch Louis XI. K a n n sich m. N a c h d r u c k in fremde H n d e l
m i s c h e n , u. V e r g r r u n g s p l n e verfolgen. England: M i t Heinrich VII
(1485) E n d e des Streits zwischen r o t h e r u. weisser R o s e . G e s c h w c h t . 5
W e d e r M a c h t , n o c h Intresse sich in die C o n t i n e n t a l h n d e l zu mischen.
S e e m a c h t s c h w a c h . D e r H a n d e l grtentheils passiv. Spanien u. Portu-
gal: d u r c h V e r m h l u n g v. Ferdinand (v. A r r a g o n i e n ) m. Isabella (v. C a -
stilien) G r u n d zur Vereinigung beider K n i g r e i c h e . Begriff seit G r a n a d a
1492 d e n M a u r e n entrissen, die ganze p y r e n i s c h e H a l b i n s e l m. A u s - 10
n h m e v . P o r t u g a l . B l h n v . H a n d e l u . Schiffahrt i n A r r a g o n i e n u . P o r -
tugal. Deutschland: Reichsvasallen m c h t i g e r , K a i s e r s c h w c h e r gewor-
d e n . 1495 L a n d f r i e d e n u . C a m m e r g e r i c h t . H a u s Oestreich, auf d a s
s. 1440 3 Scula h i n d u r c h die K a i s e r w a h l e n geleitet, E n d e des 1 5 ' J h h . ,
theils d u r c h R e u n i o n e n theils d u r c h M a x i m i l i a n s H e i r a t h m. M a r i a , 15
Erbin der Burgundischen Staaten, Machtzuwachs, bald noch durch Bh-
m e n u. U n g a r n v e r s t r k t . Schweitz: I h r e U n a b h n g i g k e i t v. d e u t s c h e n
R e i c h n o c h nicht a n e r k a n n t . D o c h der 1315 errichtete S c h w e i t z e r b u n d
E n d e des 1 5 ' J h h . als Alliirter v. e n t s c h e i d e n d e r R o l l e in d e n Kriegen
seiner N a c h b a r n . Italien: In Oberitalien M e n g e F r e i s t a a t e n . M a y l a n d seit 20
1395 H e r z o g , S a v o y e n seit 1416; Venedig. G e n u a . Im m i t t l e m Italien
F l o r e n z u . der P a b s t m c h t i g g e w o r d e n . I m u n t e r n Italien h a t t e Alfons
v. A r r a g o n i e n sich 1435 Siciliens, s p t e r a u c h N e a p e l s b e m c h t i g t . Im
Osten: 1453 die T r k e n d e n griechischen K a i s e r t h r o n e r k m p f t , Servien,
Bosnien, die K r i m m e r o b e r t u. d r o h t e n v. S t a m b u l a u s m. n o c h weitern 25
E r o b r u n g e n . Im Norden: D i e zu s c h w a c h e Calmarische Union ihrer Auf-
l s u n g n a h . In Ruland I w a n Wasilewitz sich befreit v. d e n T a r t a r e n , die
russ. F r s t e n unterjocht, 1478 N o v g o r o d b e z w u n g e n , u . strebte s c h o n
n a c h Liefland, wie sein N a c h f o l g e r n a c h P o l e n . Polen im 15 J h . West-
preussen (1466) e r w o r b e n , O s t p r e u s s e n zu L e h n a u f g e n o m m e n , u. incor- 30
p o r i r t e L i t h a u e n 1501. F e u d a l a n a r c h i e . Auflclrung: seit d e m 1 2 ' J h h . bis
z u m 15' J h h . B l h n v. K u n s t u. Wissenschaft in Italy. Handel und
Gewerb: bes. Italien, bes. d u r c h die L o m b a r d e n auf F r a n k r e i c h , A r -
r a g o n i e n u . die N i e d e r l a n d e b e r g e g a n g e n : B r a b a n t u . F l a n d e r n enthiel-
ten die Stapelpltze, w o h i n die W a a r e n aus d e m S d e n u. O s t e n geschifft 35
u. v. wo sie d u r c h die H a n s e im N o r d e n u. Westen verbreitet. n d e r u n g
d e r D i n g e bereitet d u r c h die E r o b r u n g v . C o n s t a n t i n o p e l 1453; E n t d e -
c k u n g der n e u e n Welt 1492 u. Seeweg n a c h O s t i n d i e n 1498. Vlkerrecht:

66
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

N o c h i n einigen L n d e r n der H a n d e l d e m A u s l n d e r n u r d u r c h Privilegia


od. seltne Vertrge frei u. n u r d u r c h diese S t r a n d r e c h t u. F r e m d l i n g s r e c h t
b e s c h r n k t . D e m M i b r a u c h d e r R e p r e s s a l i e n n u r selten d u r c h G e s e t z e
begegnet. Im Seekrieg am allgemeinsten gefolgt d e m Consolato del mare.
5 n d r u n g im L a n d k r i e g d u r c h Pulver, V e r w a n d l u n g v. L e h n d i e n s t in G e l d
- C o n d o t t i e r i s t a t t d e s s e n o d . eigens g e w o r b e n e g a r z u m Theil s c h o n ste-
h e n d e T r u p p e n , Subsidienvlker. N u n sollten a u c h n i c h t m e h r eigne
Vasallen, s o n d e r n fremde M c h t e j|58| die G a r a n t i e der F r i e d e n s s c h l s s e
b e r n e h m e n . Italien. Politik b e m c h t i g t e sich z u n c h s t der westlichen u.
10 sdlichen H f e , v e r m e h r t die Z a h l d e r B n d n i s s e , erzeugte s t e h e n d e
Gesandtschaften. (1-12)

/. Abschnitt. Von 1477-1598

In Frankreich h e r r s c h t e n : Louis XI - 1 4 8 3 . C a r l V I I I - 1 4 9 8 . L u d w i g X I I
- 1 5 1 5 . F r a n z i - 1 5 4 7 . Deutschland F r i e d r i c h I I I - 1 4 9 3 . M a x i m i l i a n I .
15 - 1 5 1 9 . In England. Heinrich VII 1 4 8 5 - 1 5 0 9 . Heinrich VIII (1509-47) Spa-
nien in Arragonien F e r d i n a n d 1479-1516, Castilien Isabella 14741504,
Philipp I u. J o h a n n a - 1 5 1 6 . Carl I seit 1516 in beiden. Pbste: A l e x a n -
der VI 1 4 9 2 - 1 5 0 3 . P i u s I I I . 1503. Julius I I . 1 5 0 3 - 1 2 . Leo X 1 5 1 2 - 1 5 2 1 .

1.) Hndel der sdlichen u. westlichen Mchte.


20 a.) Von 1477-1515.

Niederlande u. Italien Z a n k a p f e l zwischen F r a n k r e i c h , Oestreich u. S p a -


nien, ) Burgundische Erbschaft. 1477 ( n a c h d e m T o d v. C a r l d. K h n e n
H e r z o g v . B u r g u n d u . B e h e r r s c h e r der N i e d e r l a n d e ) besezt F r a n k r e i c h
einen Theil seiner S t a a t e n , K r i e g d r b e r m . Oestreich, d a M a x i m i l i a n
25 v e r m h l t m. M a r i a , C a r l s T o c h t e r u. E r b i n . Sie | 1482, n u n F r i e d e zu
A r r a s . U e b e r die V e r m h l u n g C a r l ' s V I I I m . A n n a v . B r e t a g n e 2 ' K r i e g ,
beendigt d u r c h d e n Frieden v. Senlis 1493 so d a M a x i m i l i a n a u f Bre-
t a g n e Verzicht leistet, w o g e g e n die Grafschaft B u r g u n d u. N o y e r s i h m u.
seinem S o h n z u r c k g e g e b e n , d e r F l a n d e r n , A r t o i s u . C h a r e l o i s v . F r a n k -
30 reich zu L e h n n e h m e n m u . ( M m o i r . de C o m i n e s . ) ) Ansprche Frank-
reichs auf Neapel u. Mailand. (Guicciardini. I s t o r i a d'Italia.) ( 1 4 9 4 - 1 5 3 2 )
Nach Vermhlung Philipp's, Sohns Maximilian's, m. Johanna, Erbin der
span. M o n a r c h i e , d a s H a u s Oestreich a u c h i n die s p a n . H n d e l w i d e r
F r a n k r e i c h verflochten. S c h o n 1494 fhrt C h a r l e s V I I I seinen A n s p r u c h
35 auf Italien a u s , d u r c h d e n 1495 zwischen P a b s t , r m . K n i g , S p a n i e n u.

67
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

d e m H e r z o g v. M a i l a n d g e s c h l o n e n ersten grossen B u n d , Ligue du bien


public, schnell g e n t h i g t N e a p e l u. Italy zu r u m e n . Louis XII verfolgt
1498 diesen A n s p r u c h in geheimer V e r b i n d u n g m. F e r d i n a n d C a t h o l i c u s ,
m . d e m e r n a c h E r o b r u n g N e a p e l s 1500 einen T h e i l u n g s t r a k t a t schlo,
a b e r 1506 i h m seine R e c h t e a b t r a t , als seinen A n s p r u c h a u f M a y l a n d 5
w i d e r L u d o v i c u s m o r u s , d e n e r gefangen n a c h F r a n k r e i c h fhrte, u . die
B e l e h n u n g v o m K a i s e r suchte, die i h m ertheilt 1505 n a c h d e n z u Blois
1501 u. 1504 u n t e r engl. G a r a n t i e g e s c h l o n e n F r i e d e n s v e r t r g e n gegen
die d a r i n v e r a b r e d e t e D o p p e l h e i r a t h , ) Ligue mit u. wider Vendig. Isa
bella v. Castilien 1 1504. L o u i s X I I . widerruft die w e g e n V e r m h l u n g 10
ihres E n k e l s C a r l a n C l a u d i a m i t M a x g e s c h l o n e n Vertrge u . b e w i r k t
gegen M a x 1506 L i g u e m . P a b s t , a n d e r n italien. S t a a t e n u . bes. Venedig,
die M a x e n s P l a n e z u r c k h l t , d e r sich an Venedig r c h t d u r c h die 1508
zu C a m b r a y b e w i r k t e Ligue, ) Heilige Ligue; Friede zu Blois 1513. N a c h
d e m fzs. Sieg v. Gierra d'Adda 1509 fiel d e r P a b s t v. d e r L i g a a b , v e r b a n d 15
sich m . F e r d i n a n d C a t h o l i c u s u . H e n r y V I I ( f 1509) u . a u c h d e r K a i s e r
t r a t dieser L i g a s a n t a wider F r a n k r e i c h bei. 1509 f H e n r y V I I , u. Hen
ri VIII geht v. dieser Ligue a b . L o u i s X I I , in seinen e i g n e n S t a a t e n selbst
d u r c h die Schweitzer b e d r o h t , schliet 1513 m. F e r d i n a n d C a t h o l i c u s
Frieden zu Blois, n a c h w e l c h e m C a r l v. Castilien R e n a t a v. F r a n k r e i c h 20
h e i r a t h e n u . G e n u a z u m H e i r a t h s g u t h a b e n sollte. K r a f t seines F r i e d e n s
m . E n g l a n d h e i r a t h e t L o u i s die Schwester v . H e n r i V I I I . M i t d e n b r i g e n
Alliirten Waffenstillstand.

b.) Von 1515-1559.

(Frankreich: Franzi (1515-1547) H e n r y II -1559.) Spanien Carli 25


(1516-1556.) In Deutschland C a r l I (V) 1519-1558. England: Hein-
rich V I I I 1509-1547. E d u a r d VI - 1 5 5 3 . M a r i a . - 1 5 5 8 . Pbste: Leo[X]
1 5 1 2 - 2 1 . H a d r i a n V I - 1 5 2 3 . Clemens VII. 1525-1534. P a u l I I I . - 1 5 5 0 .
Julius I I I . M a r c e l l u s I I . - 1 5 5 5 . Paul IV. - 1 5 5 9 .
Franz I in Frankreich, Carl I in Spanien. F r a n z I e r o b e r t , t r o t z d e r 30
L i g u e des P a b s t u . der Schweitzer, n a c h ||59| d e m Treffen v . M a r i g n a n o
(1515) M a y l a n d , z w a n g d e n P a b s t z u m Vertrag v . V i t e r b o (1515) der i h m
M a i l a n d u . P a r m a g a r a n t i r t e u . N e a p e l hoffen lie u . s c h l o seinen ewi-
g e n F r i e d e n m . d e n Schweitzern 1516. N a c h d e m T o d F e r d i n a n d i C a t h o -
lici 1516 u n t e r englischer Vermittlung B u n d v. P a b s t , K a i s e r , S p a n i e n 35
gegen F r a n k r e i c h u . t r o t z d e r Vertrge v . N o y o n s u . C a m b r a y (1516)
n e u e s M a t e r i a l des Zwists zwischen F r a n z u . C a r l , seit C a r l 1519 K a i -
s e r k r o n e , F r a n z i n S p a n i e n die R e b e l l i o n u n t e r s t z t e u . C a r l i h n a u s
Italien z u v e r d r n g e n suchte, w o r b e r

68
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

) Italienische Kriege: Ver (1521-26): N a c h d e r S c h l a c h t bei Bicocco


(22 April 1522) M a i l a n d v . K a r l e r o b e r t , F r a n z Sforza z u m H e r z o g e r h o
ben, n e u e Ligue m. H e n r i V I I I u. m e h r e n ital. S t a a t e n , Franz I bei P a v i a
gefangen (1525), unterzeichnet zu Madrid gefangen Frieden
5 (14 J a n . 1526), w o r i n als Lsegeld B u r g u n d a b g e t r e t e n , A n s p r c h e n a u f
Italien entsagt, 2 Mill. T h . zu z a h l e n v e r s p r o c h e n , 2 seiner P r i n z e n als
Geissein.
ier t e
2 : 1526-29. F r a n z 22 M a i (1526) in 2 heilige L i g u e m. P a b s t , Vene-
dig, G e n u a , F l o r e n z , M a i l a n d , E n g l a n d gen C a r l . 5 A u g u s t . (1529) F r i e -
10 d e n v. C a m b r a y (paix des d a m e s ) , Franz b e h l t B u r g u n d , e n t s a g t der
L e h n s h e r r l i c h k e i t a u f F l a n d e r n u. A r t o i s , z a h l t 2 Mill. T h . Lsegeld
f . seine S h n e , l t M a y l a n d d e m H e r z o g F r a n z I I u . e r k e n n t G e n u a s
Freiheit a n .
,er
3 : 1536-38. H e r z o g F r a n z II | u n b e e r b t . F r a n z v e r l a n g t M a i l a n d -
l
15 b e l e h n u n g f. seinen 2 S o h n H e i n r i c h , C a r l verweigert. F r a n z fngt 1536
K r i e g a n , m . T r k e n v e r b u n d e n , d e r 1538 u n t e r b r o c h e n u n t e r p b s t l i c h e r
Vermittlung d u r c h 10jhrigen Waffenstillstand, w h r e n d dessen F r a n k -
reich M e i s t e r v. S a v o y e n blieb u. G e n f sich in Freiheit sezte.
er
4' Krieg: 1541-1546. F r a n z I G e s a n d t e heimlich e r m o r d e t , zu P a v i a ,
20 erneuert dieser (1541) d e n K r i e g , v e r b n d e t m. T r k e n , D n e m a r k
u . S c h w e d e n . Sieg des C o m t e d ' E n g h u i n bei Cerisolles 14 A p r i l 1544.
D i v e r s i o n d u r c h H e n r i V I I I u . Verrtherei d e r d ' E t a m p e s . C a r l schlit
M a i 1544 F r i e d e n m. D n e m a r k , dann m. Frankreich zu Cr espy,
1 8 Sept. 1544 a u f d e n F u d e s F r i e d e n s z u C a m b r a y , s o d a d e r 2 ' S o h n
25 v. F r a n z , C a r l , m. M a y l a n d b e l e h n t w e r d e n u. eine streichische P r i n -
zessin h e i r a t h e n sollte. D o c h er | 1545, w a h r s c h e i n l i c h d u r c h Gift u. K a r l
belehnte n u n seinen eignen S o h n P h i l i p p m . M a i l a n d . F r a n k r e i c h blieb v .
Italien ausgeschlossen, d a s s p a n . - s t r . H a u s behielt die O b e r h a n d : der
Krieg wider E n g l a n d e n d i g t m . d e m Verlust v . B o u l o g n e . M i t d e n T r k e n
30 schlit K a r l (1546) einen Waffenstillstand a u f 5 J a h r e .
) Religionshndel in Deutschland. D u r c h d e n F r i e d e n zu C r e s p y K a r l
freir H a n d in D e u t s c h l a n d .
pens f r a c c h i \ 542: L u t h e r t r o t z W o r m s e r E d i c t . 1521, bes. i n
0 s

Sachsen, H e s s e n , B r a n d e n b u r g , D n e m a r k , S c h w e d e n , die w i d e r d e n
35 R e i c h s s c h l u zu Speyer 1529 p r o t e s t i r e n d e n S t n d e 1530 zu Schmalkal-
den v e r b n d e t , m. F r a n k r e i c h , E n g l a n d , D n e m a r k u n t e r h a n d e l t . 1532
Religionsvergleich z u N r n b e r g u . 1534 F r i e d e z u C a d e n . N e u e r g r r e r
Defensivbund der P r o t e s t a n t e n zu S c h m a l k a l d e n 1536. 1538 Heilige
(kath.) B u n d z u N r n b e r g . 1542 b r i c h t d e r R e l i g i o n s k r i e g frmlich a u s
40 m. E r o b r u n g v. Wolfenbttel, K a i s e r n i m m t erst 1544 t h t i g e n A n t h e i l .

69
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

tms
2 Religionskrieg bis 1552. K a r l , in geh. V e r b i n d u n g m. M o r i t z
v. Sachsen, zerstreut n a c h der Schlacht bei Mhlberg (24 A p r i l 1547) d e n
g a n z e n B u n d , m a c h t dessen H u p t e r , J o h a n n F r i e d r i c h , C h u r f r s t v .
S a c h s e n u . L a n d g r a f P h i l i p p v . H e s s e n , j e n e n bei M h l b e r g , diesen bei
H a l l z u G e f a n g n e n , b e r a u b t 1547 J o h a n n F r i e d r i c h der C h u r w r d e u . 5
b e r t r g t sie e i g e n m c h t i g a u f M o r i t z u . dessen N a c h k o m m e n . D a s a u f
d e m R e i c h s t a g z u A u g s b u r g 1548 publicirte I n t e r i m mifiel b e i d e n R e -
ligionstheilen. M o r i t z v . Sachsen u . a n d r e p r o t e s t a n t i s c h e S t n d e v e r b n -
d e n sich 1551 m. H e i n r i c h II v. F r a n k r e i c h w i d e r K a r l . J e n e fielen in
Tyrol, dieser in L o t h r i n g e n ein, besezte M e t z , T o u l u. V e r d u n 1552, C a r l 10
e n t k m m t a u s I n s p r u c k , u n t e r z e i c h n e t m . j e n e m 1552 vorlufig Vertrag
z u P a s s a u u . v e r s p r a c h einen R e i c h s t a g , k o n n t e M e t z d o c h n i c h t befreien.
,em
3 . Religionsfriede zu Augsburg. R e i c h s t a g zu A u g s b u r g 3 J. n a c h h e r .
25 Sept. 1555 v. K a i s e r u. R e i c h der Religionsfriede d a h i n geschlossen,
d a 1) kein S t a n d eine der b e i d e n R e l i g i o n e n der R e l i g i o n w e g e n b e - 15
u n r u h i g t ; 2) die eingezognen m i t t e l b a r e n geistlichen G t e r eingezogen
bleiben; 3) die geistliche G e r i c h t s b a r k e i t b e r die A. C. V. s u s p e n d i r t ;
4) die E m i g r a t i o n d e r Religion h a l b e r frei. A u c h d a s r e s e r v a t u m |
|60| ecclesiasticum eingerckt. P a b s t p r o t e s t i r t gegen d e n F r i e d e n . Strei-
tigkeiten b e r m e h r e b e r h r t e u. u n g e r h r t gebliebne P u n k t e . M i t 20
F r a n k r e i c h schlit C a r l 1556 einen 5jhrigen Waffenstillstand, w h r e n d
dessen es im Besitz der 3 B i s t h m e r .
.) Resignation Carls. 1556: seine n i e d e r l n d i s c h e n , s p a n . , italien. Be-
sitzungen an P h i l i p p I I , die K a i s e r w r d e a b e r 1558 an seinen s c h o n 1531
z u m r m . K n i g e r w h l t e n B r u d e r Ferdinand, d e m er s c h o n 1522 seine 25
Ostreich. Staaten g a n z a b g e t r e t e n h a t t e . S p a n i e n s u. F r a n k r e i c h s A b s i c h -
t e n auf E n g l a n d scheiterten, als Philipps F r a u , Maria v. E n g l a n d , 1558
f u n b e e r b t , u. die E h e des S o h n s v. H e i n r i c h I I , F r a n z , m. M a r i a v.
S c h o t t l a n d k i n d e r l o s , da F r a n z II f 1560.
) Friede zu Cateau en Cambresis. E r s t e r K r i e g v. P h i l i p p II gegen 30
P a b s t P a u l IV u. dessen A l l r t e n Henri II. P a u l IV F r i e d e 1558. F r a n k -
reich h a r t zugesezt v . d e n N i e d e r l a n d e n a u s d u r c h S p a n i e n u . dessen
Alliirte, die E n g l n d e r . Schlacht v. St Q u e n t i n . Elisabeth schlit
12 Mrz 1558 i h r e n Preliminar- u. 2 April 1559 i h r e n Definitivfrieden m i t
F r a n k r e i c h , u. lie Calais in seinen H n d e n . In d e m F r i e d e n v. C a t e a u en 35
C a m b r e s i s (3. April 1559) m. S p a n i e n , m u F r a n k r e i c h , um die e r o b e r t e n
G r e n z p l t z e wieder zu b e k o m m e n , 195 P l t z e theils an S p a n i e n in d e n
N i e d e r l a n d e n u . Italien, theils a n S a v o y e n z u r c k g e b e n . S p a n i e n Gipfel-
p u n k t seiner M a c h t . ( 1 3 - 2 3 )

70
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

c) 1559-1598.

Frankreich. F r a n z II. 1559-1560. C a r l I X . - 1 5 7 4 . H e i n r i c h I I I . - 1 5 8 9 .


Henri IV - 1 6 1 0 . Spanien: Philipp II ( 1 5 5 6 - 1 5 9 8 ) Deutschland. Fer-
d i n a n d ! (1558-1564) M a x i m i l i a n I I (-1576). R u d o l f I I . (-1612) Eng-
5 land: Elisabeth. (1558-1603.) Pbste: Pius IV 1559-1566. Pius V - 1 5 7 2 .
G r e g o r i u s X I I I - 1 5 8 5 . Sixtus V - 1 5 9 0 . U r b a n V I I . G r e g o r X I V . I n n o -
cenz I X - 1 5 9 1 . C l e m e n s V I I I 1 5 9 2 - 1 6 0 5 .
.) Anfang der niederlndischen Unruhen. 1564 H e r z o g v. A l b a . 1572
bricht die R e v o l u t i o n zuerst a u s i n d e n n r d l i c h e n P r o v i n z e n , w o W i l -
10 h e i m v. O r a n i e n S t a t t h a l t e r v. H o l l a n d , Seeland u. U t r e c h t . Requesens
N a c h f o l g e r v. A l b a . D i e G e n t i s c h e Pacification v. 8 N o v . 1576 m u d e r
s p a n . S t a t t h a l t e r , Jouan de Austria, d u r c h d a s e d i c t u m p e r p e t u u m d e n
17 F e b r . 1577 s a n c t i o n i r e n .
) Abfall der Niederlnder v. Spanien. W e d e r D. J u a n hielten W o r t ,
15 n o c h seine N a c h f o l g e r , d u c de P a r m a . U n t e r d e n P r o v i n z e n u s s e r t sich
i m m e r m e h r die Verschiedenheit der I n t r e s s e n zwischen d e n n r d l i c h e n
u. sdlichen. 5 d e r erstren, a u f W i l h e l m s Betrieb, schlssen P a r t i c u l a r -
u n i o n zu U t r e c h t 1579, d e r sich in F o l g e n o c h 2 P r o v i n z e n , a u c h einige
der sdlichen S t d t e anschliessen. E i n J a h r l a n g z u K l n u n t e r kaiserli-
20 eher Vermittlung (1579) gepflognen U n t e r h a n d l u n g e n fruchtlos: P r i n z
O r a n i e n v. P h i l i p p vogelfrei e r k l r t . 1581 k n d i g e n die S t a a t e n S p a n i e n
d e n G e h o r s a m auf, w o r a u f der fast 70jhrige Freiheitskrieg b e g a n n , eh
n o c h P l a n , n e u e R e p u b l i k z u bilden, e n t s t a n d ,
.) Bildung der Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande. 1584 W i l h e l m v.
25 O r a n i e n g e t d t e t . W e d e r H e i n r i c h I I I v. F r a n k r e i c h , n o c h Elisabeth
v . E n g l a n d n a h m e n die a n g e b o t n e S o u v e r a i n i t t a n . R e p u b l i k der
Vereinigten N i e d e r l a n d e . U t r e c h t e r U n i o n blieb die H a u p t g r u n d l a g e
dafr.
) Spaniens Krieg gegen England. P h i l i p p ' s , d e r 1580 a u c h P o r t u g a l
30 berwltigt, Armada (1588) o h n e Seeschlacht zerstreut u. fast vernichtet,
.) Spaniens Krieg gegen Frankreich. Seit 1584 in V e r b i n d u n g m. d e r
Ligue s u c h t P h i l i p p Henri IV die Erbfolge zu entreissen, dieser b e r z i e h t
ihn 1595 m. K r i e g , e n d e t d u r c h d e n F r i e d e n zu Vervins, 2 M a i 1598,
ungnstig f. S p a n i e n .
35 .) Fortgang des Kriegs gegen die Niederlnder. A l s P h i l i p p II t 1598,
setzen N i e d e r l a n d e u . E n g l a n d K r i e g g e n P h i l i p p I I I fort, n u n a u c h sich
in fremde Welttheile e r s t r e c k e n d u. i m m e r m e h r H a n d e l s k r i e g . ( 2 4 - 2 7 )

71
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

2.) Nordische Hndel bis 1600.

Dnemark. C h r i s t i a n I I 1 5 1 3 - 2 3 . F r i e d r i c h I - 1 5 3 3 . C h r i s t i a n I I I . 1 5 3 4 -
1559. F r i e d r i c h II. - 1 5 8 8 . C h r i s t i a n I V . - 1 6 4 8 . Schweden: G u s t a v
W a s a . 1524-60. ||61| E r i c h X I V . - 1 5 6 8 . J o h a n n I I I . - 1 5 9 2 . Sigismund.
- 1 6 0 0 . Polen: Sigismund A u g u s t . 1548-72. H e i n r i c h v. A n j o u . 1 5 7 3 - 7 5 . 5
S t e p h a n B a t o r i - 1 5 8 6 . Sigismund I I I . 1587-1632.
Russland: I w a n Wasiljewitsch IV. 1533-1584. F e o d o r l . 1584-1598.
Boris Ghodunow. 1598-1605. Preussen: Albrecht M a r k g r a f v. B r a n d e n -
b u r g , seit 1511, H o c h m e i s t e r seit 1525. H e r z o g in P r e u s s e n - 1 5 6 8 . A l -
b r e c h t F r i e d r i c h 1568. j 1618. ( I n t e r i m r e g e n t M a r k g r a f G e o r g F r i e d r i c h 10
v. A n s p a c h 1577-1603.)
a.) Der teutsche Orden, v e r b u n d e n m. d e m S c h w e r d t t r g e r o r d e n , im
ten
13 Jhh. in Preussen, Liefland, Curland u. Semgallen ausgebreitet. Walter
v. Plettenberg, H e e r m e i s t e r in Liefland, kauft sich 1513 v. d e u t s c h e n
O r d e n los, u. erhielt v. C a r l V, als Wahlfrst v. Liefland, Sitz u. S t i m m e 15
auf d e m d e u t s c h e n R e i c h s t a g . E r fhrte n e b s t d e m E r z b i s c h o f v . R i g a die
R e f o r m a t i o n ein, als Albrecht, M a r k g r a f v. B r a n d e n b u r g , H o c h m e i s t e r
des t e u t s c h e n O r d e n s , m . s . R i t t e r n lutherisch w a r d u . i m F r i e d e n m .
P o l e n v. 9 April 1525 d e n Theil Preussens, der O r d e n s l a n d gewesen, als
weltliches E r b h e r z o g t h u m v. Polen zu L e h n n a h m , i n d e d a s b r i g e , seit 20
1466, P o l e n u n m i t t e l b a r u n t e r w o r f e n , m . diesem vereinigt blieb. D e r
O r d e n in D e u t s c h l a n d p r o t e s t i r t e gegen diesen Vertrag.
D e r russische C z a r I w a n Wasiljewitsch I V fllt, n a c h E n d i g u n g eines
fruchtlosen K r i e g s gegen S c h w e d e n 1557 in d a s uneinige Liefland, 1558,
m a c h t E r o b r u n g e n ; G o t t h a r d Kettler findet w e d e r b e i m R e i c h n o c h in 25
S c h w e d e n u . D n e m a r k Hlfe, zeichnet nebst d e m E r z b i s c h o f v . R i g a
1561 Vertrag zu W i l n a m. Polen u. Litauen, w o d u r c h er d i e s e m Liefland
unterwarf, u . dagegen C u r l a n d u . Semgallen v . P o l e n z u L e h n n a h m . D i e
Bisthmer Oesel u. Reval h a t t e F r i e d r i c h II v. D n e m a r k angeblich
gekauft u. seinen B r u d e r M a g n u s d a m i t belehnt, a u c h 1560 ihn in d e r e n 30
Besitz gesezt. D i e S t a d t Reval u. Esthland u n t e r w a r f e n sich 1561 an
S c h w e d e n . So diese P r o v i n z e n ein Z a n k a p f e l zwischen R u l a n d , P o l e n ,
D n e m a r k , Schweden.
b.) Krieg zwischen Dnemark u. Schweden. Seit 1523 T r e n n u n g der C a l -
m a r i s c h e n U n i o n . Oft Streitigkeiten bes. wegen d e r 3 R e i c h s k r o n e n , N o r - 35
wegen, u. der G r e n z p r o v i n z e n . Streit wegen R e v a l , wegen A r r e t i r u n g
schwed. G e s a n d t e n u . G e w a l t t h t i g k e i t e n z u r See A u s b r u c h des K r i e g s
1563, 7 J. gefhrt zu See u. L a n d , 1568 F r i e d e n zu R o s c h i l d gezeichnet,

72
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

k o m m t erst zu S t a n d 1570 zu Stettin u n t e r des Kaisers, F r a n k r e i c h s ,


P o l e n s u. Sachsens Vermittlung. H i e r i n : 1) der Streit wegen der 3 R e i c h s -
k r o n e n a n Schiedsrichter verwiesen. 2 ) D n e m a r k e n t s a g t seinen A n s p r -
chen auf Schweden, u. S c h w e d e n seinen 1541 v o r b e h a l t n e n R e c h t e n a u f
5 N o r w e g e n , S c h o n e n , H a i l a n d , Blekingen u. G o t h l a n d , g a b 3) J e m t e l a n d
u. Herjedalen gen R c k g a b e v. Elfsburg z u r c k u. v e r s p r a c h 4) Oesel u.
R e v a l d u r c h die H n d e kaiserl. G e s a n d t e r a n D n e m a r k gen B e z a h l u n g
der E r o b r u n g s k o s t e n z u r c k z u g e b e n . Versprechen blieb unerfllt wie die
B e d i n g u n g . D i e L b e c k e r in diesen F r i e d e n einbegriffen.
10 c.) Krieg zwischen Ruland u. Polen. Schlit 1582 Iwan Wasilje-
witsch IV, u n t e r V e r m i t t l u n g des N u n c i u s Possewin, m. P o l e n 10jhrigen
F r i e d e n , 1591 verlngert, alle seine Besitzungen in Liefland an P o l e n
abgetreten.
d.) Krieg zwischen Ruland u. Schweden. S c h w e d e n zerfiel m. Polen.
15 M i t i h m schlo a b e r R u l a n d 1583 zu P l s a m u n d einen 1586 auf 4 J.
verlngerten Waffenstillstand, n a c h dessen A b l a u f 1590 d e r K r i e g fort-
ging bis u n t e r S i g i s m u n d d e r F r i e d e zu Teussin 1595 i h n so endet, d a
Schweden seine Besitzungen in Liefland u. E s t h l a n d , bes. N a r v a , behielt.
R u l a n d also a u s Liefland v e r d r n g t , in dessen Besitz P o l e n u. S c h w e d e n
20 blieben.
e.) Hndel zwischen Schweden u. Polen theils b e r Liefland u. E s t h l a n d ,
theils b e r S c h w e d e n selbst, als d e r schwed. P r i n z Sigismund, 1587 z u m
K n i g v . P o l e n gewhlt, 1592 a u c h d e n schwedischen T h r o n bestiegen,
1600 a b e r des leztern f. verlustig e r k l r t u. C a r l IX an seiner Stelle
25 e r n a n n t . (28-32) [

|62| //. Abschnitt. Von 1598-1660.

Vittorio Siri M e m o r i e r e c o n d i t e d e l l ' a n n o 1601-1640. (t. I - V I I I . 4.) V o n


demselben: Mercurio overo h i s t o r i a dei correnti t e m p i . 1644-1684.
(t. I - X V . 4.) (M. de St Prez od. Prest des Yves): H i s t o i r e des traits de
e
30 paix et a u t r e s n e g o t i a t i o n s du 17 sicle depuis la paix de Vervins. (jus-
q u ' la paix de N i m e g u e . A m s t e r d a m et la H a y e . fol. T. I, I L ) Maubert
histoire polit, du sicle. L o n d o n . 1757. 4.

73
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

a.) Zustand Europa's um das Jahr 1600.

1) Spanien. Seit 1580 a u c h Beherrscher v. P o r t u g a l , die gefrchtetste


e u r o p . M a c h t , in u. ausser E u r o p a . A u c h in Italien seit K a r l V d a s
U e b e r g e w i c h t . Hielt die g r r e n S t a a t e n - P a b s t , Venedig, F l o r e n z , - in
F u r c h t ; die kleinren - Savoyen, P a r m a , M o d e n a , M a n t u a , G e n u a - fast
in D e p e n d e n z . . . . K r i e g e u. F i n a n z n o t h seiner realen K r f t e s c h o n sehr
geschwcht, als Philipp III, 1598 auf d e n T h r o n . E l e n d e V e r w a l t u n g des
H e r z o g s v . Lerma ( M a r q u i s v . D e n i a , u r s p r . D . F r a n z G o m e z d e S a n d o -
val) u. seines G n s t l i n g s Calderona ( n a c h m a l s C o n d e de Oliva). S p a n i e n s
e r n e u e r t e V e r b i n d u n g m. Oestreich seit 1617, h o b es eine Z e i t l a n g schein-
bar.
2.) Deutschland; Oestreich. Seit Ferdinand I b e s a H a u s Oestreich a u s -
ser d e m K a i s e r t h r o n a u c h n o c h U n g a r n u . B h m e n . Seit d e m Religions-
friede v. 1555 Maximilian II R u h e erhalten. A b e r seit Rudolf II (1576 auf
d e n T h r o n ) U n r u h n d r o h e n d i n Italien, D e u t s c h l a n d , u . d a s H a u s Oest-
reich a u c h v o n T r k e i her i n U n t h t i g k e i t gehalten.
3.) Frankreich. H e i n r i c h IV. Sully. S c h w c h u n g des s p a n . - s t r . H a u s e s
G r u n d l a g e ihrer Politik.
4.) England. Elisabeth m. H e n r y IV e i n v e r s t a n d e n . A b e r 1603 J a k o b I.
5.) Vereinigten Niederlanden. E n d e des 1 6 ' J h h . ihrer Freiheit s c h o n
sicher. E r o b r u n g e n meist auf K o s t e n des v. Spain u n t e r j o c h t e n P o r t u g a l .
6.) Eidgenossen. N o c h nicht frmlich v. d e m R e i c h a n e r k a n n t . D u r c h
Religionsverschiedenheit in 2 ungleiche Theile gespalten. I h r e j u n g e
M a n n s c h a f t c a p i t u l a t i o n s m s s i g in d e n Kriegsdienst fremder, oft ent-
gegengesezter P a r t h e i e n .
7.) Nordische Mchte. Einzelne d a v o n sich u n t e r C a r l V n u r v o r b e r -
g e h e n d in die H n d e l des sdlichen E u r o p a s gemischt. S e i t d e m Z e i t l a n g
wieder N o r d e n v. d e m S d e n getrennt. U n t e r d e n 3 R e i c h e n , Dnemark,
Schweden, Polen, keins dem andern sehr merklich berlegen. Ruland noch
kaum den europ. Mchten beigesellt. Preussen noch schwach.

74
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

b.) Hndel der europ. Mchte von 1598-1660.

1.) Von 1598 bis 1618.

In Frankreich H e i n r i c h IV - 1 6 1 0 , L u d w i g X I I I - 1 6 4 3 . In Spanien Phi-


l i p p i i i . 1 5 9 8 - 1 6 2 1 . In Deutschland Rudolph II - 1 6 1 2 . M a t h i a s - 1 6 1 9 . In
5 England: E l i s a b e t h - 1 6 0 3 . J a c o b I - 1 6 2 5 . In Dnemark: C h r i s t i a n IV
1588-1648. In Schweden: C a r l IX 1600 ( 1 6 0 4 ) - 1 6 1 1 . Gustav Adolph:
1611-1632.
Pbste: C l e m e n s V I I I - 1 6 0 5 . L e o X I . P a u l V. 1 6 0 5 - 1 6 2 1 .
Lettres du Cardinal d'Ossat (1593-1603) P a r i s . 1612. fol. avec les n o t e s
10 d ' A m e l o t de la H o u s s a y e . Paris 1698 T. I. II. 4 . A m s t . 1732. T. I - V . 8.
a . ) Fortgang des niederlnd. Kriegs m. Spain bis 1609. N a c h d e m F r i e -
den zu Vervins setzen E n g l a n d N i e d e r l a n d e vereint d e n K r i e g ffentlich,
F r a n k r e i c h u n t e r d e r H a n d gegen Spain fort. S p a i n e r o b e r t 1604 Ostende
n a c h 3jhriger B e l a g e r u n g . 1604 J a c o b I (v. E n g l a n d ) s h n t sich m. S p a -
15 nien a u s . A u f Vorschlag F r a n k r e i c h s , l a n g e r Waffenstillstand zwischen
Spain u. d e n N i e d e r l a n d e n , F r a n k r e i c h u. E n g l a n d G a r a n t i e auf 12 J.,
geschlossen 3 A p r i l 1609; d a r i n die Vereinigten N i e d e r l a n d e als freie
Staaten b e h a n d e l t , d e r H a n d e l hergestellt, u . wegen des H a n d e l s n a c h
Ostindien bes. U r k u n d e ausgestellt.
20 ) Erffnung der Jlich u. Bergischen Succession. H e r z o g J o h a n n Wil-
helm v. Jlich-Cleve f 1609; 25 M r z . Streit b e r die Erbfolge in seinen
Staaten, die d a s C h u r h a u s B r a n d e n b u r g , d a s pfalzgrfliche H a u s N e u -
b u r g , die Albertinische Linie, die Ernestinische Linie v. Sachsen, z u m
Theil a u c h Z w e i b r c k e n u . d e r M a r k g r a f v . B u r g a u i n A n s p r u c h n a h -
25 men. Z u n c h s t ergriffen 1609 B r a n d e n b u r g u. N e u b u r g , kraft des I n t e -
rims-Vergleichs zu D o r t m u n d , gemeinschaftlichen Besitz. K a i s e r belehnt
C h u r s a c h s e n 1610 z u m Schein, u. besezt m. S p a n i e n s Hlfe einen T h e i l
dieser L a n d e , d o c h die beabsichtigte S e q u e s t r a t i o n d u r c h H o l l a n d s u .
F r a n k r e i c h s B e m h n vereitelt. | [33-38] | 2 3 | H e i n r i c h IV v e r b n d e t e sich
30 m. der protest. U n i o n zu H a l l 1610, f 14 M a i 1610; d u r c h Vergleich zwi-
schen dieser u. d e r ihr entgegengesetzten k a t h o l . Ligue n o c h Oct. 1610
z u m Vortheil der b e i d e n besitzenden F r s t e n , u. 21 M r z 1611 zwischen
Sachsen, B r a n d e n b u r g u. P f a l z - N e u b u r g der Jterbocksche Vergleich.
A b e r 1613 der j u n g e Pfalzgraf u. der C h u r f r s t v. B r a n d e n b u r g p e r s n -
35 lieh entzweit, j e n e r die k a t h o l i s c h e , dieser die reformirte R e l i g i o n a n g e -
n o m m e n , f i n g j e n e r m . Hlfe Baierns u . S p a n i e n s , dieser m . Hlfe d e r
H o l l n d e r einseitige B e s i t z n a h m e a n . 12 November 1614 Interimsvergleich

75
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

zu Xanten, d u r c h F r a n k r e i c h u. E n g l a n d vermittelt, w o n a c h Brandenburg


Cleve, M a r k u. R a v e n s b e r g , Pfalz-Neuburg Jlich u. B e r g in A d -
m i n i s t r a t i o n n e h m e n , die fremden T r u p p e n a b e r a b z i e h n sollten.
.) Annhrung der beiden Zweige des Hauses Oestreich. R u d o l p h II
f 1612. U n t e r K a i s e r M a t h i a s , in F o l g e eines geh. B n d n i zwischen 5
P h i l i p p I I I u. F e r d i n a n d v. S t e y e r m a r k , -6u. 15 Juni 1617 - die Erbfolge
i n d e n g e s a m t e n Ostreich. S t a a t e n der S t e y e r m r k s c h e n Linie, mittelst
Verzicht der B r d e r M a t h i a e u . a u c h P h i l i p p ' s I I I zugesichert. D a d u r c h
G r u n d gelegt z u r e r n e u e r t e n engen V e r b i n d u n g zwischen O e s t r e i c h
u. S p a n i e n , d e r e n F o l g e n sich in d e n n c h s t e n K r i e g e n entwickelten. 10

2.) Von 1618-1648.

Frankreich. L u d w i g X I I I . (1610-1643.) (seit 1624 Richelieu.) L u d -


wig X I V . (1643-1715) (seit 1642 M a z a r i n ) Spain. P h i l i p p e I I I - 1 6 2 1 . P h i -
lippe IV. - 1 6 6 5 . Deutschland. M a t h i a s - 1 6 1 9 . F e r d i n a n d I I . - 1 6 3 7 . F e r -
d i n a n d I I I . - 1 6 5 7 . England: J a c o b I. - 1 6 2 5 . C a r l I. - 1 6 4 9 . Dnemark. 15
C h r i s t i a n IV. - 1 6 4 8 . Schweden. Gustav Adolph. 1611-1632. Christine
1632-1654. Pbste: P a u l V . - 1 6 2 1 . G r e g o r X V . - 1 6 2 3 . U r b a n V I I I .
-1644. Innocenz X -1655.
( Guill. Hyacinte Bougeant de la C o . de Jesus: H i s t , des g u e r r e s et des
n e g o t i a t i o n s q u i p r c d r e n t le trait de W e s t p h a l i e c o m p o s e sur les 20
m m o i r e s d u C o m t e d ' A v a u x . Paris 1727. T . I . u . histoire d u trait.
P a r i s . 1744. T. , I I I . 4.)

[]) V o n 1618-1624. j

A n f a n g des 30jhrigen K r i e g s . B e s c h w e r d e n der P r o t e s t a n t e n in B h m e n :


-
wegen Verletzung des Majesttsbriefs s c h o n in T h t l i c h k e i t e n , diese 1618 25 i
i n K r i e g a u s g e a r t e t , als n a c h M a t h i a s T o d die M i v e r g n g t e n , s t a t t K a i -
ser Ferdinand II als K n i g a n z u e r k e n n e n , Friedrich V, C h u r f r s t v. d e r 3
Pfalz e r w h l t e n . B r a n d e n b u r g d u r c h F r a n k r e i c h s V e r m i t t l u n g - J
9 Juli. 1620 - vermittelt m. d e r k a t h o l i s c h . L i g u e zu U l m , sich in die
b h m i s c h e n H n d e l nicht zu mischen. - Ferdinand II u n t e r s t z t v. P a b s t , 30 ' ~;
S p a n i e n , P o l e n , M a x i m i l i a n v. B a i e r n , a u c h S a c h s e n f. sich g e w o n n e n - ^
g e w i n n t s c h o n 1620 Oestreich, Bhmen m. d e r Schlacht, die M a x i m i l i a n j
bei P r a g erfocht, Schlesien d u r c h Sachsens Hlfe. F r i e d r i c h V flchtet
nach Holland; mit J o h a n n Georg v. Brandenburg, Herzog v. Jgerndorff
v. d e m K a i s e r e i g e n m c h t i g in die A c h t e r k l r t - 22 J a n . 1621. A u c h 35 J

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Aus Hansard's parliamentary d e b a t e s und Georg Friedrich von
Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte. Exzerpte zur
Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 1. Seite 23
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

Bethelen Gabor 1622 z u m F r i e d e n g e z w u n g e n , w o r i n er a u f U n g a r n Ver-


zicht leistete, d o c h 7 G e s p a n n s c h a f t e n m. d e r W r d e eines d e u t s c h e n
Reichsfrsten erhielt. |
|24| (M. de Rusdorf M m . et n g o t . secrtes p a r servir l'hist. de
5 30 a n s , rdigs p. E. G. C u h n . Leipzig. 1789. H. Comte de Bethune.
A m b a s s a d e s d e M e s s , les D u c s d ' A n g o u l e m e , d u c o m t e d e B e t h u n e e t d e
P r e a u x d e Chateauneuf, envoys p a r l e roi L o u i s X I I I . v . l ' E m p . F e r -
din. II et les P o t e n t a t s d ' A l l e m a g n e en 1620 et 21 etc Paris 1667.
T. I, II. F o l . - Lettres et negotiations du Marquis de Feuquirres. A m s t .
10 1753. t. I - I I I . )
Fortschritte v. Ferdinand II durch Spanien unterstzt. Z u r Vollziehung
der A c h t gegen F r i e d r i c h V s p a n . T r u p p e n a u s v. Jlich u n t e r S p i n o l a u.
bairische die Pfalz b e r w l t i g t , F e r d i n a n d b e r t r u g die C h u r a u f Baiern
1623, zerstreute die p r o t e s t . U n i o n , verfuhr im S d e n v. D e u t s c h l a n d
15 willkhrlich m. B e d r c k u n g d e r P r o t e s t a n t e n . Tilly u. Wallenstein sollten
n u n a u c h das n r d l i c h e D e u t s c h l a n d u n t e r w e r f e n , b e r a l l herstellen
k a t h o l . Religion, u n u m s c h r n k t e H e r r s c h a f t des K a i s e r i n D e u t s c h l a n d ,
inde Spanien b e m h t sich n a c h Italien h i n z u v e r g r s s e r n .
Fortschritte Spaniens in Italien. S p a n i e n h a t t e 1) Savoyen f. d e n T r a c t a t
20 v. Brusol 1610 h a r t gezchtigt, es zu A b t r e t u n g M o n t f e r r a t s an M a n t u a
d u r c h d e n Vertrag zu Asti 21 J u n i , 1615 g e z w u n g e n , 2) sich in die H n d e l
Venedigs m. Oestreich gemischt, 3) d a s Valtelin 1620, u. t r o t z des M a d r i -
der Vertrags v. 1621, G r a u b n d e n 1622 besezt u. zu e i n e m nachtheiligen
Vergleich genthigt. (Mmoires de Bassompierre ... Linage de Vauciennes.
25 M m . sur l'origine des guerres q u i travaillent l ' E u r o p e d e p . 50 a n s .
Col. 1678.)
Verndrung des Staatssystems in Frankreich. F r a n k r e i c h s B n d n i m.
Venedig u. S a v o y e n z w a n g S p a n i e n 1623, d a s Valtelin d e m P a b s t als
Sequester e i n z u r u m e n (14 F e b r . 1623). Vorlufer d e r R c k k e h r zu H e n -
30 ri IV Staatssystem, seit Richelieu in d e n S t a a t s r a t h a. 1624. F o l g e n d a v o n
sich schnell u s s e r n d theils in Italien, wo F r a n k r e i c h u. S a v o y e n - Spa-
nien u. G e n u a bekriegen; F r a n k r e i c h s einseitiger Vertrag m. S p a n i e n
1626 zu M o n z n , d e r die G r a u b n d t n e r m e h r e n t h e i l s befreite; theils in
Deutschland u. in d e n Niederlanden. [39-44]

79
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

) V o n 1625-1630.

Fortgang des 30jhrigen Kriegs in Deutschland: Richelieu, die E n g l n d e r


u n d H o l l n d e r v e r m o c h t e n 1624 C h r i s t i a n I V v . D n e m a r k , a n d e r
Spitze d e r niederschsischen K r e i s s t n d e d e m V o r d r i n g e n d e r Kaiserli-
l
c h e n zu w e h r e n , die s c h o n an der Weser s t a n d e n . In d e m 2 F e l d z u g siegt 5
Wallenstein bei D e s s a u , Tilly bei L u t h e r am B a r e n b e r g e - 1626, 25 A p r i l
u. 27 A u g . - d r i n g t Tilly u n g e h i n d e r t in H o l s t e i n , Schleswig u. J u t l a n d ,
Wallenstein in B r a n d e n b u r g , M e c k l e n b u r g u. P o m m e r n bis an die Ostsee
v o r , wo die S c h w e d e n n u r n o c h S t r a l s u n d r e t t e t e n . Christian IV v. D n e -
m a r k m u t e d e n F r i e d e n zu L b e c k - 12 M a i 1629 - schliessen. M e c k - 10
l e n b u r g u . S c h w e d e n v . d e m F r i e d e n ausgeschlossen.
Hchster Gipfel der span.-str. Macht. F e r d i n a n d II e r l t d a s Reli-
g i o n s e d i k t v. 1629, 6 M r z . - Philipp IV (v. S p a n . ) d r n g t die N i e d e r l n -
der h a r t m . H l f e kaiserlicher Vlker, h a t t e i n Italien theils n a c h d e m
A b s t e r b e n Vincent's II 1627, kraft des B n d n i s s e s v. S a v o y e n , 1628 ein 15
Stck der erledigten M a n t u a n i s c h e n E r b s c h a f t a n sich z u ziehn gesucht,
theils d a s Valtelin wieder besezt. N u n e n t s c h l o sich Frankreich zu u n m i t -
t e l b a r e r T h e i l n a h m e a m K r i e g i n Italy, b e f r d e r t e S c h w e d e n s B r u c h
w i d e r d e n K a i s e r , u n t e r s t z t e die N i e d e r l n d e r 1630 m . Subsidien . . . F z s .
A r m e e z w i n g t 10 M a i 1629, S a v o y e n zu e i n e m F r i e d e n , d e m S p a n i e n 20
X
beitreten u. Montferrat r u m e n m u t e . In einem 2 Z u g durch Richelieu
P i g n e r o l , d u r c h L u d e w i g X I I I 1630 fast g a n z S a v o y e n e r o b e r t ; d a g e g e n
w u r d e n die Venetianer geschlagen, M a n t u a e r o b e r t , u . bes. C a s a l . d e n
S p a n i e r n belagert. (Della I s t o r i a di P. G. Capriata libri 12. ne q u a l i si
c o n t e n g o n o t u t t i i m o v i m e n t i d ' a r m e successi in I t a l i a d a l a. 1613-1634. - 25
B o l o g n a . 1639. Delle g u e r r e e successi d ' I t a l i a descritti d a l Cavai Luca
Assarini. T o r i n o . 1665.)

.) V o n 1630-1635.

Unterhandlung Frankreichs m. dem Kaiser. Als seit J u n i 1630 d e r K a i s e r


auf d e m C h u r f r s t e n t a g zu R e g e n s b u r g sich um d i e K a i s e r k r o n e f. seinen 30
P r i n z e n b e w a r b , n u t z t e Richelieu d a s M i v e r g n g e n d e r S t n d e u . d e n
e b e n d a m a l s erfolgten Einfall G u s t a v A d o l p h ' s i n D e u t s c h l a n d , u m
d u r c h die U n t e r h a n d l u n g e n des pre (capucin) J o s e p h F e r d i n a n d I I i m
O c t . 1630 zu e i n e m Vergleich w e g e n der italien. H n d e l zu verleiten, in
dessen F o l g e u. kraft des T r a c t a t s zu C h i e r a s c o m. S a v o y e n u. S p a n i e n - 35

80
PS*""

Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

Oestreich, - 13 Oct., 1631 - ||25| d e r K a i s e r d e n H e r z o g v. N e v e r s m.


M a n t u a u . M o n t f e r r a t belehnte, S a v o y e n m . e i n e m Strich L a n d e s a b g e -
funden, Valtelin a n G r a u b n d t e n z u r c k g e g e b e n , F r a n k r e i c h P i g n e r o l
behielt, d e n n o c h a b e r die b e z w e c k t e r m . K n i g s w a h l d a m a l s vereitelt,
5 selbst B a i e r n - M a i 1631 - in geh. B n d n i m. F r a n k r e i c h gezogen, i n d e
der K a i s e r Wallenstein u. einen Theil seiner T r u p p e n a b d a n k t e . [45-48]
Kriegsschicksale Deutschlands 1630 bis Schlacht bei Leipzig Sept. 7,
1631. B. P h . v. Chemnitz K g l . Schwed. in D t s c h . gefhrten K r i e g s etc.
1 Theil Stettin. 1632. a u c h latein. S t o c k h o l m . S a m . Puffendorf: c o m m . de
10 rebus Suecicis libri 26. (1630-1654) U l t r a j . 1686 fol. Mauvillon hist, de
G u s t a v e A d . A m s t . 1764.
25 Sept. 1629, schlit G u s t a v A d o l p h u n t e r F r a n k r e i c h s V e r m i t t l u n g
6jhrigen Waffenstillstand m. P o l e n , 24 Juni 1630 l a n d e t m. s. F l o t t e zu
R g e n , besezt K r a f t eines e r z w u n g n e n Vergleichs m . Bogislaus X I V P o m -
15 m e r n , befreit M e c k l e n b u r g , e r l a n g t v. F r a n k r e i c h n u r 13 J a n . 1631 ge-
schlonen S u b s i d i e n t r a k t a t . Sieg b e r Tilly 7Sept. 1631, bei L e i p z i g . . .
Gustav Adolf n a c h Tilly's T o d (5 A p r i l 1632) M n c h e n e r o b e r t , B a i e r n
besezt, n a c h Sachsen z u r c k gegen Wallenstein, Sieg bei L t z e n d e n
6 N o v . 1632, a b e r f. D i e K a i s e r l i c h e n a u s S a c h s e n verjagt, S c h w e d e n
20 rckten in D e u t s c h l a n d bis an dessen sdliche G r e n z e n u. selbst im E l s a
vor, v e r s t r k t d u r c h d e n 1633 z u H e i l b r o n n g e s c h l o n e n B u n d d e r o b e r n
Kreise, der u n t e r O x e n s t i e r n ' s D i r e c t i o n a n Z a h l u . M a c h t tglich w u c h s .
Unglckliche Schlacht, (durch Herzog Bernhard v. Weimar) bei Nrd-
lingen 7 Sept. 1634, w a n d t Kriegsglck gegen die S c h w e d e n u. seine Alli-
25 irten; Sachsen u. a n d r e S t n d e fielen n u n schnell v. d e m B u n d e ab . . .
Schon N o v . 1634 h a t t e , u n t e r D a r m s t a d t s Vermittlung, C h u r f r s t v .
Sachsen m . d e n K a i s e r l i c h e n ein P r l i m i n a r v e r t r a g z u P i r n a gez. Dieser
3 0 M a i , 1635 a u f n o c h h r t e r e B e d i n g u n g e n z u P r a g i n F r i e d e n v e r w a n -
delt. N a c h t h e i l i g d e n P r o t e s t a n t e n . D o c h m u t e n die meisten p r o t e s t .
30 Stnde beitreten.

) V o n 1635-1648.

a) Frankreichs Kriege ausser Deutschland. F r a n k r e i c h , d e m S c h w e d e n


u. die V e r b n d e t e n 1634 ihre E r o b r u n g e n im E l s a e i n g e r u m t , schickte
diesen vorerst n u r eine H l f s a r m e e am R h e i n u. negotiirte f. S c h w e d e n
35 einen verlngerten Waffenstillstand m. P o l e n zu Stumsdorf; selbst n a c h
einem B n d n i m . S c h w e d e n v o m A p r . 1635 u . Vertrag m . d e m H e r z o g
Bernhard v. W e i m a r wollte es in D e u t s c h l a n d n i c h t m. Oestreich b r e c h e n .

81
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

R i c h t e t seine H a u p t a b s i c h t wider S p a n i e n , 8 F e b r . 1635 B n d n i m. d e n


Vereinigten N i e d e r l a n d e n wegen F o r t s e t z u n g des K r i e g , d a n n K r i e g a n
S p a n i e n a n g e k n d i g t , July 1635 v e r b a n d sich m . S a v o y e n , M a n t u a ,
P a r m a , u m S p a n i e n M a i l a n d z u entreien. I n dieser A b s i c h t stellt F r a n k -
reich 5 A r m e e n ins F e l d , schickt 2 F l o t t e n in die N o r d s e e u. d a s mittel- 5
l n d i s c h e M e e r , u . zahlte o d . v e r s p r a c h grosse Subsidien. F h r t K r i e g :
In den Niederlanden u. an den Span. Grenzen: A r r a s e r o b e r t 1640, d a r -
auf Losreissung u. E m p r u n g Portugals. Spaniens Seemacht vollends
g e s c h w c h t n a c h Z e r s t r u n g der n a c h S c h w e d e n b e s t i m m t e n F l o t t e
d u r c h den H o l l n d i s c h e n A d m i r a l T r o m p 1639. 10
In Italien: Abfall der G r a u b n d t e r 1637 u. des H e r z o g s v. P a r m a ; T o d
des H e r z o g s V i c t o r A m a d e u s v. S a v o y e n 1637 v e r a n l a t e Streitigkeit,
n a c h d e n Siegen v. 1638 u. 39 Turin e r o b e r t , d u r c h d e n T u r i n e r Vergleich
v. 1642 ( J u n . 14 u. J u l . 1) die P r i n z e n v. S a v o y e n fzs. B u n d e s g e n o s s e n . So
fllt S p a n i e n s A n s e h n in Italien. 15
.) Fortsetzung des Kriegs in Deutschland. Sieg B a n n e r s u. W r a n g e i s bei
W i t t s t o c k Oct. 4, 1636. 1638 engre Offensiv- u. Defensiv-Allianz v.
F r a n k r e i c h u . Schweden, der die m . H e s s e n folgte. B a n n e r b e h a u p t e t
1637 P o m m e r n gegen G a l l a s , verfolgt 1638 die K a i s e r l i c h e n bis in B h -
m e n , spielt 1639 d e n K r i e g selbst in die kaiserlichen E r b l a n d e . [48-53] | 20
|26| ) Ende des Kriegs in Deutschland 1648. G u b r i a n t siegt m. H l f e des
H e r z o g s v. B r a u n s c h w e i g u. des L a n d g r a f e n v. H e s s e n d e n 29 J u n . 1641
bei Wolfenbttel u. d e n 17 J a n . 1642 bei K l o s t e r c a m p ; T o r s t e n s o n
23 Oct. 1642 bei Leipzig b e r P i c c o l o m i n i . . . F o r t s c h r i t t e 1645 v. Tor-
s t e n s o n m. R a k o t z y v e r b u n d e n in d a s H e r z d e r str. S t a a t e n u. Sieg 25
T u r e n n e s bei N r d l i n g e n . Seit d e m 10 A p r i l 1645 zu M n s t e r u. O s n a -
b r c k erffnete F r i e d e n s v e r h a n d l u n g e n : B a i e r n f. B r u c h derselben 1647,
1 4 M r z h a r t gezchtigt, w o r a u f m . U e b e r r u m p l u n g der kleinen Seite v .
Prag durch K n i g s m a r k der Krieg in Deutschland endigte. Jun. u.
Jul. 1648. 30
) Fortsetzung des Kriegs Frankreichs u. der Niederlnder gegen Spa-
nien. A u c h a n d e n s p a n . G r e n z e n u . i n d e n N i e d e r l a n d e n S p a n i e n s L a g e
i m m e r milicher. 1642 v. F r a n k r e i c h R o u s s i l l o n e r o b e r t , 1643 Sieg bei
R o c r o i d u r c h E n g h i e n u . C o n d , Thionville e r o b e r t , N i e d e r l n d e r halfen
d e n F r z s . d u r c h ihre S e e m a c h t die F l a n d r i s c h e n Seepltze e r o b e r n ; n a c h 35
der E i n n a h m e v . D n k i r c h e n 1646 k a n n S p a n i e n k e i n e weitre H l f e d e n
N i e d e r l a n d e n schicken.
) Frieden v. Mnster. N a c h 5jhrigen N e g o c i a t i o n e n u. v o r g n g i g e m
R e i c h s a b s c h i e d e , z u H a m b u r g d e n 2 5 D e c . 1641 ein P r l i m i n a i r v e r g l e i c h
w e g e n E r f f n u n g eines C o n g r e s s e s , d o c h erst den 23 M r z 1643 ratificirt 40
d e r F r i e d e n s c o n g r e s s z u M n s t e r u . O s n a b r c k i m A p r i l 1645 erffnet.

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Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

D o r t sollte f. K a i s e r u. R e i c h m. F r a n k r e i c h u n t e r V e r m i t t l u n g des P a b s t s
u . Venedigs, hier m . S c h w e d e n negotiirt w e r d e n . A u c h F r a n k r e i c h u . die
Niederlnder m. Spanien, Frankreich m. Lothringen, Spanien m. Por-
tugal u . C a t a l o n i e n . Z a h l r e i c h e r bisher kein F r i e d e n s c o n g r e beschickt.
5 3jhrige N e g o t i a t i o n e n .
Z u e r s t zu S t a n d e Friede zwischen Spanien u. Republik der Vereinigten
Niederlande zu M n s t e r . Am 30 J a n . 1648; die R a t i f i c a t i o n s 15 M a i a u s -
gewechselt. In diesem F r i e d e n : Art. 1 F r e i h e i t d e r R e p u b l i k d e r
Vereinigten N i e d e r l a n d e a n e r k a n n t . Art. 3. In A n s e h u n g d e r B e s i t z u n g e n
10 in- u. a u s s e r h a l b E u r o p a s d a s uti possidetis z u r G r u n d l a g e . Art. V u.
Vidas R e c h t des H a n d e l s in O s t - u. Westindien b e s t i m m t . Art. XIV.
Scheide d e m Seehandel d e r S p a n . N i e d e r l a n d e geschlossen erklrt.
Art. XVI. XVII. D e r R e p u b l i k der G e n u gleicher H a n d e l s r e c h t e m. d e n
H a n s e a t e n in S p a n i e n gesichert. Art. LUI. N e u t r a l i t t , F r e u n d s c h a f t u.
15 N a c h b a r s c h a f t v. Seiten des K a i s e r s u. des R e i c h s zu b e w i r k e n v e r s p r o -
chen. Art. LXVII R e g u l i r u n g der G r e n z e n in F l a n d e r n ausgesezt. In
einem S e p a r a t a r t i k e l a u c h wegen des n e u t r a l e n H a n d e l s A b r e d e getrof-
fen. E i n eigner M a r i n e v e r t r a g erst 1650 geschlossen. A r t . L U I . d e m
Kaiser zu Linz Juli 6 1648 u. v. d e m R e i c h im R e i c h s a b s c h i e d v. 1654
20 besttigt.
Mit Frankreich u. Schweden, Friedensinstrumente, zu M n s t e r u. O s n a -
b r c k , j e d e r in 17 A r t i k e l n am O c t . 24, 1648 u n t e r z e i c h n e t b e h a n d e l n die
Reichsangelegenheiten, die Satisfactions- u. Compensationspunkte, die
Vollziehung, die S i c h r u n g des F r i e d e n s u . Einschliessung a n d r e r M c h t e .
25 E n t h a l t e n im Bezug:
I.) Die Reichsangelegenheiten. Allgemeine Amnestie, j e d e r S t a n d f. sich
u. seine U n t e r t h a n e n in alle seit 1618 e i n g e b t e u n b e w e g l i c h e G t e r u.
W r d e n einzusetzen, m. einigen A u s n a h m e n f. B a d e n u. C h u r p f a l z wegen
der Oberpfalz u. der 5 C h u r s t e l l e , s o d a n n m. A u s s c h l u d e r U n t e r t h a n e n
30 der Ostreich. E r b l a n d e (Art. 2 - 4 O. 2 - 5 M . ) Religionsfrieden besttigt
(Art. 5 O. 6 M . ) , inbegriffen die R e f o r m i r t e n ( A r t . 7 O. 6 M . ) , Gleichheit
der R e c h t e beider Religionstheile bewilligt, in A n s e h u n g der R e l i g i o n s -
b u n g d a s J. 1624, in A n s e h u n g des Besitzes geistl. G t e r d e r 1 J a n . 1624
zwischen C a t h o l i k e n u . P r o t e s t a n t e n z u r e n t s c h e i d e n d e n N o r m a n g e -
35 n o m m e n , d o c h f. die Z u k u n f t d a s r e s e r v a t u m ecclesiasticum v o r b e h a l t e n .
(Art. 5 O. 6 M . ) D i e weltlichen V o r r e c h t e d e r S t n d e , s o w o h l bei R e i c h s -
v e r s a m m l u n g e n als i n i h r e n L a n d e n , i n R e g i e r u n g u n d Justiz, i n n e r n u .
auswrtigen A n g e l e g e n h e i t e n besttigt u. erweitert ( A r t . 8 O. 9 M . ) U n -
abhngigkeit der Schweiz a n e r k a n n t . ( A r t . 6 O. 8 M . ) H a n d e l u. W a n d e l
40 so frei hergesteilt, wie er v o r 1618 gewesen. ( A r t . 9 O. 10. M . )

83
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

II.) Satisfaction u. Compensation: Fr Schweden A b t r e t u n g v. Vor-


p o m m e r n nebst Insel R g e n , Theil v. H i n t e r p o r n m e r n , W i s m a r , E r z b i s -
t h u m B r e m e n u . B i s t h u m Verden, alles m . der R e i c h s s t a n d s c h a f t u . a n -
d r e n V o r r e c h t e n ( A r t . 1 0 . 0 . ) , a u s s e r d e m a u c h f. die Schwed. Miliz
5 Mill. T h a l e r . (Art. 16. O.) D a g e g e n e n t s c h d i g t f. diese Cessionen Chur- 5
Brandenburg d u r c h H a l b e r s t a d t , M i n d e n , C a m i n u. M a g d e b u r g ; Meck-
lenburg d u r c h Schwerin, R a t z e b u r g u. s. f.; Braunschweig-Lneburg d u r c h
d a s R e c h t der A b w e c h s l u n g auf O s n a b r c k u. einige K l s t e r ; Hessen-
Cassel d u r c h Hirschfeld, 4 A e m t e r u. 600 000 T h l r . (Art. 1 1 - 1 5 .) |
| 2 7 | Fr Frankreich: Vllige H o h e i t b e r M e t z , Toul, Verdun, n e b s t d e n 10
d a z u gehrigen D i s t r i k t e n , die L e h n s h o h e i t b e r P i g n e r o l u . Breisach,
u. w a s Oestreich im E l s a an R e c h t e n u. Besitzungen g e h a b t , v. Oestreich
u. d e m R e i c h m. vlliger S o u v e r a i n e t t a b g e t r e t e n , die R e c h t e u. R e i c h s -
freiheit d e r b r i g e n i m E l s a possessionirten S t n d e a b e r z w a r i n d e m
F r i e d e n s i n s t r u m e n t , d o c h nicht in der C e s s i o n s u r k u n d e gesichert; a u c h 15
d a s Besatzungsrecht in P h i l i p p s b u r g , u. die B e s t t i g u n g des F r i e d e n s zu
C h i e r a s k o z u m Besten v. Savoyen. (12, 12 M . )
III. A u s s e r d e m die Angelegenheiten einzelner R e i c h s s t n d e theils ent-
schieden, wie die M a r b u r g s c h e Succession, theils wie die Jlich u. Bergi-
sche E r b s c h a f t , der Streit wegen D o n a u w e r t h etc, a u f knftige Vergleiche 20
o d . E r k e n n t n i s s e ausgesezt.
IV. Vollziehung des Friedens. Eigne B e s t i m m u n g e n A r t . 16, 17. O. M.
D i e n o c h 1648 z u P r a g a n g e f a n g n e n u . z u N r n b e r g fortgesezten U n t e r -
h a n d l u n g e n u. 1649 u. 50 errichteten 2 E x e c u t i o n s - R e c e s s e k o n n t e n die
vllige Erfllung desselben nicht b e w i r k e n , so w e n i g wie die zu S i c h r u n g 25
desselben v . b e i d e n K r o n e n u . d e n g e s a m m t e n Paciscenten b e r n o m m n e
G a r a n t i e etc n a c h m a l i g e n Verletzungen v o r b e u g e n . S p a n i e n blieb m .
Frankreich u. Portugal u. Catalonien, Frankreich auch m. Lothringen
u n a u s g e s h n t . [53-63]

3.) 1648-1660. 30

In Frankreich L u d w i g X I V , Spanien P h i l i p p IV, Deutschland F e r d i -


n a n d I I I - 1 6 5 7 , L e o p o l d 1657-1705. England C a r l i - 1 6 4 9 , R e p u b l i k
1653-8, R i c h a r d C r o m w e l l - 1 6 5 9 , C a r l II 1660. Pbste: I n n o c e n z X .
1644-55. Alexander VII -1667.
Krieg zwischen Spanien u. Frankreich fortgesezt. J e n e m z u r Seite H e r - 35
z o g v . L o t h r i n g e n u . u n t e r der H a n d der K a i s e r , diesem ffentlich
Savoyen. Innre U n r u h e n in Frankreich Uebergang v. Turenne zu den
S p a n i e r n lenken seit 1649 das Kriegsglck in Italien, N i e d e r l a n d e n

84
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

u. G r e n z e n a u f s p a n . Seite, S p a n i e r b e d r o h e n 1650 P a r i s , 1652 e r o b e r n


C a t a l o n i e n m e h r e n t h e i l s wieder, e r o b e r n m . H l f e des P r i n z e n C o n d
R o c r o y , i n d e a u c h i n Italien die F r a n z o s e n C a s a l r u m e n m u t e n . Seit
1653 die i n n e r n U n r u h n g e d m p f t , T u r e n n e f. F r a n k r e i c h wieder, C r o m -
5 well n a c h 1654 hergestelltem F r i e d e n m. H o l l a n d d u r c h M a z a r i n 1655
z u m B r u c h wider S p a n i e n i n E u r o p a u . A m e r i c a v e r m o c h t , F r a n k r e i c h
9 M a i 1657 m. C r o m w e l l v e r b n d e t , d u r c h dessen B e i s t a n d die wichtig-
sten e r o b e r t e n Pltze in d e n N i e d e r l a n d e n f. F r a n k r e i c h wieder g e w o n -
nen, S p a n i e n z u r See d u r c h E n g l a n d , i n Italien d u r c h Savoy e n b e u n r u -
10 higt, d u r c h fzs. I n t r i g u e mittelst des R h e i n s c h e n B u n d s v. 1658 selbst d e r
H o f f n u n g teutscher H l f e b e r a u b t , m u t e e s F r i e d e n a u f B e d i n g u n g e n
suchen, die es zu M n s t e r , u. n o c h 1656 verworfen.
Pyrenischer Frieden. 1659. 7 M a i P r l i m i n a r f r i e d e zu P a r i s geschlos-
sen, a b e r erst d u r c h die 2 Staatsminister, M a z a r i n u. D. L o u i s de H a r o ,
15 den 7 N o v e m b e r a u f d e r F a s a n e n i n s e l in einen D e f i n i t i w e r t r a g in
124 Artikel verwandelt. D a r i n : Art. 26 E h e zwischen L u d w i g X I V u. M a -
ria Theresia, d e r ltsten T o c h t e r P h i l i p p ' s IV v e r a b r e d e t . Art. 35-40. 42
Frankreich n a h m betrchtliche Pltze in d e n N i e d e r l a n d e n , R o u s s i l l o n
u. Conflans. Art. 60. F r a n k r e i c h verspricht P o r t u g a l n i c h t zu u n t e r s t t -
20 zen. Art. 61 K n i g v. S p a n i e n resignirt auf alle R e c h t e a u f die im M n -
stershen F r i e d e n v . Oestreich a n F r a n k r e i c h a b g e t r e t n e n L n d e r .
Art. 62-78. L o t h r i n g e n sollte der H e r z o g bis a u f M o y e n w i c , B a r u. Cler-
m o n t wieder b e k o m m e n . Art. 82, 83. P r i n z v. C o n d zu G n a d e n aufge-
n o m m e n . Art. 91. 92. 97 Wegen S a v o y e n u. M o d e n a d e r Z u s t a n d v o r
25 d e m K r i e g hergestellt. Art. 108. F r i e d e v. Vervins a u c h w e g e n N a v a r r a
besttigt. Art. 2-25. a u s d r c k l i c h e B e s t i m m u n g e n b e r den H a n d e l , die
Infantin entsagte 1660 eidlich allem E r b r e c h t a u f d e n s p a n . T h r o n u.
beide K n i g e b e s c h w o r e n p e r s n l i c h d e n F r i e d e n a u f d e r Conferenzinsel.
Zwischen E n g l a n d u. S p a n i e n 11 Sept. 1660 blos d e r F r i e d e v. 1630
30 hergestellt u. publicirt. [63-66] (

|35| c.) Nordische Staatshndel. 1598-1660.

In Dnemark C h r i s t i a n IV 1588-1648. F r i e d r i c h I I I . 1648-1670. In


Schweden: C a r l I X 1 6 0 4 - 1 1 , G u s t a v A d o l p h - 1 6 3 2 , C h r i s t i n a - 1 6 5 4 ;
Carl G u s t a v - 1 6 6 0 . In Polen S i g i s m u n d 1587-1632, U l a d i s l a u s IV
35 1632-48, J o h a n n C a s i m i r 1648-1669. In Preussen: J o a c h i m F r i e d r i c h ,
Verweser, 1605-8, J o h a n n Sigismund - 1 6 2 0 , C h u r f r s t G e o r g W i l h e l m ,
regirender H e r z o g , - 1 6 4 0 . F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m 1640-1688. In Ruland:
Michael Feodorowitsch Romanow 1613-1645, Alexei 1645-1676.

85
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

a.) Von 1598-1645.

In Ruland das Haus Romanow auf den Thron. I n n r e U n r u h e n n a c h d e m


T o d v. F e o d o r I w a n o w i t s c h 1598, u. des Boris G u d e n o w 1605, b e s t i m m t e
ein Theil d e r russischen N a t i o n 1610, U l a d i s l a u s , P r i n z e n S i g i s m u n d s
v. P o l e n , ein a n d r e r C a r l Philipp v. Schweden z u m C z a r e n , a b e r da w e d e r 5
P o l e n n o c h S c h w e d e n , leztres n o c h i n e i n e m K r i e g gegen D n e m a r k
begriffen, den erst G u s t a v A d o l p h 1613 e n d e t e , diese W a h l sofort n a c h -
d r c k l i c h u n t e r s t z t e n , sezten die R u s s e n d u r c h freie W a h l den Neffen
F e o d o r ' s I w a n o w i t s c h , Prinz M i c h a e l F e o d o r o w i t s c h R o m a n o w , 1613
auf d e n T h r o n . 1614 beide m. e i n a n d e r entzweite K n i g e Waffenstill- 10
s t a n d , u m j e d e r u n g e s t r t auf R u l a n d loszugehn. M i c h a e l R o m a n o w
m u m. Schweden 1617, 27 F e b r . Frieden zu Stolbowa eingehn, w o r i n er
seine A n e r k e n n u n g erkauft d u r c h A b t r e t u n g der Besitzungen i n Inger-
m a n l a n d u . Carelen, s o d a R u l a n d wieder alle u n m i t t e l b a r e C o m m u -
n i c a t i o n m. d e r Ostsee verlor. E r k a u f t a u c h v. P o l e n seine A n e r k e n n u n g 15
n u r in d e m zu Diwilina 1618 g e s c h l o n e n 14jhrigen Waffenstillstand
( D e c . 11) gegen A u f o p f r u n g v. Smolensk, C z e r n i c h o v i e n u n d Severien.
Als 1633 d e r K r i e g gen U l a d i s l a u s erneuert, in d e n ewigen F r i e d e n zu
W i a z m a , 15 J u n . 1634, e b e n diese B e d i n g u n g e n in der H a u p t s a c h e er-
neuert. 20
Kriege Schwedens m i t Polen bis 1629 Waffenstillstand zu S t u m m
f. 6 J., d a n n wieder 1635 zu S t u m s t o r f f. 26 J., d e r 20 J. b e s t a n d e n h a t .
1643 bricht S c h w e d e n r a s c h gegen D n e m a r k los, T o r s t e n s o n e r o b e r t
die meisten d n i s c h e n Besitzungen auf d e m festen L a n d ; H o r n besezt
S c h o n e n , H a l l a n d u. Bleckingen -; z u r See leistete der H o l l n d e r L u d . de 25
G e e r Beistand, D n e m a r k gezwungen in d e m zu Bremsebroe 13 Aug.
1645 u n t e r fzs. Vermittl. geschlonen F r i e d e n , Art. I-XV d e n Schweden
die gnzliche Befreiung v o m Sundzoll e i n z u r u m e n , Art. XXV. ihnen
J e m p t e l a n d , Herjedahlen, G o t h l a n d u. Oesel a b z u t r e t e n , Art. XXVI u.
XXVII H a l l a n d v o r e r s t a u f 30 J. als U n t e r p f a n d des F r i e d e n s in ihren 30
H n d e n z u lassen.

b.) Von 1645-1660.

( M m o i r e s du Chevalier de Terlon p a r r e n d r e c o m p t e de ses n e g o t i a t i o n s


d e p u i s 1 6 5 6 - 6 1 . P a r i s . 1681. T. I. II.)
Als 1655 Carl Gustav d e n K n i g J o h a n n C a s i m i r v. P o l e n z u r form- 35
liehen A n e r k e n n u n g m. d e n Waffen zwingen wollte, E r o b r u n g e n in Polen

86
Aus Georg Friedrich von Martens: Grundri einer diplomatischen Geschichte

g e m a c h t , u . d e m m . den S t n d e n des p o l n i s c h e n P r e u s s e n s v e r b n d e t e n
Churfrsten v. B r a n d e n b u r g 1656 z u r A n e r k e n n u n g schwedischer L e h n s -
hoheit u. zu B n d n i s s e n genthigt:
Grosse Coalition wider Schweden: Holland schickt F l o t t e in die Ostsee,
5 die D n e m a r k v e r s t r k t , u. S c h w e d e n z u m Vertrag v. Elbingen 1656
zwingt. Ruland b r a c h n a c h 1656 g e s c h l o n e n Waffenstillstand m. P o l e n
gegen S c h w e d e n los. Polen v e r b n d e t sich m. K a i s e r u n d D n e m a r k 1657
wider Schweden, w o r a u f Dnemark 1657 w i d e r S c h w e d e n l o s b r a c h ,
u. v. Schwedens einzigen 2 Alliirten, F r s t R a g o c z i u. C h u r f r s t v. B r a n -
10 d e n b u r g , jener geschlagen, dieser a b e r sezte sich m. Polen d u r c h d e n
Tractat zu Welau 1657, w o d u r c h er die S o u v e r a i n e t t Preussens e r l a n g t e ,
w o r a u f e r sich z u B y d g o s t m i t P o l e n , n a c h m a l s a u c h m . D n e m a r k
u. Oestreich wider S c h w e d e n v e r b n d e t e . | [67-71]

87
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

|63| G. H. Francis.
Opinions and Policy of etc Palmerston.
(London 1852)
l
Henry John Temple, 3 Viscount of Palmerston etc (his title f r o m t h e peer-
age o f Ireland.) H i s o w n i m m e d i a t e family n o t e n o b l e d until t h e
y e a r 1722.
G e b . 20 O c t o b . 1784. In t h e early p a r t of 1806, w h e n t h e f o r m a t i o n of
t h e Grenville a d m i n i s t r a t i o n obliged L o r d H e n r y Petty, w h o h a d t a k e n
office as C h a n c e l l o r of t h e E x c h e q u e r , to a p p e a l to his c o n s t i t u e n t s , L o r d
P a l m e r s t o n , t h e n little m o r e t h a n 2 1 J., c o n t e s t e d m . i h m die representa-
t i o n der University of C a m b r i d g e , did n o t t h e n succeed. Very s o o n after-
w a r d s entered P a r l i a m e n t f. d e n b o r o u g h (rotten) of Bletchingley.
1807, o n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e D u k e o f P o r t l a n d ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , L o r d
P a l m e r s t o n . . . L o r d of the A d m i r a l t y . On t h e 3 F e b r u a r y , 1808, (24 J.) he
s p o k e briefly i n o p p o s i t i o n t o M r . P o n s o n b y ' s m o t i o n for t h e p r o d u c t i o n
o f p a p e r s , t o s h o w the g r o u n d s o n w h i c h t h e t h e n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a d
advised H . M . t o e m p l o y his n a v a l a n d military forces i n t h e expedition
a g a i n s t C o p e n h a g e n . In 1809 wird Secretary at War, on t h e r e s i g n a t i o n
of L o r d C a s t l e r e a g h of t h a t office. (26 J. alt) Blieb Secretary at W a r bis
1828. " H e h a d c o m m e n c e d fulfilling its functions u n d e r M r . Percival,
a n d h e c o n t i n u e d t o d o s o d u r i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the E a r l o f
Liverpool, M. Canning, Lord Goderich a n d the D u k e of Wellington."
(also consistently a m e m b e r of Tory a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ) Er n e n n t C a n n i n g
no friend of P a r l i a m e n t a r y R e f o r m . H i s g o o d t e m p e r a l m o s t p r o v e r b i a l in
t h e H . o . C . I n M a y , u n t e r der Wellington A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w e g e n A u s -
tritt des H u s k i s s o n m i t d e m D o w n f a l l d e r Wellington A d m i n i s t r a t i o n v .
d e n W h i g s P a l m e r s t o n m a d e Secretary of S t a t e for F o r e i g n Affairs. Blieb
es bis December 1851. (His j u n c t i o n m. d e n W h i g s in 1830) A l s o r e s p o n -
sible fr die F o r e i g n Policy v o n the accession of G r e y in 1830 bis Sir R.

88
Aus George Henry Francis: Opinions and policy of Palmerston

Peel in 1841 (mit exception des interval b e t w e e n N o v e m b e r 1834 u.


April 1835). Between 1841 u. 46 P a l m e r s t o n in o p p o s i t i o n . . . . [VIII-XX] In
this p a r t i c u l a r case, H. M . ' s ministers a r e p l e d g e d to secrecy; b u t I also
object generally to making public the working of diplomacy, because it is
5 the t e n d e n c y of disclosures in t h a t d e p a r t m e n t to s h u t up future sources
of i n f o r m a t i o n . W i t h respect to t h e p r e s e n t expedition, it is defensible on
the g r o u n d t h a t t h e e n o r m o u s p o w e r o f F r a n c e e n a b l e s h e r t o coerce t h e
weaker state t o b e c o m e a n e n e m y o f E n g l a n d . . . D a h e r w e h a v e n o t b e e n
guilty of a violation of t h e law of n a t i o n s (1). It is a d m i t t e d by t h e
10 H o n . G e n t l e m a n a n d his s u p p o r t e r s , t h a t if D e n m a r k h a d evidenced a n y
hostility t o w a r d s this c o u n t r y , t h e n we s h o u l d h a v e b e e n justified in meas-
ures of retaliation. H o w t h e n is the case altered, w h e n we find D e n m a r k
acting u n d e r t h e c o e r c i o n of a p o w e r n o t o r i o u s l y hostile to us? (2.) E n g -
land, a c c o r d i n g to t h a t law of self-preservation w h i c h is a f u n d a m e n t a l
15 principle of the law of n a t i o n s , is justified in securing, a n d therefore
enforcing, from D e n m a r k a n e u t r a l i t y w h i c h F r a n c e w o u l d b y c o m -
pulsion h a v e c o n v e r t e d i n t o active hostility. ( O n Ponsonby's motion on
the Expedition to Copenhagen, Februar, 3, 1808) [3]
Is there t h e n , a n y serious g r o u n d for a p p r e h e n s i o n for t h e liberties of
20 the c o u n t r y , w h e n we k n o w t h a t t h e n u m b e r of foreigners in our service is
limited by law to the n u m b e r of 16,000, a n d t h a t of these the far larger
p r o p o r t i o n are e m p l o y e d a b r o a d ? (Motion with respect to Foreigners in
the Brit. Army, Marchio, 1812) Ebenso Dec. 10, 1812, bei Lord Folke-
stone's motion respecting the King's German Legion. [5]
25 A l t h o u g h I wish t h e C a t h o l i c claims to be considered, I never will
admit t h o s e claims to s t a n d u p o n t h e g r o u n d [6] of r i g h t . . . the legislature
of a c o u n t r y h a s t h e right to i m p o s e s u c h political disabilities u p o n a n y
class of the c o m m u n i t y , as it m a y d e e m necessary for t h e safety a n d t h e
welfare o f t h e w h o l e . . . D i e g e h r t z u d e n f u n d a m e n t a l principles o n
30 which a civilised g o v e r n m e n t is f o u n d e d . If I t h o u g h t t h e C a t h o l i c s w e r e
asking for their rights, I, for o n e , w o u l d n o t go i n t o t h e c o m m i t t e e .
(Mr. Grantham's Motion for a Committee on the Claims of the Roman
Catholics, March 1, 1813) ||64| P u t t i n g this q u e s t i o n , h o w e v e r , entirely on
the round of expediency, I c a n n o t c o n c u r w i t h t h o s e w h o t h i n k t h a t t h e y
35 have p r o v e d the expediency of c o n t i n u i n g t h e C a t h o l i c Disabilities n o w ,
by showing t h a t they were necessary in t h e times w h e n t h e y w e r e origin-
ally imposed. (1. c.) [7]
Vertheidigt d e n large s t a n d i n g d e r Landarmee in E n g l a n d . . . In t h e
very C o n s t i t u t i o n of o u r A r m y , t h e r e is a sufficient p r o t e c t i o n of t h e
40 Constitution . . . a large p r o p o r t i o n of t h e officers w h o c o m m a n d in it a r e
identified by their p r o p e r t y , their c o n n e c t i o n s , a n d general interests, w i t h

89
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

the civil p r o s p e r i t y of the state. (Debate on the Army Estimates.


March 8, 1816.) [12-14] I believe m u c h of o u r financial e m b a r r a s s m e n t
to h a v e been c a u s e d by o u r f o r m e r low Peace establishments. (Lord
G. Cavendish's motion for a reduction of the Public Expenditure April, 25,
1816) [14] " " 5
I l a m e n t as deeply as t h e h o n . g e n t l e m a n t h e burdens of the country;
b u t it s h o u l d be recollected t h a t they were t h e price w h i c h we agreed to
p a y for o u r f r e e d o m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . (Colon. Davies' motion on the
Military Expenditure of the Country. May 16, 1820.) [16] If t h e r e are a n y
set of m e n w h o could drive a g o v e r n m e n t to military d e s p o t i s m it is t h o s e 10
selfcalled, b u t misled reformers, w h o d e m a n d t h a t sort of r e f o r m in t h e
c o u n t r y , which, a c c o r d i n g to every j u s t principle of gov., m u s t e n d , if it
were acceded t o , in a military despotism. (Debate on the Mutiny bill.
June 14, 1820.) [17]
S o m e w o u l d h a v e h a d us use t h r e a t s in n g o c i a t i o n , w i t h o u t being 15
p r e p a r e d t o g o t o w a r i f ngociation failed. T o h a v e t a l k e d o f w a r , a n d t o
h a v e m e a n t neutrality: t o h a v e t h r e a t e n e d a n a r m y , a n d t o h a v e r e t r e a t e d
b e h i n d a state p a p e r , to h a v e b r a n d i s h e d t h e s w o r d of defiance in t h e
h o u r of deliberation, a n d to h a v e e n d e d in a penful of p r o t e s t s on t h e d a y
of battle, w o u l d h a v e been the c o n d u c t of a c o w a r d l y bully, a n d w o u l d 20
h a v e m a d e u s the object o f c o n t e m p t a n d the l a u g h i n g stock o f E u r o p e .
(Debate on Mr. Macdonald's motion resp. the Negoc. relat. to Spain.
April 30, 1823) [20]
C u m p r i n c i p i a n e g a n t i n o n est d i s p u t a n d u m : o f w h a t use i s i t t o
dwell u p o n a b s t r a c t principles with t h o s e (Despotic Governments) w h o 25
are accused of m e a s u r i n g r i g h t by p o w e r a n d of ruling their c o n d u c t by
expediency, a n d n o t by justice? (I.e.) [21]
Vertheidigt die nicht interference m. Spanien. (April 30, 1823. I.e.) "If
S p a i n is divided, o u r interference is, on principle q u e s t i o n a b l e ; if she is
u n i t e d , o u r interference is u n n e c e s s a r y . " (I.e.) We m i g h t h a v e c o v e r e d the 30
o c e a n s with o u r ships; w e m i g h t h a v e b l o c k a d e d every p o r t i n E u r o p e ;
b u t unless t h o s e ships h a d b e e n e m p l o y e d t o c a r r y a n a r m y t o Spain, a n d
to feed t h a t a r m y w i t h supplies, we s h o u l d only h a v e i n c u r r e d a loss of
m o n e y a n d of c h a r a c t e r , by m a k i n g a v a i n p a r a d e of assistance so i n a p -
plicable a n d i n a p p r o p r i a t e . (1. c.) [25, 26] 35
Vertheidigt die Prgelstrafe in der A r m e e . (Debate on the Mutiny bill.
March 5, 1824.) [28, 29]
I regret to see t h e increasing n u m b e r of t h e D i s s e n t e r s . It is my wish
t h a t the Established C h u r c h s h o u l d b e the p r e d o m i n a n t o n e i n this c o u n -
try. [29] (Debate on the building of new churches. April, 9, 1824). W i t h the 40
C h u r c h of E n g l a n d it is the p o o r alone w h o feel t h e w a n t of C h u r c h

90
Aus George Henry Francis: Opinions and policy of Palmerston

a c c o m o d a t i o n . . . i t w o u l d b e p r e p o s t e r o u s t o say t h a t t h e p o o r o u g h t t o
subscribe for c h u r c h e s o u t of their small e a r n i n g s . (1. c.) [30]
C o r p o r a l P u n i s h m e n t . . . is absolutely indispensable. (Debate on the
Mutiny bill. March 11, 1825.) [33]
5 A l t h o u g h s o m e collision (zu N a v a r i n o ) m i g h t h a v e b e e n expected a n d
a p p r e h e n d e d as likely to arise, in s o m e w a y or o t h e r , between the fleets of
the several p o w e r s , n o such c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s a s t h a t w h i c h
led to u l t i m a t e hostilities c o u l d h a v e b e e n foreseen. It w a s therefore a
collision entirely u n e x p e c t e d b y G o v . . . . t r o t z d e m A d m i r a l gelobt. K e i n e
10 censure passed u p o n h i m etc. [37, 38] (Debate on the change of ministry
Jan. 29, 1828) ( D e r A d m i r a l : Sir E d w a r d C o d r i n g t o n . ) t h e collision a r o s e
o u t o f " u n t o w a r d " circumstances, a n d t e n d e d t o i n t e r r u p t the n g o c i a -
tions. (I.e.) [40] N o w this battle, h o w e v e r m e r i t o r i o u s l y t h e gallant A d m i -
ral m a y h a v e c o n d u c t e d himself, d i d t a k e p l a c e (die Schlacht (battle) of
15 N a v a r i n ) , "it m u s t be a d m i t t e d , against a p o w e r w i t h w h i c h we a r e n o t at
war". (Debate on the Address. Januar, 31, 1828). [41, 42]
I am a w a r m a n d z e a l o u s friend to religious liberty . . . Es w r e unjust
t o w a r d s t h e C a t h o l i c s as to r e m o v e f r o m o t h e r s , (nmlich den Dissenters)
or mitigate, an i m a g i n a r y grievance, while real inflictions press u p o n
20 them. D a h e r er gegen Russells motion ||65| Repeal of Test and Corporations
Acts. Voted against. (Russell's motion. Febr. 26, 1828) [54, 57]
Vertheidigt F l o g g i n g in t h e A r m y . (Debate on Mutiny Bill. March 10,
1828) [57-59]
Seine R e a s o n s for a p p r o v i n g Sale of Commissions, (in d e r engl.
25 A r m e e ) . . . t h e object for which m e n of f o r t u n e invest their capital in
these annuities i s t o o b t a i n p r o m o t i o n . A m a j o r w h o h a s a half-pay
commission, sells it to a c a p t a i n on full-pay; t h e c a p t a i n t h e n b e c o m e s a
major on half-pay u. d a n n l o o k s o u t i m m e d i a t e l y for a full-pay m a j o r
desirous of retiring, w i t h w h o m he m a y effectuate an exchange. (Debate
30 on Army Promotions. March 12, 1828) [61]
Resignirt E n d e M a i 1828. ( G r n d e seiner R e s i g n a t i o n . H u s k i s s o n
June 2, 1828.) [64-69] We h e a r these p e r s o n s t a l k i n g of cleansing t h e
A u g e a n stable? of expelling t r a i t o r s f r o m the c a m p ? (1. c.) [72]
I am a n x i o u s to express my desire t h a t t h e franchise s h o u l d be extend-
35 ed to a g r e a t t o w n , n o t b e c a u s e I am a friend to reform in principle, but
because I am its decided enemy ... A b e r p r a c t i c a l evil w h i c h results f r o m
large m a n u f a c t u r i n g interests . . . being n o t r e p r e s e n t e d . . . (places as Bir-
mingham, Leeds, or M a n c h e s t e r , w i t h a large p o p u l a t i o n , is u n r e p r e -
sented, while a green m o u n d of e a r t h sends 2 m e m b e r s to this h o u s e . I
40 admit, t h a t it is b e t t e r to s u b m i t to t h e inconsistency, t h a n to allow of the
introduction of general reform. (June 27, 1828) [74, 75]

91
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n . . . a m e a s u r e of grace a n d f a v o u r . (Feb-
ruary 10, 1829. Debate on Suppression of the Catholic Association.)
M a c h t sich als Vertheidiger der k a t h o l . E m a n z i p a t i o n sehr m a u s i g w h -
r e n d d e r D e b a t t e n v . 1829. Sucht z u beweisen, d a " O t h e r remedies t h a n
E m a n c i p a t i o n for Irish evils i m p o s s i b l e " u. "If a b s e n t e e i s m is an evil, 5
C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n is its only c u r e " . . . poorlaws w e r d e n sie n o c h
i m p r o v i d e n t e r m a c h e n , r e d u n d a n t p o p u l a t i o n b e f r d e r n . (March 18,
1829.) [99, 100]
Er " o p p o s e s disfranchisement of 40 shilling v o t e r s " , weil diese bill p r o -
p o s e d m e h r in the spirit of p u n i s h m e n t t h a n of p e a c e . (March 19, 1829) 10
[104]
Gegen Irish Poor Law: t h e effect of the p o o r l a w s is to t a k e f r o m a
certain class of producers part of the p r o d u c e of their i n d u s t r y , a n d to
a p p l y it against their will, to t h e s u p p o r t of o t h e r p e r s o n s . T h e c o n -
sequence of this is a d i m i n u t i o n of c a p i t a l . . . c h e c k t h e career of c o m - 15
mereiai i m p r o v e m e n t . . . T h e English system o f p o o r l a w s . . . p r o c e e d s o n
t h e m i s t a k e n principle, t h a t y o u can m u l t i p l y c a p i t a l a c c o r d i n g t o the
w a n t s o f t h o s e w h o are n o t e m p l o y e d i n l a b o u r . . . . I t i s t r u e , t h a t t h e
p e a s a n t r y of I r e l a n d do n o t enjoy all the comforts w h i c h are enjoyed by
t h e p e a s a n t r y of E n g l a n d . . . . Still, however, the Irish p e a s a n t h a s his 20
c o m f o r t s h e is well supplied w i t h fuel, a n d is seldom at a loss for food
. . . cheerfulness of m i n d besizt er . . . It is said, t h a t t h e Irish l a n d l o r d
insists on the highest possible rent that can be extorted. W h y , Sir, I believe
t h a t is n o t a singular circumstance. A n d certainly in E n g l a n d t h e l a n d -
l o r d does the s a m e thing. ( M a y 7, 1829) [108-111] 25
Portugal, sagt er, d a (dieweil die G o v . d e n D o m M i g u e l u n t e r s t t z e ,
"this d e s t r o y e r of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f r e e d o m " ) if t h e G o v . h a v e deserved t h e
c e n s u r e of P a r l i a m e n t , t h a t censure m a y be a w a r d e d . (Sir J. Mackin-
tosh's Motion on the affairs of Portugal, June 1, 1829) If by "interference",
is m e a n t i n t e r m e d d l i n g , a n d i n t e r m e d d l i n g in every w a y , a n d to every 30
extent, s h o r t of a c t u a l military force; t h e n I m u s t affirm, t h a t t h e r e is
n o t h i n g i n such interference, w h i c h t h e law o f n a t i o n s m a y n o t i n certain
cases p e r m i t . (1. c.) [112-114] M a c h t sich sehr m a u s i g gegen D o m Miguel.
(Angriff gegen die Wellington A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Aberdeen)
Greece. H a s there b e e n m u c h m o r e energy a n d p r o m p t i t u d e in fulfil- 35
ling o u r e n g a g e m e n t s to Greece? July, 1829, is c o m i n g fast u p o n us, a n d
t r e a t y of July, 1827, is still u n e x e c u t e d . . . T h e M o r e a , indeed, h a s been
cleared o f the T u r k s . . . B u t w h y were the a r m s o f F r a n c e c h e c k e d a t the
I s t h m u s o f C o r i n t h ? . . . t h e n a r r o w policy o f E n g l a n d s t e p p e d in, a n d
arrested h e r progress. . . . B u t w h y do n o t t h e allies deal w i t h t h e c o u n t r y 40
n o r t h o f t h e I s t h m u s , a s they h a v e d o n e w i t h t h a t t o t h e S o u t h , a n d

92
Aus George Henry Francis: Opinions and policy of Palmerston

occupy at o n c e all ||66| t h a t w h i c h m u s t be assigned to G r e e c e ? . . . I


should h a v e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e allies h a d e n o u g h o f n e g o c i a t i n g w i t h Tur-
key a b o u t G r e e c e . . . . I h o p e the c o n s t i t u t i o n (fr r e g e n e r a t e d Greece)
will b e o f L o n d o n a n d P a r i s m a n u f a c t u r e , a n d n o t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a n y
5 artist in a c a p i t a l n e a r e r to G r e e c e . ( H . o. C. June 1. 1829) [123-126]
Angriff auf Austria by t h e n a r r o w n e s s of her views, the u n f o r t u n a t e p r e -
judices of h e r policy, a l m o s t r e d u c e d h e r s e l f . . . to t h e level of a second-
rate p o w e r . . . . E n g l a n d d a s Gegentheil, a b e r jezt: " s h e is r e p r e s e n t e d as
the key-stone of t h a t a r c h of which Miguel, a n d Spain, and Austria, and
10 Mahmoud, are t h e c o m p o n e n t p a r t s . T i m e w a s , a n d t h a t b u t lately, w h e n
E n g l a n d w a s r e g a r d e d b y E u r o p e a s t h e friend o f liberty a n d civilisa-
tion. . . . it is t h u s t h a t they (people) see in t h e delay in executing t h e t r e a t y
of July, n o t so m u c h fear of T u r k i s h resistance, as invincible r e p u g n a n c e
to G r e c i a n f r e e d o m . " (June 11, 1829) [127-129]
15 I object to t h e policy of m a k i n g t h e integrity of t h e T u r k i s h d o m i n i o n s
in E u r o p e an object essentially necessary to t h e interests of C h r i s t i a n a n d
civilised E u r o p e . . . W a s t h e r e n o alternative b e t w e e n p u t t i n g R u s s i a i n t o
possession of Turkey, a n d t h e cessation of t h e existence of T u r k e y as an
E u r o p e a n p o w e r ? . . . G o v . s h o u l d h a v e used all m e a n s t o i n d u c e T u r k e y
20 to avoid a c o n t e s t w h i c h m u s t finally e n d in h e r h u m i l i a t i o n . (Debate on
the Address, Febr. 5, 1830) T h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e G r e e k p o w e r s h o u l d be
not merely sufficient to realise a revenue, b u t to p r o t e c t its territories
from the r e a c t i o n of T u r k i s h hostility. (I.e.) [131-133]
I t i s perfectly t r u e t h a t the w a r (between R u s s i a a n d Turkey) a r o s e o u t
25 of aggressions m a d e by T u r k e y on the c o m m e r c e a n d rights of R u s s i a ,
and violations o f treaties a l r e a d y a l l u d e d t o , a n d t h a t t h e s u b s e q u e n t
H a t t i Scheriff w a s issued before t h e p r e s e n t G o v . c a m e i n t o P o w e r . . . . I ,
for one, shall n o t be satisfied w i t h [seeing] a n u m b e r of d e s p a t c h e s f r o m
the G o v . o f E n g l a n d , w h i c h will n o d o u b t r e a d well a n d s m o o t h e n o u g h ,
30 urging, in general t e r m s , t h e p r o p r i e t y of conciliating R u s s i a , b u t a c c o m -
panied, p e r h a p s , b y s t r o n g expressions o f t h e r e g a r d w h i c h E n g l a n d b o r e
t o Turkey, which, w h e n r e a d b y a n interested p a r t y , m i g h t easily a p p e a r
to m e a n m o r e t h a n w a s really i n t e n d e d . . . . I s h o u l d like to see, t h a t
whilst E n g l a n d a d o p t e d a firm r e s o l u t i o n a l m o s t the o n l y c o u r s e she
35 could a d o p t u p o n no consideration, a n d in no event to t a k e p a r t w i t h
Turkey i n t h a t w a r ; t h a t t h a t Decision w a s fairly a n d frankly c o m m u n i -
cated to t h e T u r k s . (Debate on the settlement of Greece. Febr. 16, 1830)
[136,137] h a d she E n g l a n d t a k e n the h o n o u r a b l e a n d u p r i g h t c o u r s e ,
hostilities w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n c o n t i n u e d in so recent a p e r i o d . (I.e.)
40 there are 3 merciless t h i n g s t i m e , fire, a n d t h e S u l t a n . . . as we excited
the w a r i n C a n d a , w e are b o u n d t o p r o t e c t t h e C a n d i a n s . . . b y m a k i n g

93
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

t h e m a p a r t of the G r e e k state. (I.e.) My R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e friend (Sir


R o b . Peel) h a s told the H o u s e that he does not know whose representative
I am. (1. c.) G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d either m a k e its s t a n d on a denial of a n y
i n f o r m a t i o n w h a t e v e r , or they o u g h t to give it in its fullest s h a p e ; for to
give imperfect i n f o r m a t i o n t o m u t i l a t e e x t r a c t s t o offer fragments of 5
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e from w h i c h the m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t s h a v e been left o u t ,
is to m a k e a m o c k e r y of P a r l i a m e n t , u n d e r p r e t e n c e of s u b m i t t i n g to
its jurisdiction. (Motion on the affairs of Portugal. March 10, 1830)
[138-144]
T h e r e is n o t h i n g so m y s t e r i o u s or difficult in o u r foreign relations as 10
t h a t a n y m a n m i g h t n o t g r a p p l e with t h e m , w h o c a m e t o the c o n s i d e r a -
t i o n of t h e subject with an o r d i n a r y s h a r e of intelligence. T h e time is p a s t
a w a y i s g o n e by w h e n d i p l o m a c y w a s an occult science. (Palmerston's
motion on the affairs of Portugal. March 10, 1830.) [147]
T h e P o w e r s of E u r o p e a n d E n g l a n d especially, h a v e n o t o n l y a right 15
b u t a r e bound to see, t h a t by no s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n Belgium and Holland
shall the ancient territory of Holland be prejudiced. (Febr. 18, 1831) the
d u c h y of L u x e m b o u r g is claimed by Belgium. A b e r L u x e m b u r g g e h r t
z u m D e u t s c h e n B u n d . D a h e r d a r f Belgium nicht enter. (I.e.) [157] Parlia-
mentsreform. ( N u n dafr, Debate on Reform. H. o. C. March 3, 1831) 20
[160] t h e landed interest is t h e great f o u n d a t i o n u p o n w h i c h rest t h e fabric
of society, a n d the institutions of the c o u n t r y . (1. c.) [172] D e m E i n w u r f
Peel's " t h a t the R e f o r m bill will d e s t r o y t h e influence of the H. o. L . " ,
weil peers shall n o t interfere in election, P a l m e r s t o n a n t w o r t e t . . . we h a v e
b e e n c h a r g e d with n o t being in e a r n e s t or sincere, in o u r desire to give to 25
the p e o p l e a real r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , it w a s said, we only p r o p o s e d to give a
different k i n d o f influence t o t h e aristocracy a n d t h e l a n d e d interest. T h e
o p p o n e n t s o f the Bill m u s t a b a n d o n o n e o r o t h e r o f t h o s e a r g u m e n t s .
( H . o. C. March 24, 1831) [177] |
I [67] I D u r c h die bills t h e feelings of t h e m i d d l e classes will be c h a n g e d , 30
a n d their dissatisfaction will be c o n v e r t e d into t h e a t t a c h m e n t to the
c o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h will give to it a vast increase of s t r e n g t h a n d solidity.
(I.e.) [179]
V o n P a l m e r s t o n gilt, w a s e r v . M r . C r o k e r sagte: " E v e r y b o d y k n o w s
t h a t he is an exceedingly h a p p y j o k e r h a p p y s o m e t i m e s in his self-sat- 35
i s f a c t i o n a n d while he confines himself to the light a n d c o m i c strain, he
m a k e s himself agreeable t o e v e r y b o d y ; b u t h e m u s t n o t a t t e m p t t o o m u c h
versatility; he m a y be a g o o d s t a t e s m a n of all w o r k , b u t I assure h i m t h a t
he is n o t a g o o d a c t o r of all w o r k , a n d in his a t t e m p t s at t h e heroic, he is
apt to confound pathos with bathos, and to overleap the narrow bounds 40
between the sublime a n d t h e r i d i c u l o u s . " I r e c o m m e n d h i m "To leave
h i g h t r a g e d y a n d stick to farce". (Aug. 12, 1831) [182]

94
Aus George Henry Francis: Opinions and policy of Palmerston

If the H o u s e is to interfere with, a n d c o n t r o l t h o s e n e g o t i a t i o n s (rela-


ting of K r i e g u. F r i e d e n ) , it were, in fact a n d effect, t a k e t h e c a r e of t h e
public interests entirely o u t o f t h e h a n d s o f t h e s e r v a n t s o f t h e C r o w n .
(Aug. 18, 1831) [188]
5 I d e n y t h a t we h a v e s e p a r a t e d ourselves in a n y degree f r o m R u s s i a , b u t
w e h a v e g o n e h a n d i n h a n d w i t h h e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e o f these
proceedings . . . A r e ministers n o w t o t u r n r o u n d u p o n R u s s i a , a n d
exclaim " N o w . . . Belgium i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m H o l l a n d , y o u m u s t p a y u s
b a c k t h a t m o n e y , which, i n the simplicity o f o u r h e a r t s , w a s p a i d y o u . "
10 (Debate on Russian-Dutch Loan, Jan. 26, 1832.) [191]
M o r e f o r b e a r a n c e is d u e t h a n m i g h t be, were the forces of the 2 p o w e r s
a p p r o a c h i n g n e a r e r t o a n equalitiy. D a h e r nicht grssere p o w e r a n -
g e w a n d t gegen Brazils f. die claims of o u r c o u n t r y m e n . (Debate on
Mr. Dixon's motion on the Brazilian captures. April 16, 1832) the
15 Brazilian G o v . h a s been compelled to a d m i t t h e principle of i n d e m n i t y .
(1. c.) Disfranchisement... is t h e chief and leading principle of the ( R e f o r m )
bill. Dies w e g e n U l t i m a t u m d e r M i n i s t e r n a c h i h r e m Verwerfen.
(May 14,1832) [197-199]
Poland, t h o u g h G r e a t Britain, as o n e of the c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s , h a d an
20 u n d o u b t e d right to express an opinion on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d i n t e r p r e -
tation o f t h a t (Vienna) t r e a t y ; yet, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h a t t r e a t y did n o t
impose i m m e d i a t e a n d peculiar obligations on this c o u n t r y . (Mr. C. Fer-
gusson's motion with respect to Poland, June 28, 1832) to e x t e r m i n a t e
Poland, either m o r a l l y or p o l i t i c a l l y . . . it is so perfectly i m p r a c t i c a b l e
25 that I t h i n k there n e e d be no a p p r e h e n s i o n of its being a t t e m p t e d . (1. c.)
[201,202]
I t w o u l d b e t o practise a n i m p o s i t i o n o n t h e G o v . o f R u s s i a , i f w e
sought, by a m e a n a n d p a l t r y q u i b b l e , to relieve ourselves from obliga-
tions which we are b o u n d to f u l f i l . . . if this H o u s e refuses to c o n s e n t to
30 the act necessary to the c o n t i n u a n c e of these p a y m e n t s , t h e h o n o u r a n d
the g o o d n a m e of t h e c o u n t r y w o u l d be so tarnished, t h a t I s h o u l d
despair of a n y useful or beneficial i n t e r c o u r s e ever t a k i n g place b e t w e e n
Engl, a n d o t h e r states of E u r o p e . (Debate on the Russian-Dutch Loans.
Juli 16, 1832) It is said, however, t h a t it is s t r a n g e , t h a t at o n e t i m e
35 Russia is p a i d for s u p p o r t i n g t h e u n i o n of B e l g i u m w i t h H o l l a n d , a n d
that at a n o t h e r time she is p a i d for s u p p o r t i n g the s e p a r a t i o n of t h o s e
c o u n t r i e s . . . the principle in each case being to preserve t h e b a l a n c e of
power i n E u r o p e , a n d m a i n t a i n p e a c e a m o n g t h e n a t i o n s , especially w i t h
this c o u n t r y . . . . W e h a v e o b t a i n e d f r o m R u s s i a the a s s u r a n c e , t h a t w h a t -
40 ever m a y be her policy w i t h r e g a r d to Belgium, t h a t policy shall be c o n -
sistent with the interests of G r e a t Britain. (1. c.) [203-205]

95
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

I c o n s i d e r the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l states to be t h e n a t u r a l allies of this c o u n -


try. ( A u g . 2. 1832) [208]
T h e h o n o u r a b l e a n d gallant m e m b e r (Colonel Evans) h a s r e p r e s e n t e d
the c o n d u c t o f R u s s i a a s o n e o f u n v a r y i n g aggression u p o n o t h e r States
f r o m 1815 to t h e p r e s e n t time. He a d v e r t e d , m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y , to the 5
w a r s of R u s s i a w i t h Persia a n d Turkey . . . R u s s i a w a s the aggressor in
neither of them; a n d a l t h o u g h the result of t h e P e r s i a n w a r w a s an
a g g r a n d i s e m e n t of h e r P o w e r , it w a s n o t a result of h e r o w n seeking. So
strongly did t h e Brit. G o v . of the d a y feel this to be t h e case, ||68| t h a t
a l t h o u g h we h a d a t r e a t y with Persia which b o u n d us to give h e r s u c c o u r 10
in case of w a r with Russia, t h a t succour w a s n o t given, for we c o n t e n d e d
we h a d a right to j u d g e of the causes of t h e w a r , a n d t h a t as Persia w a s
t h e aggressor she h a d n o title t o o u r assistance. A g a i n i n t h e T u r k i s h w a r ,
R u s s i a w a s n o t t h e aggressor . . . I t w o u l d b e fatiguing t o t h e H o u s e t o
detail all the p r o v o c a t i o n s T u r k e y offered to Russia: b u t I believe t h e r e 15
c a n n o t be a d o u b t t h a t she expelled R u s s i a n subjects f r o m h e r territory,
d e t a i n e d R u s s i a n ships, a n d violated all t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e t r e a t y of
A k e r m a n ; a n d t h e n , u p o n c o m p l a i n t m a d e , d e n i e d redress; s o t h a t , i f
ever t h e r e w a s a j u s t g r o u n d for going to w a r , R u s s i a h a d it for going to
w a r w i t h Turkey. She did n o t , however, on t h a t occasion, a c q u i r e a n y 20
increase of territory, at least in E u r o p e . I k n o w t h a t t h e r e w a s a c o n t i n -
u e d o c c u p a t i o n o f certain p o i n t s , a n d s o m e a d d i t i o n a l acquisitions o n t h e
E u x i n e , i n Asia; b u t she h a d a n a g r e e m e n t with t h e o t h e r E u r o p e a n
p o w e r s , t o t h e effect t h a t success i n t h a t w a r s h o u l d n o t l e a d t o a n y
a g g r a n d i s e m e n t in E u r o p e . (216) (Debate on Russia and Poland, 25
August 7,1832) H o w e v e r the q u e s t i o n of t h e right or the w r o n g of R u s -
sia, in h e r violation of t h e Polish c o n s t i t u t i o n m a y be decided, t h e first
act of war p r o c e e d e d from t h e Poles, a n d n o t f r o m R u s s i a . (1. c.) (Quix-
otic interference) [215-218]
Greece, " t h e only choice w a s this, w h e t h e r we w o u l d assist to free 30
G r e e c e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h R u s s i a o r F r a n c e , o r allow R u s s i a t o d o i t
a l o n e " . I a s k w h e t h e r we o u g h t to h a v e left R u s s i a to settle this q u e s t i o n
single-handed? If she, u n a i d e d , h a d rescued G r e e c e f r o m t h e d o m i n i o n of
Turkey, w o u l d she n o t h a v e a c q u i r e d a p a r a m o u n t claim t o t h e eternal
g r a t i t u d e of t h e G r e e k s ; a n d w o u l d she n o t t h u s h a v e established an 35
influence which w o u l d h a v e m a d e G r e e c e practically a R u s s i a n province?
(Debate on second reading of Greek Convention bill. Aug. 8 1832) Reasons
for choosing King Otto: U. A. " h e belongs to a c o u n t r y (Bavaria) w h e r e
t h e r e exist free i n s t i t u t i o n s . " (I.e.) [219-221]

96
Aus John McNeill: Progress and present position of Russia

[John McNeill:
Progress and present position
of Russia in the East.
London 1836.]

5 G r u n d des persischen K r i e g s , d a R u s s i a "seized an undisputed possession


of Persia ( G o k c h e h ) " strip of land, w h i c h b o r d e r s on the l a k e of Sevan u.
d e m a n d e d as t h e price of its e v a c u a t i o n , t h e a b a n d o n m e n t of Persia's
claims (which w e r e p r o b a b l y j u s t ) , t o a n o t h e r p o r t i o n o f territory, (the
lands o f K a p a n ) . . . [77-79] T h e t u r b u l e n t spirits i n the r a n k s o f t h e R u s -
10 sian a r m y , w h o h a d d i s p u t e d t h e streets of St. Petersburg!} w i t h t h e
E m p e r o r , a n d w h o s e guilt i t w a s n o t possible o r c o n v e n i e n t t o a s c e r t a i n
or to p u n i s h , t h e r e f o u n d a field on which to e x h a u s t their a r d o u r . ( P r o -
gress) U m die T r k e y anzugreifen "future success w a s r e n d e r e d m o r e
certain b y h u m b l i n g b e f o r e h a n d t h e only asiatic w h o s e c o m m o n interests
15 a n d c o m m o n d a n g e r s m i g h t h a v e led it to m a k e c o m m o n c a u s e w i t h
Turkey, a n d the coffers o f the S h a h c o n t a i n e d e n o u g h t o defray t h e
expense of the c o n t e s t " . (1. c.) [85, 86] R u s s i a . . . offered to aid t h e P o r t e in
suppressing the rebellion w h i c h t h a t c a b i n e t a t t r i b u t e d exclusively t o h e r
agency. T h e p r o p o s i t i o n w a s a t once rejected b y t h e S u l t a n , a n d t h e
20 R u s s i a n a m b a s s a d o r at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e r e s o r t e d to every m e a n s to b r i n g
a b o u t a r u p t u r e w i t h Turkey, because she persevered in h e r a t t e m p t s to
suppress t h e rebellion which R u s s i a h a d offered h e r aid t o p u t d o w n .
(I.e.) R u s s i a w a s n o t c o n t e n t w i t h inflicting o n the T u r k . G o v . t h e great-
est indignities, a n d s u s p e n d i n g h e r d i p l o m a t i c relations with t h e P o r t e .
25 Russian agents inflamed the p e t t y differences b e t w e e n Persia a n d Turkey,
induced t h e P r i n c e R o y a l t o i n v a d e t h e O t t o m a n d o m i n i o n s . . . b u t t h e

97
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

C o n g r e s s o f V e r o n a formally a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e right o f t h e S u l t a n t o
exclude all foreign i n t e r v e n t i o n between himself a n d his subjects, w h e t h e r
C h r i s t i a n o r M a h o m m e d a n . . . T h i s decision o f t h e congress . . . w a s offi-
cially a n n o u n c e d t o the P o r t e b y t h e Brit, a m b a s s a d o r , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n
a p p e a r e d t o b e decided. ... E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e invited N i c o l a s , w h o h a d 5
recently m o u n t e d the t h r o n e , t o unite w i t h t h e m i n r e s t o r i n g t h e t r a n -
quillity of G r e e c e . P r o t o c o l signed at St. P e t e r s b u r g (1825?) r e s t r a i n e d t h e
3 p o w e r s to a friendly m e d i a t i o n between the S u l t a n a n d his rebellious
subjects . . . S u l t a n declines . . . t h e 3 p o w e r s , f o u n d i n g their r i g h t to inter-
fere on t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n to which the c o m m e r c e of the M e d i t e r r a n e a n w a s 10
subjected by t h e piracies of the G r e e k s , c o n c l u d e d a t r e a t y at L o n d o n ,
July 6, 1827, by which they m u t u a l l y engaged to enforce, by hostilities if
necessary, t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f the differences b e t w e e n t h e P o r t e a n d t h e
G r e e k s , o n t e r m s t o b e prescribed t o b o t h parties. T h i s ||69| a r r a n g e m e n t
still reserved to the S u l t a n the suzerainet of G r e e c e , a n d a yearly t r i b u t e 15
f r o m t h a t c o u n t r y . . . B u t R u s s i a h a d h e r o w n s e p a r a t e g r o u n d s o f dis-
cussion with Turkey, a n d d e m a n d e d the p e r f o r m a n c e o f certain stipula-
t i o n s of t h e Treaty of B u c h a r e s t , w i t h reference to the i n t e r n a l g o v e r n -
m e n t of t h e C h r i s t i a n provinces of T u r k e y in t h e n o r t h - e a s t ; while the
P o r t e ... called u p o n the E m p e r o r to s u r r e n d e r t h e fortresses on t h e 20
B l a c k Sea, w h i c h , b y t h e s a m e treaty, h e h a d e n g a g e d t o deliver u p , b u t
which, for 14 J a h r e , h a d been retained in violation of these engage-
m e n t s . . . R u s s i a presents an u l t i m a t u m . . . Unexpectedly accepted. Plen-
ipotentiaries m e t at Akerman, in Bessarabia, a n d a c o n v e n t i o n p r o p o s e d
by R u s s i a was accepted by Turkey, on t h e express u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t 25
R u s s i a s h o u l d r e n o u n c e all interference in t h e affairs of G r e e c e . To these
c o n d i t i o n s R u s s i a acceded, only a few m o n t h s after she h a d signed the
Treaty of L o n d o n , w h i c h b o u n d h e r to interfere in t h o s e affairs . . . [93-95]
D i e a n d r e n G e s a n d t e n ( D e c e m b e r 1827) w i t h d r e w from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e
. . . R u s s i a p r o p o s e d erst " t o o c c u p y M o l d a v i a u. Wallachia in t h e n a m e 30
of t h e 3 p o w e r s " u. to m a r c h an a r m y i n t o Turkey, for t h e p u r p o s e of
" d i c t a t i n g peace u n d e r the walls o f the seraglio". D i e a n d r e n P o w e r s
w o l l e n nicht. N u n she declared t h a t "in t h e m a n n e r o f executing t h e
Treaty of L o n d o n , she will consult only her o w n interests u. c o n v e n -
ience", a b e r this d e c l a r a t i o n she w a s obliged to r e t r a c t . . . schlit 1827 35
( a u t u m n of) peace m. d e m S h a h . ( T h e w a r h a d originated in a violation
of t h e P e r s i a n t e r r i t o r y by the G o v e r n o r G e n . of G e o r g i a ) . . . Treaty of
Turcomanchai, Febr. 1828 Persia, besides p a y i n g t h e w h o l e expenses of
the war, w a s called u p o n t o cede t h e i m p o r t a n t a n d w e a l t h y p r o v i n c e s o f
E r i v a n u. N u k h c h i v a n , including the fortresses of E r i v a n a n d A b b a s a - 40
b a d , b e c a u s e it w a s necessary, sagten die R u s s e n , to t h e future t r a n q u i l -

98
Aus John McNeill: Progress and present position of Russia

lity of t h e 2 empires, t h a t their c o m m o n frontier s h o u l d be defined by t h e


A r r a s . (Araxes) ( G a b a b e r nicht b a c k i h r e n claim a u f Talish u. Moghan,
obgleich sie d a d u r c h violated the principle . . . of establishing t h e A r a s als
die frontier line.) [97-99] "By t h e t r e a t y of T u r c o m a n c h a i , Persia a g a i n
5 b o u n d to maintain no navy on the Caspian". ... Russia about 2 M i l l .
. St. from S h a h received . . . It w a s n e i t h e r a s y m p a t h y w i t h h e r co-reli-
gionists i n Greece, w h o m she h a d s o often excited t o revolt, a n d s o often
a b a n d o n e d t o their f a t e . . . [101-103] B y the t r e a t y o f A d r i a n o p l e the
Czar a c q u i r e d A n a p a a n d P o t y w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent o f c o a s t o n t h e
10 Black Sea, a p o r t i o n of t h e P a s h a l i c of A k h i l s k a , with the 2 fortresses of
A k h i l s k a u. A k h i l k i l l a k u. die islands formed by the mouths of the Danube;
stipulated fr die d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e T u r k , fortress of G e o r g i o v a , a n d t h e
a b a n d o n m e n t b y T u r k e y o f the right b a n k o f t h e D a n u b e t o t h e distance
of several miles f r o m t h e river; a t t e m p t e d a v i r t u a l s e p a r a t i o n of M o l -
15 davia a n d Wallachia f r o m T u r k e y by s a n i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s . . . r e m o v e d
partly b y force, a n d p a r t l y b y t h e influence o f t h e p r i e s t h o o d , m a n y
1000 families of t h e A r m e n i a n s f r o m t h e T u r k , p r o v i n c e s in A s i a to his
o w n territories . . . H e established for his o w n subjects i n T u r k e y a n
exemption f r o m all responsibility t o t h e n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d b u r -
20 thened t h e P o r t e w i t h a n i m m e n s e d e b t u n d e r t h e n a m e o f i n d e m n i t y for
the expenses of t h e w a r a n d for c o m m e r c i a l losses, a n d finally retained
M o l d a v i a , Wallachia u . Silistria i n pledge for t h e p a y m e n t . . . H a v i n g b y
this treaty i m p o s e d u p o n T u r k e y the a c c e p t a n c e of the p r o t o c o l of
M a r c h 22, which secured to h e r t h e suzerainet of G r e e c e , a n d a yearly
25 tribute from t h a t c o u n t r y ; R u s s i a used all h e r influence to p r o c u r e t h e
independence of Greece .,. W u r d e erected i n t o an i n d e p e n d e n t state; of
which C o u n t C a p o d'Istria, w h o h a d b e e n a R u s s i a n minister, w a s n a m e d
president. [105-107] (Progress and pres. Posit, of Russia in the East.
1836)

99
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

[Francis: Opinions and policy (Fortsetzung)]

Military Flogging. (Wieder dafr, Debate on Mil. Flog., April2, 1833.)


[233]
the claim o f R u s s i a t o the possession o f P o l a n d . . . b e a r s t h e d a t e o f the
Treaty of V i e n n a , a n d is f o u n d e d on the s a n c t i o n of E u r o p e . T h e Brit. 5
G o v . , therefore, feel t h a t , as o n e of the c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s to t h a t t r e a t y ,
t h e y h a v e a right to entertain and express ||70| an opinion on a n y act
which, in their o p i n i o n , t e n d s to a violation or d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e stip-
u l a t i o n s i n t o w h i c h they entered with t h e o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g parties . . .
R u s s i a is b o u n d in g o o d faith to preserve to P o l a n d t h e c o n t i n u a n c e of 10
t h a t Constitution ... the Poles h a d t a k e n the uncalled-for, a n d , in my
o p i n i o n , unjustifiable step, of n o t merely asserting their rights . . . b u t
d e c l a r i n g the dethronement of the Emperor... t h e c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s to
t h e Treaty of V i e n n a h a d a right to r e q u i r e t h a t t h e C o n s t i t . of P o l a n d
s h o u l d n o t be t o u c h e d a n d this w a s an o p i n i o n w h i c h I h a v e n o t c o n - 15
cealed from t h e R u s s i a n G o v . I c o m m u n i c a t e d it by anticipation to t h a t
G o v . p r e v i o u s t o t h e t a k i n g o f W a r s a w , a n d before t h e result o f hostilities
w a s k n o w n . D a n n wieder w h e n W a r s a w f e l l . . . T h e R u s s . G o v . , h o w e v e r ,
t o o k a different view of t h e question. (H. o. C. July 9,1833) a general
w a r m u s t h a v e t a k e n place if E n g l a n d h a d interfered by a r m s (1. c.) I am 20
p e r s u a d e d , ( E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a n o t absolute), t h a t w h e r e cases o f u n d u e
severity o n t h e p a r t o f the R u s s . G o v . t o t h e Poles h a v e o c c u r r e d , w e m a y
set t h e m d o w n a s p r o o f s t h a t t h e p o w e r o f the E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a i s
practically limited; a n d we m a y t a k e it for g r a n t e d , t h a t the E m p e r o r h a s ,
in t h o s e instances, yielded to t h e influence of o t h e r s , r a t h e r t h a n follow 25
the dictates of his o w n s p o n t a n e o u s feelings. (I.e.) [242-245]
Turkey " T h e integrity a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e are
necessary t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f the tranquillity, t h e liberty a n d the
b a l a n c e of P o w e r in the rest of E u r o p e . " W a s eine Partition der T u r k e y
a n g e h t "I h a v e a d o u b l e s e c u r i t y , i n t h e first place, in t h e good faith of 30

100
^Bundestag
' M. 0

Aus George Henry Francis: Opinions and policy of Palmerston (Fortsetzung)

Russia; a n d , secondly, in t h e d o u b t I e n t e r t a i n , w h e t h e r it e n t e r s i n t o t h e
policy of R u s s i a at present to a c c o m p l i s h this o b j e c t . " (July, 11, 1833.)
W i t h o u t m i n d i n g t h e t a u n t s t h r o w n o u t a s t o o u r pacific policy, w e shall
d o o u r u t m o s t t o preserve t h e p e a c e o f E u r o p e . . . . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , I
5 utterly r e p u d i a t e t h e idea, t h a t this c o u n t r y t r e m b l e s at t h e p o w e r of
R u s s i a . We certainly wish to be on friendly terms with Russia, n o t o n l y
b e c a u s e we h a v e interests in c o m m o n , a n d b e c a u s e we h a v e every motive
t o b e o n g o o d t e r m s w i t h t h a t p o w e r ; b u t also, b e c a u s e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s
of war m a y be nearly as disastrous to the conquering as to the unsuc-
10 cessful p o w e r . At t h e s a m e t i m e , we never will c o n s e n t to p u r c h a s e t h e
friendship o f R u s s i a b y t h e sacrifice o f t h e least p o r t i o n o f t h e h o n o u r o f
t h e c o u n t r y . (I.e.) [246-248]
Cornlaws. If I am to u n d e r s t a n d this q u e s t i o n as l e a d i n g to t h e affir
m a t i o n . . . of t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a perfectly free t r a d e in c o r n , w i t h o u t
15 a n y d u t y w h a t e v e r t o s u c h a p r o p o s i t i o n I s h o u l d be decidedly o p p o s e d
... als " f r a u g h t w i t h injustice to t h e interests of a large a n d i m p o r t a n t
class of t h e c o m m u n i t y " . (19 M a r c h , 1834) [253, 254]
Political refugees. I t i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h m y d u t y t o h o l d o u t t o t h e
H o u s e ... a n y e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t his M ' s G o v . will feel themselves a t liberty
2 0 t o p r o p o s e t o this H o u s e a n y g r a n t o f m o n e y i n aid o f t h o s e u n f o r t u n a t e
p e r s o n s . ... ( M i t d e n French (v. d e r e r s t e n R e v o l u t i o n ) u. Span. E m i
g r a n t s w r e es a n d e r s gewesen.) ( M a r c h 25, 1834) [258]
Spanien. G r e a t B r i t a i n . . . identified w i t h t h e c a u s e of t h e existing G o v .
o f Spain . . . b y t h e a d d i t i o n a l articles t o t h e Q u a d r u p l e Treaty.
25 (June 24, 1835.) [281]
Occupation of Cracow, t h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a stipulates t h a t foreign
t r o o p s shall, o n n o a c c o u n t w h a t e v e r , e n t e r t h e S t a t e o f C r a c o w ; t h a t
treaty c o n t a i n s also a n i n d i v i d u a l r e c i p r o c a l c o n d i t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e
State o f C r a c o w , t h a t o n n o a c c o u n t shall i t h a r b o u r such p e r s o n s a s a r e
30 described in t h a t t r e a t y , b u t shall, on d e m a n d , deliver up s u c h p e r s o n s to
either of t h e 3 c o n t r a c t i n g p o w e r s w h o s e subjects they h a p p e n to be; a n d
it is u p o n this article of t h e t r e a t y , t h a t t h e residents of t h e 3 p o w e r s , in
their n o t e t o t h e S e n a t e o f C r a c o w , f o u n d their claims t o t h e e x p u l s i o n ,
within 8 d a y s , of t h e P o l i s h refugees f r o m t h a t t e r r i t o r y . . . a n u m b e r of
35 the natives of P o l a n d a s s e m b l e d at C r a c o w , a n d were in c o n s t a n t c o m -
munication with the Austrian and Russian Provinces of Poland ... the
spirit o f t h e t r e a t y w a s s u c h a s t o forbid C r a c o w f r o m a l l o w i n g t h e
residence of such p e r s o n s in their S t a t e . T h e y h a d e n t e r e d 711 i n t o an
e n g a g e m e n t n o t t o h a r b o u r offenders a g a i n s t t h e laws, o r m e n w h o h a d
40 deserted f r o m t h e a r m y , or fled f r o m p r o s e c u t i o n . . . . I am b o u n d to say,
t h a t no sufficient r e a s o n h a s yet b e e n given, either for t h e e n t r a n c e of t h e

101
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

t r o o p s , or t h e s h o r t n e s s of the interval w h i c h existed b e t w e e n t h e t i m e of


t h e d e m a n d , a n d t h a t of the o c c u p a t i o n of C r a c o w . . . . I s h o u l d even say,
t h a t i f n o t r e a t y h a d existed a t all, i f C r a c o w h a d only s t o o d o n t h e s a m e
c o m m o n footing as all o t h e r n a t i o n s of E u r o p e , a n d a n e i g h b o u r i n g
p o w e r p o i n t e d o u t to h e r t h e existence of c e r t a i n p e r s o n s w i t h i n h e r 5
territory, w h o were e m p l o y e d in exciting disturbances among the popula-
tion of that power, t h e m e r e d u t y of g o o d n e i g h b o u r h o o d w o u l d r e q u i r e
t h a t C r a c o w s h o u l d t a k e effective m e a s u r e s t o p r e v e n t h e r soil from
I b e c o m i n g an a s y l u m for the disturbers. . . . I do n o t s t a n d up h e r e to
I defend a m e a s u r e w h i c h , on the c o n t r a r y , I m u s t censure a n d c o n d e m n . I 10
h a v e merely s t a t e d those circumstances which, t h o u g h they do not excuse
t h e forcible o c c u p a t i o n of C r a c o w , might yet afford a justification etc. for
the demand of these p o w e r s , if it h a d been m a d e in a m o r e limited f o r m
t h a n i t w a s . . . . D e m Vertrag v . W i e n g e m i t w a s their d u t y frher t o
c o m m u n i c a t e to this G o v . . . . b u t at t h e s a m e time, in d e t e r m i n i n g to t a k e 15
a step which, to say the least of it, w a s o n e of u n n e c e s s a r y violence,
w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g H. M. G o v e r n . , t h a t t h e y be justly said perhaps to have
paid an involuntary h o m a g e to the justice and plain dealing of the Coun-
try ... da wir nicht gegeben h a b e n w r d e n u n s e r assent to such a p r o -
ceeding. (Sir Stratford Canning's m o t i o n . M a r c h 18, 1836.) [304-308] 20
I do n o t s t a n d here to e x p o u n d or explain the i n t e n t i o n s of R u s s i a . . . .
It is n o t p r u d e n t or wise ...to anticipate wrongs. (Debate on Russia and
Turkey, April 20, 1836) by t h e Treaty of V i e n n a , t h e n a v i g a t i o n of t h e
D a n u b e is free to all n a t i o n s . . . W h e n R u s s i a a c q u i r e d a p o r t i o n of the
D a n u b e by t h e Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e , t h a t p a r t of t h e river fell w i t h i n t h e 25
scope of the Treaty of Vienna, (I.e.) as being a p a r t of R u s s i a . [312-314]
Polish refugees. It is exceedingly painful to me to o p p o s e t h e g r a n t of
a n y m o n e y t o t h o s e individuals, w h i c h the n a t u r a l a n d s p o n t a n e o u s
feelings of every g e n e r o u s m a n w o u l d lead h i m to acquiesce in. ( H . o. C.
M a r c h 2 5 , 1834) [259] Es w i r d i h m vorgeworfen, er h a b e in b e z u g auf 30
P o l e n held o u t certain r e a s o n s t o induce t h e c o u n t r y t o e n t e r t a i n expec-
t a t i o n s . . . n o t a f t e r w a r d s . . . realised. W e n n er gesagt h a b e frher, es sei
n i c h t in der p o w e r of R u s s i a to e x t e r m i n a t e a k i n g d o m ( P o l a n d ) , so h a b e
er gemeint, R u s s i a k n n e nicht n o m i n a l l y or physically e x t e r m i n a t e a
nation . . . of so m a n y millions of m e n as t h e Polish k i n g d o m , in its divid- 35
ed state c o n t a i n e d . (April 20, 1836) [314, 315]
Expulsion of refugees. It is u n d o u b t e d l y t r u e t h a t every i n d e p e n d e n t
n a t i o n h a s a n i n d i s p u t a b l e right t o afford p r o t e c t i o n a n d t h e r i g h t s o f
hospitality to a n y foreigners w h o m a y t a k e refuge there; b u t it is also a
d u t y of every c o u n t r y to m a i n t a i n the relations of g o o d n e i g h b o u r h o o d 40
w i t h the b o r d e r i n g States; a n d it is the interest of every p o w e r w h i c h

102
Aus George Henry Francis: Opinions and policy of Palmerston (Fortsetzung)

exercises t h e rights of hospitality to t a k e care t h a t t h e p e r s o n s enjoying


t h e m d o n o t a b u s e t h e m t o the p u r p o s e o f f o r m i n g a n d executing c o n -
spiracies to d i s t u r b the tranquillity of n e i g h b o u r i n g States. ( H . o. C.
A u g . 9, 1836) [323]
5 Quadruple Treaty ... P o r t u g a l m u s t be l o o k e d u p o n as o n e of the s u b -
stantive P o w e r s of E u r o p e . . . S p a i n h o l d s o u t to us a fair a n d legitimate
h o p e t h a t she m a y yet b e c o m e w h a t she h a s b e e n in f o r m e r times, a
flourishing a n d even a f o r m i d a b l e p o w e r a m o n g t h e E u r o p e a n k i n g d o m s .
( H . o. C. M a r c h 10, 1837) We h a v e b e e n accused of f a v o u r i n g i n n o v a -
lo tion, a n d e n c o u r a g i n g r e v o l u t i o n . (I.e.) [327, 332]
Roebuck said: "I c a r e n o t for t h e b a l a n c e of p o w e r , I care only for the
c o m m e r c e of E n g l a n d . I c a r e n o t if o n e p o w e r g a i n possession of t h e
whole w o r l d , as l o n g as the c o m m e r c e of E n g l a n d is m a i n t a i n e d " . . .
W h a t w o u l d be the p o s i t i o n ||72| of E n g l a n d , if h e r c o m m e r c e w i t h all t h e
15 rest of the w o r l d h a p p e n e d to d e p e n d on o n e single will, by w h i c h t h e
whole o f t h e rest o f t h e w o r l d w a s g o v e r n e d a n d directed? ( D e b . o n t h e
seizure of the Vixen. M a r c h 17, 1837) [334, 335]
Russia: ( G e g e n A t t w o o d alarmist) since t h e peace, R u s s i a h a s b e e n
exhausting her m e a n s daily i n p o m p s a n d s h o w s , i n reviews i n the n o r t h
20 a n d reviews in t h e s o u t h : she h a s e x p e n d e d a n y s u r p l u s r e v e n u e her v a s t
territory m a y give her, a n d a l t h o u g h she h a s a large n u m b e r of m e n u n d e r
a r m s , yet w h e n w e c o n s i d e r t h e little m e a n s she possesses t o m u s t e r t h e m
from v a r i o u s d i s t a n t places, a n d t h e n t o t r a i n a n d b r i n g t h e m i n t o t h e s h a p e
o f a n offensive a r m y , t h e h o n o u r a b l e m e m b e r m a y d e p e n d u p o n i t she i s
25 n o t in a s i t u a t i o n to give r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e of a l a r m to a n y p o w e r r a n k e d
a m o n g t h e principle States of E u r o p e . I say t h a t Russia gives the world quite
as much security for t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of peace as E n g l a n d . I assert t h a t
Russia w o u l d find it m o r e difficult to u n d e r t a k e a w a r w h i c h h a d n o t for its
object self-defence, t h a n E n g l a n d . ( D e c . 14, 1837) [357, 363]
30 Vixen . . . He ( M r . Bell) entered i n t o a s p e c u l a t i o n for views a n d p u r -
poses of his o w n , w h i c h he w a s perfectly at liberty to do . . . If I were to
find fault w i t h M r . Bell, it w o u l d be b e c a u s e his speculation w a s e n t e r e d
u p o n , n o t with c o m m e r c i a l , b u t w i t h political m o t i v e s , a n d w i t h the
intention of placing 2 g r e a t c o u n t r i e s [in a position] of w h i c h w a r m i g h t be
35 the consequence, a n d herein he s h o w e d himself n o t a c t u a t e d by p r o p e r
views. B u t did h e receive e n c o u r a g e m e n t from m e t o enter u p o n t h a t
expedition? I r e p e a t my denial of that assertion. ... It is said t h a t M r . Bell,
this i n n o c e n t M r . Bell, w a s led i n t o a t r a p by m e , by t h e a n s w e r s I g a v e
him. I d e n y t h a t t h e r e is t h e slightest f o u n d a t i o n for a n y s u c h assertion . . .
40 Er a n t w o r t e t e nicht a u f einen P u n k t v. Bell's Brief: " H e wished to k n o w
what w a s t h e o p i n i o n of H e r M ' s G o v . w i t h r e g a r d to . . . t h e right of |

103
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Russia to the sovereignty of Circassia, a n d w h e t h e r . . . she w a s entitled to


establish t h o s e c u s t o m - h o u s e , a n d s a n a t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s she w a s enforcing
by t h e p o w e r of h e r a r m s ? . . . no individual m e r c h a n t is entitled to a s k
h e r M ' s G o v . t o give a n o p i n i o n o n q u e s t i o n s o f t h a t s o r t . " ( J u n e 2 1 ,
1838. Sir Stratford Canning's motion) 5
T h e t r a p , if t h e r e w a s one, w a s laid n o t for M r . Bell, b u t by M r . Bell.
(I.e.) Bell schrieb i h m (in A n t w o r t ) " m y letter a s k e d b u t o n e q u e s t i o n ,
a n d t h a t was, w h e t h e r the G o v . recognise the R u s s i a n b l o c k a d e o n t h e
C o a s t of t h e Black-Sea?" (1. c.) P a l m e r s t o n replied " t h a t , for i n f o r m a t i o n
on t h a t p o i n t , I m u s t refer h i m to the Gazette; a n d t h e r e t h e c o r r e s p o n d - 10
enee e n d e d " . (I.e.) [392-395]
Russia. My h o n o u r a b l e friend says, t h a t if R u s s i a h a d a p e r s o n exclu-
sively d e v o t e d to her interests in t h e Brit, cabinet, he c o u l d n o t h a v e
served h e r m o r e sincerely t h a n I h a v e u n c o n s c i o u s l y d o n e ; t h a t I h a v e
b e e n l a b o u r i n g to destroy t h e Turkish e m p i r e , a n d p u t an end to its 15
integrity, a n d subject such p o r t i o n of it as r e m a i n s u n d e r the nominal
s w a y of the Sultan, entirely to the views of R u s s i a . . . It y impossible for
a n y Gov. to have acted with more honour and good faith in any matter than
the Russ. Gov. has acted with the other powers in respect to Turkey ... We
c a n o n l y j u d g e t h e i n t e n t i o n s of R u s s i a f r o m h e r c o n d u c t ; a n d I m u s t say, 20
that it is not just to impute to that power that her present conduct has
a n y t e n d e n c y w h a t e v e r inimical t o the integrity o f t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e .
(June I, 1840) [424,425]
t h e protection of the Greek religion by t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a arises o u t
of distinct treaties w i t h the P o r t e . (March 12, 1841) [429] 25
"sham mediations" in the contest between D e n m a r k a n d G e r m a n y .
(July 24, 1849) [489]
The Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi... was no d o u b t to a certain degree
forced u p o n T u r k e y by C o u n t Orloff, t h e R u s s i a n envoy, u n d e r circum-
stances w h i c h r e n d e r e d it difficult for T u r k e y to refuse a c c e d i n g to it. 30
M e h e m e t Ali h a d i n v a d e d Syria, a n d h a d a d v a n c e d far i n t o A s i a m i n o r ,
a n d t h r e a t e n e d C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . T h e S u l t a n applied t o t h e Brit. G o v . for
assistance; b u t the Brit. G o v e r n m e n t w a s n o t at t h a t t i m e in a c o n d i t i o n
to r e n d e r t h a t assistance. We h a d n o t a n a v a l force at o u r disposal suf-
ficient for t h a t p u r p o s e . It w a s k n o w n t h a t R u s s i a h a d offered assistance, 35
a n d they sent it. T h e Brit. G o v . were, however, surprised to find t h a t
w h e n the R u s s i a n t r o o p s q u i t t e d t h e B o s p h o r u s , t h e y c a r r i e d t h a t treaty
a w a y w i t h t h e m a t r e a t y for 8 years, of w h i c h t h e m o s t objectionable
p o r t i o n was, t h a t it gave practically, to t h e R u s s . G o v . a power of inter-
ference and dictation in Turkey, not consistent with the i n d e p e n d e n c e of 40
t h a t State. ( M a r c h 1, 1850)1 [492]

104
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant

[Correspondence relative to
the affairs of the Levant.

Pt. 1-3. London 1841]

[Pt. 1]
5 1731 Treaty of London, July 15, 1840. (Gez. v. E n g l a n d , Oestreich, P r e u s -
sen, R u l a n d u . T r k e y . ) (Collective n o t e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e P o r t e b y t h e
Representatives 27 July, 1839.) [691]
( T h e R i g h t H o n . H e n r y J o h n V i s c o u n t P a l m e r s t o n , B a r o n Temple, a
Peer o f I r e l a n d , a M e m b e r o f H . M ' s M o s t H o n . P r i v y C o u n c i l , K n i g h t
10 G r a n d C r o s s of t h e M o s t H o n . O r d e r of the B a t h , a M e m b e r of P a r i . ,
a n d H e r P r i n c . Secret, of S t a t e for F o r . Affairs)
Art IV. " A d m i t no foreign ship of w a r i n t o the straits of B o s p h o r u s
a n d of t h e D a r d a n e l l e s ausser in diesem F a l l , only as a m e a s u r e of excep-
tion a d o p t e d at the express d e m a n d of the s u l t a n , a n d solely for his
15 defence in the single case a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d . " (If M e h e m e t Ali s h o u l d
effect his l a n d or seaforces a g a i n s t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . ) [692]
Separate Act annexed to this convention. (Gez.: P a l m e r s t o n , N e u m a n n ,
Bulow, B r u n n o w . )
1.) His H i g h n e s s (der Sultan) p r o m i s e s to M e h e m e t Ali, for himself
20 a n d for his d e s c e n d a n t s in t h e direct line, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e P a c h a -
lic o f Ejypt; a n d H i s H i g h n e s s p r o m i s e s , m o r e o v e r , t o g r a n t t o M e h e m e t
Ali, for his life, w i t h t h e title of P a c h a of A c r e , a n d w i t h t h e c o m m a n d of
the fortress of St. J o h n d ' A c r e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s o u t h e r n p a r t of
Syria, t h e limits of w h i c h shall be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e following line of
25 d e m a r c a t i o n etc etc [696]
4.) I t i s expressly u n d e r s t o o d , t h a t . . . M e h e m e t A l i . . . shall b e b o u n d
t o deliver u p t h e T u r k i s h f l e e t , w i t h t h e w h o l e o f its crews a n d e q u i p -
ments, into the h a n d s o f the Turk. A g e n t w h o shall b e c h a r g e d t o receive

105
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

t h e s a m e . T h e C o m m a n d e r s o f the Allied S q u a d r o n s shall b e p r e s e n t a t


such delivery. [697]

[Pt. 3]

M r . Guizot sagt zu Earl Granville: "Is it w o r t h while for t h e s a k e of


excluding the P a c h a of Ejypt from the G o v . of C a n d a d u r i n g t h e few 5
years o f life t h a t n o w r e m a i n t o h i m , t o risk the d a n g e r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s
t h a t m a y result t o all the w o r l d , f r o m F r a n c e n o t c o n c u r r i n g i n t h e set-
t l e m e n t of t h e p e a c e of the E a s t . " (Earl Granville to Vise. Palmerston.
Paris. Nov. 6, 1840) [2]
It is n o t at first sight evident w h a t t h e d a n g e r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s are, 10
w h i c h , M r . G u i z o t says, m a y result t o t h e w o r l d f r o m F r a n c e n o t c o n -
c u r r i n g in, t h a t is to say, n o t being a c o - o p e r a t i n g p a r t y t o , this settle-
m e n t . . . the anxiety o f H . M . ' s g o v e r n m e n t t o o b t a i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f
F r a n c e a r o s e n o t f r o m a n y feeling t h a t such c o - o p e r a t i o n w a s indispen-
sably necessary to give p e r m a n e n t stability to t h e a r r a n g e m e n t w h e n ef- 15
fected, b u t chiefly because such c o - o p e r a t i o n w o u l d h a v e e n s u r e d the
p r o m p t s u b m i s s i o n of M e h e m e t Ali etc (Palmerston to Granville. Nov. 12,
1840) [4] ( M e t t e r n i c h l t besnftigende Briefe an G u i z o t k o m m e n . )
Y o u r L o r d s h i p . . . the chief p r o m o t e r a n d s u p p o r t e r o f t h e E x p e d i t i o n .
(Mr. Wood to Palmerston Oct. 10, 1840) [7] 20
C o u n t Nesselrode c o n t i n u e s in his o p i n i o n , t h a t it is impossible for t h e
allies t o t a k e the initiative i n any o v e r t u r e t o F r a n c e ; a n d the d e s p a t c h e s
since received from B a r o n B r u n n o w giving an a c c o u n t of the objections
raised by y o u r L o r d s h i p to Prince M e t t e r n i c h ' s p r o p o s a l of a M e e t i n g at
W i e s b a d e n , h a v e c o n f o r m e d C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e in t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of 25
t h e R u s s i a n C a b i n e t t o await events. H i s Excellency r e a d m e these
d e s p a t c h e s this m o r n i n g , a n d expressed his reliance in the firmness of t h e
Brit. C a b i n e t t o c a r r y o u t t h e stipulations o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f July t o
their full extent. {Bloomfield to Palmerston. Petersburgh, Nov. 11, 1840)
[34] 30
T h e P r u s s i a n Minister a n d A u s t r i a n C h a r g d'Affaires h a v e u r g e d the
necessity o f t h e Allies a d o p t i n g s o m e m e a s u r e w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w F r a n c e
to b e c o m e a p a r t y to t h e final settlement of t h e T u r c o - E j y p t i a n q u e s t i o n .
. . . C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e a p p e a r s n o t t o h a v e t h o u g h t i t necessary t o m e e t
their wishes ... (Id. to id. Petersburgh Nov. 17, 1840) | [53, 54] 35
1741 It is difficult to see in w h a t w a y F r a n c e w o u l d n o w c o m e in as a
p a r t y to t h e settlement of t h o s e a r r a n g e m e n t s . (Palmerston to Bloomfield,
Dec. 2, 1840) [54] B o m b a r d e m e n t v. St. J e a n d ' A c r e b e g a n n 3 N o v .
( G e n e r a l C. F. Smith, C o l o n e l c o m m a n d i n g ) G e n o m m e n 4 N o v . [58]

106
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant

I t h a s never entered i n t o H . H . ' s ( M e h e m e t Ali's) i n t e n t i o n s t o k e e p the


fleet of H. Sovereign. . . . W h e n S a m i Bey w a s sent on a mission to the
Sublime P o r t e , h e offered i n the n a m e o f H . H i g h n e s s , t h e r e s t i t u t i o n o f
the fleet, which was on the point of putting to sea to return to Con-
5 stantinople, w h e n the hostilities b e g u n in Syria p o s t p o n e d the execution
of the o r d e r s of the Viceroy . . . (Boghoz Youssouf to Admiral Napier,
A l e x a n d r i a , N o v . 2 3 , 1840) [75, 76]
I n m y h a n d s Syria w a s a n element o f p o w e r w h i c h e n a b l e d m e t o give
effectual assistance to the S u l t a n a n d to Turkey, in t h e h a n d s of t h e
10 P o r t e . . . Syria w a s given over to a n a r c h y , to disorder, a n d to civil war.
(Mehemet Ali to Louis Philippe, d. d. N o v e m b e r 11) [91-93]
T h e h o n o u r s which t h e E m p e r o r h a s conferred u p o n the Brit, n a v a l
officers e m p l o y e d in t h e recent o p e r a t i o n s in t h e L e v a n t , h a v e b e e n t h e
source of e x t r e m e gratification to H e r G o v e r n m e n t . (Palmerston to Lord
15 Clanricarde. J a n u a r y 11, 1841) [123]
Aus dem Protocol of the Conference held at the House of the Minister of
For. Affairs of the Sublime Porte, d. d. December 20, 1840 b e t w e e n the
Minister o f F o r . Affairs, o n o n e p a r t , a n d t h e representatives o f A u s t r i a ,
Prussia, Engl., R u s s i a , [140] wir sehn, d a n a c h d e m Submissionsschrei-
20 ben v. M e h e m e t Ali an die Sovereign P o r t e , der I n t e r n u n c i ( A u s t r i a n )
erklrt: " D a s french gov. sei entitled to their respect a n d their consider-
ation . . . " m u t e n m a k e allowances for t h e difficulties by w h i c h it is sur-
r o u n d e d . . . Syria h a s r e t u r n e d to t h e rule of H. H . , der t r e a t y of July 15
existir n o c h f. sie, w e n n nicht f. die P o r t e , etc. E b e n s o d e r preussishe
25 C h a r g d'Affaires. [145] T h e Ambassador of Engl. "I declare t h a t , in my
opinion, M e h e m e t Ali h a s n o w n o right; t h u s t h e S u l t a n i s m a s t e r t o t a k e
the course w h i c h he shall c o n s i d e r fitting, a n d t h a t we c a n only afford
him o u r a d v i c e . " . . . [147] ( P o n s o n b y ) . P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h t h i n k s t h a t t h e
Brit. G o v . h a s n o t e m p l o y e d t h e m e a n s i n its p o w e r t o i n d u c e t h e P o r t e
30 to g r a n t h e r e d i t a r y t e n u r e in E g y p t e to M e h e m e t Ali. (Palmerston to
Lord Beauvale, Jan. 26, 1841) [161]
Palmerston sendet M a r c h 16, 1841 draft of a Conference between G r e a t
Britain, A u s t r i a , F r a n c e , P r u s s i a u . R u s s i a , o n the o n e p a r t , u . die S u b -
lime P o r t e o n t h e o t h e r , a n V i s c o u n t P o n s o n b y . D a r i n heit: " I t w o u l d
35 be p r o p e r to r e c o r d t h e respect w h i c h is d u e to t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d
principle (viz. ships of w a r of F o r . P o w e r s p r o h i b i t e d to enter the straits
of the D a r d a n e l l e s a n d of t h e B o s p h o r u s ) by m e a n s of an a r r a n g e m e n t in
which F r a n c e s h o u l d be invited to c o n c u r . . . " [321, 322]
Art. 1) " . . . so l o n g as the P o r t e is at p e a c e , H. H. will a d m i t no foreign
40 ship of w a r i n t o t h e said s t r a i t s . " [324]

107
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

D i e trkische A r m e e fiel 1839 zuerst in Syrien ein. ( M a i 1839)

[Pt. 1]

" t h e french m i n i s t e r s " . . . expressed a n a n x i o u s desire u n d e r these critical


c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the m o s t cordial c o n c e r t s h o u l d exist b e t w e e n the F r e n c h
a n d Brit. G o v e r n m e n t s . {May, 24, 1839. Paris. Granville to P a l m e r s t o n ) 5
(the T u r k i s h A r m y h a d crossed the military line o f d e m a r c a t i o n be-
tween t h e Turk, a n d E g y p t i a n F o r c e s a n d established fortifications a t Bir,
o n the E u p h r a t e s , I b r a h i m P a c h a was, i n c o n s e q u e n c e , c o n c e n t r a t i n g his
t r o o p s a t A l e p p o ; b u t M e h e m e t ||75| Ali u n d e r t h e p e r s u a s i o n t h a t i t was
t h e object of t h e Turkish G o v . to t h r o w t h e responsibility of aggression 10
o n t h e E g y p t i a n s , h a d enjoined his son t o m a k e n o m o v e m e n t , until t h e
t u r k . t r o o p s h a d a d v a n c e d s o far a s t o p u t t h a t q u e s t i o n o u t o f d o u b t . )
[19, 20]
("I reserve, bis a u f a m p l e r i n f o r m a t i o n the discussion of s o m e of t h e
o p i n i o n s w h i c h L. P a l m e r s t o n . . . h a s expressed to y o u " ...) T h i s minister 15
a p p e a r s to me to m a k e up his m i n d a little t o o readily to a s e c o n d
R u s s i a n expedition t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , u p o n t h e faith o f g u a r a n t e e s , per-
h a p s illusory . . . he does n o t a p p r e c i a t e , in a m a n n e r sufficiently i m p a r -
tial, the respective positions o f the P o r t e a n d M e h e m e t Ali. A t V i e n n a
they are very e q u i t a b l y disposed u p o n this s u b j e c t . . . M. de B a r a n t e will 20
g u a r d his l a n g u a g e in a m a n n e r to a v o i d giving rise to t h e s u p p o s i t i o n
t h a t we recognise even in the m o s t restricted sense, t h e validity of t h e
t r e a t y (of U n k i a r Skelessi) against which we h a v e p r o t e s t e d in 1833; or . . .
t h a t . . . w e w o u l d b e disposed t o tolerate either t h e s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e
t h r o n e of t h e Sultan, or t h e d i s m e m b e r m e n t of t h e E m p i r e . (Duc de 25
Dalmatie (Soult) to Baron de Bourqueney. Paris. May, 30. 1839) [25, 26]
A E u r o p e a n C o n v e n t i o n s h o u l d t a k e the place of t h e stipulations of
U n k i a r Skelessi. I am n o t i g n o r a n t of all t h e obstacles w h i c h w o u l d be
raised to such a p l a n by t h e C a b i n e t of St. P e t e r s b u r g h , w h o s e policy h a s
always been to k e e p its relations w i t h T u r k e y b e y o n d the pale of E u r o - 30
p e a n law. It is for the s a m e r e a s o n t h a t there are g r o u n d s for fearing t h a t
t h a t C a b i n e t will n o t lend itself to n e g o t i a t i o n s carried on by m e a n s of
p e r m a n e n t conferences. (Id. to id. J u n e 17, 1839) [81]
In den Proposed Instructions to Sir Robert Stopford ( J u n e 19, 1839)
heits: 35
In such an event (nmlich w e n n des S u l t a n ' s a r m y h a d suffered a great
defeat) it is also possible t h a t a R u s s i a n force, either n a v a l or military,
m i g h t enter t h e p o r t s a n d t e r r i t o r y of Turkey with t h e professed object of

108
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant

p r o t e c t i n g the S u l t a n . . . After the A d m i r a l h a d o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e P a s h a


the o r d e r for the r e t r e a t of his t r o o p s , a n d after he h a d received certain
i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t such o r d e r h a d b e e n o b e y e d , i t w o u l d b e extremely
desirable, t h a t the Brit, s q u a d r o n s h o u l d p r o c e e d t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a n d
5 should r e m a i n there, or in the Black Sea, until t h e R u s s i a n forces h a d
evacuated t h e T u r k i s h t e r r i t o r y . . . [85]
Nesselrode to Count Pozzo di Borgo. (Communicated by M. de Kisseleff.
St. Petersburg}} June 15, 1839. )
"If E n g l a n d c a m e to an a g r e e m e n t w i t h us to issue a d e c l a r a t i o n
10 couched in these t e r m s , the E m p e r o r w o u l d a u t h o r i s e his R e p r e s e n t a t i v e
a t A l e x a n d r i a t o h o l d precisely the s a m e l a n g u a g e . T h e o t h e r Allied
C o u r t s w o u l d d o u b t l e s s h a s t e n t o u n i t e their efforts t o those o f R u s s i a
a n d E n g l a n d . " [100]

[Pt. 2]

15 M. Thiers to Guizot. Paris, October 3, 1840. " W h e n t h e P o r t e , ill-advised,


renewed its hostilities w i t h t h e Viceroy, a n d lost at t h e s a m e time its a r m y
a n d its fleet . . . d a n n d e a t h o f the S u l t a n M a h m o u d , w h a t w a s t h e a p -
p r e h e n s i o n o f E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e , b o t h t h e n perfectly united? . . . t h a t o f
seeing I b r a h i m victorious, cross the T a u r u s , t h r e a t e n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ,
20 a n d bring, at the s a m e i n s t a n t t h e R u s s i a n s i n t o t h e C a p i t a l of t h e O t t o -
m a n E m p i r e . . . . F r a n c e s t o p p e d t h e v i c t o r i o u s E g y p t i a n a r m y ... she
conceived t h a t , before forcing the Dardanelles (wie der b r a v e P a l m e r s t o n
vorgeschlagen) i t w o u l d b e right t o d e m a n d f r o m t h e P o r t e its c o n s e n t t o
the entry of the 2 fleets in t h e event of a b o d y of R u s s i a n t r o o p s h a v i n g
25 traversed the B o s p h o r u s . . . E n g l a n d acceded to these P r o p o s i t i o n s , a n d
the 2 C a b i n e t s were perfectly agreed . . . |
t h
I[76]I O n the 2 5 o f M a y u . 2 0 o f J u n e . . . P a l m e r s t o n a c k n o w l e d g e d
dem H e r r n B o u r q u e n e y , d a die A n s p r c h e M e h e m e t A l i ' s a consider-
ation of s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e ; t h a t a higher c o n s i d e r a t i o n o u g h t to p r e -
30 d o m i n a t e over all o t h e r s , viz., the necessity of saving the O t t o m a n
Empire from an exclusive p r o t e c t i o n (der R u s s i a n ) which s o o n e r or l a t e r
would b e fatal t o it, i f F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d did n o t c o m e t o a n u n d e r -
standing . . . In diesen views d a s french C i r c u l a r , to all t h e c o u r t s d. d.
17 July 1839 u. N o t e of 27 July 1 8 3 9 s h e o r i g i n a t e d the p r o p o s a l of
35 uniting A u s t r i a , Prussia, a n d R u s s i a herself, in all t h e r e s o l u t i o n s relating
to the T u r c o - E g y p t i a n Q u e s t i o n . ( F r a n c e wollte check t h e Viceroy, zwei-
tens substitute for the exclusive p r o t e c t i o n of R u s s i a , t h a t of t h e 5 p r e -
p o n d e r a t i n g P o w e r s of E u r o p e . ) (1. c . ) . . . L o r d P a l m e r s t o n ... w a s less

109
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

d i s p o s e d t h a n F r a n c e to call for this general c o n c u r r e n c e of t h e 5 P o w -


ers . . . t h e English C a b i n e t t h e n believed t h a t i t c o u l d d e p e n d o n F r a n c e ,
b e y o n d all o t h e r s , for e n s u r i n g the safety o f t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e . . . . N o
o n e w a s t h e n disposed t o t h i n k t h a t t h e integrity o f t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e
d e p e n d e d on the b o u n d a r y which m i g h t s e p a r a t e t h e possessions of t h e 5
S u l t a n a n d the Viceroy in Syria. All held t h a t it r e p o s e d on a 2 fold
c o n d i t i o n : o n p r e v e n t i n g I b r a h i m from t h r e a t e n i n g t h e capital, a n d o n
e x e m p t i n g the R u s s i a n s from c o m i n g t o its s u c c o u r . F r a n c e s h a r e d this
belief with all t h e cabinets . . . A u s t r i a a n d P r u s s i a a d h e r e d to t h e views of
F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d . T h e C o u r t of R u s s i a refused to j o i n in t h e C o n - 10
ferences, which were to be held at V i e n n a w i t h t h e view of m a k i n g this
E u r o p e a n p r o t e c t o r a t e w i t h r e g a r d to the S u l t a n a m a t t e r of general
c o n c e r n . . . M . d e N e s s e l r o d e said t o the A m b a s s a d o r o f F r a n c e , i n t h e
b e g i n n i n g of A u g u s t , 1839 'for t h e rest, it is of small i m p o r t to us, w h e t h -
er a little m o r e , or a little less, be given to or t a k e n f r o m the P a s h a in 15
Syria'. D a m a l s also n u r R u s s i a dissentirt, d a s nicht liebt the 'Western
P o w e r s t o interfere i n t h e O r i e n t a l Q u e s t i o n ' . . . t h e d a n g e r w a s r e m o v e d
after I b r a h i m h a d s u s p e n d e d his victorious m a r c h . T h e 2 belligerent p a r -
ties w e r e in presence; t h e P a s h a all powerful, t h e S u l t a n b e a t e n a n d
w i t h o u t resources; yet b o t h m o t i o n l e s s , t h a n k s to the i n t e r v e n t i o n of 20
F r a n c e . T h e Brit. C a b i n e t p r o p o s e d to wrest the Turk, fleet from the
h a n d s of M e h e m e t Ali. This F r a n c e refused fearing to excite fresh h o s t i -
lities . . . So b e g a n n die difference of o p i n i o n . T h e ill will des Brit. C a b . fr
d e n Viceroy b r o k e o u t m i t great vivacy: F r a n c e s o u g h t t o m o d e r a t e it.
U p o n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of F r a n c e , t h e Brit. C a b . r e n o u n c e d t h e idea of 25
recovering t h e Turkish f l e e t b y forcible m e a n s . . . T h e Viceroy h a d c o n -
q u e r e d the S u l t a n at the Battle of Nesib, w i t h o u t h a v i n g b e e n t h e aggres-
sor, h a d c o n s e n t e d to stay w h e n he m i g h t h a v e o v e r t u r n e d t h e S u l t a n ' s
t h r o n e deserved m o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n als P a l m e r s t o n wollte; dieser n m -
lich f. d e n h e r e d i t a r y possession of E g y p t i h m n e h m e n t h e H o l y Cities, 30
t h e Island of C a n d a , t h e district of A d a n a u. t h e w h o l e of Syria . . .
F r a n c e wollte i h m lassen d e n h e r e d i t a r y possession o f Syria. D i e F r a n c e
p r o p o s e d in Sept. 1839. R u s s i a sent M. de B r u n n o w in Sept. to m a k e h e r
p r o p o s i t i o n s . R u s s i a w h o h a d lately repelled as little suitable t h e I d e a of
an E u r o p e a n I n t e r v e n t i o n between the S u l t a n a n d t h e Viceroy, a n d 35
a p p e a r e d to see no o t h e r resource b u t a direct a g r e e m e n t (zwischen P o r t e
u. E g y p t ) , R u s s i a n o w a d h e r e d to all the territorial a r r a n g e m e n t s which
E n g l a n d m i g h t please t o a d o p t , a n d d e m a n d e d , t h a t i n t h e event o f hosti-
lities 1771 r e c o m m e n c i n g , she m i g h t be p e r m i t t e d , in t h e n a m e of the
5 C o u r t s , to cover C o n s t a n t i n o p l e w i t h an a r m y ; while t h e English a n d 40
F r e n c h fleets s h o u l d b l o c k a d e Syria. T h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s exactly realised

110
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant

the c o m b i n a t i o n , w h i c h E n g l a n d h a d h i t h e r t o r e g a r d e d as the m o s t dan-


gerous for the Ottoman Empire,the p r o t e c t i o n of a R u s s i a n a r m y . . .
these p r o p o s i t i o n s n o t accepted. M . d e B r u n n o w left L o n d o n u . r e t u r n e d
to it in J a n u a r y 1840, w i t h n e w p r o p o s i t i o n s . . . they g r a n t e d F r a n c e u.
5 E n g l a n d the p o w e r of i n t r o d u c i n g each 3 ships of t h e line i n t o a limited
p a r t o f the Sea o f M a r m o r a , while t h e R u s s i a n t r o o p s s h o u l d o c c u p y
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . A t this p o i n t t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s r e m a i n e d s t a t i o n a r y
from F e b r u a r y - J u l y , 1840 . . . F r a n c e never ceased l a b o u r i n g to effect a
reconciliation b e t w e e n t h e S u l t a n a n d t h e Viceroy . . . E n g l a n d h a d t o
10 choose between Russia, offering it to a b a n d o n the Viceroy on c o n d i t i o n
t h a t M. de B r u n n o w ' s p r o p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d be a d o p t e d , i. e. t h a t the exe-
cution of the t r e a t y of U n k i a r Skelessi s h o u l d be acquiesced in by
E u r o p e ; a n d F r a n c e , merely d e m a n d i n g a j u s t a n d t e m p o r a t e n e g o t i a t i o n
between the S u l t a n a n d M e h e m e t A l i . . . I n 1839 L o r d P a l m e r s t o n b o t a n
15 the h e r e d i t a r y Possession of E g y p t , a n d t h e P a s h a l i c of A c r e , w i t h o u t t h e
fortress; in 1840 ... the Pashalic of A c r e , w i t h t h e fortress besides, b u t
w i t h o u t t h e h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t in t h e m . . . Diese lezte p r o p o s i t i o n , so little
w o r t h y of the title of a n e w p r o p o s i t i o n , h a d in no respect the c h a r a c t e r
of an u l t i m a t u m . It w a s n o t at all r e p r e s e n t e d to us in t h a t light. So far
20 were we f r o m viewing it as such t h a t on a h i n t from M. M. de B u l o w a n d
d e N e u m a n n , w e conceived t h e h o p e o f p r o c u r i n g for (1819, X X I 289)
the Viceroy the possession of all Syria, d u r i n g his life c o m b i n e d with the
hereditary possession o f E g y p t . U p o n the affirmation o f M . M . d e B u l o w
u . d e N e u m a n n t h a t this p r o p o s i t i o n , i f m a d e , w o u l d b e L o r d
25 P a l m e r s t o n ' s last concession, we d e s p a t c h e d M. E u g n e Perier to A l e -
xandria with a view to p r e d i s p o s e t h e Viceroy . . . F r a n c e h a d s o m e r i g h t
to think, t h a t so l o n g a n e g o t i a t i o n w o u l d n o t e n d w i t h o u t a final expla-
nation, t h a t . . . t h e alliance . . . for 10 J. m i t E n g l a n d w o u l d n o t be dis-
solved w i t h o u t a last effort t o w a r d s an a c c o m o d a t i o n , t h e obenangefiihr-
30 ten hints v. N e u m a n n etc confirmed h e r in this e x p e c t a t i o n . All at o n c e ,
o n July 1 7 L o r d P a l m e r s t o n s u m m o n s the F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r t o t h e for.
Office, a n d informs h i m t h a t a t r e a t y h a d b e e n signed 2 days before; he
tells h i m this, w i t h o u t even i m p a r t i n g to h i m the text of the treaty in
question . . . a r r a n g e m e n t n a h m place, w i t h o u t F r a n c e h a v i n g b e e n p r e -
35 viously apprised of t h e fact u. die F r e n c h alliance . . . so readily sacrificed.
... T h e offer of r e s t o r i n g t h e Turkish fleet, w h i c h t h e Viceroy m a d e in
June to the S u l t a n , f r o m w h i c h , it w a s feared, a direct a r r a n g e m e n t ,
secretly p r o p o s e d by us, m i g h t arise; t h e possibility w h i c h at t h a t t i m e
presented itself of raising Syria in revolt: vielleicht c a u s e d die s u d d e n
40 resolution des Brit. C a b i n . E g y p t w a s never really u n d e r t h e |
1781 d o m i n i o n of the S u l t a n s . . . T h e 4 p o w e r s , in g r a n t i n g to the success-

ili
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

fui vassal w h o h a s b e e n able to g o v e r n E g y p t , h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t in t h a t


p r o v i n c e , g r a n t h i m , besides t h e P a s h a l i c o f A c r e , b u t they refuse h i m t h e
3 o t h e r Pashalics of D a m a s c u s , A l e p p o , a n d Tripoli; a n d they call t h a t
preserving the integrity o f the O t t o m a n E m p i r e . T h e integrity o f t h e O t t .
E m p . is t h e n preserved, even if E g y p t a n d t h e P a s h a l i c of A c r e is de- 5
t a c h e d f r o m it, b u t destroyed, if, in a d d i t i o n to these, Tripoli, D a m a s c u s ,
a n d A l e p p o a r e d e t a c h e d . We plainly assert t h a t such a p r o p o s i t i o n c a n -
n o t b e gravely m a i n t a i n e d i n the face o f E u r o p e . . . D e r P a s h a h a t nicht
n u r E g y p t sich able gezeigt z u g o v e r n , s o n d e r n a u c h Syria, which t h e
S u l t a n s c o u l d never g o v e r n . . . Er restores in t h e M a h o m m e d a n s l o n g 10
h u m b l e d . . . t h e consciousness o f their s t r e n g t h . . . W h y w e a k e n this use-
ful vassal, w h o , o n c e s e p a r a t e d from the States of his M a s t e r by a well-
c h o s e n frontier, w o u l d b e c o m e for h i m t h e m o s t v a l u a b l e o f auxiliaries?
H e a i d e d t h e S u l t a n i n his struggle against G r e e c e . . . W h e n C o n s t a n t i -
n o p l e shall be t h r e a t e n e d , A l e x a n d r i a will be in peril. M e h e m e t Ali 15
k n o w s this w e l l . . . U n d d a s b o n d o f vassalage soil fortexistiren w a s n o t
t h e alliance of F r a n c e of greater c o n s e q u e n c e as r e g a r d s t h e integrity of
t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e a n d t h e peace o f t h e w o r l d , t h a n this o r t h a t line o f
d e m a r c a t i o n i n Syria? . . . T o expect t h a t w h e n w i t h o u t us, a n d i n spite o f
us, 4 p o w e r s shall h a v e p u r s u e d t o g e t h e r an object b a d in itself,... a n d 20
p u r s u e d it by an alliance t o o nearly r e s e m b l i n g t h o s e coalitions w h i c h
w i t h i n t h e last 50 y e a r s h a v e covered E u r o p e with b l o o d , F r a n c e will
after this be f o u n d w i t h o u t distrust, w i t h o u t r e s e n t m e n t for such an
insult, is to f o r m a n o t i o n which she h a s never given occasion to the
w o r l d to entertain of h e r n a t i o n a l p r i d e . " [285-292] 25

112
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

[Hansard's parliamentary debates.


Third Series
(Fortsetzung)]

[Vol. 54. London 1840.]


5 H. o. C. June 1. 1840.

Hume: " t h e collective n o t e of t h e 5 P o w e r s , delivered on July 27, 1839,


h a d prevented t h e D i v a n from c o n c l u d i n g p e a c e w i t h o u t their c o n c u r -
rence" . . . we h a d j o i n e d in s u p p o r t i n g the policy of R u s s i a . . . i n s t e a d of
forwarding, w e w e r e positively p r e v e n t i n g peace b e t w e e n T u r k e y a n d
10 E g y p t w h i c h w a s essentially a R u s s i a n o b j e c t . . . F r a n c e w a s desirous
that Syria, as well as E g y p t , s h o u l d be yielded up to M e h e m e t Ali, a n d
t h a t for Syria h e s h o u l d p a y t r i b u t e , o w n his vassalage t o the P o r t e , a n d
consent t o assist the S u l t a n , w h e n e v e r h e w a s r e q u i r e d t o d o s o . . . . H e
m a i n t a i n e d t h a t , i n t h e y e a r 1833, t h e S u l t a n h a d given M e h e m e t Ali
15 Syria as a P a s h a l i c , a n d h a d afterwards given h i m A d a n a a n d o t h e r
places as an a p p e n d a g e to it . . . it w a s in c o n s e q u e n c e of the S u l t a n ' s
having a t t e m p t e d t o t a k e b a c k t h o s e p r o v i n c e s from M e h e m e t Ali, a n d o f
his having l a n d e d t r o o p s in A s i a M i n o r to enforce his a t t e m p t , t h a t
Mehemet Ali h a d been compelled t o p u t his o w n forces i n m o t i o n , a n d
20 that in t h e progress of events t h e T u r k i s h fleet h a d deserted to h i m f r o m
the Sultan . . . W h e n M e h e m e t Ali h a d offered t o give b a c k t h e T u r k i s h
fleet o n certain t e r m s , t o b e g u a r a n t e e d b y F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d , E n g l a n d
had refused to g u a r a n t e e these t e r m s . . . W i t h i n the last 6 m o n t h s R e s c h i d
Pasha h a d m a d e a p r o p o s i t i o n for p e a c e t o M e h e m e t Ali, w h i c h w o u l d
25 have been accepted, h a d n o t the Brit. G o v . interfered to p r e v e n t ||79j it.
[781-784]

113
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Palmerston. He w a s fully p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e interests of this c o u n t r y


r e q u i r e d the m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d integrity o f t h e O t t o -
m a n e m p i r e . . . t h e integrity o f t h e O t t o m a n e m p i r e w o u l d a t o n c e b e
d e s t r o y e d by t h e d i s m e m b e r m e n t of s o m e of its m o s t fertile a n d rich
p r o v i n c e s . . . [788] 5

[Vol.55. London 1840.]


H. o. C. July 22. 1840.

Viscount Sandon. ... sulphur question . . . l t h e n o b l e L o r d h a d exerted


himself a s h e o u g h t t o h a v e d o n e , t h e d i s p u t e with N a p l e s relative t o this
m a t t e r w o u l d never h a v e g o n e to t h e e x t e n t of c r e a t i n g a r u p t u r e w i t h t h e 10
N e a p o l i t a n G o v . , o r t o perilling t h e v a l u a b l e interests o f o u r t r a d e w i t h
Sicily . . . M e x i c o h a d i m p o s e d a d u t y of nearly 200 % on s o m e articles of
o u r e x p o r t s w i t h o u t t h e notice of 6 m o n t h s , r e q u i r e d by t r e a t y , h a v i n g
b e e n given. T h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e n o b l e L o r d h a s b e e n called t o this s u b -
j e c t early in F e b r u a r y , lt 2 m o n t h s verstreichen (elapse), before a n y 15
i n s t r u c t i o n s h a d b e e n sent o u t . . . He w o u l d n e x t p a s s to Buenos Ayr es ...
h o w long the blockade of that country was to be permitted? Palmerston,
w h e n interrogated relative to this m a t t e r etc . . . e r k l r t e t h a t the b l o c k a d e
w a s only of an occasional c h a r a c t e r . B u t for 2 years t h e t r a d e of this
c o u n t r y h a d b e e n i n t e r r u p t e d by t h a t b l o c k a d e . . . Portugal ... 3 y e a r s 20
s i n c e i m p o s e d a differential d u t y of 15 % on all Brit, g o o d s c a r r i e d to
t h a t c o u n t r y f r o m E n g l a n d i n Brit, vessels . . . [882-884]
Maclean. " I n t h e affair of t h e Vixen, it w a s a l w a y s extremely difficult
t o ascertain t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s real o p i n i o n . " ( b e r die validity des t r e a t y
v. U n k i a r - S k e l e s i ) As to t h e p r e s e n t time t h e o p i n i o n of t h e foreign office 25
r e m a i n e d i n o b s c u r i t y a s t o w h e t h e r R u s s i a o b t a i n e d possession o f t h e
c o a s t o f Circassia b y t h e 6 t h article o f t h a t t r e a t y , a n d w h e t h e r w e were
n o t excluded f r o m t h e w h o l e c o a s t o f A b a s i a . . . [895]
Disraeli: F o r his o w n p a r t , h e t h o u g h t t h a t Brit, c o m m e r c e h a d been
m o r e prejudiced d u r i n g t h e foreign a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e n o b l e L o r d t h a n 30
in a n y o t h e r p e r i o d of t h e like extent in t h e h i s t o r y of t h e n a t i o n . [901 ]

H. 0. C. Aug. 6 1840.

Hume: " I n reply t o a n i n t i m a t i o n f r o m M e h e m e t Ali t h a t h e w o u l d


d e c l a r e himself i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e P o r t e , C o l . Campbell said: replied to
h i m t h a t he s h o u l d r e m a i n c o n t e n t e d with t h e status quo, as settled at 35

114
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

K i n t a y a h , a n d trust t o t h e g r e a t P o w e r s for a n y a r r a n g e m e n t for the


f u t u r e ' . . . M e h e m e t Ali was the de facto G o v e r n o r of Syria . . . G o v e r n -
m e n t a p p e a r e d t o h i m t o b e p l a y i n g t h e p a r t o f R u s s i a " . . . [1366-1368]
Palmerston. H i s h o n . friend h a d a s k e d w h a t h a d b e c o m e o f t h e t r e a t y
5 of U n k i a r Skelessi. He c o u l d tell his h o n . friend t h a t Russia had stated
t h a t o t h e r p o w e r s h a d m i s t a k e n h e r i n t e n t i o n s w i t h respect t o t h a t treaty,
a n d t h a t in signing it she h a d n o t been a c t u a t e d by a n y selfish or exclu-
sive views, a n d she w o u l d c o n s e n t if the o t h e r p o w e r s of E u r o p e w o u l d
join w i t h her, a n d t a k e the p o s i t i o n she held with reference t o this t r e a t y
10 between herself a n d Turkey, t h a t she w o u l d n o t r e n e w it, as she d i d n o t
wish to h a v e a n y exclusive c o n t r o l in t h e m a t t e r . T h e r e f o r e t h e distinct
policy of h e r M ' s G o v . a n d t h e o t h e r p o w e r s led to a clear u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,
t h a t the s e p a r a t e t r e a t y between R u s s i a a n d T u r k e y s h o u l d expire, a n d
should n o t be r e n e w e d . . . he c o u l d assure the H o u s e , t h a t in t h e w h o l e |
15 1801 of o u r p r o c e e d i n g s , n o t h i n g h a d b e e n d o n e in a n y w a y inimical to t h e
interests o f F r a n c e . H e w o u l d only a d d , t h a t a s the t r e a t y h a d n o t been
ratified, it c o u l d n o t be p r o d u c e d . . . [1374,1375]
A u f die F r a g e v. M r . Leader "it a p p e a r e d to be t h e general feeling in
F r a n c e , t h a t there h a d been a w a n t of official courtesy t o w a r d s F r a n c e in
20 the m o d e in w h i c h these n e g o t i a t i o n s w e r e carried o n " , [1376]
Palmerston " t h e r e w a s n o w a n t o f c o u r t e s y w h a t e v e r t o w a r d s F r a n c e
i n the m a n n e r i n w h i c h these n e g o t i a t i o n s h a d b e e n carried on. D u r i n g
the course of the last 10 m o n t h s , it w a s the desire of all the p o w e r s to act
in concert to secure t h e i m p o r t a n t object with respect to w h i c h t h e y w e r e
25 all agreed, b u t it t u r n e d o u t , after a s h o r t t i m e , t h a t t h e r e w a s such a
difference o f o p i n i o n b e t w e e n F r a n c e a n d t h e o t h e r p o w e r s a s t o t h e
measures which s h o u l d be a d o p t e d to insure t h e result w h i c h all desired,
that they c o u l d n o t act t o g e t h e r w i t h a n y p r o b a b i l i t y of arriving at a
conclusion. On this b e i n g f o u n d to be the case a c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s
30 m a d e to F r a n c e t h a t if this difficulty c o n t i n u e d , a n d the o t h e r 4 p o w e r s
came t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o n the subject, t h a t m u s t n o t b e a m a t t e r o f
surprise to h e r . . . a p r o j e t w a s d r a w n up on o u r side w h i c h w a s p r e s e n t e d
to F r a n c e , w h i c h w a s a n s w e r e d by a contre projet on h e r p a r t . We t h e n
offered a m i d d l e c o u r s e to w h i c h F r a n c e stated, t h a t she c o u l d n o t agree.
35 Again, between 2 or 3 m o n t h s before the c o n v e n t i o n was signed, a c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n was m a d e t o h e r o n this subject, a n d i t w a s distinctly s t a t e d
to be the extreme to w h i c h t h e o t h e r p o w e r s w e r e p r e p a r e d to g o . After
2 m o n t h s ' deliberation she gave p o i n t e d a n d conclusive r e a s o n s w h y she
could n o t be a p a r t y to this a r r a n g e m e n t . T h e 4 p o w e r s t h e n d e t e r m i n e d ,
40 in accordance with the regulation already made with France, t h a t t h e y
would j o i n in c a r r y i n g the a r r a n g e m e n t into effect, a n d n o t i c e of t h e

115
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

s a m e w a s given to t h e F r e n c h M i n i s t e r 2 days after it was completed"


[1377, 1378]
(Prorogation of Parliament, Aug. 11 1840), aufgelst d a s H. o. C.
J u n e 22, 1841.) [1410]

[Vol. 56. London 1841.] s


. o. Lords. Jan. 26, 1841.

Lord Brougham. In 1839 we offered to t h e P a c h a himself E g y p t . . . in


a b s o l u t e h e r e d i t a r y sovereignty ... I n O c t o b e r 1839, w e offered n o t o n l y
E g y p t , b u t w e p r o p o s e d t o c u t o u t o f Syria, b y w a y o f a d d i t i o n o r a r r o n
dissement, for E g y p t , a large a n d i m p o r t a n t p o r t i o n . We offered in fact 10
t h e p a c h a l i c o f A c r e , which, a s h a s b e e n said, m e a n t Syria . . . I n M a y ,
1840, we h a d offered t h e P a c h a l i c for life, w i t h t h e fortress. . . . t h e dif
ference b e t w e e n the h e r e d i t a r y offer a n d t h a t for life in t h e e a s t . . . so
trivial a n d i n s i g n i f i c a n t . . . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d integrity o f
t h e T u r k i s h e m p i r e , w h i c h w a s an object of s u c h p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e , 15
t h a t for i t w e w e r e t o give u p t h e alliance w i t h F r a n c e , t o u n i t e ourselves
w i t h t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e h o l y Alliance, w i t h R u s s i a , A u s t r i a , a n d P ru s s i a ,
i n preference t o F r a n c e , w a s o f s u c h weight w i t h u s i n M a y , 1840, t h a t w e
offered to give up to its s u p p o s e d e n e m y , M e h e m e t Ali, t h e fortress of
A c r e , w h i c h w a s t h e key t o t h e p a c h a l i c , t h e p a c h a l i c b e i n g t h e k e y t o 20
Syria, Syria b e i n g t h e key t o t h e T a u r u s , t h e T a u r u s b e i n g t h e key t o t h e
B o s p h o r u s , a n d t h e B o s p h o r u s t h e key t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ... W h a t a
s t r a n g e t h i n g i t w a s t h a t o u r policy b e i n g entirely d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t o n e
p a r t i c u l a r p o w e r , R u s s i a , w h o of all t h e w o r l d s h o u l d be f o u n d a c o n
senting p a r t y t o o u r policy, b u t t h a t very p o w e r ? N a y m o r e , t h e policy i n 25
q u e s t i o n b e i n g directed a g a i n s t Russia, t h e very s a m e p o w e r w a s its |
|[81]| g r e a t p a t r o n , if n o t its original p r o p o s e r . ... R u s s i a herself b e i n g t h e
p r i n c i p a l p r o m o t e r , i f n o t t h e original a u t h o r o f t h e p l a n ... R u s s i a n o t
only a party, but, u n d e r h a n d , a n d in some way or other, the contriver
a n d suggester o f t h e w h o l e ... t h e alliance b e t w e e n E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e 30
m a d e i t hopeless for R u s s i a t o t u r n h e r eyes t o w a r d s C o n s t a n t i n o p l e
t h i s i t w a s , t h a t , while i t e n d u r e d , m a d e t h e T u r k i s h e m p i r e , even i n its
w e a k n e s s , secure. A n d i f t h e r e w a s o n e single object m o r e cherished,
m o r e p u r s u e d t h a n a n o t h e r b y R u s s i a , i t w a s t h a t this alliance b e t w e e n
E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e s h o u l d cease ... t o g a i n this object a t a n y price h a d 35
l o n g b e e n t h e chief a i m o f R u s s i a . . . [19-24]

116
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

. o. C. Januar 26. 1841.

Mr. Grote, ( b e r d a s a g r e e m e n t of J u l y 27, 1839) " I n so far as c o n c e r n s


o u r Syrian expedition, i t surely r e q u i r e s n o very l o n g d r a w n d e d u c t i o n t o
p r o v e t h a t w e h a v e a c q u i r e d t h e r e b y n o i n c r e a s e d securities a g a i n s t R u s -
5 sian a m b i t i o n . W h y , R u s s i a is herself t h e g r a n d p r o j e c t o r of t h e enter-
prise . . . we (are said t o ) h a v e o v e r r e a c h e d R u s s i a by executing a R u s s i a n
plan of c a m p a i g n . . . convention of Kutajah (in Bezug a u f P o r t e u. M e h e -
m e t Ali) v. 1833 . . . P a l m e r s t o n e r k l r t e selbst March 1 7 , 1 8 3 4 , ' t h a t t h e
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m a d e b y t h e Brit. G o v . t o t h e P a c h a o f E g y p t , a n d t o
10 Ibrahim Pacha, did materially contribute to bring a b o u t that arrange-
ment between the Sultan a n d the P a c h a by which the war was termi-
n a t e d ' . . . M e h e m e t Ali h a s n e v e r v i o l a t e d t h e settlement o f K u t a j a h ; t h e
P a c h a held i n 1840 t h e s a m e t e r r i t o r y w h i c h t h a t c o n v e n t i o n allotted t o
him, w i t h o u t a n y s u b s e q u e n t increase. T h e S u l t a n tried t o v i o l a t e t h e
15 c o n v e n t i o n in 1839, b u t w a s defeated at t h e b a t t l e of N e z i b . . . t h e n o b l e
L o r d ( P a l m e r s t o n ) c h o s e t o b e c o m e himself t h e direct a g e n t i n s u b v e r t i n g
the settlement of K u t a y a h . . . " [54, 56, 57]
Hume. " S o early as t h e 27 M a r c h 1840 m o v e d fr die p r o d u c t i o n of
p a p e r s . . . t h e n o b l e L o r d m a n a g e d a d r o i t l y t o e v a d e t h e m o t i o n , 'it
20 w o u l d be injurious to t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e ' . . . Am 24 July challenged t h e
noble L o r d w i t h h a v i n g agreed to a t r e a t y 10 d a y s before, a n d a s k e d for
i n f o r m a t i o n , etc. P a r t of t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s s t a t e m e n t w a s a denial of the
existence of any such treaty a m e r e t e c h n i c a l e r r o r justified t h e n o b l e
L o r d in such a s t a t e m e n t , b e c a u s e w h a t he h a d called a t r e a t y , w a s in
25 H. M ' s speech styled a convention . . . In t h a t d a y ' s Morning Post, n o t i c e
was given t h a t such a t r e a t y h a d b e e n a g r e e d t o , b u t t h e n o b l e L o r d said
t h a t he h a d n o t seen t h e Morning Post, a n d this w a s t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e
H o u s e h a d b e e n t r e a t e d . All i n f o r m a t i o n w a s w i t h h e l d , a n d yet w i t h i n a
m o n t h afterwards t h e y f o u n d t h a t s u c h a t r e a t y h a d b e e n c o n c l u d e d . . . I t
30 was well k n o w n that a majority of the cabinet w e r e o p p o s e d to h i m
(Palmerston) ... [83-85] t h e d y i n g w o r d s of t h e S u l t a n M a h m o u d w e r e to
enjoin t h a t p e a c e s h o u l d b e m a d e w i t h M e h e m e t A l i . . . M r . W o o d , t h e
agent o f L o r d P o n s o n b y , h a d c a r r i e d m o n e y a n d a r m s t o Syria a n d h a d
done its u t m o s t to p r o m o t e d i s o r d e r a n d r e v o l u t i o n ...In July 1838 on
35 the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of t h e Brit, a n d F r e n c h c o n s u l s , t h e P o r t e laid
aside his i n t e n t i o n to t h r o w off t h e T u r k i s h allegiance . . . 50,000 s t a n d of
arms h a v i n g b e e n p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d o f t h e D r u s e s , a n d o t h e r tribes o f
Syria, s o d a n o m e n alive c o u l d say, w h e n a n d for h o w l o n g t h e o r d e r s o f

117
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

t h e S u l t a n w o u l d b e o b e y e d b y t h e m . . . t h e real secret w a s t h a t R u s s i a
wished t o cripple a n d w e a k e n Turkey, a n d n o m e a n s m o r e effectual c o u l d
b e f o u n d t h a n p r o m o t i n g civil w a r . . . A u f j e d e m a n d r e n Weg M e h e m e t
Ali w o u l d h a v e b e e n left r e a d y a t a n y t i m e t o m a r c h 5 0 o r 60,000 m e n t o
the defence of Turkey, s h o u l d etc be assailed by R u s s i a . . . [88-90] In 5
seinem a m e n d m e n t schlug H u m e u . a . v o r ' t h a t w e r e g a r d w i t h distrust
t h e C o n v e n t i o n f o r m e d b y H . M ' s Ministers w i t h t h e m i l i t a r y gov. o f
Russia, Prussia, a n d A u s t r i a , u n d e r the p r e t e x t o f preserving t h e integrity
o f t h e O t t . E m p i r e , w h i c h h a s been m o r e injured b y t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t s o f
R u s s i a t h a n by a n y o t h e r p o w e r ' " . . . | [93] 10
I[82]I Sir R. Peel ... G u i z o t selbst erklrt in der F r e n c h C h a m b e r of
D e p u t i e s " t h e fact o f t h e t r e a t y h a v i n g been signed w a s n o t c o m m u n i -
th
cated to me until the 1 7 of July, 2 days after it t o o k p l a c e " " C o n s i d e r i n g
t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e m a n , a n d especially c o n s i d e r i n g t h e friendly feeling
of M. G u i z o t t o w a r d s E n g l a n d , he c o u l d n o t b u t say, t h a t after t h e 15
signing of the t r e a t y of July 15, between the p o w e r s w h o were severally
parties to t h e treaties of 1814 a n d 1815, h a v i n g such a m a n as M r . G u i z o t
resident a m o n g s t us, a n d leaving h i m i g n o r a n t o f t h e fact, h e w a s n o t
surprised t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e s o m e g r o u n d for i n d i g n a t i o n . " . . . H e m u s t
enter his p r o t e s t a g a i n s t P a r l i a m e n t h a v i n g been allowed to s e p a r a t e last 20
y e a r w i t h o u t a k n o w l e d g e of t h e events t h e n in p r o g r e s s h a v i n g b e e n
th
c o m m u n i c a t e d to i t . . . P a r l i a m e n t was sitting on t h e 15 of July, w h e n
the n o b l e L o r d said, t h a t he still h o p e d for t h e c o r d i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n of
F r a n c e . . . t h e general t e n o r o f t h e speech o f t h e n o b l e L o r d w a s , t h a t
F r a n c e w a s f a v o u r a b l e to his views. T h e n o b l e L o r d h a d t h e n t h e letter of 25
M. G u i z o t in his possession, c o n t a i n i n g a s t r o n g r e m o n s t r a n c e u p o n the
subject of t h e treaty . . . If such c o n d u c t w e r e to be acted on as a prece-
dent, it w o u l d u n d e r m i n e t h e a u t h o r i t y of P a r l i a m e n t . . . B u t the peculiar
conduct of the n o b l e L o r d w i t h r e g a r d to the t r e a t y s h o u l d be r e m e m -
bered. So a n x i o u s was he for its immediate execution, that the parties to it 30
consented that it should be put into operation without waiting for its rati-
fication. T h e i r o r d e r s were given to their n a v a l a n d military c o m m a n d e r s
to c o n v e y fire a n d s w o r d i n t o the h e a r t of Syria . . . [101, 103]

118
"

Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

[Vol. 59. London 1841.]


H. o. C. Sept. 20, 1841

Dr. Bowring: As l o n g a g o as 1836, L o r d P o n s o n b y h a d sent a s u b o r d i


n a t e official of t h e C o n s t a n t i n o p o l i t a n E m b a s s y , a L e v a n t i n e , to s o w t h e
5 seeds of d i s c o n t e n t a n d i n s u r r e c t i o n ( d e r Syrians gegen M e h e m e d Ali)
and he (Mr. Wood) h a d been rewarded by the consulship of D a m a s c u s .
This g e n t l e m a n ( M r . W o o d ) r e t u r n e d a g a i n w h e n i t w a s decided b y t h e
4 P o w e r s t o eject M e h e m e t Ali f r o m Syria, a n d L o r d P o n s o n b y t h u s
i n s t r u c t e d h i m o n A u g u s t 4 , 1840: " I direct y o u t o d e c l a r e i n m y n a m e
10 loudly t o w h o e v e r c h o o s e s t o h e a r y o u , t h a t I a m a u t h o r i z e d t o a c q u a i n t
the Syrians t h a t t h e Brit. G o v . , i n u n i o n w i t h t h e G o v . o f A u s t r i a , R u s
sia, a n d Prussia, will p r o t e c t t h e Syrians w h o shall r e t u r n t o t h e direct
obedience of t h e S u l t a n . " . . . . D i e C o n s p i r a t i o n des W o o d in 1836 bewie
sen d u r c h seine Briefe an d e n E m i r B e c h i r El S h e c k a b y on A u g . 13, 1840,
15 an d e n E m i r El K a s i m , ( a n d e n M a r o n i t e P a t r i a r c h A u g u s t 15, 1840,) . . .
This C h r i s t i a n ( W o o d ) , e n v o y o f a C h r i s t i a n G o v . called u p o n t h e M u s
s u l m a n s i n t h e n a m e o f t h e K o r a n , w h i c h h e entitled " t h e H o l y B o o k "
" t h e Sacred L a w " , t o revolt ... H i s zeal, i n d e e d , seemed t o b e b o u n d l e s s
... [629, 630]
20 D a s S c h e i m i n i s t e r i u m resignirte ( A u g u s t 30, 1841.) |

[Vol.55. London 1840.]


I [83] I H. o. C. July 13, 1840.

(Krakeel m . C h i n a , N a p l e s , B u e n o s A y r e s , Persia, Brasilien, W a s h i n g t o n


etc)
25 Sir Stratford Canning. D i e o c c u p a t i o n of C r a c o w d a u e r t e v. 1838 b e r
1840 h i n a u s . D i e 3 residents u s u r p i r t e n alle P o w e r , d e s t r o y e d t h e t r a d e
between C r a c o w a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n , w h i c h for a p e r i o d of 16 years a p -
peared so p r o m i s i n g ; t r a d e a n d i n d u s t r y of t h e c o u n t r y r u i n e d towards
the close of 1839. D a s people of Cracow d r e w up a n d a d d r e s s e d a m e m o -
30 r a n d u m to t h e G o v . of F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d . D a r i n h e i t es: " t h e m i s -
fortunes w h i c h o v e r w h e l m t h e free city of C r a c o w a n d its i n h a b i t a n t s a r e
such t h a t t h e u n d e r s i g n e d see n o further h o p e for themselves a n d their
fellow citizens t h a n in t h e powerful a n d e n l i g h t e n e d p r o t e c t i o n of t h e
gov. of F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d . T h e s i t u a t i o n in t h e free city of C r a c o w
35 deprived of liberty for t h e exercise of i n d u s t r y in t h e limits i n d i s p e n s a b l e

119
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

to its d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d of a sufficient protection for p r i v a t e interests


a g a i n s t a r b i t r a r y p o w e r , t h a t u p o n their n a r r o w frontiers their c o m m u -
nications i n t e r r u p t e d with t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g states; t h e university o f C r a -
c o w , w h i c h b y the resort o f y o u n g m e n from the n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s ,
c o n f o r m a b l y to t h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a , m i g h t h a v e secured to t h e c o u n t r y a 5
c e r t a i n degree of welfare . . . is n o w w i t h o u t s t u d e n t s , in c o n s e q u e n c e of
the p r o h i b i t i o n s t o allow t h e y o u t h o f the n e i g h b o u r i n g p r o v i n c e s t o
p u r s u e their studies there. This m e a s u r e is m a i n t a i n e d a l t h o u g h t h e u n i -
versity h a s b e e n re-constituted a c c o r d i n g t o the i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e p r o t e c t -
i n g sovereigns, a n d t h a t the c o m p e t i t i o n for the p r o f e s s o r s h i p be s u b - 10
m i t t e d to t h e decision of universities, situate w i t h i n the states of the
p r o t e c t i n g sovereigns.) a n d in which we f o u n d ourselves p l a c e d gives us
the right t o i n v o k e the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f every p o w e r t h a t subscribed the
t r e a t y of V i e n n a . " [674-676]
M r . H. Gaily Knight. T h e r e is s o m e t h i n g curiously inconsistent in the 15
p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e n o b l e L o r d w h e n R u s s i a i s c o n c e r n e d , . . . will h e d o
n o t h i n g for C r a c o w , t h a t h e m a y get a R u s s i a n a r m y t o d e s c e n d into
A s i a m i n o r , a n d t h u s , eventually, give the D a r d a n e l l e s t o R u s s i a , a n d
E g y p t t o F r a n c e ? . . . i s n o t the t i m e w h e n w e are e n t e r i n g i n t o n e w
e n g a g e m e n t s with R u s s i a a fit o p p o r t u n i t y for asserting t h e rights of 20
C r a c o w ? A c o n t r a c t implies t h a t e a c h p a r t y w a n t s s o m e t h i n g of the
other, a n d therefore offers the m o m e n t w h e n c o n d i t i o n s m a y b e
m a d e . . . At 1836 t h r e e of the 5 P o w e r s w h o were parties to t h e t r e a t y of
V i e n n a , t o o k u p o n themselves w i t h o u t a n y reference to t h e 2 o t h e r
c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s , to confer u p o n C r a c o w w h a t they called a n e w c o n - 25
stitution, a n d t o declare, t h a t f r o m t h a t t i m e t h e residents o f t h e
3 C o u r t s s h o u l d b e c o m e the gov. of this free c o u n t r y . . . At l e n g t h t h e
c o m p l a i n t of C r a c o w reached this c o u n t r y , a n d a m o t i o n on its b e h a l f
w a s m a d e i n this H o u s e o n w h i c h occasion t h e n o b l e L o r d declared
" t h a t he c o u l d n o t see a n y sufficient justification of t h e c o u r s e w h i c h 30
the 3 p o w e r s h a d p u r s u e d " . . . the c o n s t i t u t i o n of C r a c o w is a n n u l l e d ,
the Senate overthrown, the independence of her tribunals destroyed, her
c o m m e r c e is at a s t a n d , a n d even her ancient university to w h i c h the
y o u t h o f P o l a n d used t o resort, h a s been p l u n d e r e d o f its e n d o w m e n t s ,
a n d is all b u t p u t d o w n . T h e very police of t h e p l a c e a r e foreigners 35
( A u s t r i a n s ) n o t p r o t e c t o r s , b u t s p i e s a n d p a i d b y the 3 p r o t e c t i n g
p o w e r s a r e e m p l o y e d t o w a t c h t h e t o r m e n t e d i n h a b i t a n t s , a n d ||36| in-
v e n t t h e conspiracies w h i c h they fail to create . . . C r a c o w , la citta
d o l e n t e . W h a t C r a c o w desires is, t h a t a conference of the 5 p o w e r s
s h o u l d be c o n v e n e d , a n d restore t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n to w h a t it w a s origi- 40
nally m a d e by the t r e a t y of Vienna, a n d t h a t for t h e future a British
consul a n d a F r e n c h C o n s u l s h o u l d reside at C r a c o w . . . . T h e S e n a t e of

120
Aus Hansard's parliamentary d e b a t e s .
Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 1. Seite 83
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

F r a n c e h a v e a l r e a d y p r o c l a i m e d their s e n t i m e n t s o n this subject a n d t h e


n e w M i n i s t e r (Thiers) of F r a n c e is t h e declared friend of C r a c o w . . . .
[680, 683] O n these subjects (connected m i t P o l a n d ) t h e n o b l e L o r d h a s
d i s a p p o i n t e d u s a g a i n a n d again. I r e m e m b e r w h e n t h e n o b l e L o r d w a s
5 pressed to exert himself in f a v o u r of P o l a n d , t h a t he a d m i t t e d t h e justice
of the cause, t h e justice of o u r c o m p l a i n t s , b u t he said only restrain
yourselves a t present, t h e r e i s a n a m b a s s a d o r j u s t setting o u t o f k n o w n
liberal s e n t i m e n t s , y o u m a y be sure he will do all t h a t is right, y o u will
only e m b a r r a s s his n e g o t i a t i o n i f y o u incense t h e p o w e r w i t h w h o m h e
10 h a s to deal, so, t a k e my advice, be quiet at present, a n d be assured t h a t a
great deal will be effected. We t r u s t e d to t h o s e a s s u r a n c e s . T h e L i b e r a l
a m b a s s a d o r w e n t , w h e t h e r h e ever a p p r o a c h e d t h e subject o r n o t w a s
never k n o w n , b u t all w e got w a s t h e f i n e w o r d s o f t h e n o b l e L o r d , a n d n o
results. A g a i n w h e n Sir St. C a n n i n g on a f o r m e r o c c a s i o n b r o u g h t for-
15 w a r d t h e subject of C r a c o w , we were p r o m i s e d t h a t an E n g l i s h c o n s u l
s h o u l d be established at C r a c o w in a very s h o r t time. W h a t h a s b e e n
d o n e ? the n o b l e L o r d t o l d u s , i n t h e early p a r t o f this session, t h a t h e d i d
n o t h i n g for fear of giving u m b r a g e . [680]
Sir St. Canning. T h e first o c c u p a t i o n of C r a c o w t o o k place u n d e r cir-
20 c u m s t a n c e s . . . w h i c h t h r e w a softening s h a d o w over it, a n d afforded
some excuse for the v i o l a t i o n of t h e treaty. It w a s i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e
close of t h e Polish i n s u r r e c t i o n . . . the R u s s i a n t r o o p s s u d d e n l y e n t e r e d
C r a c o w . . . the o c c u p a t i o n lasted only for 2 m o n t h s . [673]
Lord Palmerston ... T h e g r o u n d s on w h i c h t h e 3 p o w e r s justified t h e
25 step they h a d t a k e n , h o w e v e r valid they m i g h t in their o w n o p i n i o n d e e m
t h e m , were n o t b o r n o u t b y the fact, a n d w e r e n o t sufficient t o b r i n g t h e
o c c u p a t i o n o f C r a c o w within t h e t r e a t y o f V i e n n a . H . M . ' s M i n i s t e r s h a d
informed t h e 3 p o w e r s t h a t they d e e m e d t h e o c c u p a t i o n of C r a c o w a
violation o f the t r e a t y o f V i e n n a a n d h a d p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t it; b u t i t w a s
30 one t h i n g to express an o p i n i o n , a n d a n o t h e r t h i n g to t a k e hostile steps
t o c o m p e l t h e 3 p o w e r s t o u n d o a n act w h i c h they h a d d o n e , a n d espe-
cially in a case w h e r e , f r o m local a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , there
were no means of enforcing the opinions of England, s u p p o s e d t h a t this
c o u n t r y w a s disposed t o d o s o b y a r m s , except b y declaring w a r , b e c a u s e
35 C r a c o w w a s evidently a place w h e r e no English a c t i o n c o u l d by possi-
bility t a k e place . . . It w a s o b v i o u s t h a t C r a c o w , if its commercial inter-
course w i t h this c o u n t r y w e r e merely c o n s i d e r e d in reference to its o w n
particular c o n s u m p t i o n , c o u l d n o t b e a n object o f very g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e .
The p o p u l a t i o n o f the city o f C r a c o w did n o t a m o u n t t o m u c h m o r e t h a n
40 110,000 souls. As a p o i n t of c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e rest of t h e c o n t i n e n t , it
was u n d o u b t e d l y , in times p a s t of s o m e i m p o r t a n c e . . . 371 W i t h respect

123
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

to t h e o c c u p a t i o n of the city of C r a c o w , it s h o u l d be recollected t h a t


t h o u g h that occupation was sanctioned and ordered by the 3 powers, it
w a s practically executed chiefly by A u s t r i a . It w a s at present, a n d h a d
b e e n for s o m e time g a r r i s o n e d b y A u s t r i a n t r o o p s . . . b e t w e e n A u s t r i a
a n d t h e Brit. G o v . the q u e s t i o n (of the e v a c u a t i o n of C r a c o w by t h e 5
A u s t r i a n G a r r i s o n ) remained only a question of time ... If he were n o w
a s k e d to say when t h a t object (the release of C r a c o w f r o m military occu-
pation) would be obtained, or what were the intentions of Ministers on
t h e subject, he t h o u g h t t h a t his experience of t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h his
unfortunate assertion of an intention to appoint a Brit. Consul at Cracow 10
h a d b e e n t a k e n u p b y h o n . G e n t l e m e n o p p o s i t e , justified h i m i n posi-
tively refusing to give any answer to such a q u e s t i o n , w h i c h m i g h t expose
h i m to similar . . . unjustifiable a t t a c k s . . . he certainly s h o u l d n o t r e c o m -
m e n d t h e H o u s e t o follow t h e e x a m p l e o f the F r e n c h C h a m b e r s . . . .
[685-687, 689] 15
Sir R. Peel ...he t h o u g h t t h a t t h e n o b l e L o r d h a d q u i t e failed to
establish his p o s i t i o n , t h a t the t r a d e a n d c o m m e r c e o f this c o u n t r y h a d
lost n o t h i n g i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f the o c c u p a t i o n o f C r a c o w . . . H o w did t h e
n o b l e L o r d m a k e o u t his case? By s h o w i n g t h a t t h e a m o u n t of general
exports to Germany h a d n o t fallen o f f . . . the q u e s t i o n , in fact, was h o w 20
did t h e n o b l e L o r d s h o w t h a t o u r c o m m e r c e w i t h t h e w h o l e o f t h e n o r t h
of t h e c o n t i n e n t w o u l d n o t h a v e s h o w n a g r e a t e r progressive increase if
we h a d r e t a i n e d t h e t r a d e of C r a c o w ? . . . [691, 692] entwickelt zugleich
" t h a t h a d m o r e active m e a s u r e s been t a k e n b y G o v . a t a n earlier p e r i o d ,
this u s u r p a t i o n w o u l d h a v e been p u t a s t o p t o " , u. d a w e n n P a l m e r s t o n , 25
s t a t t 1836 i m P a r l a m e n t previously z u e r k l r e n , t h e i n t e n t i o n o f G r e a t
Britain of sending o u t a consul, wirklich einen geschickt h t t e , he w o u l d
h a v e succeeded. . . . [694, 695]
Lord Eliot: W h e n the n o b l e L o r d told t h e m t h a t t h e allied P o w e r s
i n t e n d e d to w i t h d r a w their garrisons he h a d n o t also t o l d t h e m t h a t they 30
i n t e n d e d t o restore t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f C r a c o w , a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o -
visions of the treaty.
A u f I n t e r p e l l a t i o n v. Sir Strat. C a n n i n g gesteht Palmerston t h a t he h a d
received the a d d r e s s a n d m e m o r i a l sent b y t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f C r a c o w t o
the G o v . of Engl. u. F r a n c e . [695] 35

124
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

[Vol. 88. London 1846.]


H. o. C. Aug. 17. 1846

Hume t r g t an " t h a t a h u m b l e A d d r e s s be laid before h e r Majesty, p r a y -


ing h e r to lay before t h e H o u s e a c o p y of t h e C o n v e n t i o n e n t e r e d i n t o by
5 the 4 G r e a t P o w e r s of E u r o p e . " [820]
Palmerston u n i m p o r t a n t differences . . . u p o n this p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t
with F r a n c e . . . in these p r o c e e d i n g s no c o n c e a l m e n t h a d been p r a c t i s e d
t o w a r d s F r a n c e . . . W h a t on e a r t h h a d t h e holy alliance to do w i t h this
treaty w h i c h h a d b e e n entered i n t o for a specific p u r p o s e ? t h e treaty,
10 also, was n o t w i t h t h e s a m e parties t h a t c o n t r a c t e d the h o l y alliance, for
England was no party to that alliance ... \

[Vol. 19. London 1833.]


1381 H. o. C. July 11. 1833.

Henry L. Bulwer. By the treaty of Adrianople ... the Sublime P o r t e w a s


15 d e g r a d e d in t h e eyes of its subjects, a n d t h e prestige which formerly h u n g
a r o u n d i t w a s g o n e . T h i s w a s all t h a t R u s s i a w a n t e d . . . t h e disgrace o f
the P o r t e n a t u r a l l y o c c a s i o n e d a variety of i n s u r r e c t i o n s a m o n g s t its s u b -
jects; M e h e m e t Ali, o f t h o s e subjects a t f i r s t t h e m o s t powerful, a n d
afterwards the m o s t f o r m i d a b l e . . . . I t w a s said, t h a t s o m e t i m e p r e -
20 vious to t h e R u s s i a n expedition, or c o n s e n t of assistance, she (Russia)
informed us, a n d the P o r t e specially i n f o r m e d us, t h a t events were t a k i n g
place i n A s i a w h i c h w o u l d oblige t h e P o r t e t o h a v e recourse t o foreign
interference, a n d t h a t we w e r e a s k e d by both p a r t i e s to p u t a s t o p to
M e h e m e t ' s p r o g r e s s , w h i c h a n o t e from u s a m e r e n o t e f r o m u s w o u l d
2 5 have been able t o d o . T h a t this n o t e w e delayed writing, a n d t h a t t h u s
Russia was forced to t a k e t h e p a r t she t o o k . . . s o m e p e r s o n s s e e m e d
rather t o f a v o u r t h e idea o f R u s s i a n d o m i n i o n i n t h e E a s t a s f a v o u r a b l e
t o the general civilization a n d t o t h e h a p p i n e s s o f the p e o p l e o f t h a t p a r t
of the world. He a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t , of all ideas, this seemed to h i m t h e
30 most singular of a n y t h a t ever entered t h e b r a i n of a n y m a n a c q u a i n t e d
with history ... H a l f a c e n t u r y a g o R u s s i a w a s n o t half E u r o p e a n , n o w
E u r o p e w a s half R u s s i a n . . . T h e r e w a s h a r d l y a c o u r t in w h i c h she ( R u s -
sia) h a d n o t family alliances a n d secret a g e n t s . . . . C o n c l u d e d by m o v i n g
for " a h u m b l e A d d r e s s t o H . Majesty for P a p e r s respecting t h e M e a s u r e s
35 pursued by R u s s i a , in h e r late interference w i t h t h e S t a t e of T u r k e y " . . .
[571-575, 578]

125
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Palmerston."If R u s s i a n c o n q u e s t s h o u l d lead to the Christianizing


a n d civilizing t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h a t c o u n t r y , such a d v a n t a g e s a n d n o
o n e c o u l d estime t h e m higher t h a n h e d i d w o u l d b e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d b y
t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s w h i c h w o u l d result t o E u r o p e t o the d i s m e m b e r m e n t o f
t h e T u r k i s h e m p i r e . . . he h a d great d o u b t s t h a t any i n t e n t i o n to p a r t i t i o n 5
t h a t e m p i r e at all entered i n t o the policy of t h e R u s s i a n g o v e r n m e n t .
Besides, h e very m u c h d o u b t e d also w h e t h e r the R u s s i a n n a t i o n p r o p -
erly so c a l l e d w o u l d be p r e p a r e d to see t h a t transference of p o w e r , of
residence, a n d a u t h o r i t y t o t h e s o u t h e r n p r o v i n c e s w h i c h w o u l d b e t h e
necessary c o n s e q u e n c e of the c o n q u e s t by R u s s i a of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . . 10
H . M ' s G o v . h a d been t a u n t e d w i t h b e i n g afraid t o g o t o w a r , a n d h a d
b e e n accused of truckling to o t h e r P o w e r s in c o n s e q u e n c e of this fear . . .
I f the p r e s e n t relations established between this c o u n t r y a n d F r a n c e were
p o i n t e d a t i n these sneers, h e w o u l d only say, t h a t h e s h o u l d l o o k b a c k
with feelings of p r i d e a n d satisfaction at t h e p a r t he h a d acted in b r i n g i n g 15
a b o u t t h a t g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . . " | [579, 580]
|39| Cutlar Fergusson. If she (Russia) n o w retired from Turkey, it w o u l d
only b e for the p u r p o s e o f r e n d e r i n g her r e t u r n m o r e easy, a n d her p r e y
m o r e sure. S u c h was her h o n e s t y ... [580]

[Vol.22. London 1834.] 20


H. 0. C. March. 17. 1834.

Sheil. E v e n R u s s i a ( n a c h d e m V o r r c k e n v. M e h e m e t ) c o n c u r r e d re-
c o m m e n d i n g , t h a t succour s h o u l d be afforded. Russia calculated, of
course, on the refusal. ... In M a y L o r d P o n s o n b y r e a c h e d C o n s t a n t i n o -
ple. C o u n t Orloff arrived as well as L o r d P o n s o n b y . . . . O n e of the arti- 25
cles of the t r e a t y of U n k i a r Skelessi c o n f o r m s all p r i o r treaties, in partic-
ular that of Adrianople . . . a t h i r d interdicts h e r from r e s o r t i n g to a n y
o t h e r E u r o p e a n P o w e r (als R u s s i a ) for 10 years . . . [307-310]
Incident.

[Vol. 20. London 1833.] 30


H. 0. C. Aug. 24. 1833.

Colonel Evans " h e desired to k n o w if it w e r e n o t t h e fact, t h a t a t r e a t y


h a d b e e n agreed t o between R u s s i a a n d the Sultan himself, w i t h o u t the
c o n c u r r e n c e o f a n y Minister, a n d w i t h o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e o f a n y d i p l o -
m a t i c agents at t h e P o r t e ? " [873] 35

126
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

Sir Robert Inglis.: " w h e t h e r t h e r e really h a d b e e n c o n c l u d e d a t r e a t y


offensive a n d defensive b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d Turkey? . . . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e
in the Morning Herald (d. d. A u g u s t 21), a c c o r d i n g to which t h e t r e a t y
geschlossen . . . p r e c l u d e d T u r k e y f r o m e n t e r i n g i n t o a n y n e w treaties w i t h
5 o t h e r p o w e r s , except w i t h t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of R u s s i a ? . . . he t r u s t e d t h a t if
the n o b l e L o r d c o u l d n o t n o w give the i n f o r m a t i o n required, h e w o u l d b e
p r e p a r e d before the prorogation of Parliament to lay before the H o u s e ,
n o t merely t h e treaties t h a t h a d b e e n m a d e , b u t all c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o n -
nected w i t h the f o r m a t i o n o f t h o s e treaties between T u r k e y a n d R u s s i a . "
10 [873, 874]
Palmerston. " H i s M ' s g o v e r n m e n t h a d b e e n i n f o r m e d , t h a t a t r e a t y
h a d been recently signed between R u s s i a a n d t h e P o r t e ; b u t a s t h a t t r e a t y
was n o t officially signed, a n d as he w a s n o t in possession of it, t h e H o u s e
could n o t expect o f h i m t o give a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o w h a t t h a t t r e a t y
15 contained. W i t h respect to t h e i n f o r m a t i o n said to be received by m e a n s
of the public j o u r n a l s , it c o u l d be no b l a m e to G o v . if, by the activity of
their agents, they were sometimes b e f o r e h a n d w i t h the G o v e r n m e n t . . .
W h e n they were sure t h a t such a t r e a t y as t h a t a l l u d e d to really d i d exist,
a n d w h e n they w e r e in possession of t h a t treaty, it w o u l d be t h e n for
20 t h e m to d e t e r m i n e w h a t w a s t h e c o u r s e of policy they o u g h t to p u r s u e "
... " a d e m a n d for assistance t o t h e gov. o f this c o u n t r y h a d b e e n m a d e i n
the course of last August (1832) by t h e P o r t e , before it h a d applied to
Russia for assistance. T h e a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t h a d b e e n m a d e t o the c o u n t r y
o n t h e p a r t o f t h e P o r t e w a s for m a r i t i m e assistance, a n d H . M ' s G o v . ,
25 from the n a t u r e of c i r c u m s t a n c e s h a d n o t t h o u g h t fit to g r a n t t h e a p p l i -
c a t i o n . " [875]

H. o. C. Aug. 28. 1833

A u f die verschiedenen F r a g e n v. Th. Attwood (u. a. a u c h " a s C o u n t


Orloff was soon afterwards (nach d e m t r e a t y of U n k i a r Skelessi) sent over
30 to E n g l a n d , w h a t reception he h a d m e t with at H i s Majesty's c o u r t ? " ) :
[899]
Palmerston: Er h a t t e sich selbst geirrt. D a s r e q u e s t der P o r t e f. n a v a l
assistance h a d been m a d e i n the m o n t h o f O c t o b e r 1832 . . . h e w o u l d o n l y
remind the ||40| H o u s e , t h a t w h e n w e w e r e e m b a r k i n g i n n a v a l o p e r a t i o n s
35 in the N o r t h Sea, a n d on t h e coast of H o l l a n d , a n d w e r e u n d e r t h e
necessity of k e e p i n g up a n o t h e r n a v a l force on t h e c o a s t of P o r t u g a l , it
would h a v e been impossible to h a v e sent to t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n such a
s q u a d r o n a s w o u l d h a v e served t h e p u r p o s e o f the P o r t e . . . i t w a s b u t

127
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

justice t h a t h e s h o u l d state, t h a t s o far from R u s s i a h a v i n g expressed a n y


j e a l o u s y a s t o G o v . g r a n t i n g t h a t assistance, t h e R u s s i a n a m b a s s a d o r
officially c o m m u n i c a t e d to h i m , while t h e r e q u e s t w a s still u n d e r consid-
e r a t i o n , t h a t h e h a d learned t h a t such a n a p p l i c a t i o n h a d b e e n m a d e , a n d
t h a t , from t h e interest t a k e n by R u s s i a in t h e m a i n t e n a n c e a n d p r s - 5
e r v a t i o n of the T u r k i s h E m p i r e , it w o u l d afford satisfaction if M i n i s t e r s
c o u l d f i n d themselves able t o c o m p l y with t h e r e q u e s t . . . . W i t h r e g a r d t o
t h e r e h a v i n g b e e n a n y c o m m u n i c a t i o n with the P a c h a o f E g y p t , . . . a s i t
w a s a w a r a g a i n s t a Souvereign by a subject, a n d t h a t sovereign w a s in
alliance w i t h t h e K i n g of E n g l a n d , it w o u l d h a v e b e e n inconsistent with 10
g o o d faith t o h a v e h a d a n y c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e P a s h a . . . " C o u n t
Orloff h a d n o t been in this c o u n t r y on a m i s s i o n h e h a d b e e n sent to
t h e H a g u e on one: b u t to this c o u n t r y he c a m e o n l y in t h e c h a r a c t e r of a
distinguished traveller." [900, 901]

H. 0. Lords. Aug. 29. 1833 15

Prorogation of Parliament. In der T h r o n r e d e : " t h e hostilities which h a d


d i s t u r b e d the peace o f T u r k e y h a v e b e e n t e r m i n a t e d ; a n d y o u m a y b e
assured, t h a t my a t t e n t i o n will be carefully directed to a n y events w h i c h
m a y affect the p r e s e n t state o r t h e future i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h a t e m p i r e " .

Schlu des Incident. [903] 20

[Vol.22. London 1834.


House of Commons, 17. Mrz 1834.]

Sheil:
In October 1833 Monsieur la Grnee a d d r e s s e d t h e following N o t e to
C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e : " T h e u n d e r s i g n e d C h a r g d'Affaires o f H . M a j . t h e 2 5
K i n g o f the F r e n c h , h a s received o r d e r s t o express t o t h e C a b i n e t o f
St. P e t e r s b u r g , t h e p r o f o u n d affliction felt by t h e F r e n c h G o v . , on learn-
ing the conclusion of the t r e a t y of July 8, 1833, between t h e E m p . of
R u s s . , a n d the G r a n d Signior. I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e K i n g ' s gov., this
Treaty assigns to the m u t u a l relations existing b e t w e e n t h e O t t o m a n 30
e m p i r e a n d R u s s i a a new c h a r a c t e r against w h i c h t h e p o w e r s of E u r o p e
h a v e a right to p r o t e s t . " N e s s e l r o d e replied in an offensive u. c o n t u m e -
lious l a n g u a g e , a n o t e c o n c l u d i n g mit d e n w o r d s , d e r E m p e r . of R u s s .
w r d e act " a s if the declaration contained in the note of Monsieur la Gr-

128
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

nee had no existence. St. Petersburg}}, Oct. 1833" ... If t h e F r e n c h gov.


r e m o n s t r a t e d , i t w a s t o b e p r e s u m e d t h a t the n o b l e l o r d did n o t r e m a i n
silent. W h e r e w a s his c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ? . . . M . T h i e r s . . . incidentally a c -
k n o w l e d g e d , t h a t it was a part of the treaty, that all vessels of powers at
5 war with Russia, should be excluded from the passage of the Dardanelles ...
O u r o w n P a r l i a m e n t d i d n o t meet until the 5 of F e b r u a r y (1834), b u t
before it assembled, an incident o c c u r r e d w h i c h r e m a i n e d to be explain-
ed. T h e F r e n c h a n d English f l e e t s u n i t e d p r o c e e d e d t o t h e D a r d a n e l l e s ,
which R u s s i a h a d s p a r e d n o expense t o fortify, a n d h a v i n g displayed t h e
10 tricoloured a n d " t h e n a t i o n a l flag of E n g l a n d " . . . b o t h ||41| fleets sailed
away, a n d i n s t e a d of p r o c e e d i n g to S m y r n a , gave preference to a m o r e
distant, b u t less c o m m o d i o u s h a r b o u r , w h e r e , however, R u s s i a n influ-
ence w a s n o t q u i t e s o p r e d o m i n a n t a s i n t h a t celebrated h a v e n . . . O n
F e b r u a r y 24 (1834) t h e following p a r a g r a p h a p p e a r e d in the Globe...
15 o r g a n of the F o r . Office . . . l a u t e n d : " A n o t h e r t r e a t y b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d
Turkey h a s been c o n c l u d e d at St. Petersburgh, which w a s signed by A c h -
th
met P a c h a , on t h e 2 9 of J a n u a r y . . . E n o u g h h a s t r a n s p i r e d to satisfy the
most jealous t h a t its spirit is pacific, a n d , indeed, advantageous to the
Turk. Empire. T h e P o r t e is relieved f r o m the pressure of the engagements
20 imposed on h e r at A d r i a n o p l e : a n d we u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the Principalities,
with the exception of Silistria, will shortly be e v a c u a t e d , a n d the sum
exacted by t h e f o r m e r t r e a t y r e d u c e d ' . Such r e l a x a t i o n s of positive
3

engagements are p r o o f s either of the moderation and good sense of Russia,


or of the influence which the union of England and France, and the firm and
25 concerted language of those 2 Powers have acquired in the Councils of
St. Petersburgh" ... this treaty did not at all relate to that of July 8. (1833)
N o t o n e w o r d w a s said o f the p a s s a g e o f t h e D a r d a n e l l e s . . . B y t h e t r e a t y
of 1675, c o n c l u d e d by Sir J o h n F i n c h , the n a v i g a t i o n of all t h e T u r k . Seas
was secured to E n g l a n d . In 1809, a little t i m e after o u r r u p t u r e w i t h t h e
30 Porte p r o d u c e d by t h e a t t a c k on t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , a n e w t r e a t y w a s exe-
cuted, by which the p a s s a g e of t h e D a r d a n e l l e s a n d the c a n a l of C o n -
stantinople w a s secured to E n g l a n d . A r t . 11 p r o v i d e d , t h a t , in time of
peace, n o ship o f w a r s h o u l d p a s s , n o m a t t e r t o w h a t c o u n t r y i t m i g h t
belong. In 1774, by t h e t r e a t y of K a i n a r d j i , t h e p a s s a g e of t h e D a r d a -
35 nelles was first secured to R u s s i a n m e r c h a n t vessels. In 1780 a q u a r r e l
t o o k place respecting an a r m e d vessel. In 1783 a n e w t r e a t y w a s e n t e r e d
into, a n d a n o t h e r in 1792 ( t h a t t r e a t y by w h i c h t h e C r i m e a , j u s t like
Greece, w a s declared i n d e p e n d e n t , a n d t h e n a b s o r b e d i n R u s s i a n d o m i -
nation), a n d b y b o t h treaties t h e p a s s a g e w a s secured t o m e r c h a n t vessels
40 only. In 1800, R u s s i a h a v i n g o b t a i n e d t h e p r o t e c t o r s h i p of the I o n i a n
Islands, e n t e r e d i n t o a t r e a t y securing t h e p a s s a g e of the D a r d a n e l l e s to

129
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

t h e merchant-vessels of t h o s e islands. In 1812, t h e Treaty of B u c h a r e s t


was signed, b y w h i c h Bessarabia was given u p t o R u s s i a , a n d all f o r m e r
treaties respecting t h e D a r d a n e l l e s were confirmed. In 1829 t h e Treaty of
th
Adrianople: "7 Article the Sublime P o r t e declares t h e p a s s a g e of t h e
C a n a l of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e completely free a n d o p e n to R u s s i a n m e r c h a n t - 5
vessels u n d e r m e r c h a n t f l a g s , from the Black sea t o t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n ,
a n d f r o m the M e d i t e r r a n e a n t o the black Sea; u p o n t h e s a m e principle
t h e p a s s a g e is declared free a n d o p e n to all merchant-vessels b e l o n g i n g to
P o w e r s a t p e a c e with t h e P o r t e " . . . t h u s t h e s t i p u l a t i o n w a s , t h a t all
n a t i o n s at p e a c e (not, be it observed, w i t h R u s s i a , b u t w i t h t h e P o r t e ) 10
s h o u l d enjoy t h e right of u n i m p e d e d passage . . . the consequence was pre-
cisely the same as if the Porte surrendered to Russia the possession of the
Dardanelles, a n d the last of the sultans w a s t h e first s a t r a p of N i c h o l a s
t h e G r e a t . . . T h e r e did n o t a p p e a r t o b e a n y s o u n d r e a s o n for w i t h -
h o l d i n g this treaty. . . . P o n d e r o u s folios of fruitless n e g o t i a t i o n s on t h e 15
affairs o f Belgium h a d b e e n given t o t h e w o r l d ; . . . N a c h d e m F a l l v .
P o l e n w e did r e m o n s t r a t e , a n d d e s p a t c h e d L o r d D u r h a m t o St. P e t e r s -
b u r g h (why w a s n o t Sir Stratford C a n n i n g there?) a n d w h a t h a d b e e n t h e
r e s u l t ? . . . [311-317] |
|42| Henry Lytton Bulwer s e c o n d e d the m o t i o n . . . . he l o o k e d u p o n 20
treaties r a t h e r a s d e c l a r a t i o n s b y the p o w e r s m a k i n g t h e m , o f w h a t they
considered their respective interests for t h e t i m e being, t h a n a n y b i n d i n g
obligation. W h a t h e w o u l d lay stress u p o n , a n d w h a t this c o u n t r y a t
large, as well as o t h e r countries laid stress u p o n , were the alarming prac-
tical demonstrations made by Russia in her inroads into Turkey, a n d all h e r 25
s u b s e q u e n t p r o c e e d i n g s . . . [318]
Palmerston ... He fully a d m i t t e d , t h a t to resist the p r o d u c t i o n of
p a p e r s u p o n a subject of this k i n d , w a s to a p p e a l , in a s t r o n g a n d p o i n t e d
m a n n e r , to the confidence of t h e H o u s e ; but, upon the present occasion, he
hoped that the House would refuse to accede to the Motion ... t h e t r a n s - 30
actions between M e h e m e t Ali a n d the S u l t a n c o m m e n c e d i n O c -
t o b e r 1831 . . . t h e decisive action between t h e t r o o p s a t K o n i a h did n o t
t a k e place till D e c e m b e r , 1832. N o w , it w a s n o t u s u a l for this c o u n t r y to
b e r e a d y t o interfere i n contests b e t w e e n sovereigns a n d their s u b j e c t s ; . . .
t h e early p e r i o d at w h i c h t h e contest b e g a n , a n d the length of its d u r a - 35
t i o n , p r o v e d t h a t , till n e a r its conclusion, it did n o t a s s u m e a c h a r a c t e r so
different from t h a t of the u s u a l contests b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n o r s of the
p r o v i n c e s a n d t h e Sultan, a s t o lead t o t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e result
w o u l d b e very d i f f e r e n t . . . I t w o u l d h a v e r e q u i r e d s o m e s t r o n g r e a s o n t o
h a v e i n d u c e d t h e G o v . of E n g l a n d to interfere, by force of a r m s , in t h e 40
c o n t e s t b e t w e e n the S u l t a n a n d his rebellious subject, t h e P a c h a of E g y p t .

130
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

Assistance was at l e n g t h a s k e d by t h e P o r t e in November (erst sagt er


August, d a n n O k t o b e r , jezt N o v e m b e r ) 1832, b u t t h e decisive b a t t l e o f
K o n i a h t o o k p l a c e s o s o o n afterwards, n a m e l y i n D e c e m b e r following,
t h a t , from want of time, no interference c o u l d h a v e b e e n exercised, on t h e
5 p a r t o f this c o u n t r y , early e n o u g h t o h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h a t c a t a s t r o p h e ,
(the w h o l e h i s t o r y of t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e w a s full of successive revolts of
powerful vassals a g a i n s t t h e S u l t a n , s o m e t i m e s w i t h success a t t h e f i r s t o n
t h e o n e side, s o m e t i m e s o n t h e o t h e r ; b u t a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y e n d i n g i n t h e
re-assertion o f t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e S u l t a n . ) . . . M . M a u r o j e n i , t h e f i r s t
10 official b e a r e r of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e S u l t a n , d i d n o t arrive in London
till Nov. 3, 1832 ... fleet w o u l d n o t h a v e a r r i v e d in t i m e to h a v e p r e v e n t e d
t h e decisive b a t t l e i n K o n i a h . . . w e w e r e t h e n e n g a g e d i n o t h e r o p e r a
tions, w h i c h o c c u p i e d t h e w h o l e o f o u r n a v a l force . . . B u t , a l t h o u g h his
M ' s G o v . d i d n o t c o m p l y w i t h t h a t d e m a n d o f t h e S u l t a n for n a v a l
15 assistance, yet t h e moral assistance of E n g l a n d w a s afforded; a n d t h e
communications made by the Brit. Gov. to t h e Pacha of Egypt, a n d to
Ibrahim Pacha, c o m m a n d i n g in Asia minor, did materially contribute to
bring a b o u t t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e S u l t a n a n d t h e P a c h a , b y
which t h e w a r w a s t e r m i n a t e d . . . G r e a t B r i t a i n never c o m p l a i n e d o f R u s -
2 0 sia g r a n t i n g t h a t assistance . . . b u t o n t h e c o n t r a r y , w a s g l a d t h a t T u r k e y
h a d b e e n able t o o b t a i n effectual relief f r o m a n y q u a r t e r . . . t h e notifica
tion, die i h n z u m G e s a n d t e n m a c h t e , r e a c h e d L o r d P o n s o n b y i n N o v e m
ber, a n d t h e only circumstances w h i c h p r e v e n t e d h i m g e t t i n g to C o n s t a n
tinople until t h e e n d o f M a y , were t h e difficulties e x p e r i e n c e d i n m a k i n g
25 the necessary a r r a n g e m e n t s for his c o n v e y a n c e , a n d t h e u n f a v o u r a b l e
state o f w e a t h e r . . . t h e H o n o u r a b l e G e n t l e m a n h a d i n q u i r e d w h e t h e r t h e
Brit. G o v . a p p r o v e d o f t h a t t r e a t y , o r l o o k e d u p o n i t w i t h satisfaction?
Certainly 11[43]| it d i d neither; b e c a u s e t h a t treaty, even on the first glance,
wore the semblance of being intended to give Russia some advantages with
30 respect to Turkey, which she did not possess before, and which were not to be
enjoyed by the other Powers of Europe. But he was bound to say, t h a t t h e
e x p l a n a t i o n s w h i c h h a d b e e n since given of what were apparently t h e m o s t
objectionable parts of that treaty, had tended, in some degree, to alter the
impression which the announcement of that treaty necessarily produced upon
3 5 the G o v . . . . [319-324] I f t h e G o v . a c t e d " w i t h t e m p e r " , s h o w e d " n o u n n e c
essary d i s t r u s t " e t c . . . h e w a s inclined t o t h i n k , t h a t t h e case m i g h t n o t
arise i n w h i c h t h a t t r e a t y w o u l d b e called i n t o o p e r a t i o n ; a n d t h a t t h e r e
fore it w o u l d , in p r a c t i c e , r e m a i n a d e a d letter . . . w i t h r e s p e c t to the lan
guage of Russia, it was, on all occasions, the duty of the Engl. Gov. to look
40 rather to the acts of a foreign Power, than to the language which that
ower might hold on any particular subject or occasion, they (England u. |

131
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

F r a n c e ) h a d n o w c e m e n t e d a friendship, w h i c h h a d only g r o w n s t r o n g e r ,
a n d m o r e lasting i n p r o p o r t i o n a s t h e 2 gov. h a d b e c o m e b e t t e r a c q u a i n t -
ed w i t h each o t h e r . . . Communications were still carrying on with respect
to these matters; the discussions, if he might so call them, were not
yet completed; and it was contrary to the practice of Parliament to
compel the Gov. to produce correspondence, pending a negotiation in which
the interests of the country were materially involved. ... Peace ... could be
preserved only by the House reposing confidence in the Gov. ... [325-329]
Col. Evans. On t h e o n e h a n d , t h e P a c h a of Ejypt h a d c o n q u e r e d from
t h e P o r t e a large t r a c t o f territory; a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , R u s s i a , o n t h e
i n v i t a t i o n o f the P o r t e , h a d occupied C o n s t a n t i n o p l e for t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n
of Turkey. T h e s e 2 things were a m p l y sufficient of themselves, s u p p o s i n g
no t r e a t y w h a t e v e r h a d followed to place T u r k e y in a very different posi-
tion from t h a t w h i c h she h a d before occupied. . . . Before t h a t t r e a t y (of
U n k i a r Skelessi), in case of a w a r w i t h R u s s i a , t h e D a r d a n e l l e s w e r e o p e n
to a British fleet, b u t u n d e r t h a t treaty, the D a r d a n e l l e s were b a r r e d , a n d
the R u s s i a n p o r t s in t h e Black Sea were secure a g a i n s t a British fleet.
T h a t w a s a m o s t serious a n d injurious c h a n g e . B u t i f t h e F r e n c h M i n i s t e r
was correct, it w a s a c h a n g e t h a t could n o t be p e r m i t t e d . A c c o r d i n g to
t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of t h e M i n i s t e r of F r a n c e , the t r e a t y of July b e t w e e n
R u s s i a a n d the P o r t e , was i n direct o p p o s i t i o n t o the laws o f E u r o p e . . .
I n f o r m a t i o n o u g h t decidedly t o b e given o f t h a t p o i n t , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e
H o u s e m i g h t j u d g e o f the a c t u a l p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n s t o o d . . . .
Sir R. Peel. In Bezug a u f P o r t u g a l t h e n o b l e L o r d h a d n o t felt it his
d u t y t o w i t h h o l d a m p l e e x p l a n a t i o n s , verbal a n d d o c u m e n t a r y . . . T h e
n o b l e L o r d said, f i r s t , t h a t o n m a t t e r s w h i c h were still p e n d i n g , i t w o u l d
n o t be fair to M i n i s t e r s to call u p o n t h e m to p r o d u c e a c o p y of their last
d e s p a t c h e s . . . . T h e second objection o f the n o b l e L o r d , t h a t s u c h infor-
m a t i o n c o u l d n o t b e called for b y the H o u s e w i t h o u t casting b l a m e o n
Ministers. . . . H i s t h i r d a r g u m e n t . . . w e n t far t o d e s t r o y t h e validity o f the
2 preceding. It was, that explanations h a d been already m a d e to the
G o v . , w h i c h h a d a b a t e d t h e fears e n t e r t a i n e d a s t o t h e objects o f R u s s i a .
. . . T h e n o b l e L o r d h a d declared, t h a t he, a s a M i n i s t e r o f t h e C r o w n ,
rejoiced t h a t R u s s i a h a d replied a s t h a t P o w e r h a d d o n e t o t h e applica-
tion of the P o r t e for assistance . . . t h e o c c u p a t i o n of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e by
R u s s i a n t r o o p s , even for a friendly ||44| object, sealed the fate of T u r k e y
as an i n d e p e n d e n t P o w e r . . . A l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s a British m a n - o f - w a r in
w a i t i n g yet such h a d b e e n the difficulties o r t h e d a n g e r s t o o v e r c o m e ,
t h a t the Engl. A m b a s s a d o r was 6 m o n t h s i n m a k i n g his w a y t o C o n s t a n -
tinople. . . . But, after all, the n o b l e L o r d h a d a t r i u m p h a n t a n s w e r to all
objections. " T h e r e exists" says the n o b l e L o r d , " t h e closest alliance be-

132
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

tween E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e . " H e c o u l d b u t r e m a r k , t h a t w h e n e v e r t h e
noble L o r d w a s t h r o w n i n t o a n y difficulty a s t o a n y p a r t o f o u r foreign
E u r o p e a n policy, he at o n c e f o u n d a r e a d y m e a n s of escape, by c o n g r a t -
ulating the H o u s e u p o n t h e close alliance b e t w e e n this c o u n t r y a n d
5 F r a n c e ... It w a s , p r o b a b l y , because t h a t alliance w a s so i n t i m a t e , t h a t
F r e n c h e x a m p l e a n d F r e n c h policy h a v e c o n t r o l l e d o u r p r o c e e d i n g s with
respect t o T u r k i s h i n d e p e n d e n c e . . . E n g l a n d c o m p e l l e d t o c o n n i v e , a t
least, a t a n aggression u p o n Turkey, w h i c h F r a n c e h a d directly e n c o u r -
aged . . . c o u r s e w h i c h F r a n c e herself h a d t a k e n w i t h r e g a r d t o Algiers . . .
10 [334, 335, 337-340]
Mr. Secretary Stanley: " h e boldly asserted t h a t w h a t s t o p p e d the p r o -
gress o f M e h e m e t Ali w a s t h e distinct d e c l a r a t i o n o f F r a n c e a n d E n g -
land, t h a t they w o u l d n o t p e r m i t t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e b y his
t r o o p s . . . Before she c o n c l u d e d t h a t treaty, T u r k e y possessed t h e P o w e r
15 of closing the D a r d a n e l l e s to b o t h , or to either of 2 belligerents . . . "

[Vol. 21. London 1834.]


H. o. Lords February 4, 1834.

Duke of Wellington: He h a p p e n e d to k n o w , t h a t on a f o r m e r occasion,


when M e h e m e t Ali, P a c h a o f Ejypt, w a s desired b y this G o v . n o t t o c a r r y
20 into execution certain m e a s u r e s which he wished to effect, a n d w h e n he
was positively t o l d t h a t h e m u s t n o t p r o c e e d , h e a t o n c e desisted. T h e fact
was, t h a t i f this c o u n t r y wished t o p r e v e n t h i m f r o m c a r r y i n g o n w a r i n
any p a r t of the L e v a n t , it h a d only, to e m p l o y a fleet to force h i m to act
according to its direction. T h o s e directions w o u l d be as readily o b e y e d by
25 him n o w as they were formerly. If, in t h e Session of 1832, or 1833, they
h a d plainly told M e h e m e t Ali t h a t h e s h o u l d n o t c a r r y o n this c o n t e s t i n
Syria a n d A s i a M i n o r , they w o u l d h a v e p u t a n e n d t o this w a r w i t h o u t
the risk of allowing t h e E m p . of R u s s i a to send a fleet a n d an a r m y to
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . But, i n s t e a d of d o i n g t h a t , i n s t e a d of t a k i n g a c o m -
30 m a n d i n g p o s i t i o n , o u r fleets w e r e in t h e D o u r o a n d t h e Tagus, p r o t e c t i n g
civil war, a n d in the C h a n n e l , b l o c k a d i n g the fleets of o u r D u t c h allies.
... o u r 3 allies, H o l l a n d , P o r t u g a l , a n d Spain, a n d he m i g h t a d d a f o u r t h ,
our ally Turkey, were placed u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of the o t h e r p o w e r s .
They were, i f h e m i g h t use t h e w o r d , s w a m p e d i n E u r o p e a t t h e p r e s e n t
35 m o m e n t . [12,13]
Earl Grey, he did n o t believe it to be t h e d u t y of t h e G o v . of this
country to interfere directly in such a w a r (between t h e S u l t a n a n d his
revolted vassal), o r t o e n t e r i n t o hostilities w i t h M e h e m e t Ali, f r o m

133
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

w h o m w e h a d received n o cause o f c o m p l a i n t , a n d w i t h w h o m w e h a d a t
the m o m e n t extensive c o m m e r c i a l relations, w h i c h i t w o u l d n o t b e o u r
interest t o d i s t u r b . . . A t t h e p e r i o d (des t r e a t y o f A d r i a n o p l e ) d e s p a t c h e s
sent f r o m the Secretary of State's office in this c o u n t r y , strongly p r o t e s t -
ing a g a i n s t t h a t treaty, a n d declaring t h a t the i n d e p e n d e n c e of the P o r t e 5
w o u l d b e sacrificed a n d t h e Peace o f E u r o p e e n d a n g e r e d , b y its b e i n g
agreed t o . | [25]

[Vol. 32. London 1836.]


|[45]| H. 0. C April 20, 1836.

Patrick M. Stewart, t h e d e m a n d m a d e t h e o t h e r d a y to the a u t h o r i t i e s of 10


C r a c o w t o deliver u p the individuals c o n c e r n e d i n t h e revolt (Polish)
5 years b e f o r e . . . [1263] In Bezug auf d a s c o u n t r y r o u n d t h e E u x i n e . . .
R u s s i a h a d n o t t a k e n the m a n l y m e a n s o f invasion a n d c o n q u e s t , she h a d
p r o c e e d e d w i t h h e r aggressions stealthily a n d secretly, a n d h a d exhibited
t h e spectacle of the dissembling s t r o n g seizing every o p p o r t u n i t y of o b - 15
t a i n i n g unjust a d v a n t a g e over t h e helpless w e a k . . . [1266] Of 600 l o o m s
for m u s l i n busily e m p l o y e d at S c u t a r i in 1812, o n l y 40 r e m a i n e d in 1831;
a n d of 2,000 w e a v i n g establishments at T o u r n o v o in 1812, o n l y 200 re-
m a i n e d i n 1831. T h e Turkish m a n u f a c t u r e s g a v e w a y before t h e a b u n -
d a n c e a n d c h e a p n e s s of o u r o w n . . . . D u r c h d e n t r e a t y of A d r i a n o p l e , 20
T u r k e y s a d d l e d with a d e b t of 4 millions. . . . It gave to R u s s i a 200 miles
o f t h e Circassian coast a n d the D e l t a o f t h e D a n u b e , w i t h the a l a r m i n g
p r o v i s i o n a n n e x e d , t h a t 6 miles of the o p p o s i t e coast s h o u l d r e m a i n u n -
i n h a b i t e d . . . t h e t r e a t y of St. P e t e r s b u r g h , of 1834 . . . R u s s i a w a s to remit
t h e T u r k i s h debt, to e v a c u a t e the T u r k i s h provinces, to r e t a i n Silistria. . . . 25
W h e n I b r a h i m P a c h a ' s a r m y w a s i n A s i a M i n o r , a R u s s i a n officer w a s
d e s p a t c h e d t o t h e P a c h a s o f E r z e r o u m a n d Trebizond, t o inform t h e m
t h a t i n the event o f I b r a h i m s a r m y m a r c h i n g t o w a r d s E r z e r o u m , b o t h
t h a t p l a c e a n d T r e b i z o n d s h o u l d b e i m m e d i a t e l y p r o t e c t e d b y t h e pres-
ence of a R u s s i a n a r m y . . . . T h e Principalities of M o l d a v i a a n d Wallachia 30
were objects of d e a d l y j e a l o u s y to R u s s i a . T h e y vie with h e r in h e r staple
p r o d u c t i o n . . . Relying o n positions bristled w i t h fortifications, R u s s i a
v e n t u r e d t o lay h a n d s o n British shipping, a n d t o arrest it, i n spite o f the
treaties o f E u r o p e . . . M a n y ships h a d sailed, a n d o t h e r s w e r e g o i n g o u t ,
to w h o s e c a p t a i n s strict o r d e r s h a d b e e n given n o t to s u b m i t to t h e right 35
of b o a r d i n g a n d search, which R u s s i a h a d lately c l a i m e d . . . t h e fate of
t h o s e ships m u s t be inevitable, unless s o m e expression of o p i n i o n were
m a d e o n the p a r t o f the H o u s e . . . Unless t h a t were d o n e , Brit, shipping,

134
-'

Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

t o t h e a m o u n t o f n o t less t h a n 5,000 t o n s , w o u l d b e seized, a n d m a r c h e d


off t o O d e s s a , u n t i l t h e i n s o l e n t c o m m a n d s o f R u s s i a w e r e c o m p l i e d
with ... L o r d D u r h a m , a c t i n g u p o n i n s t r u c t i o n s received f r o m E n g l a n d ,
r e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h t h e R u s s i a n G o v . for t h e h i n d r a n c e w h i c h h a d b e e n
5 given t o Brit, t r a d e . H e h a d b e e n referred t o C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e , C o u n t
N e s s e l r o d e referred t o t h e G o v e r n o r o f S o u t h R u s s i a a n d t h e G o v e r n o r
o f S o u t h R u s s i a a g a i n referred t o t h e C o n s u l a t G a l a t z , w h o c o m m u n i
c a t e d w i t h t h e Brit, c o n s u l a t I b r a i l a , w h o w a s i n s t r u c t e d t o s e n d d o w n
the c a p t a i n s f r o m w h o m toll h a d b e e n exacted, t o t h e m o u t h o f t h e
10 D a n u b e , t h e scene of their injuries, in o r d e r t h a t i n q u i r y m i g h t |
[1271-1274,1276,1277] |32| b e m a d e i n t o t h e subject, i t b e i n g well k n o w n
t h a t t h e c a p t a i n s t h u s referred t o , were t h e n i n E n g l a n d ... G r a d e d a m a l s
Russia die insolence to fortify a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n g e g e n b e r S w e d e n , by
which she w o u l d o b t a i n t h e c o m p l e t e c o m m a n d o f t h e Baltic. I n this n e w
15 work, t o o , she h a d t h e further insolence to e m p l o y t h e captive P o l e s . . . .
Stewart m o v e d : " t o send a d i p l o m a t i c a g e n t f o r t h w i t h to t h e free a n d
i n d e p e n d e n t state o f C r a c o w " a n d t o t a k e s u c h steps " b e s t a d a p t e d t o
p r o t e c t a n d e x t e n d the commercial interests of G r e a t Britain in T u r k e y ,
a n d t h e E u x i n e " . [1277,1279]
20 Sir Edward Codrington (der A d m i r a l v. N a v a r i n o ) untersttzt die
m o t i o n . . . I t w a s a n old a n d g o o d m a x i m o f Brit, policy t h a t w h e r e o u r
trade was t h e r e s h o u l d b e o u r ships. T h e t r a d e w e c a r r i e d o n i n t h e Baltic
was h a r d l y w o r t h o u r p r o t e c t i o n , while t h a t i n t h e Black Sea w a s h o u r l y
increasing w i t h T u r k e y a n d t h e p r o v i n c e s b o r d e r i n g o n Persia . . . M e h e -
25 met Ali h a d of old felt t h e s t r e n g t h of o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s on t h e subject
of t h e e v a c u a t i o n of t h e M o r e a . Er h a t t e received o r d e r s to resist all
applications t o i n d u c e h i m t o e v a c u a t e i t a t t h e risk o f his h e a d , a n d h e
did resist accordingly . . . b u t a t last p r u d e n t l y yielded t o necessity, a n d
evacuated t h e M o r e a . . . i f w e p r e v e n t e d h i m f r o m d i s t u r b i n g T u r k e y , . . .
30 she w o u l d be able to defend herself a g a i n s t R u s s i a . . . . he l o o k e d on t h e
fortifications which Russia was erecting in t h e island of Aland, close to t h e
coast o f S w e d e n a s evidences o f i n t e n t i o n t o a g g r a n d i z e herself a t t h e
expense o f h e r n e i g h b o u r s i n t h e n o r t h a s she h a d a l r e a d y d o n e i n t h e
south. She h a d a n u m e r o u s flotilla a n c h o r e d beside the islands . . .
35 [1279, 1281,1282]
Palmerston. If P a r l i a m e n t will p l a c e their confidence in u s , i f they
will leave it to us to m a n a g e t h e foreign r e l a t i o n s of t h e c o u n t r y . . . we
shall be able to protect the interests, and to uphold the honour of the
country, without being obliged to have recourse to war ... t h e q u e s t i o n is

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Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

n o t w h e t h e r the G o v . are alive t o t h o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e


speech of my h o n . friend p o i n t s b u t whether circumstances have occur-
red which show the existence of danger to which the Gov. are blind, and
against w h i c h they are not likely to guard, unless driven thereto by the
direct interference of this House.... My h o n . friend h a s s h o w n t h a t d u r i n g 5
the last few years, t h e t r a d e with T u r k e y ||33| h a s risen f r o m n e x t to
n o t h i n g t o a very considerable a m o u n t . A n d w h a t a r e t h e years d u r i n g
w h i c h this c h a n g e h a s t a k e n place . . . years w h e n T u r k e y was involved in
intestine w a r , w h e n every circumstance connected w i t h t h e internal and
political condition of Turkey w a s u n f a v o u r a b l e , . . . D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . . . 10
o u r t r a d e w i t h Turkey h a s increased i n a m o s t r a p i d a n d u n e x a m p l e d
m a n n e r . T h e n w i t h r e g a r d t o Persia, the s a m e o b s e r v a t i o n applies . . . t h e
i m p o r t at T r e b i z o n d d u r i n g t h e last 3 or 4 years h a s increased f r o m
450,000 . to 800,000 . B u t w h a t w a s the state of Persia at t h a t time? It
h a d b e e n b u t recently involved in a q u e s t i o n of a d i s p u t e d succession, 15
a n d in a state of civil w a r . . . . If my h o n . friend h a d b e e n a b l e to s h o w ,
t h a t w h e r e a s s o m e years a g o w e h a d h a d a large a n d i m p o r t a n t c o m -
m e r c e with T u r k e y a n d w i t h Persia, a n d t h a t t h a t c o m m e r c e h a d , b y t h e
aggression of o t h e r countries, or by the neglect of t h e G o v . of this,
d w i n d l e d d o w n t o a n inconsiderable t r a d e , t h e n t h e r e m i g h t h a v e b e e n 20
g r o u n d t o call u p o n P a r l i a m e n t . . . A s t o t h e aggressions w h i c h h e c o n -
ceives R u s s i a m e d i t a t e s against u s . . . . I c a n assure the H o u s e t h e r e is no
disposition o n the p a r t o f H . M ' s G o v . t o s u b m i t t o aggressions o n the
p a r t o f a n y p o w e r , b e t h a t p o w e r w h a t i t m a y , a n d b e i t m o r e o r less
s t r o n g . . . b u t . . . I confess t h a t I w a s n o t able to m a k e o u t f r o m his 25
(Stewarts) s t a t e m e n t a n y specific fact w h i c h he alleged to h a v e t a k e n
place. . . . T h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t , I a p p r e h e n d , t h a t b y the t r e a t y o f
V i e n n a , the n a v i g a t i o n of the D a n u b e is free to t h e c o m m e r c e of all
n a t i o n s . . . citirt t h e articles . . . w h e n R u s s i a a c q u i r e d a p o r t i o n of t h e
D a n u b e by t h e t r e a t y of A d r i a n o p l e , t h a t p a r t of t h e river fell w i t h i n t h e 30
scope of the t r e a t y of Vienna, as being a p a r t of R u s s i a . . . my h o n .
F r i e n d h a s (not) alleged any actual violation of t h a t t r e a t y . . . [1283,
1285-1289] {Stewart sagt t h a t a case of i n t e r r u p t i o n . . . actually occurred
w i t h respect to s o m e ships r e t u r n i n g h o m e ) . . . [1289] I h a v e received no
official information t h a t a n y t h i n g h a s o c c u r r e d w h i c h is n o t w a r r a n t e d by 35
the treaty: . . . w h e n such a s t a t e m e n t shall b e m a d e t o m e b y t h e parties
c o n c e r n e d , i t shall b e b r o u g h t u n d e r t h e a t t e n t i o n o f the G o v . , a n d shall
b e dealt with b y t h e m i n such m a n n e r a s t h e law-advisers o f t h e C r o w n
shall d e e m consistent w i t h the rights of the subjects of this c o u n t r y . . . we

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Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

should submit to wrong from no Power w h a t e v e r . . . but we should


also cautiously a b s t a i n f r o m a n y t h i n g ||34| w h i c h m i g h t b e c o n s t r u e d b y
other P o w e r s , a n d r e a s o n a b l y so, a s b e i n g a p r o v o c a t i o n o n o u r p a r t . . .
[1289, 1292]
5 Lord Mahon. t h e painful a n d p e r p l e x i n g state of E a s t e r n affairs is
mainly o w i n g . . . t o t h e policy, o r r a t h e r let m e say, t h e w a n t o f policy o f
the n o b l e L o r d . . . L o r d A b e r d e e n , i n a d e s p a t c h t o L o r d H e y t e s b u r y
d. d. 31 October (1829), c o m m e n t s w i t h no small dissatisfaction on m a n y
p a r t s of t h a t Treaty (of A d r i a n o p l e ) , a n d especially notices t h e stipula-
lo tions respecting t h e I s l a n d s i n the D a n u b e . H e denies t h a t t h a t p e a c e h a s
"respected the territorial rights o f sovereignty o f t h e P o r t e , a n d the c o n -
dition a n d t h e interests of all m a r i t i m e States in t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n " . . .
the cry o f the H o n . G e n t l e m e n o p p o s i t e w a s t h e n , t h a t t h e D u k e o f
Wellington w a s far t o o friendly to Turkey, t h a t the Tories were a t t a c h e d
15 to it, because it w a s a b a r b a r o u s State; t h a t its alliance a n d p o s i t i o n w e r e
o f n o a d v a n t a g e t o u s , a n d t h a t R u s s i a w a s acting w i t h singular m o d -
eration a n d t o t a l absence of a m b i t i o u s views. . . . [1293-1295] As to a
Syrische Scheie. N o r w a s i t o n e o f t h o s e s u d d e n o r violent i n r o a d s
defying by its rapidity, all r e a s o n a b l e calculation; Syria w a s i n v a d e d in
20 the spring; in J u l y w a s f o u g h t t h e b a t t l e of H o r n s , deciding t h e fate of
t h a t province, a n d i t w a s n o t till t h e 2 1 o f D e c e m b e r a f t e r w a r d s , t h a t t h e
whole T u r k i s h a r m y w a s a n n i h i l a t e d a t t h e decisive b a t t l e o f C o n i a h . . .
then the S u l t a n , c o m p e l l e d t o a p p l y t o t h e s u c c o u r o f s o m e o t h e r
p o w e r . . . Schickt M a u r o j e n i (der S u l t a n ) , u . t h e n N a m i k P a s h a , t o en-
25 treat the assistance of a n a v a l s q u a d r o n , u n d e r t a k i n g to defray all t h e
expenses of t h a t s q u a d r o n , a n d p r o m i s i n g in further r e q u i t a l of t h a t suc-
cour, the g r a n t o f n e w c o m m e r c i a l privileges a n d a d v a n t a g e s t o Brit,
subjects i n T u r k e y . . . All t h e P o w e r s o f E u r o p e w e r e t h e n friendly t o o u r
granting t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f T u r k e y a n d even R u s s i a . . . E v e n a d m i t t i n g
30 that the n o b l e L o r d , in t h e t r y i n g situation in w h i c h he w a s placed, w a s
compelled to reject t h e solicitations of Turkey, I s h o u l d at least h a v e
expected t h a t h e w o u l d h a v e t a k e n m o s t a n x i o u s p r e c a u t i o n s t o g u a r d
against excessive influence o n t h e p a r t o f R u s s i a , a n d t o k e e p h e r inter-
ference confined t o n a r r o w b o u n d s . . . h e w o u l d h a v e p r o v i d e d , w i t h
35 peculiar vigilance, for t h e d i p l o m a t i c d u t y to be p e r f o r m e d at C o n s t a n -
tinople . . . K e i n G e s a n d t e r d o r t o n t h e verge o f t h e decisive b a t t l e o f
C o n i a h . . . I f a n active a n d able a m b a s s a d o r h a d b e e n p r e s e n t a t C o n -
stantinople t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e p e r i o d , t h e a s c e n d a n c y o f R u s s i a m i g h t
have b e e n successfully s t e m m e d . . . . A secretary of e m b a s s y (wie M. M a n -

137
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

deville) c a n n o t possess o r speak with t h e t o n e o f a n A m b a s s a d o r . . . i f


ever t h e r e w a s a c o u n t r y in w h i c h the weight a n d s t a t i o n of an A m b a s -
s a d o r w e r e u s e f u l o r a p e r i o d in w h i c h t h a t weight a n d s t a t i o n m i g h t be
a d v a n t a g e o u s l y e x e r t e d t h a t c o u n t r y was Turkey, d u r i n g t h e 6 m o n t h s
before t h e 8th of July . . . | [1297-1299] 5

138
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

[Hansard's parliamentary debates.


Third S e r i e s

(Fortsetzung a u s Heft XXIV der Londoner Hefte 1 8 5 0 - 1 8 5 3 )

Vol. 8 8 . London 1 8 4 6 . ]
5 | 1 6 | Cracow. (. o. C. Aug. 17 1846)

Hume. I n t h e m o n t h o f A p r i l last, h e h a d a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s a n y
objection t o lay o n t h e T a b l e o f t h e H o u s e copies o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , o r
w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s any, w i t h respect t o t h e u n f o r t u n a t e state o f C r a c o w .
On t h e 22nd of February, the army of Austria, and afterwards of Russia and
10 Prussia, took possession of that place, and t h e atrocities t h a t followed in
Galicia were a p p a l l i n g t o a n y i n d i v i d u a l w h o r e a d t h e m etc. t h e G o v . h a d
been, on a f o r m e r o c c a s i o n , called u p o n to send a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to C r a
cow as c o n s u l , t h e r e b e i n g c o n s u l s t h e r e f r o m t h e o t h e r 3 States, A u s t r i a ,
Russia, a n d Prussia, t h e n o b l e L o r d n o w a t t h e h e a d o f t h e F o r e i g n
15 D e p a r t m e n t (Palmerston) was then (1836) also at the head of t h a t
d e p a r t m e n t ; a n d his a n s w e r t h e n was, t h a t t h e G o v . were t a k i n g steps t o
send o u t a c o n s u l to t a k e u p o n h i m t h e d u t i e s of t h a t office. . . . in 1837,
when a s k e d w h y h e h a d n o t fulfilled his p l e d g e a n d sent o u t a c o n s u l ,
he said t h e G o v . h a d given up the intention; but never stated why or
20 wherefore. [815,816]
1 Art. des treaty of Vienna. " T h e P o l e s w h o a r e respective subjects of
Russia, A u s t r i a , a n d P r u s s i a shall o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d n a t i o n
a l i n s t i t u t i o n s r e g u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e degree o f political c o n s i d e r a t i o n
that e a c h o f t h e G o v . t o w h i c h t h e y b e l o n g shall j u d g e e x p e d i e n t a n d
25 p r o p e r to g r a n t t h e m . " By t h e 6th Article des t r e a t y t h e t o w n of C r a c o w
with its t e r r i t o r y is to be for ever a free, i n d e p e n d e n t , a n d strictly n e u t r a l
city, u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of A u s t r i a , R u s s i a , a n d P r u s s i a . Art. 9. " T h e
C o u r t s o f R u s s i a , A u s t r i a , a n d P r u s s i a e n g a g e t o respect a n d t o c a u s e t o

139
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

be always respected, the neutrality of t h e free t o w n of C r a c o w a n d its


territory. No armed force shall be introduced upon any pretence whatever. "
A u e r d e m an additional treaty relating to Cracow, signed by A u s t r i a ,
r d
R u s s i a , a n d Prussia, d. d. 3 of M a y , 1815, in w h i c h it w a s expressly
e n g a g e d t h a t t h e r e shall be no interference w i t h t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of 5
th
C r a c o w . T h e 6 Article sagt: " T h e three C o u r t s e n g a g e t o respect, a n d t o
cause to be respected at all times, the neutrality of the free city of C r a c o w
a n d its territory, a n d n o a r m e d force shall enter i t u n d e r a n y p r e t e n c e
w h a t s o e v e r . " . . . G r e a t Britain h a d never r e m o n s t r a t e d o n t h e subject. . . .
t h
2 0 F e b r u a r y 1846 t h e r e arrived a force of A u s t r i a n t r o o p s at C r a c o w , to
w h i c h t o o k possession o f the place w i t h o u t a n y r e m o n s t r a n c e o n t h e p a r t
of this c o u n t r y . After a s h o r t time these t r o o p s w e r e r e m o v e d , a n d t o o k
w i t h t h e m all t h e p u b l i c authorities. S o o n after t h e R u s s i a n s m a r c h e d
t h e r e , a n d , after r e m a i n i n g s o m e time i n t h e place, d i s t u r b a n c e s b r o k e
o u t n a t u r a l l y from such t r e a t m e n t as t h e p e o p l e w e r e e x p o s e d t o ; a n d this 15
h a d led to t h e m o s t l a m e n t a b l e results in t h a t city . . . the n a t i o n a l i t y of
P o l a n d h a d been destroyed; a n d n o w t h e little s p o t w h i c h h a d b e e n p r e -
served h a d b e e n i n v a d e d a n d o v e r r u n b y a military force, m o v e d also d a
ein " A d d r e s s t o b e p r e s e n t e d t o H e r Majesty d a m i t laid before this H o u s e
copies or extracts of a n y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e gov. of h e r M a j e s t y 20
a n d t h e gov. o f C r a c o w , Russia, Prussia, o r A u s t r i a , relative t o the a p -
p o i n t m e n t of a Brit. C o n s u l a r A g e n t at C r a c o w , since t h e d e c l a r a t i o n
m a d e b y the M i n i s t e r o f F o r e i g n Affairs i n t h e H . o . C , i n 1836, o f his
i n t e n t i o n of sending a c o n s u l to reside at C r a c o w " . [817-820]
M. Milnes. T h e q u e s t i o n of C r a c o w h a d on f o r m e r occasions b e e n 25
b r o u g h t before the H o u s e i n 1836 a n d 1840, o n b o t h w h i c h occasions
P a l m e r s t o n said t h a t h e r e g a r d e d the e n c r o a c h m e n t s o n t h a t p l a c e a s
essentially unjust, a n d if he h a d abstained from remonstrance, it w a s on
t h e g r o u n d t h a t it w a s difficult to give effect to o u r r e m o n s t r a n c e s . . . .
It w a s because we did n o t effectually remonstrate, t h a t these things 30
h a d g o n e o n . P a l m e r s t o n said, in 1836, t h a t it w a s n o t for the dignity of
this c o u n t r y t h a t it s h o u l d a p p o i n t a c o n s u l w h e n it w a s p r o b a b l e t h a t
his exequatur w o u l d be refused by the 3 P o w e r s . N o w , if E n g l a n d a n d
F r a n c e , u n d e r t h e t r e a t y o f Vienna, h a d a p p o i n t e d consuls, h e did n o t
believe for a m o m e n t t h a t the 3 p o w e r s w o u l d h a v e refused t h e m ... 35
( C r a c o w n a c h der Insurrektion, veranlat d u r c h die russ.-str. T r u p p e n ) ,
D u r c h Oestreich besezt. D a n n die Galizische Sauerei, (weil einige v. den
refugees c a m e over i n t o Gallicia.) 26 February this o r d e r issued by the
Prefect o f t h e p r o v i n c e : " I call u p o n t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f T a r n o w t h a t they
shall t a k e possession of the t u r b u l e n t spirits ( m e a n i n g t h e p r o p r i e t o r s ) . 40
T o d o this they m a y a r m themselves w i t h their scythes a n d their h a t c h e s .

140
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

T h e y shall deliver t h e m up to the G o v . ; a n d I am a u t h o r i s e d for this im-


mediately to give to t h o s e p e r s o n s w h o shall so deliver t h e m up a sufficient
r e c o m p e n s e in m o n e y . " m a s s a c r e of 1,478 of t h e p r o p r i e t o r s . Austrian
proclamation d. d. March, 12: " F a i t h f u l Gallicians: y o u h a v e a r o u s e d
5 yourselves for the m a i n t e n a n c e of o r d e r a n d law; y o u h a v e f o u g h t for t h e
law, a n d y o u h a v e d e s t r o y e d the enemies o f o r d e r " . . . I n t h e G o v . Gazette
of the 28 of April, 1846, a s t a t e m e n t f r o m Prince F r e d e r i c k of S c h w a r t -
zenberg, in which the acts t h a t h a d t a k e n place were declared to h a v e b e e n
a u t h o r i s e d b y t h e A u s t r i a n G o v e r n m e n t . . . [821-825]
10 Palmerston. "Sir, n o t h i n g c a n be m o r e painful to m e n of p r o p e r feeling
t h a n discussions t u r n i n g o n t h e subject o f P o l a n d . . . t h e m o t i o n w h i c h
my hon. Friend has made, is one that I cannot think it my duty to
accede to. M y h o n . F r i e n d h a s m o v e d for the p r o d u c t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d -
ence w h i c h t o o k place b e t w e e n the Brit. G o v . a n d t h e G o v . o f A u s t r i a ,
15 R u s s i a a n d Prussia, n o w 10 years a g o , t u r n i n g on a state of things t h e n
existing, a n d b e a r i n g o n i n t e n t i o n s w h i c h t h e Brit. G o v . a t t h a t t i m e
e n t e r t a i n e d of sending a c o n s u l a r officer to C r a c o w . . . it w o u l d be v e r y
injurious t o r a k e u p the differences t h a t existed a t t h a t p e r i o d , a n d w h i c h
h a d n o t a n y b e a r i n g on this subject. I even t h i n k t h a t , with respect to t h e
20 interests w h i c h my h o n . F r i e n d h a s at h e a r t , t h e production of that cor-
respondence would be injurious. ... W h e t h e r t h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a is or is
n o t executed a n d fulfilled by the g r e a t P o w e r s of Europe, depends not on
the presence of a consular officer at Cracow ... It was k n o w n to t h e G o v .
o f A u s t r i a , R u s s i a , a n d Prussia, t h a t t h e r e w e r e g o i n g o n plots a n d c o n -
25 spiracies . . . at a n y r a t e t h a t t h e r e were g o i n g on c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , t h e
object o f which w a s t o p r o d u c e a n o u t b r e a k i n the Polish p r o v i n c e s o r
dependencies of e a c h of t h o s e 3 P o w e r s . . . It w a s i m a g i n e d by t h e G o v .
of C r a c o w t h a t schemes w e r e in p r o g r e s s , t h e t e n d e n c y of the a c c o m -
plishment o f w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o d i s t u r b t h e tranquillity o f t h e
30 city; a n d a p p l i c a t i o n w a s m a d e by t h e G o v . of C r a c o w for t h e e n t r a n c e
of foreign t r o o p s into their territory. . . . I t h i n k , t h a t in a j u s t i n t e r p r e -
tation of t h e Treaty, t h a t article of it w h i c h says t h a t foreign t r o o p s
should n o t enter i n t o the t e r r i t o r y o f C r a c o w , m u s t m e a n t h a t t h e y
should n o t enter w i t h o u t the assent of the G o v . of C r a c o w . . . I believe
35 the original e n t r a n c e of t h e A u s t r i a n t r o o p s i n t o the t e r r i t o r y of C r a c o w
was i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f a n a p p l i c a t i o n from t h e G o v . B u t t h e n t h o s e
Austrian t r o o p s retired. Why they retired h a s n e v e r yet been explained.
With t h e m retired t h e G o v . a n d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s of C r a c o w ; t h e immediate,
at least the early c o n s e q u e n c e of t h a t r e t i r e m e n t , w a s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of
40 a provisional G o v . in C r a c o w , a n d t h e i n r o a d of t r o o p s from C r a c o w
into the A u s t r i a n territory. T h e y seized t h e salt m i n e s of Wieliczka, a n d

141
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

s o m e o f t h e t r e a s u r e there i n store. N o d o u b t t h e A u s t r i a n t r o o p s were


justified in repelling t h a t i n r o a d . . . Well, Sir, therefore in r e g a r d to t h o s e
recent events in C r a c o w , I w o u l d give the three P o w e r s credit for n o t
h a v i n g intentionally d e p a r t e d f r o m the e n g a g e m e n t s of t h e Treaty of
Vienna; but I maintain, undoubtedly, that when the emergency which 5
t h e y allege as the g r o u n d of their proceedings shall h a v e ceased, it will be
the d u t y of the 3 P o w e r s to replace t h e republic of C r a c o w on t h e footing
of c o m p l e t e i n d e p e n d e n c e , to w h i c h by the t r e a t y of V i e n n a it is entitled.
N o w , I h o p e t h a t such is t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e 3 P o w e r s : I h a v e no k n o w l -
edge to the c o n t r a r y ; b u t | 1 7 | I r a t h e r t h i n k t h a t t h e H o u s e will find 10
a m o n g s t t h e p a p e r s w h i c h I shall b e r e a d y t o p r o d u c e , a n a s s u r a n c e t h a t
t h a t is t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e 3 P o w e r s . I h a v e t o o high an opinion of t h e
sense of justice and of right t h a t m u s t a n i m a t e the G o v . of A u s t r i a , of
Prussia, a n d of R u s s i a , to believe t h a t they c a n feel a n y disposition or
i n t e n t i o n to deal w i t h C r a c o w otherwise t h a n C r a c o w is entitled by t r e a t y 15
e n g a g e m e n t s to be dealt with . . . [826-830] as far as p r o p e r representa-
t i o n s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e Brit. G o v . c a n go, everything shall b e d o n e t o
e n s u r e a d u e respect being p a i d to the P r o v i s i o n s of t h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a . "
M a c h t n a t r l i c h einige g e r h r t e P h r a s e n b e r die M o r d e i n Galizien,
H u m e w i t h d r a w s his m o t i o n u. v. allen liberalen Seiten D a n k f. die 20
E n g l i s h feelings er a u s g e s p r o c h e n . [833]

[Vol. 89. London 1847.]


H. o. C. Jan. 28. 1847.

A u f a b e r m a l i g e I n t e r p e l l a t i o n v. M. Milnes wegen d e r p r o d u c t i o n of
p a p e r s relating to t h e n o n - a p p o i n t m e n t of a Brit, c o n s u l at C r a c o w . 25
Palmerston: t h a t a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e h a d t a k e n place on t h e subject b e -
tween t h e Brit. G o v . a n d the 3 P o w e r s , w h i c h h a d p r o d u c e d s o m e asper-
ity . . . the subject h a d n o necessary c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e discussion o n t h e
i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f C r a c o w , a n d h e s a w n o a d v a n t a g e i n reviving a n a n g r y
discussion on a subject w h i c h h a d only a p a s s i n g interest. [510] 30

[Vol.90. London 1847.]


H. o. C. March 4. 1847.

J. Hume. (In 1831, t h e r e w a s a p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a n d m i l i t a r y p o s -


session; a n d in 1836 t h e r e w a s a n o t h e r military o c c u p a t i o n , t o w a r d s the
close of last session h a b e er seine r e a s o n s a u s g e s p r o c h e n zu zweifeln 35
t h e intention to cause A u s t r i a n - R u s s i a n t r o o p s to retire f r o m C r a c o w ;

142
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

b u t , o n t h a t occasion, t h e n o b l e l o r d a t t h e H e a d o f t h e F o r e i g n D e p a r t -
m e n t . . . begged o f t h e H o u s e n o t t o give credence t o t h e s t a t e m e n t s
which h e ( M r . H u m e ) t h e n m a d e , a s t h e n o b l e l o r d ( P a l m e r s t o n ) w a s i n
possession o f b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d h e was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e occu-
5 p a t i o n of C r a c o w w a s only a t e m p o r a r y o c c u p a t i o n . . . he expressed his
regret t h a t this c o u n t r y s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a p a r t y to a t r e a t y w h i c h she
was n o t c a p a b l e of enforcing . . . ) In der speech der Knigin,
19 January (1847), at the opening of t h e Session of P a r l i a m e n t : " T h e
extinction of t h e free S t a t e of C r a c o w h a s a p p e a r e d to me so manifest a
10 violation of t h e t r e a t y of Vienna, t h a t I h a v e c o m m a n d e d t h a t a p r o t e s t
against t h a t act s h o u l d be delivered to t h e C o u r t s of V i e n n a , St. P e t e r s -
b u r g h , a n d Berlin, w h i c h w e r e parties to it. C o p i e s of these p a p e r s will be
laid before y o u " . . . [862, 863] D u r c h P r o k l a m a t i o n v. November 11, 1846
Ostreich. P r o c l a m a t i o n , w o r i n es u. a. heit: " T h e c o u r t s of A u s t r i a , R u s -
15 sia, a n d Prussia, . . . h a v e b e e n u n a n i m o u s l y of o p i n i o n t h a t the political
b o d y c r e a t e d in 1815, a n d d e s t r o y e d by the r e v o l u t i o n itself, h a s b e e n
p r o d u c t i v e o f results t o o fatal t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f peace; t h a t i t h a s
s h o w n itself t o o i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the c o n d i t i o n of t h e i n t e r n a l t r a n q u i l -
lity of their o w n states, a n d w i t h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of principles of general
20 peace, to r e n d e r it possible for t h e m to r e c o n s t r u c t it." . . . 3 p a r t i e s to t h e
treaty to t a k e u p o n themselves, to a n n u l t h a t free S t a t e . . . [864, 865] t h e
leading stipulations a b o u t C r a c o w w h i c h are c o n t a i n e d i n the s e p a r a t e
treaty of M a y 3. (1815) c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n t h e 3 P o w e r s , are inserted,
w o r d for w o r d , in the general t r e a t y to w h i c h all t h e P o w e r s a r e parties
25 ... a n d those stipulations c o n s t i t u t e d t h e Articles 6, 7, 8, 9, a n d 10 of t h a t
general Treaty . . . [867]
In der str. E r k l r u n g v. Nov. 11, 1846: " W e accordingly, by these
presents, t a k e possession of the city of C r a c o w a n d of its territory, s u c h
as it h a s existed up to t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , u n i t e it to o u r C r o w n , a n d declare
30 it to f o r m an integral p o r t i o n of o u r e m p i r e , in w h i c h we i n c o r p o r a t e it
henceforth." ... [868]
Hume: " H a v i n g it in o u r p o w e r , by a legislative e n a c t m e n t , to say
whether we shall c o n t i n u e to p a y a sum of money in p u r s u a n c e of stipu-
lations c o n t a i n e d i n t h e Treaty o f V i e n n a , w e o u g h t n o t t o allow o n e
35 p o r t i o n of the b a r g a i n t o be b r o k e n , a n d k e e p the other." . . . It a p p e a r e d
t o h i m t o b e q u i t e clear, t h a t i f Russia h a d n o t k e p t t o t h e b a r g a i n m a d e
on her p a r t , we w e r e liberated from t h e payment of the money. Er p r o -
posed daher to s u b m i t to t h e H o u s e 4 resolutions. . . . I n Article 6 des
additional treaty (zwischen Ostreich P r e u s s e n u. R u l a n d ) relative t o C r a -
th
40 cow, d . d . 21 April 1815 (by t h e 1 1 8 article of the t r e a t y of V i e n n a d e -
clared to h a v e t h e s a m e force a n d validity as if it h a d been asserted in t h e

143
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

general treaty): " t h e 3 C o u r t s e n g a g e to respect, a n d to cause to be


respected at all times, the neutrality of the free city of C r a c o w a n d its
territory, a n d n o a r m e d force shall enter i t u n d e r a n y p r e t e n c e w h a t s o -
ever. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s u n d e r s t o o d a n d expressly stipulated, t h a t
the free city a n d territory of C r a c o w shall n o t afford a n y a s y l u m or 5
p r o t e c t i o n t o r u n a w a y s , deserters, o r p e r s o n s u n d e r p e r s e c u t i o n , b e l o n g -
ing to t h e c o u n t r i e s of either of t h e 3 c o n t r a c t i n g P o w e r s , a n d t h a t , on
t h e d e m a n d o f their s u r r e n d e r b y t h e c o m p e t e n t a u t h o r i t i e s , such indi-
viduals shall be arrested w i t h o u t delay, a n d delivered u p , u n d e r a p r o p e r
escort, to t h e g u a r d a p p o i n t e d to receive t h e m at t h e frontier." . . . no such 10
requisition w a s m a d e . . . d e r Senate o f C r a c o w h a t t e also a u c h nicht
t h
refused to deliver up s u c h p e r s o n s . . . [868, 870, 871] On the 2 5 of J u n e ,
Lord Aberdeen w r o t e a letter in which he said he w o u l d s u s p e n d his
o p i n i o n a t p r e s e n t respecting the o c c u p a t i o n o f C r a c o w , a n d w o u l d
a b s t a i n f r o m active interference on behalf of t h a t republic . . . L o r d P a l m - 15
e r s t o n , i n his letter o f A u g u s t 4 , said t h a t h e h o p e d n o t h i n g w o u l d b e
d o n e i n r e g a r d t o t h e S t a t e o f C r a c o w which w a s a t v a r i a n c e with the
stipulations of t h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a ... [864] In 1832, t h e constitution of
P o l a n d w a s formally a b o l i s h e d . . . ( a p p r o p r i a t i o n d e r revenues d e r n a t i o n -
al polish c h u r c h to t h e p u r p o s e s of a n o t h e r creed; e b e n s o , auf Seiten 20
R u l a n d s , a n u n r e l e n t i n g system o f p e r s e c u t i o n o n a c c o u n t o f religion.)
t e
. . . [872] I n Bezug a u f seine 4 R e s o l u t i o n , h e m u s t s h o w t h a t t h e m o n e y
w e h a d s o l o n g p a i d t o R u s s i a , w e were n o t b o u n d l o n g e r t o p a y . B y the
th
4 article of the Treaty of Vienna, an a g r e e m e n t w a s e n t e r e d i n t o b e t w e e n
England, Russia, and Holland, respecting t h e R u s s i a n - D u t c h l o a n , b o r - 25
r o w e d b y H o l l a n d f r o m Russia, a n d p a y a b l e u p o n 2 c o n d i t i o n s . S o long
as B e l g i u m s h o u l d c o n t i n u e to r e m a i n a p o r t i o n of t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , we
b o u n d ourselves to p a y in a certain p r o p o r t i o n u p o n t h e capital of t h e
l o a n , until t h e w h o l e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n cleared off . . . t h e m o n e y regu-
larly p a i d until 1831. He {da die revolution Belgien v. Holland t r e n n t e ) h a d 30
t h e n objected t o the c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h a t p a y m e n t . D a n n s p t e r n e u e
c o n v e n t i o n g e m a c h t (nmlich 1 6 N o v . 1831) b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d E n g -
l a n d . It stated t h a t its object was to r e n d e r t h e spirit of t h e C o n v e n t i o n of
1815 m o r e c o n s o n a n t t h a n i t h a d c o m e t o b e t o the t h e n existing state o f
things, u. ferner " t o secure to R u s s i a the p a y m e n t of a p o r t i o n of h e r old 35
D u t c h debt, in c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e general a r r a n g e m e n t s of t h e congress
o f V i e n n a . . . a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h r e m a i n i n full force". . . . T h e R u s s i a n -
D u t c h l o a n h a d been regularly p a i d from 1 8 1 6 - 4 6 , d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d t h e
s u m t o t a l o f o u r d i s b u r s e m e n t s a m o u n t e d t o n o less t h a n 3,374,000 .
will r e q u i r e further a n n u a l p a y m e n t s from t h e brit. t r e a s u r y until t h e 40
y e a r 1915, a m o u n t i n g to 3,917,187 St., Jedes J a h r 72,916 . A l s o

144
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

t e
H u m e ' s 4 R e s o l u t i o n , d a d a R u s s i a seine [adhesion] t o the treaties o f
V i e n n a w i t h d r a w s , a u c h diese Z a h l u n g a u f h r e n solle. [875-879] ||18| Vis-
count Sandon. ... t h e i n d e p e n d e n t existence of B e l g i u m w a s n o t c o n s i d -
ered a settled t h i n g , till all t h e 5 p o w e r s a g r e e d to it . . . t h e w o r d s in t h e
5 c o n v e n t i o n of 1831, relating to t h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a , i n t r o d u c e d at t h e
instance o f t h e M i n i s t e r s o f R u s s i a themselves, ( e r k l r t L o r d Russell
schon) [883, 885]

. o. C. March 11,1847.

Bickham Escott wished t o ask L o r d P a l m e r s t o n ... t h a t , d a d a s p a y m e n t


10 of the m o n e y of der Russian-Dutch L o a n depended u p o n the provisions
of an act of P a r l i a m e n t , he w o u l d a s k w h e t h e r , since t h e r e h a d b e e n a
manifest v i o l a t i o n o f t h e s t i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e t r e a t y o f Vienna, i t w a s t h e
intention of t h e n o b l e lord to introduce a Bill to enforce t h e future p a y
m e n t s o f this m o n e y ?
15 Palmerston. ... t h e p a y m e n t of t h e interest on this l o a n w a s a u t h o r i z e d
b y t h e A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t , t o c a r r y i n t o effect t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f 1815; i n
c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e events of 1830 a n d 1831, it b e c a m e necessary to e n t e r
i n t o a n e w c o n v e n t i o n , a n d a n e w A c t of P a r l i a m e n t w a s necessary, to
a u t h o r i z e t h e E x c h e q u e r t o act u p o n t h a t c o n v e n t i o n . N o n e w c o n v e n -
20 tion was n o w required, a n d h e a p p r e h e n d e d t h a t n o n e w A c t o f P a r i , w a s
necessary . . . [1157]
Sir W. Molesworth. We e n g a g e d to p a y t h e interest of a p o r t i o n of t h e
Russo-Dutch loan as a p a r t of the purchase-money of the colonies of
G o o d H o p e , D e m e r a r a , E s s e q u i b o a n d Berbice; a n d . . . i f w e refuse t o
25 c o n t i n u e t h o s e p a y m e n t s , w e a r e b o u n d i n h o n o u r t o r e s t o r e t h o s e col
onies ... D a f r (f. die C o l o n i e n ) we a g r e e d to b e a r e q u a l l y m i t H o l l a n d
certain o t h e r c h a r g e s , t o b e agreed u p o n b y t h e Allied Sovereigns, for t h e
f i n a l a n d satisfactory settlement o f t h e u n i o n o f t h e L o w C o u n t r i e s m i t
H o l l a n d . . . D a f r C o n v e n t i o n zwischen u n s , R u l a n d u . N i e d e r l a n d e n
30 v. 19 M a y 1815. Im p r e a m b l e s t a t e d d a der k i n g d e r N e t h e r l a n d s desir-
ous to make a suitable return to the Allied Powers for having delivered his
territories from t h e F r e n c h , d a die Allied P o w e r s w a i v e d i h r e p r e t e n -
sions i n f a v o u r o f R u s s i a , d a h e r K i n g o f t h e N e t h e r l a n d s h a d resolved t o
execute with R u s s i a c o n v e n t i o n , w o z u E n g l a n d p a r t y i n p u r s u a n c e s sei-
35 ner e n g a g e m e n t s m. H o l l a n d d u r c h C o n v e n t i o n of A u g . 13, 1814 . . . ; on
behalf o f t h e N e t h e r l a n d s t o p a y a c e r t a i n s u m t o , o r r a t h e r for R u s s i a ,
namely, t h a t w e s h o u l d t a k e u p o n ourselves a p o r t i o n o f t h e d e b t d u e
by R u s s i a on a c c o u n t of a l o a n raised by t h e H o u s e of H o p e etc. of
Amsterdam.

145
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

" t h e colonies i n question originally b e l o n g e d t o H o l l a n d . . . w e t o o k


possession of t h e m in the last war, n o t because we were at w a r with H o l -
land, b u t t o save t h e m from F r a n c e , w h e n F r a n c e t o o k possession o f
H o l l a n d . I n 1814 H o l l a n d w a s liberated from t h e d o m i n i o n o f F r a n c e ,
a n d in c o n s e q u e n c e it w a s held t h a t we were b o u n d to r e s t o r e to H o l l a n d 5
th
h e r colonies. A c o n v e n t i o n to t h a t effect was signed in L o n d o n , Aug. 13
1814. In t h e first article all colonies restored on t h e C a p e of G o o d H o p e ,
a n d t h e settlements o f D e m e r a r a , E s s e q u i b o , a n d Berbice: these w e re-
served to be disposed of by a s u p p l e m e n t a r y c o n v e n t i o n . . . diese c o n -
tained in t h e a d d i t i o n a l articles der c o n v e n t i o n . . . w o n a c h H o l l a n d diese io
S a c h e n abtritt, i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f certain p a y m e n t s t o b e m a d e b y E n g -
land ... As we h a d engaged to make those payments in such a m a n n e r
t h a t the u n i o n o f H o l l a n d a n d t h e L o w C o u n t r i e s s h o u l d b e f i n a l l y set-
t h
tled, it w a s expressly stipulated w i t h R u s s i a on t h e 5 A p r i l , t h a t t h e
payments should cease if the union were broken prior to the liquidation of 15
th
the debt. ... the c o n v e n t i o n of the 1 6 N o v . 1831 w a s executed in conse-
q u e n c e o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f H o l l a n d a n d Belgium. T h a t s e p a r a t i o n ver-
bally released us f r o m the o b l i g a t i o n of p a y i n g the interest of the R u s s o -
D u t c h d e b t . " [1180-1182]

[Vol. 91. London 1847.] 20


H. o. C. March 16, 1847.

Stuart Worthy. It w a s (1814) well k n o w n a n d plainly u n d e r s t o o d , t h a t at


t h a t t i m e R u s s i a , m u c h m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r o f the Allies, s t o o d i n n e e d
o f p e c u n i a r y assistance . . . A u s t r i a , Prussia, a n d E n g l a n d , waived their
rights in favour of R u s s i a . . . W h a t w a s o b t a i n e d by t h a t c o n v e n t i o n ? 25
2 parties, Russia o n e E n g l a n d and the Netherlands were jointly the
o t h e r . But E n g l a n d was n o t security for H o l l a n d , n o r H o l l a n d for E n g -
land, the d e b t w a s d u e t o subjects o f the k i n g o f the N e t h e r l a n d s b y t h e
C r o w n of R u s s i a . . . (the a m o u n t w a s 25,000,000 florins) . . . In einer note
des Russian plenipotentiary zu d e m engl.-holl.-russ. Vertrage heit es: " I n 30
c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e facilities w h i c h R u s s i a afforded to these a r r a n g e -
m e n t s , h e r allies ceded t o h e r all t h e p e c u n i a r y p r e t e n s i o n s t o w h i c h t h e
deliverance of the Belgian provinces h a d given rise." Diese facilities
bestanden exactement in den Bestimmungen ber Polen. " L o r d Castle-
r e a g h c o n t e n d e d , s u p p o r t e d by F r a n c e , for an i n d e p e n d e n t k i n g d o m of 35
P o l a n d ; R u s s i a c o n t e n d e d for the w h o l e d u c h y o f W a r s a w , a n d for giving
t h e k i n g d o m o f S a x o n y t o Prussia. A u s t r i a . . . f i r s t d i s p o s e d t o s u p p o r t
E n g l a n d , . . . c o n t e n d e d t h e n for a final p a r t i t i o n of P o l a n d between R u s -
sia, Prussia, a n d A u s t r i a . It w a s at last, in c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e letters of

146
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

L o r d C a s t l e r e a g h , t h a t R u s s i a m a d e t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n i n t h e presence o f
L o r d C a s t l e r e a g h , in D e c . 1814, in the C o m m i t t e e of the C o n g r e s s of
Vienna, by w h i c h C r a c o w w a s established as a free s t a t e . " [39-44] . . .
Colonel d u P l a t schreibt a n A b e r d e e n : " C r a c o w , since its elevation t o a n
5 i n d e p e n d e n t state, h a s always b e e n t h e d e p o t of very c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n -
tities of English m e r c h a n d i s e , sent t h i t h e r by t h e Black Sea, M o l d a v i a ,
a n d Gallicia, a n d even via Trieste; a n d w h i c h afterwards f i n d their w a y t o
the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r i e s . D a n n i m L a u f des J a h r s a u c h z u k o m m e n i n
railway c o m m u n i c a t i o n m. d e n g r e a t lines of P r u s s i a n Silesia, B o h e m i a ,
10 A u s t r i a . . . A l s o c e n t r a l p o i n t of t h e i m p o r t a n t line of railway c o m m u -
nication b e t w e e n the A d r i a t i c a n d the Baltic. E a r l y i n t h e e n s u i n g year,
also, it will be in direct c o m m u n i c a t i o n of the s a m e description w i t h
Warsaw. . . . L o o k i n g , therefore, to the a l m o s t certainty of a very great
p a r t o f t h e t r a d e o f the L e v a n t , a n d even o f I n d i a a n d C h i n a , f i n d i n g its
15 way up t h e A d r i a t i c , it c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h a t it m u s t be of the greatest
commercial i m p o r t a n c e , even to E n g l a n d ; to h a v e such a s t a t i o n as C r a -
cow in t h e centre of t h e great net of railways c o n n e c t i n g the w e s t e r n a n d
eastern c o n t i n e n t . " . . . [47, 48]
Smith O'Brien. H e h a d n o t h e a r d , b u t h e h o p e d they s h o u l d h e a r . . .
20 s o m e r e a s o n assigned by P a l m e r s t o n for his n o t h a v i n g fulfilled t h e p r o m -
ise which was given in 1836, t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a d i p l o m a t i c a g e n t sent
from E n g l a n d to C r a c o w . . . if a d i p l o m a t i c a g e n t h a d been sent f r o m
E n g l a n d t o C r a c o w , these t r a n s a c t i o n s w o u l d n o t h a v e occurred. B u t
when these s t r a n g e c i r c u m s t a n c e s did c o m e to p a s s , surely it w a s the d u t y
25 of the Brit. G o v . to h a v e c o n c u r r e d w i t h F r a n c e p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t t h e
threatened p r o c e e d i n g s of t h e 3 p o w e r s , w h i c h w o u l d at least h a v e h a d
the effect of causing s o m e delay . . . B u t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , at t h a t very t i m e
the n o b l e L o r d t h o u g h t it his d u t y to e n g a g e this c o u n t r y in a q u a r r e l
with F r a n c e v e r y n e a r bringing t h e 2 c o u n t r i e s i n t o collision . . . [57]
30 [Bickham Escott:] a p a y m e n t of an unjust d e m a n d to a foreign P o w e r
from a servile fear . . . The Duke of Wellington said this Treaty of Vienna \
|19| was a masterstroke of Diplomacy on the part of Lord Castlereagh, for
Russia h a d b e e n tied d o w n to t h e o b s e r v a n c e of t h a t t r e a t y by a pecu-
niary obligation. But it a p p e a r e d t h a t , t h o u g h the t r e a t y w a s violated, the
35 obligation was to be valid . . . [62]
Smythe. On t h e 17 of A p r i l (1846) a d e s p a t c h f r o m P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h to
C o u n t Dietrichstein w a s c o m m u n i c a t e d t o L o r d A b e r d e e n , which, while
full o f a l a r m s a b o u t the Polish e m i g r a t i o n , gave n o a l a r m w i t h r e g a r d t o
Cracow. F r o m A p r i l 1 7 - N o v . 6 t h e 3 P o w e r s gave no sign. On N o v . 6,
40 C o u n t Dietrichstein c o m m u n i c a t e d the intentions of the 3 P o w e r s to L o r d
Palmerston, a n d on N o v . 16, C r a c o w h a d ceased to exist. [65]

147
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

Disraeli. T h e E m p e r o r A l e x a n d e r was in military o c c u p a t i o n of War-


s a w (the ancient d u c h y of), a n d h e n a t u r a l l y wished t o k e e p i t . . . A u s t r i a
h a d o n c e possessed C r a c o w , a n d she wished t o h a v e i t a g a i n ; whilst
R u s s i a w a n t e d to preserve it. In the end, it h a p p e n e d w i t h C r a c o w . . . it
e n d e d in a mezzo termine. R u s s i a at first p r o p o s e d t h a t C r a c o w s h o u l d 5
be a p r o t e c t e d t o w n . . . Prince M e t t e r n i c h w a r n e d R u s s i a t h a t C r a c o w
w o u l d be a d i s t u r b i n g focus in t h a t C o u n t r y ; b u t t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a
d i s r e g a r d e d t h e w a r n i n g , because h e did n o t wish C r a c o w t o b e l o n g t o
A u s t r i a ; a n d , n o t being able to o b t a i n it for himself, he preferred the
m i d d l e c o u r s e . . . w a s also C r a c o w instituted as a n o r m a l f a r m of politi- 10
cal liberty a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ? [84] I r r i g sehr servile R e d e ,
(ebenso Bentinck)
Lord Palmerston. G e g e n Disraeli: t h e extinction of t h e S t a t e a n d city of
C r a c o w w a s a violation of t h e t r e a t y of V i e n n a . . . S o n s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y
of the 118* Article, y o u m u s t get rid of the 6, 7, 8, a n d 9' articles, which 15
a r e p a r t o f the general t r e a t y t o w h i c h all t h e P o w e r s w e r e c o n t r a c t i n g
parties. . . . Well, t h e n , it m a y be asked, if t h a t is o u r o p i n i o n , w h y is t h e r e
a n y h e s i t a t i o n i n acceding t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e h o n . m e m b e r for
M o n t r o s e , a n d to r e c o r d i n g o u r o p i n i o n as a r e s o l u t i o n of this H o u s e ? . . .
it is n o t consistent . . . with t h e h o n o u r , t h e dignity a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r of 20
this H o u s e , a n d o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h a t t h e H . o . C . s h o u l d p a s s s t r o n g
r e s o l u t i o n s against the c o n d u c t of foreign P o w e r s , in respect to treaties to
w h i c h this c o u n t r y is a p a r t y ; a n d t h e n h a v i n g declared t h a t a t r e a t y h a s
been violated, t o sit d o w n quietly, a n d n o t follow u p the r e s o l u t i o n b y
a n y further p r o c e e d i n g . . . D a f r his protest a g a i n s t t h e a n n e x a t i o n of 25
C r a c o w . . . c o m m u n i c a t e d t o the Parties . . . d a n n die E r w h n u n g des
P r o t e s t s in der Speech of t h e t h r o n e . . . D e w e g e n gegen die m o t i o n v.
H u m e N. I. Was 2 geht it is my i n t e n t i o n to meet t h e s e c o n d w i t h the
negative. . . . D o e s t h a t violation, release this c o u n t r y f r o m its o b l i g a t i o n
u n d e r the c o n v e n t i o n in reference to the R u s s i a n - D u t c h l o a n ? My o p i n - 30
i o n decidedly is t h a t it does n o t . [93,95-97]

[Vol.96. London 1848.]


H. o. C. Febr. 8. 1848.

( A n s t e y fragt an beim H o u s e for copies of t h e w h o l e of t h e d o c u m e n t s


relating to t h o s e b y g o n e t r a n s a c t i o n s ) 35
Anstey. the extent of territory at p r e s e n t b e l o n g i n g to R u s s i a , is d o u b l e
t h a t w h i c h it was in t h e y e a r 1772 . . . F r o m the t i m e of t h e i n f a m o u s
M a r q u e s s of Carmaerthen, Secretary of state to William I I I a n d w h o m ,

148
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

d u r i n g the visit to his c o u r t , t h e Czar Peter f o u n d m e a n s to c o r r u p t to his


interests w i t h t h e g o l d o f British m e r c h a n t s , R u s s i a h a s never b e e n
w i t h o u t a n a g e n t t o represent her i n s o m e o f t h e C a b i n e t s o f E u r o p e t h e
Richelieu a n d L a F e r r o n a y s , M i n i s t e r s o f t h e R e s t o r a t i o n , M o l e , M i n -
5 ister of L o u i s Philippe . . . [297,298] professions of P a l m e r s t o n ' s a t t a c h -
m e n t t o t h e cause o f P o l a n d . . . . T h e D u k e o f Wellington, o n g o i n g o u t o f
office, h a d left b e h i n d h i m a P r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e . . .
E b e n s o A b e r d e e n . . . (vor J u n e 1829?) . . . V o n 1815-30 t h e r e a r e n o n e o f
those p a p e r b l o c k a d e s , a r m e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s , a n d m i l i t a r y n e g o t i a t i o n s ,
10 with which the n o b l e L o r d h a s m a d e t h e w o r l d so familiar . . . D e r t r e a t y
of A d r i a n o p l e in violation of the L o n d o n t r e a t y of 1826. . . . ( P a l m e r s t o n
c a m e in N o v . 1826). . . . In 1833, T u r k e y f o u n d herself e n g a g e d in w a r
with h e r vassal, t h e P a c h a o f Ejypt, p u s h e d o n b y R u s s i a . . . . I n 1833,
M e h e m e t Ali's forces, u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d o f I b r a h i m P a c h a , his son,
15 m a r c h e d against C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . D a m a l s k o n n t e die P o r t e n i c h t resist
o h n e t o call i n aid o f t h o s e P o w e r s w h o h a d g u a r a n t e e d the integrity o f
his e m p i r e a g u a r a n t e e on the faith of w h i c h the P o r t e , in 1829, h a d
agreed to accept their interference. Accordingly, a n d on the security of
treaties, a p p l i c a t i o n w a s m a d e b y the P o r t e t o t h e n o b l e L o r d t o p r o t e c t
20 Turkey against the P a c h a of Ejypt. T h e n o b l e L o r d refused his p r o t e c -
tion. R u s s i a t h e n offered h e r assistance; h e r offer was refused . . . r e n e w e d
application t o E n g l a n d for s u p p o r t ; a n d this t i m e R u s s i a affected t o lend
her c o u n t e n a n c e to t h e request. It was a g a i n refused . . . at a s u b s e q u e n t
period it a p p e a r e d t h a t the slightest i n t i m a t i o n of t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s wishes
25 w o u l d h a v e sufficed to c h e c k I b r a h i m ' s m a r c h . . . a m e r e consular agent
at Alexandria of himself sufficed to check it. T h e S u l t a n d a h e r g e z w u n g e n
to accept a t r e a t y w h i c h c a m e to h i m r e a d y d r a w n f r o m St. P e t e r s b u r g ,
a n d which p l a c e d his p e r s o n a n d capital i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e R u s s i a n
t r o o p s . C o u n t Orloff w a s sent w i t h this t r e a t y f r o m St. P e t e r s b u r g ; a n d
30 he p r o c u r e d its a c c e p t a n c e by t h e P o r t e . It w a s signed at U n k i a r Skelessi,
shortly after his arrival; (der v o l u m e of p a p e r s w h i c h t h e n o b l e L o r d in
1840 p r e s e n t e d to the H o u s e , in e x p l a n a t i o n of the t r e a t y of July, 1840,
commences only w i t h F e b r u a r y 15, 1839.) b u t n o t till the P o r t e h a d m a d e
a n o t h e r ineffectual a t t e m p t t o m o v e the n o b l e L o r d t o justice. N o s o o n e r
35 h a d the P o r t e received it, t h a n the t r e a t y w a s c o m m u n i c a t e d by t h e m to
the Brit. E m b a s s y , w i t h a p r a y e r for o u r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t I b r a h i m
Pacha, a n d also a g a i n s t N i c h o l a s . . . a p p l i c a t i o n rejected. B u t t h a t w a s
not all. W i t h a n a t r o c i o u s perfidiousness, t h e fact w a s m a d e k n o w n t o
the R u s s i a n minister! N e x t d a y the very c o p y of t h e treaty w h i c h t h e
40 Porte h a d l o d g e d with the Brit. E m b a s s y was r e t u r n e d to the P o r t e by the
Russian A m b a s s a d o r , w h o ironically advised t h e P o r t e " t o c h o o s e b e t t e r

149
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

a n o t h e r time its confidantes". ... No s o o n e r w a s t h e t r e a t y signed, t h a n


s h a k i n g off his i n a c t i o n , the n o b l e L o r d gave t h e necessary o r d e r s , a n d
a n Engl, s q u a d r o n a c c o m p a n i e d b y a F r e n c h s q u a d r o n f o r t h e F r e n c h
G o v . w e r e t h e n m o s t d i s p o s e d t o c o - o p e r a t e implicitly w i t h E n g l a n d i n
t h e affairs of t h e E a s t m a d e a hostile d e m o n s t r a t i o n , n o t a g a i n s t R u s s . 5
p o r t s i n t h e Baltic o r Black Sea, b u t against t h e D a r d a n e l l e s a n d o t h e r
p a r t s of t h e d o m i n i o n s of o u r ally t h e S u l t a n ! Yet the alleged necessity of
this d e m o n s t r a t i o n w a s g r o u n d e d u p o n t h e P o r t e h a v i n g a c c e p t e d t h e
Treaty of U n k i a r Skelessi at t h e dictation of the c a b i n e t of St. P e t e r s b u r g .
[305-311] (Ministers w e n d e n alle m e a n s an to c o u n t t h e H o u s e o u t at this 10
occasion.) (So b r i c h t die R e d e v. A n s t e y a b r u p t ab.) ( G o v . r e s o r t e d to a
P a r l i a m e n t a r y trick for the p u r p o s e of getting [rid] of a c h a r g e involving
t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the n o b l e L o r d . )

[H. o.J C, Febr. 14, 1848.

[Lord Dudley Stuart] a c h a r g e against t h e c o n d u c t of a M i n i s t e r of t h e 15


C r o w n o u g h t n o t t o b e e n d e a v o u r e d t o b e g o t rid o f b y a n y u n d u e
m e a n s , s u c h [as those] t h a t were resorted to on T u e s d a y n i g h t last. | [626]

|20| H. 0. C, Febr. 23, 1848. Anstey.

T h e Poles h a d b e e n i n a r m s for a m o n t h o r t h e r e a b o u t s , before t h e n o b l e


L o r d c a m e i n t o office . . . In Bezug h i e r a u f (Polen) " N o t o n e p a p e r as yet 20
h a s b e e n laid before t h e H o u s e ! the H o u s e i s u n d e r a n official i g n o r a n c e
o f t h e c o u r s e p u r s u e d b y t h e n o b l e L o r d . " . . . T h e H o u s e d o e s n o t even
k n o w w h e t h e r any c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h a t e v e r t o o k place . . . w h e n i t w a s
p r o p o s e d t o E n g l a n d b y F r a n c e a t a n early p e r i o d o f the i n s u r r e c t i o n t o
interfere by r e m o n s t r a n c e , a n d afterwards in a m o r e effectual m a n n e r 25
b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d t h e Poles, the n o b l e L o r d distinctly refused the a p -
plication. T h e n o b l e L o r d used a r g u m e n t s w h i c h led the C o u r t o f t h e
Tuilleries to believe t h a t if F r a n c e v e n t u r e d on s u c h a c o u r s e w i t h o u t t h e
c o n c u r r e n c e of E n g l a n d , the g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n t h e 2 c o u n t r i e s
m i g h t be e n d a n g e r e d . Sweden w a s t h e n a r m i n g h e r fleet for t h e p u r p o s e 30
of m a k i n g a diversion in favour of P o l a n d , a n d of regaining to herself
the provinces in the Baltic which h a d b e e n so unjustly wrested from h e r
i n t h e last w a r . T h e n o b l e L o r d instructed o u r A m b a s s a d o r a t t h e C o u r t
o f S t o c k h o l m i n the s a m e sense, a n d Sweden d i s c o n t i n u e d h e r a r m a m e n t .
T h e P e r s i a n C o u r t . . . h a d , w i t h a similar p u r p o s e , d e s p a t c h e d an a r m y 35

150
4
PR

Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

3 days on its m a r c h t o w a r d s t h e R u s s i a n frontier, u n d e r the c o m m a n d of


the P e r s i a n C r o w n - P r i n c e , A b b a s M e e r z a , t h e f a t h e r o f t h e p r e s e n t S h a h .
U n d e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f the n o b l e L o r d , t h e Secretary o f L e g a t i o n a t
the C o u r t o f T e h e r a n , Sir J o h n M a c N e i l , followed t h e Prince, a n d a t t h e
5 distance of 3 d a y s ' m a r c h f r o m his h e a d q u a r t e r s o v e r t o o k h i m , a n d t h e r e
u n d e r i n s t r u c t i o n s from the n o b l e lord, a n d i n t h e n a m e o f E n g l a n d ,
t h r e a t e n e d Persia with w a r i f t h e P r i n c e a d v a n c e d a n o t h e r step t o w a r d s
the R u s s i a n frontier. Similar i n d u c e m e n t s w e r e u s e d b y t h e n o b l e L o r d t o
prevent T u r k e y f r o m renewing the w a r o n h e r side . . . A t t h a t p e r i o d . . .
10 n e g o t i a t i o n g o i n g on b e t w e e n L o r d P a l m e r s t o n a n d t h e M e m b e r s of the
Belgian congress t o i n d u c e the latter t o accept the m e d i a t i o n o f E n g l a n d
between the revolted provinces o f Belgium a n d t h e C o u r t o f t h e N e t h e r -
lands. A Pole, Walewski, w i t h t h e s a n c t i o n of the n o b l e L o r d , left L o n -
d o n a n d w e n t to Brussels, w h e r e t h e r e w a s , at t h a t time, a firm deter-
15 m i n a t i o n to resist the m e d i a t i o n of E n g l a n d , a n d the p r o t o c o l s at t h e
Congress o r Conference o f L o n d o n . D a s office dieses P o l e n w a r t o
represent t o M . d e M e r o d e , w h o c o m m a n d e d a m a j o r i t y o f t h a t C o n -
gress, t h a t it m a i n l y d e p e n d e d u p o n t h e pacific settlement of t h e Belgian
question w h e t h e r o r n o t a n y t h i n g w a s t o b e d o n e b y E n g l a n d o n behalf
20 of the Poles. M. de M e r o d e u. his p a r t y n a h m e n sofort (acquiesced) t h e
m e d i a t i o n o f E n g l a n d , a n d agreed t o a d o p t t h e Treaty o f the 2 4 articles
on the fait of t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s a s s u r a n c e . P r i n c e Talleyrand, also, t h e n
representing F r a n c e a t the C o u r t o f L o n d o n , o n receiving notice o f this
transaction, a n d relying fully o n the n o b l e L o r d ' s sincerity, a g a i n a d d r e s s -
25 ed to h i m a n o t e in the sense of this Polish agent, fully expecting t h a t . . .
the result w o u l d be a c o m b i n e d a c t i o n on Polish affairs on t h e p a r t of
E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e ; b u t t h e acquiescence o f Belgium h a v i n g b e e n n o w
obtained, the e n d o f t h e n o b l e L o r d w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d , n o t e r e t u r n e d . . .
to the a s t o n i s h m e n t of Prince Talleyrand, a distinct refusal. T h a t n o t e h a s
30 never been laid before P a r l i a m e n t . . . . D a r i n heits: " t h a t an a m i c a b l e
i n t e r m e d i a t i o n o n t h e Polish q u e s t i o n w o u l d b e declined b y R u s s i a t h a t
the P o w e r s h a d j u s t declined a similar offer on t h e p a r t of F r a n c e t h a t
the intervention of t h e 2 C o u r t s , F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d , c o u l d o n l y be by
force in case of a refusal on the p a r t of R u s s i a a n d t h a t the a m i c a b l e
35 and satisfactory relations between the C a b i n e t of St. J a m e s a n d t h e C a b i -
net of St. P e t e r s b u r g , w o u l d n o t allow his Brit. M a j e s t y to u n d e r t a k e
such an interference. T h e time w a s n o t yet c o m e to u n d e r t a k e s u c h a p l a n
with success against t h e will of a Sovereign w h o s e rights were indispu-
table." . . . " B u t in the m e a n t i m e his Brit. M a j e s t y h a s instructed his M i n i s -
40 ter at St. P e t e r s b u r g h to insist u p o n t h e n a t i o n a l existence of P o l a n d
according t o t h e Treaty o f V i e n n a , a n d the m a i n t e n a n c e o f her n a t i o n a l

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Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

i n s t i t u t i o n s . " . . . t h e cost of h e r ( P o l a n d ) fall . . . was defrayed, in a great


p a r t , o u t of the new loan which the n o b l e L o r d h a d i n d u c e d P a r l i a m e n t
to g r a n t u n d e r the pretext of p a y i n g off t h e d e b t c o n t r a c t e d in 1815. . . . In
seiner D e s p a t c h , d. d. 12 A u g u s t , 1847 schreibt er an L o r d P o n s o n b y , in
r e g a r d t o " t h e integrity d e r R o m a n states", d a m a l s b e d r o h t d u r c h 5
A u s t r i a " t h a t H . M ' s G o v . w a s o f o p i n i o n , t h a t t h e stipulations a n d
e n g a g e m e n t s of the Treaty of Vienna o u g h t to be a d h e r e d to in Italy as
well a s i n all o t h e r p a r t s o f E u r o p e t o w h i c h t h e y a p p l i e d " . . . . I n einer
s p t e r e n d e s p a t c h a n denselben " t h a t t h e integrity o f t h e R o m a n state
m a y be considered as an essential element of t h e political i n d e p e n d e n c e 10
o f t h e I t a l i a n Peninsula, a n d t h a t n o invasion o f t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h a t
S t a t e c o u l d t a k e place, w i t h o u t leading t o c o n s e q u e n c e s o f g r e a t gravity
a n d i m p o r t a n c e " . . . . N u n d e r P a b s t refused t o b e a p a r t y t o t h e Treaty o f
V i e n n a . . . A u s t r i a selbst, in 1831, was ready a n d willing to h a v e acted
w i t h E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e , n o t only in enforcing t h e s t i p u l a t i o n s of t h e 15
Treaty of V i e n n a , b u t in g o i n g far b e y o n d it. She w a s p r e p a r e d to assent
to the establish in P o l a n d of an i n d e p e n d e n t k i n g d o m , u n d e r a prince n o t
of t h e R u s s i a n n a t i o n . . . . On April 18,1832, t h e late M r . C u t l a r F e r -
g u s o n before the H o u s e P a l m e r s t o n o n t h a t o c c a s i o n defeated the
M o t i o n of F e r g u s o n , by t h e simple process of being a b s e n t . On 20
June 28, 1832 derselbe F e r g u s o n a g a i n m o v e d for t h e p r o d u c t i o n of the
o r g a n i c s t a t u t e b y w h i c h R u s s i a h a d forever a b o l i s h e d the C o n s t i t u t i o n
o f P o l a n d . T h i s w a s a n occasion for t h e n o b l e L o r d . . . barely assenting
t o the M o t i o n , w i t h o u t saying a n y t h i n g o n t h e m a i n q u e s t i o n . T h e o r g a -
nic s t a t u t e was, therefore, presented to P a r l i a m e n t in c o n f o r m i t y w i t h 25
this M o t i o n . N o t h i n g m o r e being d o n e in t h e m a t t e r , the effect was to
establish a n d to recognize in a s o l e m n m a n n e r t h e fact of t h e d e s t r u c t i o n
o f t h e k i n g d o m o f P o l a n d . . . F o r s o m e time n u n nichts a n d r e s i n the w a y
o f p r i v a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e answers, h o w e v e r , w h i c h they privately
received from t h e n o b l e lord, were invariably f a v o u r a b l e . H e , from t i m e 30
t o time, c o n t i n u e d t o assure t h e m t h a t everything w a s going o n well
[ 1 1 3 8 - 1 1 4 7 ] E r k l r u n g des P a l m e r s t o n o n July 17, 1840 b e r C r a c o w
...2 days before, the noble L o r d h a d signed w i t h t h e B a r o n B r u n o w t h a t
f a m o u s t r e a t y o f July, which b o u n d E n g l a n d t o t h e R u s s i a n alliance, a n d
r u p t u r e d o u r e n g a g e m e n t s with F r a n c e . . . A l m o s t P a l m e r s t o n ' s first act 35
on c o m i n g i n t o office w a s to accept t h e Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e . . . He
c o n t r i v e d this in the following m a n n e r . A m o n g s t t h e clauses in t h e Treaty
o f A d r i a n o p l e e x t o r t e d b y R u s s i a f r o m Turkey, t h e r e w a s o n e which
g a v e to R u s s i a d o m i n i o n over a great extent of coast in t h e b l a c k Sea,
limited by certain b o u n d a r i e s . N o w Circassia w a s n o t specifically 40
m e n t i o n e d i n t h a t clause . . . Circassia f o r m e d n o p a r t o f t h e Turkish
territory. Circassia did n o t belong t o T u r k e y t o give, n o r t o R u s s i a

152
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

to receive. H o w e v e r , by the treaty, a g e o g r a p h i c a l line w a s so d r a w n as in


fact t o include Circassia w i t h i n the ceded territory; a n d , o n the a u t h o r i t y
of t h a t p r e t e n d e d cession . . . R u s s i a h a d g r o u n d e d a p r e t e n d e d title to
d o m i n i o n over Circassia. In t h e exercise of t h a t p r e t e n s i o n , R u s s i a , in
5 1832, notified, t h r o u g h h e r A m b a s s a d o r at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e to t h e n o b l e
L o r d , t h r o u g h [his] ||21j t h e n representative a n d a g e n t t h e r e , M r . M a n d e -
ville . . . the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a q u a r a n t a i n e a n d c u s t o m h o u s e w i t h
regulations o f a s a n a t o r y a n d f i s c a l n a t u r e a t A n a p a , a n d elsewhere, o n
the coast of Circassia . . . M r . M a n d e v i l l e t o o k u p o n himself, with the
10 approbation of the noble Lord, to p u b l i s h at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e to t h e C o n s u l
G e n . o f E n g l a n d , a n d the Brit, m e r c h a n t s t h e r e , t h o s e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d
ordinances p r o m u l g a t e d b y R u s s i a for t h e s a n a t o r y a n d f i s c a l g o v . o f t h e
tribes a n d coasts o f Circassia . . . B y this act, t h e Brit. G o v . w a s m a d e t o
recognise 2 u s u r p a t i o n s 1) the illegal Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e , a n d 2) the
15 p r e t e n d e d cession of Circassia . . . Circassia w a s a b a n d o n e d to R u s s i a ;
and, with Circassia, t h e freedom a n d privileges o f c o m m e r c e , i m m e m o r i -
ally enjoyed by Brit, m e r c h a n t s on her c o a s t s , b u t w h i c h the R u s s i a n
tariff refused . . . P a l m e r s t o n t o o k u p o n himself t o erect M e h e m e t Ali i n t o
an i n d e p e n d e n t p o w e r . W i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t of t h e P o r t e , h e , in 1832,
20 accredited C o n s u l s a n d d i p l o m a t i c a g e n t s t o t h a t a m b i t i o u s P a c h a . H e
entered i n t o treaties w i t h h i m , altering existing r e g u l a t i o n s a n d a r r a n g e -
ments t o u c h i n g m a t t e r s o f t r a d e a n d revenue, a n d establishing o t h e r s i n
their r o o m . T h e c o n s e n t o f t h e P o r t e w a s n o t even a s k e d b e f o r e h a n d , n o r
its a p p r o b a t i o n afterwards received. M e h e m e t Ali t h u s e n c o u r a g e d by
25 the noble L o r d to consider himself i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e P o r t e . . . to c o n -
firm h i m in t h a t i n d e p e n d e n c e , I b r a h i m P a c h a , his son, at the h e a d of t h e
Ejyptian a r m y m a r c h e d a g a i n s t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . P a l m e r s t o n s a n d t e nicht
even instructions to the Consul at Alexandria to use his influence t h e r e
with M e h e m e t A l i . . . A t t h e m o m e n t o f t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s second refusal
30 of assistance, a R u s s i a n s q u a d r o n on b o a r d s u d d e n l y sailed from Sevas-
topol in the Black Sea t o w a r d s C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a n d d i s e m b a r k e d a large
force of R u s s i a n t r o o p s u p o n the shores of t h e B o s p h o r u s , a n d laid siege
to the capital. T h e S u l t a n w a s i n t i m i d a t e d i n t o a secret c o m m u n i c a t i o n
u n k n o w n t o the P o r t e . C o u n t Orloff k m m t especially f r o m St. Peters-
35 burg. T h e only c o n d i t i o n on which the R u s s . d i p l o m a t i s t w o u l d c o n s e n t
to w i t h d r a w 1) his t r o o p s , a n d 2) assist T u r k e y in checking the a d v a n c e of
the P a c h a of Ejypt, t h e i m m e d i a t e a c c e p t a n c e of t h e Treaty of Unkiar
Skelessi ... (as it t u r n e d o u t afterwards, the r e m o n s t r a n c e of a simple
Consul a t A l e x a n d r i a w a s f o u n d q u i t e sufficient t o check t h e P a c h a ' s
40 progress.) . . . T h e m o m e n t the P o r t e h a d signed t h a t treaty, t h e n o b l e
L o r d w h o w o u l d n o t g r a n t help, n o r even use m e d i a t i o n w i t h t h e P a s h a

153
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

t o check his a m b i t i o u s designs against the P o r t e , sent a n English


s q u a d r o n , w i t h w h i c h w a s c o m b i n e d a F r e n c h s q u a d r o n , t o t h r e a t e n the
T u r k i s h coasts a n d capital. T h e pretext w a s . . . t h e t r e a t y o f U n k i a r Ske-
lessi . . . Er h a t t e even refused to interfere to t h e extent of a simple r e m o n -
s t r a n c e t h r o u g h his representatives, with t h e R u s s i a n A m b a s s a d o r , gegen 5
diesen t r e a t y . . . sends a fleet to t h r e a t e n t h e c o a s t s , n o t of R u s s i a t h e
assailant, b u t o f T u r k e y t h e assailed . . . A t t h e very t i m e t h a t this d e m o n -
s t r a t i o n w a s being m a d e , a n a s s u r a n c e was given b y t h e n o b l e L o r d t o
t h e R u s s i a n A m b a s s a d o r a t this C o u r t , t h a t this c o m b i n e d m o v e m e n t o f
the s q u a d r o n s was not intended in any sense hostile to Russia, n o r to be 10
t a k e n as a hostile d e m o n s t r a t i o n against her; b u t , t h a t in fact, it m e a n t
n o t h i n g at all. I say this on the authority of Lord Ponsonby, the n o b l e
L o r d ' s o w n colleague, t h e n A m b a s s a d o r a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . t h e result
w a s , t h a t Turkey, forced i n t o further concessions, signed t h e shameful
Convention of St. Petersburgh, and then the British fleet was withdrawn; 15
the noble Lord at the same time expressing his satisfaction with the moder-
ation of the terms so imposed by Russia! ... T h e convention of St. Peters-
burgh w a s a ratification of the Treaty of Adrianople. N o w , in the s a m e
c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e n o b l e L o r d a n n o u n c e d t o R u s s i a a n d Tur-
key his pacific i n t e n t i o n s a n d the w i t h d r a w a l of the E n g l i s h s q u a d r o n , he 20
assured the R u s s . G o v . , t h a t the Brit. G o v . w e r e perfectly satisfied with
the a m i c a b l e i n t e n t i o n s of the C a b i n e t of St. P e t e r s b u r g h in r e g a r d to
Turkey, a n d its l a u d a b l e disinterestedness, as evinced in t h a t c o n v e n t i o n ,
a n d t h a t u p o n t h o s e g r o u n d s t h e c o m b i n e d s q u a d r o n s h a d been with-
d r a w n . T h u s , did h e , for the second time, accept a n d ratify t h e Treaty of 25
A d r i a n o p l e . . . these were the beginnings of t h a t c o u r s e of successful
u s u r p a t i o n w h i c h the P a s h a o f Ejypt w a s i n d u c e d b y R u s s i a t o p r o s e c u t e ,
a n d which afterwards p r o d u c e d a new w a r w i t h t h e P o r t e , a n d t h e treaty
of July, 1840. Upon these early events ... the noble Lord has taken very
good care to lay no information whatever before it... W i l l i a m I V . (at the 30
p e r i o d of the t r e a t y of U n k i a r S k e l e s s i ) . . . w a s powerfully impressed with
the necessity of m a i n t a i n i n g a n d s u p p o r t i n g Turkey, a n d of p r e v e n t i n g
the p r o g r e s s o f R u s s i a n e n c r o a c h m e n t i n t h a t q u a r t e r . H e forced the
q u e s t i o n u p o n t h e a t t e n t i o n o f the n o b l e L o r d . . . I c a n p r o v e , t h a t the
n o b l e L o r d w a s obliged to t a k e his directions in this m a t t e r f r o m the late 35
K i n g ' s P r i v a t e Secretary, a n d t h a t his existence in office d e p e n d e d u p o n
his c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e wishes o f the M o n a r c h . . . the n o b l e L o r d did o n
o n e or 2 occasions, as far as he d a r e d , resist; b u t . . . his resistance w a s
vain, a n d . . . invariably followed by abject expressions of c o n t r i t i o n a n d
c o m p l i a n c e . I will n o t t a k e u p o n myself to assert t h a t on o n e occasion the 40
n o b l e L o r d w a s actually o u t of office for a d a y or t w o ; b u t I am able to

154
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

say, t h a t t h e n o b l e L o r d w a s at least in d a n g e r of a m o s t u n c e r e m o n i o u s
expulsion from office, on t h a t occasion. I refer, Sir, to t h e discovery
which the late K i n g h a d m a d e , t h a t the n o b l e L o r d c o n s u l t e d t h e feelings
o f the R u s s . G o v . a s t o t h e choice o f a n E n g l i s h A m b a s s a d o r a t the
5 C o u r t of St. P e t e r s b u r g h ; a n d t h a t Sir S t r a t f o r d C a n n i n g originally des-
tined for t h e E m b a s s y , w a s set aside t o m a k e r o o m for t h e late E a r l o f
D u r h a m a n A m b a s s a d o r m o r e agreeable t o t h e C z a r . . . T h e n o b l e
L o r d c o n t r a d i c t s m e . Sir, I a s k h i m to p r o d u c e t h e p a p e r s which relate to
the n o m i n a t i o n of Sir S t r a t f o r d C a n n i n g , . . . his s u b s e q u e n t rejection,
10 a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t election of the E a r l of D u r h a m as the representative
a t St. P e t e r s b u r g h . . . H i s Majesty w a s also a w a r e t h a t t h e m e a n s t a k e n
b y R u s s i a t o p r o s t r a t e the s t r e n g t h o f T u r k e y w e r e c o m m e r c i a l m e a n s . I n
fact, a fiscal system, of t h e m o s t a b s u r d a n d m i s c h i e v o u s c h a r a c t e r , h a d
been b r o u g h t i n b y R u s s i a n [influence, a n d engrafted o n t h e old simplicity
15 of the T u r k i s h financial a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . t h e r e were treaties existing
between E n g l a n d [and Turjkey . . . c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t i e s b y w h i c h every
article w a s i m p o r t e d free, a n d every article of e x p o r t e x p o r t e d at 3 % . |
I [22] IA similar favour h a d b e e n g r a n t e d to R u s s i a by the Treaty of A d r i a -
nople . . . She h a d n o t at t h a t time a single m e r c h a n t at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . .
20 No s o o n e r the t r e a t y [was signed] t h a n h e r emissaries a m o n g s t t h e G r e e k
subjects o f the P o r t e p e r s u a d e d t h e m t o declare themselves R u s s i a n s . . .
S o great n u m b e r o f G r e e k r a y a h s u n d u l y o b t a i n e d a n entire e x e m p t i o n o f
taxation . . . universal d i s c o n t e n t a m o n g s t t h e f a r m e r s o f taxes, w h o f o u n d
their gains destroyed; . . . very great e m b a r r a s s m e n t t o t h e G o v . , b e c a u s e
25 of the loss of revenue which w a s the n a t u r a l result. In o r d e r to o b v i a t e
the d i s a d v a n t a g e t h e P o r t e i n t r o d u c e d o r r a t h e r e x t e n d e d t h e baneful
system of m o n o p o l i e s , by w h i c h t h e sale of c e r t a i n articles w a s g r a n t e d
only t o t h o s e w h o h a d p a i d t o licenses f r o m t h e G o v . R u s s i a d i d n o t re-
m o n s t r a t e a g a i n s t these m o n o p o l i e s , a l t h o u g h g r a n t e d in evident infrac-
30 tion of o n e clause of t h e Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e ; a n d this for very p r o f o u n d
reasons of policy . . . R u s s i a , in q u e s t i o n s of c o m m e r c e , h a s never an eye
t o commercial a d v a n t a g e , b u t always t o territorial a g g r a n d i z e m e n t . . . Sie
wollte p r o c u r e i n t e r n a l disaffection a n d d i s c o n t e n t . . . D i e g r e a t R u s s i a n
m e r c h a n t s c o m p l a i n e d , a b e r r e p r i m a n d e d b y t h e R u s s . A m b a s s y . . . Hielt
35 sich a u e r d e m gern p r e t e x t v o r , weil o n e clause of t h e t r e a t y of A d r i a -
nople e m p o w e r s her, in the event of a n y v i o l a t i o n w h a t e v e r of a n y clause
of t h a t treaty, to exercise as t h o u g h w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s a n d entire s a n c t i o n
and recognition o f t h e P o r t e , t h e i m m e d i a t e right o f reprisal. A n o t h e r
clause . . . t h a t , until all p e c u n i a r y d e m a n d s arising o u t of t h a t t r e a t y
40 should h a v e been liquidated, the T u r k i s h fortress of Silistria, a n d o t h e r
places possessed by R u s s i a , were n o t to be given up . . . T u r k e y bios v.

155
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

R u l a n d z u free . . . w h e n her f i n a n c e s h a d b e e n b r o u g h t i n t o a m o r e
p r o s p e r o u s c o n d i t i o n . William I V d e t e r m i n e d d a h e r t o n e g o t i a t e with
T u r k e y a t r e a t y of c o m m e r c e ; e m p l o y e d dafr d e n U r q u h a r t . . . des W i l -
liam IV p r i v a t e secretary Sir H e r b e r t Taylor . . . P a l m e r s t o n so g e z w u n g e n
t o e m p o w e r den U r q u h a r t t o d r a w u p a n d p r o c u r e t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e 5
articles of a t r e a t y of c o m m e r c e . . . . T h e general t e r m s of this t r e a t y were
to this effect: t h a t all m o n o p o l i e s s h o u l d be abolished, so far as respected
Brit, m e r c h a n t s a n d their a g e n t s t h a t all taxes i m p o s e d u p o n Brit, m e r -
c h a n t s o r their agents, o r duties except t h o s e p r o v i d e d b y t h e treaty,
w h e t h e r they w e r e duties of e x p o r t , or i m p o r t , or of t r a n s i t , s h o u l d be 10
repealed; t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e c o m m i s s i o n e r s a p p o i n t e d b e t w e e n the
2 S t a t e s E n g l , a n d Turk, c o m m i s s i o n e r s t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e v a l u e of
all articles, usually e x p o r t e d from Turkey a n d w h i c h s h o u l d find a sale in
E n g l a n d ; t h a t t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n e r s s h o u l d revise their r e p o r t s o n c e in
every 5 years; t h a t t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n e r s s h o u l d set ad v a l o r e m duties 15
u p o n t h e different articles of c o m m e r c e in this m a n n e r , n a m e l y , t h a t if
a n y o n e article of c o m m e r c e w a s so exclusively t h e p r o d u c t i o n of T u r k e y
as to insure it a r e a d y sale, at the prices usually received u n d e r t h e m o n o p -
oly in foreign p o r t s , t h e n the e x p o r t d u t y to be assessed m i g h t be a high
o n e , so as to be r e m u n e r a t i v e a n d p r o d u c t i v e of r e v e n u e , b u t t h a t , in the 20
case o f c o m m o d i t i e s p r o d u c e d elsewhere t h a n i n T u r k e y , a n d n o t b e i n g o f
sufficient value in foreign p o r t s to b e a r a h i g h d u t y , a lower d u t y s h o u l d
be assessed; a n d , lastly, t h a t this tariff s h o u l d be revised every 5 y e a r s . . . .
T h e r e w a s o n e clause of t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . . . for r e p e a l i n g a p r o -
h i b i t i o n which h a d b e e n i m p o s e d by t h e T u r k . G o v . u p o n certain 25
exportsa prohibition first obtained in that treaty by means of... Rus-
sian influence . . . R u s s i a h a d o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e P o r t e t h e a b s o l u t e p r o -
h i b i t i o n of the e x p o r t a t i o n of all articles w h a t e v e r , c a p a b l e of being p r o -
d u c e d i n the c o u n t r i e s o f t h e n o r t h . W h a t were t h o s e articles? T h e y form
a l m o s t the only b r a n c h of o u r t r a d e w i t h R u s s i a . E x p o r t a t i o n w a s a b s o - 30
lutely p r o h i b i t e d in t h e case of c o r n , h e m p , t i m b e r ; p e r m i t t e d only in the
case o f dyes, g u m s etc. articles which R u s s i a d i d n o t p r o d u c e . E b e n s o
p r o h i b i t e d t h e e x p o r t a t i o n of oil. T h e effect of t h e a d m i s s i o n of Turkish
oil i n t o the English m a r k e t , w o u l d h a v e b e e n entirely t o exclude R u s s i a n
tallow . . . the w h o l e of t h e contest between P a l m e r s t o n einerseits, u. d e m 35
K i n g u . U r q u h a r t andrerseits, was directed t o t h e t r e a t y o f c o m m e r c e ,
(wie d a s H o u s e will find, if the p a p e r s are g r a n t e d . ) E v e r y a r t w a s used,
every f r a u d w a s e m p l o y e d t o c i r c u m v e n t M r . U r q u h a r t , a n d t o destroy
the negotiation. The attempt was m a d e to corrupt him by the promise of
e m p l o y m e n t elsewhere. T h e a t t e m p t failed. T h e r e w a s no cause left b u t to 40
d e s t r o y h i m . . . . (Er h a b e hier die passages of the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e with Sir

156
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

H e r b e r t Taylor, w h i c h relate t o this m a t t e r . . . i f a n y o n e o f m y state-


m e n t s is denied or d o u b t e d , I am quite p r e p a r e d to r e a d t h e m ...) P a l m -
erston a t t e m p t e d erst to o v e r t h r o w the project, by d e n o u n c i n g it as a
R u s s i a n project . . . his colleague, L o r d S y d e n h a m , t h e n M r . P o u l e t t
5 T h o m p s o n , a R u s s i a n m e r c h a n t , w h o h a d g r e a t interests in t h e Baltic
(obgleich a nominal r e t i r e m e n t on his p a r t f r o m t h e g r e a t firm w h i c h h a d
the t r a d i n g m o n o p o l y in the Baltic p r o v i n c e s of R u s s i a ) . . . a R u s s i a n
m e r c h a n t , a n d a R u s s i a n a g e n t in t h e Brit. C a b i n e t d e n o u n c e d t h e very
same t r e a t y a t t h e very s a m e t i m e a s a n " a n t i - R u s s i a n project". . . . t h e
10 d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the K i n g prevailed . . . i n s t r u c t i o n sent to L o r d P o n -
sonby, b y the n o b l e L o r d , a t the d i c t a t i o n o f the K i n g , t o p r o p o s e this
treaty, w i t h o u t a l t e r a t i o n in t h e smallest p a r t i c u l a r , for a c c e p t a n c e by t h e
Sublime P o r t e . . . this treaty, f o u n d e d u p o n U r q u h a r t ' s r e p o r t s settled
a n d a d o p t e d in t h e F o r e i g n Office . . . settled u. a d o p t e d in the B o a r d of
15 Trade, a n d accepted in its t e r m s by the n o b l e L o r d a n d by M r . P o u l e t t
T h o m p s o n , before it w a s sent to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , I h a v e n o w to i n f o r m
the H o u s e , t h a t t h a t t r e a t y h a s never t o this h o u r b e e n signed . . . t h a t i t
has never t o this h o u r b e e n s o m u c h a s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e P o r t e . . . T h e
noble L o r d w a s directed by t h e K i n g in t h e y e a r 1835, u. lange v o r 1833
20 to m a k e inquiries on t h e s p o t t o u c h i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t rights of C i r c a s -
sia. D a f r d a s sailing of t h e Vixen u. die a p p l i c a t i o n of his o w n e r ,
M r . Bell, t o the n o b l e L o r d etc. . . . I n t h e m i d s t o f t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s
King William . . . h e a r d with a n i n d i g n a n t surprise . . . t h a t , i n t h e c o u r s e
of a visit w h i c h t h e C z a r N i c h o l a s h a d recently p a i d to W a r s a w , t h a t
25 p o t e n t a t e h a d a d d r e s s e d a speech to t h e m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s of t h a t
city, w o e r declared, t h a t P o l a n d w a s n o m o r e , t h a t the a r r a n g e m e n t o f
the Congress o f V i e n n a w a s a t end. t h a t h e r t e r r i t o r y h a d m e r g e d i n t o
Russia; a n d t h a t i t w a s n o longer a s Poles, b u t a s R u s s i a n s , t h a t t h e
Polish people were t h e n c e f o r t h to b e l o n g to h i m . S o m e 2 or 3 y e a r s
30 before t h a t p e r i o d , the Poles, w h o h a d s o u g h t refuge h e r e a n d in F r a n c e ,
had b r o u g h t f i r s t t o F r a n c e a n d t h e n t o E n g l a n d t h e archives w h i c h t h e
Russian Viceroys h a d left a t W a r s a w ; c o n t a i n i n g S t a t e p a p e r s . . . f r o m t h e
beginning of this c e n t u r y d o w n to 1830, w h e n the archives fell i n t o t h e
hands of the victorious i n s u r g e n t s . T h o s e p a p e r s placed in the h a n d s of
35 Palmerston by C o u n t Z a m o y s k i , t h e n e p h e w of P r i n c e C z a r t o r i s k i . P a l m -
erston h a d these d e s p a t c h e s for 2 years, a n d did n o t h i n g w i t h t h e m . W i l -
liam IV, at t h e p e r i o d of t h e speech at W a r s a w , o r d e r e d these p a p e r s to
b e given u p b y the n o b l e L o r d . T h e y were given u p a n d e x a m i n e d a t t h e
time a t W i n d s o r Castle, a n d i t w a s f o u n d desirable t o p r i n t a n d p u b l i s h
40 them ... In spite of g r e a t o p p o s i t i o n of P a l m e r s t o n , t h e K i n g c o m p e l l e d
him to lend the a u t h o r i t y of t h e F o r . Off. to their p u b l i c a t i o n , so d a d e r

157
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

editor, w h o t o o k the c h a r g e o f revising t h e m for t h e press, p u b l i s h e d n o t


a single d o c u m e n t w h i c h h a d n o t t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s initial o r s i g n a t u r e
a t t a c h e d . I myself h a v e seen t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s initial a t t a c h e d to o n e of
these d o c u m e n t s . . . obgleich the n o b l e l o r d h a s d e n i e d these facts. P a l m -
e r s t o n was compelled to place these d o c u m e n t s in t h e h a n d s of M r . U r - 5
q u h a r t for p u b l i c a t i o n . U r q u h a r t w a s a p p o i n t e d Secretary o f L e g a t i o n a t
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e Sept. 1 8 3 5 d e r real editor des ||23| [Portfolio,] d a s
erschien v. o v e m b . 1 8 3 5 - J u n e 1837 . . . It ceased shortly before the
d e a t h of the K i n g , d u r i n g his last illness . . . U r q u h a r t , instead of forcing
the n o b l e L o r d , by pressure of the law, to p a y t h e expenses of t h e " P o r t - 10
folio" o u t of the funds of t h e F o r . Office . . . in 1838, p a i d t h e m h i m s e l f . . .
Strangways (lebt) u. t h e late M r . B a c k h o u s e . . . t h e 2 U n d e r s e c r e t a r i e s of
S t a t e . . . I wish I c o u l d raise from the grave M r . B a c k h o u s e ; a n d a s k h i m
u n d e r w h a t circumstances i t w a s t h a t h e w a s i n d u c e d b y t h e n o b l e L o r d
to set his n a m e to those d e p l o r a b l e " d e n i a l s " of t h e c o n n e x i o n of the 15
Portfolio w i t h the F o r e i g n Office, w h i c h h a v e a p p e a r e d in p r i n t . . . t h a t
u n f o r t u n a t e g e n t l e m a n , i n his last m o m e n t s , a n d w i t h bitterness o f t o n e ,
declared t h a t t h e n o b l e lord h a d b r o u g h t h i m to his grave . . . 3 Oct. 1835
erhielt U r q u h a r t his c o m m i s s i o n as Secretary of L e g a t i o n at C o n s t a n t i -
n o p l e . . . given h i m for the o n e p u r p o s e of securing t h e a d o p t i o n t h e r e of 20
t h e T u r k i s h c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y . . . U r q u h a r t blieb t r o t z dessen bis J u n e
o d . July 1836. P a l m e r s t o n pressed h i m to go: the a p p l i c a t i o n s to him
urging his d e p a r t u r e w e r e n u m e r o u s ; b u t his a n s w e r i n v a r i a b l y was:
"I will n o t g o , until I h a v e this c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y settled with the B o a r d
of T r a d e a n d the F o r . Office; a n d then I will a c c o m p a n y it a n d p r o c u r e 25
its a c c e p t a n c e a t the P o r t e . " . . . Schlielich g a b P a l m e r s t o n his a p p r o -
b a t i o n t o the treaty, der t r e a t y f o r w a r d e d t o P o n s o n b y , d a n n U r q u h a r t
p r o c e e d e d to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . Sir Herbert Taylor, shortly before his
d e a t h , gave direction for the d e s t r u c t i o n of all his p a p e r s , with one
r e m a r k a b l e exception . . . e m b r a c i n g all t h e p a p e r s c o n n e c t e d with this 30
case. T h o s e p a p e r s h e o r d e r e d t o b e given u p t o M r . U r q u h a r t . . . (placed
by h i m in my h a n d s ) ; for the p u r p o s e , as Sir H e r b e r t Taylor expressed it,
o f vindicating, u p o n t h e fitting o p p o r t u n i t y , t h e m e m o r y o f William I V
. . . E h e U r q u h a r t abreist n a c h C o n s t a n t i n o p e l erhielt er Briefe v. Pon-
f sonby (der G e s a n d t e r zu C o n s t a n t i n o p e l ) D a r u n t e r E i n e r d. d. 35
t 23 March, 1836: " I t is only lately . . . t h a t I h a v e k n o w n t h e facts of the
' t o t a l f r e e d o m of t h a t c o u n t r y (Circassia) from every legitimate subjec-
' tion, or tie to t h e Sultan, a n d , therefore, t h e t o t a l illegality of a n y title
a s s u m e d to it by N i c h o l a s . If we h a d a n y m a n in E n g l a n d w o r t h a straw,
we s h o u l d s o o n settle these m a t t e r s ; b u t o u r s t a t e s m e n , h i g h a n d low, are 40|
p e d l a r s . . . " the n o b l e L o r d s u b o r n e d L o r d P o n s o n b y t o m a k e those c o m -

158
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

plaints (spter z u C o n s t a n t i n o p e l angeblich o n the a u t h o r i t y o f several


m e r c h a n t s a n d o t h e r residents a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ) , i n o r d e r t o p r o c u r e t h e
r e m o v a l o f M r . U r q u h a r t f r o m his p o s t . . . . U r q u h a r t h a s never b e e n
dismissed. A m e r e cong w a s given h i m . . . In the m e a n time, a t t e m p t s
5 h a d been m a d e b y the n o b l e L o r d t o discredit M r . U r q u h a r t ' s c h a r a c t e r
a t W i n d s o r castle a n d elsewhere. Before leaving C o n s t a n t i n o p l e M r . U r -
q u h a r t received letters f r o m Sir J o h n M ' N e i l l , o u r minister a t T e h e r a n ,
a n d from o t h e r p u b l i c servants in different p a r t s of the w o r l d , all refer-
ring t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t o his prejudice m a d e t o t h e m f r o m t h e F o r e i g n
10 office, circulated by t h e S e r v a n t of t h e F o r e i g n office all over t h e w o r l d .
... Gleich n a c h der r e m o v a l o f M r . U r q u h a r t v . C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . i m m e -
diately the treaty was thrown aside . . . 2 J. spter n a h m P a l m e r s t o n ihn
auf, gab im P a r l a m e n t f. (seinen v e r r c k t e n ) t r e a t y U r q u h a r t t h e c o m -
pliment of being t h e a u t h o r of it, disclaiming for himself all m e r i t in its
15 regard. A b e r der n o b l e L o r d h a d d e s t r o y e d the treaty, falsified it in every
p a r t , c o n v e r t e d i t t o t h e ruin o f c o m m e r c e . A s d r a w n b y M r . U r q u h a r t ,
it h a d been a t r e a t y w h i c h placed t h e subjects of G r e a t Britain, in T u r k e y ,
u p o n the footing o f t h e m o s t f a v o u r e d n a t i o n . A s altered b y P a l m e r s t o n ,
it placed the subjects of G r e a t Britain u p o n t h e footing of the t a x e d a n d
20 oppressed subjects of t h a t P o w e r . Sein U r q u h a r t s t i p u l a t e d for the r e m o v -
al of all transit duties, m o n o p o l i e s , taxes, duties of w h a t e v e r c h a r a c t e r ,
other t h a n t h o s e s t i p u l a t e d by the t r e a t y itself. As falsified by
P a l m e r s t o n , c o n t a i n e d a clause, declaring t h e perfect r i g h t of t h e S u b l i m e
Porte t o i m p o s e w h a t e v e r r e g u l a t i o n s a n d restraints i t pleased w i t h
25 regard to c o m m e r c e . U r q u h a r t ' s t r e a t y left i m p o r t a t i o n free, or at least
subject only t o the old d u t y o f 3 % ; der des n o b l e L o r d raised t h e d u t y
v. 3 auf 5 % . U r q u h a r t s treaty stipulated for an ad valorem d u t y , to be
assessed in t h e w a y . . . m e n t i o n e d . P a l m e r s t o n ' s [treaty] s t i p u l a t e d a fixed
duty o f 1 2 % a d v a l o r e m u p o n every article, w h e t h e r i t w o u l d b e a r t h e
30 duty or n o t . D e r original t r e a t y e x t e n d e d t h e benefit of F r e e t r a d e to
Turkish ships u . T u r k i s h p r o d u c e ; der s u b s t i t u t e d t r e a t y c o n t a i n e d n o
stipulations w h a t e v e r o n t h e subject . . . (Russische subjects w a r e n n a t r -
lich d u r c h diese s t i p u l a t i o n nicht einbegriffen in der d u t y of 1 2 % of
articles) . . . Sir, I c h a r g e these falsificationsI c h a r g e also the c o n c e a l -
35 ment of t h e m u p o n t h e n o b l e L o r d ; a n d further, I c h a r g e t h e n o b l e
Lord with h a v i n g falsely s t a t e d t o the H o u s e t h a t this t r e a t y w a s t h a t
which h a d b e e n a r r a n g e d by M r . U r q u h a r t . . . . M r . Bell, in compliance
with the wishes of his Sovereign, equipped the Vixen at his o w n expense,
for a commercial v o y a g e to t h e Circassian c o a s t . F o r the s a m e p u r p o s e
40 he put on b o a r d of h e r a c a r g o of salt, an article which is there in g r e a t
demand. . . . A r r i v e d on the coast, M r . Bell t o o k h e r i n t o a h a r b o u r (of

159
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

I Circassia) n o t in the o c c u p a t i o n of R u s s i a . T h e r e w a s n o t h i n g w h a t e v e r
f r o m w h i c h to give R u s s i a o c c u p a t i o n , or even the n a m e of it. T h e r e were
no R u s s i a n ships of w a r in sight, n o r in the offing . . . a R u s s i a n vessel of
w a r c a m e i n t o the h a r b o u r 3 6 h o u r s after t h e Vixen h a d cast a n c h o r , a n d
at a m o m e n t w h e n the o w n e r a n d s o m e of t h e officers w e r e on t h e s h o r e 5
e n g a g e d i n fixing t h e d u e s d e m a n d e d b y the Circassian a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d
p a y a b l e o n the value o f the g o o d s . . . . D i e Kriegsschiff c a m e n o t c o a s t -
wise b u t f r o m t h e o p e n sea. they sent a b o a t a n d forcibly t o o k possession
of t h e Vixen, u n t e r d e m false pretext, of h e r h a v i n g violated t h e inter-
n a t i o n a l law of blockade. So d e r d e s p a t c h des R u s s i a n A d m i r a l . . . R u s - 10
sian C a b i n e t aber, t a k e s m e a s u r e , in concert with the noble L o r d , (as the
D u k e proves); s o a s t o e n a b l e the R u s s . G o v . t o o b t a i n b o t h the confis-
c a t i o n itself, a n d t h e recognition of t h a t confiscation by t h e Engl. G o v . ,
a n d s o a t o n c e the f o r m a l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t t h e t r e a t y o f A d r i a n o -
ple a n d entire extinction of Circassian i n d e p e n d e n c e . . . . In d e m d e s p a t c h 15
d a h e r v. St. P e t e r s b u r g h , a n n o u n c i n g t h a t the confiscation of the ship
h a d followed t h e seizure, t h a t confiscation w a s g r o u n d e d n o l o n g e r u p o n
t h e inapplicable laws o f b l o c k a d e , b u t u p o n certain m u n i c i p a l regulations
o f R u s s i a . . . stated t o h a v e b e e n m a d e i n 1831 o r 3 2 b y t h e R u s s . a u t h o r -
ities, for the p u r p o s e of establishing q u a r a n t i n e s a n d c u s t o m s - h o u s e s on 20
the coast of Circassia. D e l a y s in P a l m e r s t o n ' s replies to R u s s i a . Versi-
c h e r t i m m e r t h a t they a r e going on well u. verweist stets, u p o n being
a s k e d for t h e p a p e r s i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e m , t o d o so, giving also his
r e a s o n s . . . If, the n o b l e L o r d says, they relate to a n y case t h a t is p e n d i n g ,
it m u s t be injurious to p r o d u c e t h e m , b u t if, on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y relate 25
to a case t h a t is p a s t a n d g o n e , they c a n o b v i o u s l y be of no use to the
G e n t l e m a n w h o 241 m o v e s for t h e m , o r t o t h e H o u s e . . . . W h e n m a t t e r s
w e r e ripe for c o n c l u d i n g t h e case, L o r d D u r h a m falsely s t a t e d in a
d e s p a t c h of 3 or 4 lines, n o t m o r e , at least, w a s laid before P a r l i a m e n t
t h a t t h e C a b i n e t of St. P e t e r s b u r g h w a s fully justified in seizing the 30
Vixen, for the R u s s i a n s were in a c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n of the b a y , a n d t h e r e
w a s even a R u s s i a n fort there. It was an most unfounded statement. T h e r e
w a s n o t even a b l o c k a d i n g s q u a d r o n in t h e o f f i n g m u c h less a R u s s i a n
fort i n a n y p a r t o f t h e coasts o f t h e b a y . . . . W h r e n d P a l m e r s t o n a u f die
erste russ. D e p e s c h e 73 d a y s m. seiner A n t w o r t gezgert, n u n t h e K i n g 35
b e i n g n o w i n i m m i n e n t d a n g e r o f t h a t d e a t h w h i c h s o o n followed
s c h i c k t a b sofort d e s p a t c h c o n t a i n i n g a n unqualified r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e
r i g h t o f R u s s i a t o d o w h a t she h a s d o n e . . . . A g e n t e n v . P a l m e r s t o n
C o l o n e l D u Plat, M r . F o n b l a n q u e ; . . .
d
In 1839 2 w a r was r a g i n g between M e h e m e t Ali u. d e m S u l t a n . R u s - 40
sia, u n d e r t h e t r e a t y of U n k i a r Skelessi, w h i c h gave h e r t h e right to the

160
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

o c c u p a t i o n of t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , to t h e exclusion of all o t h e r p o w e r s ,
i n t h e event o f w a r , w a s a b o u t t o enforce h e r rights u n d e r t h a t treaty.
D e r S u l t a n applied t o t h e Brit. C r o w n for p r o t e c t i o n . T o m e r i t the p r o -
tection s o u g h t , t h e S u l t a n h a d o f f e r e d t h e p r o o f i s h e r e t o place t h e
5 D a r d a n e l l e s in possession of an English a n d F r e n c h s q u a d r o n . This he
first offered in 1836. W h a t w a s the a n s w e r of P a l m e r s t o n ? It w a s a cen-
sure u p o n t h e D i p l o m a t i c agent, w h e n t h e offer h a d b e e n m a d e . R e d s h i d
P a s h a , t h e n T u r k i s h A m b a s s . a t t h e C o u r t o f F r a n c e , m a d e the p r o p o s a l .
T h e c e n s u r e w a s a d d r e s s e d b y P a l m e r s t o n t o his o w n Secretary o f
10 E m b a s s y , M r . U r q u h a r t . . . I h a v e here t h e n o b l e L o r d ' s letter of censure
u p o n M r . U r q u h a r t ; a n d the g r o u n d is, his h a v i n g even listened t o t h e
p r o p o s a l o f R e d s h i d P a s h a t o place t h e D a r d a n e l l e s i n t h e p o w e r o f a n
English a n d F r e n c h s q u a d r o n i n s t e a d o f a R u s s i a n s q u a d r o n i n t h e
event o f M e h e m e t Ali m a r c h i n g against C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . I n 1839, c o m -
15 m u n i c a t i o n s u p o n t h e s a m e subject r e n e w e d b e t w e e n the C o u r t s of C o n -
stantinople, Paris, a n d L o n d o n . T h e n o b l e L o r d w a s applied t o b y t h e
C o u r t of t h e Tuilleries, w h o solicited Brit, c o - o p e r a t i o n in c o m p e l l i n g
Russia t o a b s t a i n from possessing herself o f the D a r d a n e l l e s . T h a t w a s
the point de dpart as M. Thiers t e r m e d it; t h e exclusion of R u s s i a . It w a s
20 n o t M e h e m e t Ali t h a t h a d to be excluded, b u t t h e C z a r . Palmerston's
Antwort h a s c o m e to light only by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n , in 1840, in F r a n c e , of
despatches in the archives of the Tuillieries, w h i c h M. Passy, o n e of t h e
n d
Ministry o f t h e 2 2 M a y , t h o u g h t i t his d u t y t o m a k e public. P a l m e r s t o n
m a c h t e die c o u n t e r p r o p o s i t i o n , t h a t a F r e n c h a n d English fleet s h o u l d
25 indeed be sent to the D a r d a n e l l e s , to c o m p e l t h e R u s s i a n s to q u i t C o n -
stantinople; b u t only if t h e R u s s i a n s c o n t i n u e d to r e t a i n the places after
the d a n g e r of t h e E j y p t i a n invasion s h o u l d h a v e ceased; d . h . wie die
french gov. in their next d e s p a t c h : " t h e n o b l e L o r d in t h e m e a n t i m e
resigned himself w i t h g r e a t facility to t h e c o n t i n g e n c y of a R u s s i a n o c -
30 cupation of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . " . . . It w a s only after the R u s s i a n s w e r e
there, t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o the n o b l e L o r d ' s p r o p o s a l , t h e Engl, a n d F r e n c h
intervention w a s to c o m m e n c e . E v e n t h e n , Sir, it w a s still further limited;
the 2 fleets were n o t to enter t h e D a r d a n e l l e s even in t h a t case, b u t u p o n
i n v i t a t i o n i n v i t a t i o n f r o m the Sultan, a p r i s o n e r t o the C z a r ! . . . M a c h t
35 new p r o p o s a l , t h a t t h e 2 fleets s h o u l d e n t e r t h e D a r d a n e l l e s w h e n s o e v e r
invited. J u d g i n g of this p r o p o s a l by reference to its subject m a t t e r , t h e
French Gov. understood it to mean that an application was n o w to be
m a d e t o t h e P o r t e , for p e r m i s s i o n t o b e a t o n c e g r a n t e d t o the English
and F r e n c h f l e e t s , a u t h o r i s i n g t h e m t o e n t e r t h e D a r d a n e l l e s a s s o o n a s
40 a R u s s i a n force s h o u l d enter t h e B o s p h o r u s . U n d e r this impression, t h e
F r e n c h sent c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s t o A d m i r a l L a l a n d e , a t C o n s t a n -

161
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

t i n o p l e . P a l m e r s t o n sent t o t h e Brit. A d m i r a l these i n s t r u c t i o n s i n quite


a n o t h e r sense. E r s t i n s t r u i r t e e r A d m i r a l S t o p f o r d t o e n t e r the D a r d a -
nelles only w h e n t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f t h e P o r t e s h o u l d c o m e t h r o u g h t h e
A m b a s s a d o r s of France and England u. nur during the course of the
a c t u a l d i s p u t e s m. M e h e m e t Ali. Definitive i n s t r u c t i o n s des L o r d 5
P a l m e r s t o n d . d . 13 July, 1839: He says, t h a t if "in t h e c o u r s e of t h e
d i s p u t e with M e h e m e t Ali, t h e P o r t e f i n d s itself" obliged t o a s k o r accept
assistance from a n y o t h e r P o w e r , " t h e Brit. G o v . i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e
P o r t e will a t t h e s a m e time a d d r e s s itself t o G r e a t B r i t a i n for the s a m e
object". If t h e P o r t e d o e s so, L o r d S t o p f o r d h a s o r d e r s " t o p r o c e e d w i t h 10
his s q u a d r o n t o w a r d s C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , o n receiving f r o m t h e P o r t e ,
t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m o f t h e A m b a s s a d o r , a n i n v i t a t i o n t o t h a t effect".
T h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e m a r k a b l e ; die F r e n c h G o v . p r o -
tested a g a i n s t it as s o o n as it w a s discovered. Er n d e r t e a b e r nichts in
t h o s e i n s t r u c t i o n s . . . die french M i n i s t e r s i n f o r m e d t h e n o b l e L o r d t h a t 15
t h e y w e r e d e t e r m i n e d at w h a t e v e r cost to p r e v e n t a R u s s i a n o c c u p a t i o n
o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d prefer t o a c t w i t h E n g l a n d ; b u t
t h a t t h e y w e r e p r e p a r e d t o act w i t h o u t her i f t h e y j u d g e d f i t . J u s t a t this
p e r i o d S u l t a n M a h m o u d died . . . O n t h e accession o f A b d o u l M e d j i d a
n e w m i n i s t r y a p p o i n t e d ; a t r a i t o r , Khosrou Pasha, c a m e i n t o office. H i r e d 20
a g e n t o f R u s s i a . E r recalled t h e T u r k . A m b a s s a d o r s f r o m F r a n c e a n d
E n g l a n d . On several occasions he b e t r a y e d the signs of a secret a n d t r e a -
s o n a b l e collusion with t h e e n e m y of b o t h . U n d e r t h e influence of a c o n -
viction t h a t the m a c h i n a t i o n s o f K h o s r o u m a d e t h a t s t e p necessary, i n
o r d e r to save his life, A c h m e t P a s h a , t h e A d m i r a l , w e n t over to A l e x a n - 25
d r i a w i t h the T u r k i s h fleet; a n d there delivered it up i n t o the h a n d s of
M e h e m e t Ali. N o s o o n e r h a d this t a k e n p l a c e , t h a n , s o far f r o m d o i n g
a n y t h i n g t o quiet t h e j u s t a p p r e h e n s i o n s o f t h e late S u l t a n ' s faithful serv-
a n t s , t h e occasion w a s seized b y t h e n o b l e L o r d t o issue a n i m m e d i a t e
order to Admiral Stopford, to a b a n d o n the Dardanelles altogether, and 30
to proceed to Alexandria. T h a t was the determination taken by the noble
L o r d . . . a b a n d o n e d w e g e n d e r i n t i m a t i o n der F r e n c h G o v . , t h a t A d m i r a l
L a l a n d e s h o u l d n o t c o - o p e r a t e i n such a n e n t e r p r i s e , b u t r e m a i n w h e r e
he w a s , a n d e n t e r t h e D a r d a n e l l e s if necessary; i. e. in t h e event of a
R u s s i a n force e n t e r i n g t h e B o s p h o r u s . . . July 15, 1840 P a l m e r s t o n stated 35
t h e F r e n c h h a d a b d u c e d h i m u . refused t o c o - o p e r a t e with E n g l a n d i n the
c a u s e of t h e S u l t a n . . . A b e r die c h a r g e falsch, as a p p e a r s from documents
produced before the French Chamber, a n d w i t h h o l d e n f r o m this H o u s e by
t h e n o b l e L o r d . T h e F o r . M i n i s t e r o f F r a n c e n e v e r refused t o act m i t
E n g l a n d . . . F r alle g e h a n d e l t sich um die e m a n c i p a t i o n d e r T u r k e y . 40
R u s s i a u . h e r t r e a t y o f U n k i a r S k e l e s s i . . . U . a . schlug d e r edle L o r d d e m

162
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

fzs. G e s a n d t e n v o r : " t o h a v e a s q u a d r o n of E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h ships in


readiness to act, at the m o m e n t t h a t a R u s s i a n force entered the B o s -
p h o r u s , a n d w a s i n possession o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e " . E r p r o p o s e d t h a t
these s h o u l d t h e n be sent to m a n u v r e on t h e coast of Syria ||25| at
5 6 w e e k s ' sail distance f r o m t h o s e S t r a i t s , a n d t h a t t h e r e t h e y s h o u l d
m a k e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n against M e h e m e t Ali a n d his Ejyptian forces; a n d
t h a t , w h e n b y these m e a n s , they h a d i n d u c e d M e h e m e t Ali a n d t h e E j y p -
tians t o retire f r o m Syria, they s h o u l d t h e n , a n d n o t before, p r e s e n t
themselves before t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , f o r t i f i e d a s t h e y t h e n w o u l d be, b y
10 R u s s i a n engineers, a n d g a r r i s o n e d by R u s s i a n t r o o p s ; a n d s h o u l d t h e n ,
after c o m m u n i c a t i o n h a d w i t h L o r d P o n s o n b y a n d t h e F r e n c h M i n i s t e r ,
a t t e m p t to force the i m p r e g n a b l e D a r d a n e l l e s ; i . e., a d d e d t h e n o b l e
L o r d , i f they t h e n t h o u g h t themselves s t r o n g e n o u g h ! T h e p r o p o s a l w a s
ridiculed b y the F r e n c h minister u . i m m e d i a t e l y the n o b l e L o r d receded
15 from it. . . . T h e confidential p r o p o s a l w h i c h t h e F r e n c h M i n i s t e r h a d
m a d e t o t h e n o b l e L o r d i n F e b r . , 1839, w a s b y the n o b l e L o r d c o m m u -
nicated t o M . Kisseleff, t h e R u s s i a n minister, i n A u g u s t . W h e n t h e
a n n o u n c e m e n t of this a t r o c i o u s perfidy w a s m a d e in the French Cham-
ber, there w a s o n e universal s h o u t of execration. . . . D e r p o i n t , w o r u m es
20 sich h a n d e l t e , was t h e exclusion of R u s s i a f r o m the D a r d a n e l l e s , die
destruction der R u s s i a n a s c e n d a n c y a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . A u f einmal, t o
the a s t o n i s h m e n t o f F r a n c e , o f E u r o p e , a n d t h e w o r l d , the R u s s . B a r o n ,
de B r u n o w , arrived in L o n d o n , on a p r i v a t e a n d special mission f r o m t h e
E m p e r o r N i c h o l a s . H e was a d m i t t e d t o a n interview w i t h the n o b l e L o r d .
25 On b o t h sides, "desire w a s e x p r e s s e d " to p u t an e n d to t h a t state of
m u t u a l distrust w h i c h h a d existed ever since 1829. B r u n o w p r o p o s e d t h a t
E n g l a n d s h o u l d b r e a k w i t h F r a n c e , a b a n d o n t h o s e m e a s u r e s for t h e p r e s -
ervation o f t h e integrity o f T u r k e y which E n g l a n d h a d t a k e n w i t h F r a n c e ,
allows R u s s i a t o o c c u p y C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . D a n n R u s s i a w o u l d t a k e c a r e
30 that E n g l a n d s h o u l d h a v e all t h o s e a d v a n t a g e s secured to her in T u r k e y
which she h a d h o p e d from t h e F r e n c h alliance. P a l m e r s t o n i n f o r m e d d e n
B r u n o w t h a t "his C o l l e a g u e s " d i d t h i n k this o u t o f q u e s t i o n . E r m a c h t e
dagegen a c o u n t r e p r o p o s a l (zu s. G l c k L o r d H o l l a n d , effecting t h e
removal of the last obstacle in the w a y to o b t a i n i n g the c o n c u r r e n c e of
35 his colleagues) u. z w a r in t h e name of the Cabinet: t h a t a R u s s i a n n a v a l
and military force s h o u l d be a d m i t t e d to o c c u p y C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; t h a t , in
return, the R u s s . G o v . s h o u l d allow 3 line-of-battle ships to enter t h e
Dardanelles . . . B r u n o w rejected this offer . . . R u s s i a n C a b i n e t at length
gave way . . . on an a s s u r a n c e , t h a t t h e o t h e r P o w e r s , if they were called in
40 at all, s h o u l d only be allowed to c o - o p e r a t e in d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on t h e
coast of Syria, or a n y w h e r e else, except at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; a n d t h a t to

163
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

R u s s i a a l o n e s h o u l d b e confided the trust o f g a r r i s o n i n g C o n s t a n t i n o p l e


a n d o c c u p y i n g t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , whilst E n g l a n d s h o u l d h a v e , a t t h e u t -
m o s t , the p e r m i s s i o n a c c o r d e d to her, of sending 3 line-of-battle ships
t h i t h e r t o d o h o n o u r t o the R u s s i a n a r m a m e n t . . . a s t i p u l a t i o n inserted,
t h a t t h e 3 E n g l i s h ships s h o u l d be k e p t at the e x t r e m e c o r n e r of the Sea 5
o f M a r m o r a ; p r o v i d e d only t h a t the R u s s i a n ships w o u l d k e e p a t t h e p a r t
o f t h e Sea o f M a r m o r a nearest t h e B o s p h o r u s . A s i f t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f
t h e B o s p h o r u s a n d the D a r d a n e l l e s s t o o d u p o n t h e s a m e footing. S u c h
w e r e t h e t e r m s on which the t r e a t y of July 15, 1840, signed b e t w e e n E n g -
l a n d a n d R u s s i a , this t r e a t y w a s signed w i t h o u t c o m m u n i c a t i o n m i t io
F r a n c e . W h y ? Weil there w a s s o m e difference o f o p i n i o n b e t w e e n E n g -
l a n d a n d F r a n c e u p o n the question, w h e t h e r o r n o t Syria s h o u l d r e m a i n
a n h e r e d i t a r y f i e f u n d e r t h e Ejyptian sceptre ( M e h e m e t Ali h a t t e Syria
e r h a l t e n d u r c h P a l m e r s t o n s intervention u., for t h e p u r p o s e s of R u s s i a , in
1833 a n d 34. U p o n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of L o r d P o n s o n b y a l o n e , w e r e 15
A d a n a u . its t e r r i t o r y a d d e d t o the Ejyptian P a s h a l i c . . . ) F r o m t h a t
m o m e n t , R u s s i a b e c a m e s u p r e m e . . . W h e n d e r t r e a t y o f J u l y 1840 w a s
signed, Sir S t r a t f o r d C a n n i n g fragt P a l m e r s t o n as to t h e existence of s u c h
a treaty, a n d its p u r p o r t u . o b h e h a d a n y objection t o p r o d u c e t h e t r e a t y
to t h e H o u s e . Er declined u. declared t h a t he c o u l d n o t p r o d u c e it, 20
because it was not yet ratified. He did n o t tell the H o u s e t h a t , by a special
clause in t h a t t r e a t y . . . it w a s stipulated t h a t t h e e x e c u t i o n or fulfilment
of t h e t r e a t y s h o u l d precede its ratification . . . t h e hostile m e a s u r e s , t a k e n
for the p u r p o s e of giving effect to t h a t treaty, p r o s e c u t e d ; at t h e very t i m e
w h e n he w a s h i d i n g the existence of t h e t r e a t y f r o m this H o u s e . . . t h e 25
Ministers of F r a n c e fell into the s n a r e . . . laid for t h e m by the n o b l e L o r d
. . . results were frenzy in F r a n c e , disgust h e r e , e x a s p e r a t i o n in G e r m a n y ,
the enfeeblement of all for the profit of R u s s i a . T h i s w a s in 1840. In 1841,
by the desire of renewing t h e Engl alliance, they a g r e e d to t h e h a t e d
t r e a t y of U n k i a r Skelessi u. d e m Treaty of 15 July, 1840. A l m o s t t h e very 30
last act of P a l m e r s t o n , before quitting office in 1841, w a s to receive t h e
s i g n a t u r e of F r a n c e to t h e t r e a t y of J u n e , 1841, w o d u r c h der Treaty v.
U n k i a r Skelessi (v. 1833, a u f 8 J.) t h e n to expire, w a s r e n e w e d a n d m a d e
p e r p e t u a l . D a z u der A u s s c h l u fremder Kriegsschiffe . . . t h e s t r e n g t h o f
t h e B o s p h o r u s is n o t h i n g for the p u r p o s e of repelling an invasion on the 35
side of t h e Black Sea; a b e r die s t r e n g t h der D a r d a n e l l e s , in resisting an
invasion from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n is everything . . . t h e t r e a t y of A d r i a -
n o p l e h e a d o p t e d , the t r e a t y o f U n k i a r Skelessi h e a d h e r e d t o , t h e treaties
of 1840 a n d 1841 he m a d e . . . e n t e n t e cordiale g o n e for ever since the
events of July, 1840 . . . s t a t e m e n t of Mr. Porter ( B o a r d of t r a d e ) m a d e in 40
1841. . . . In July 1841, a few d a y s after the t r e a t y was signed, T i v e r t o n

164
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

speech des P a l m e r s t o n gegen die F r e n c h m e n . . . t h a t , Sir, w a s t h e legacy


which he left to his successors in office. . . .
t h e only q u e s t i o n p e n d i n g , w h e n P a l m e r s t o n 1846 wieder in office, die
unsettled q u e s t i o n o f t h e S p a n , m a r r i a g e s . E n g a g e m e n t m a d e b e t w e e n
5 G u i z o t u. A b e r d e e n t h a t , if the o n e c o u n t r y did n o t s t a r t a C o b o u r g
prince, as a c a n d i d a t e for t h e h a n d of the Q u e e n of Spain, t h e o t h e r
should n o t start a F r e n c h Prince. S o b a l d P a l m e r s t o n in office, a s k e d by
G u i z o t , w h e t h e r h e acceded t o t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t ? P a l m e r s t o n w a r t e t a
whole m o n t h , o h n e z u a n t w o r t e n . I n t h e m e a n t i m e , i n the d i p l o m a t i c
10 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e of P a l m e r s t o n f a v o u r a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l
case o f s o m e C o b o u r g Prince being p u t f o r w a r d . . . G u i z o t , fearing a n o t h -
er deception, b e w i r k t die 2 H e i r a t h e n in S p a n i e n . S o b a l d Differenz b e -
tween F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d . . . C r a c o w t o A u s t r i a a n n e x e d . . . t h e F r e n c h
G o v . w e n d e t sich an die Engl, [for] c o - o p e r a t i o n in a j o i n t p r o t e s t gegen
15 die I n c o r p o r a t i o n . L o r d N o r m a n b y a n t w o r t e t , die o u t r a g e , of ||[26]|
which A u s t r i a h a d b e e n guilty i n a n n e x i n g C r a c o w , n o t g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t
of which F r a n c e , in effecting a m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n t h e [ D u c de] M o n t p e n -
sier a n d the Spanish I n f a n t a . D e r eine act v i o l a t i o n des t r e a t y of V i e n n a ,
der a n d r e des t r e a t y of U t r e c h t . (1205) In justification of their c o u r s e ,
20 P a l m e r s t o n u. N o r m a n b y t h e r e w a s no o b l i g a t i o n u p o n t h e 2 P o w e r s to
protest conjointly, they m i g h t satisfy t h e o b l i g a t i o n w h i c h t h e r e w a s
u p o n t h e m t o p r o t e s t b y p r o t e s t i n g separately . . . i n 1836 h e stated p r e -
cisely the c o n t r a r y . . . G r e a t Brit, sei called u p o n to p r o t e s t , a b e r n i c h t
separately, n o c h at all, except conjointly with F r a n c e . . . Sein s o g e n a n n t e r
25 Protest v. 1846 w a s no p r o t e s t I invite h i m to s h o w me in w h a t respect
it answers to the definition of t h a t t e r m . . . the t r e a t y of U t r e c h t r e n e w e d
for the last t i m e in 1782; a g a i n a b r o g a t e d by the b r e a k i n g o u t of t h e
revolutionary w a r i n 1792; i t w a s n o t r e n e w e d a t C a m p o F o r m i o , L u n -
ville, n o r A m i e n s ; i t w a s n o t r e n e w e d b y the t r e a t y o f P a r i s a n d V i e n n a ;
30 has also ever since 1792 ceased to exist . . . Er selbst ( P a l m e r s t o n ) sagt
19 M a r c h , 1839 im H. o. C. bei Gelegenheit d e r b l o c k a d e s of M e x i c o u.
Buenos A y r e s : " t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the t r e a t y o f U t r e c h t h a v e l o n g lapsed
in the v a r i a t i o n s of w a r " . . . . he specifies only o n e exception, t h a t relating
t o the b o u n d a r i e s o f Brazilian a n d F r e n c h G u i a n a , because t h e n o b l e
35 L o r d says, a n d says truly, t h a t t h a t clause h a d b e e n by express w o r d s
i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e T r e a t y o f V i e n n a . . . i n t h e case o f t h e F r e n c h a n d
Spanish m a r r i a g e s h i s object w a s to establish a g r o u n d of discord w i t h
F r a n c e . . . . In t h e case of Persia a n d A f g h a n i s t a n . . . false s t a t e m e n t s
m a d e in P a r l i a m e n t , a n d g a r b l e d versions of S t a t e p a p e r s laid before it,
40 calculated a n d i n t e n d e d to mislead the H o u s e . . . C o l l u s i o n p r a c t i s e d in
the case of Persia u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y from t h e y e a r 1 8 3 4 - 3 8 , between t h e

165
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

servants o f H e r M a j e s t y a n d the servants o f t h e C z a r o f R u s s i a , for t h e


p u r p o s e of d e s t r o y i n g t h a t . . . a s c e n d a n c y w h i c h the t r e a t y signed by Sir
H a r f o r d J o n e s Brydges in 1811 secured to us, a n d for t h e further p u r p o s e
o f placing t h e C o u r t o f T e h e r a n u n d e r t h e exclusive c o n t r o l o f t h e R u s -
sian envoy; t h a t similar m e a s u r e s a c c o m p a n i e d by o t h e r s of a m o r e 5
a g g r a v a t e d description, h a d b e e n p u t in practice in A f f g h a n i s t a n . . . for-
geries were c o m m i t t e d for the p u r p o s e of m i s l e a d i n g P a r l i a m e n t as to t h e
i n t e n t i o n s a n d dispositions o f the princes a n d p e o p l e o f Affghanistan. . . .
Bes. so v e r s t m m e l t , verflscht, d u r c h s u p p r e s s i o n of w h o l e p a r a g r a p h s ,
p a r t s of sentences, w o r d s here a n d t h e r e selected w i t h g r e a t care die 10
d e s p a t c h e s des late Sir Alexander Burnes wie A n s t e y n u n beweist. . . . I am
in c o n d i t i o n to p r o v e it by reference to the original drafts of his des-
p a t c h e s . D e r Vater des late B u r n e s schreibt n m l i c h an A n s t e y : " S h o u l d a
C o m m i t t e e of t h e H o u s e be g r a n t e d , I shall be m o s t r e a d y to lay such of
t h e following d o c u m e n t s as are in my possession before it. J. Burnes.'" ... 15
Sir A l e x a n d e r B u r n e s himself, writes to his b r o t h e r in law, M a j o r H o l -
l a n d , d. d. A u g . 25, 1839, on this subject: " T h e e x p o s i t i o n of t h e
G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l ' s views in the P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s is pure trickery,
a n d I h a v e said so in every c o m p a n y since I h a v e r e a d t h e m " . . . n o t by
accident . . . frauds like these .. c o m m i t t e d . . . the E n v o y s w h o , at the 20
C o u r t of T e h e r a n , represented E n g l a n d , were i n s t r u c t e d upon all occa-
sions to c o n c u r w i t h the Envoys of Russia in their m e a s u r e s t h o s e m e a s -
ures h a v i n g for their object the a s c e n d a n c y of R u s s i a in t h a t c o u n t r y , a n d
the d e s t r u c t i o n of English influence. . . . In C e n t r a l Asia it is said to this
d a y , t h a t R u s s i a a n d E n g l a n d are u n i t e d on t h e t e r m s of Sovereignty a n d 25
vassalage. It is t h e C z a r of R u s s i a t h a t is said to be t h e Suzerain. It is the
Q u e e n o f G r e a t Britain t h a t i s said t o b e t h e vassal . . . u n t i l L o r d A b e r -
deen, by his f a m o u s letter of M a y 20, 1842, to his Colleagues in the
A d m i r a l t y , a n d o n t h e cited a u t h o r i t y o f t h e law officers o f t h e C r o w n ,
a n n u l l e d the instructions which t h e n o b l e L o r d h a d left b e h i n d h i m on 30
g o i n g o u t of office d. d. 6 April, 1 u. 17 J u n e u. 28 July 1 8 4 1 t h e right
of search a n d d e t e n t i o n over F r e n c h vessels on the west c o a s t of Africa
h a d b e e n t o t h e n o b l e L o r d a n effectual i n s t r u m e n t for increasing a n d
s t i m u l a t i n g t h a t irritation a n d frenzy o f t h e F r e n c h m i n d a g a i n s t E n g -
l a n d , which his w h o l e policy h a d p r o v o k e d . . . [1141-1224] 35
Urquhart. T h e n o b l e L o r d h a s been c h a r g e d . . . w i t h a w h o l e clear a n d
c o n n e c t e d system o f guilt . . . t r u c k l i n g t o t h e powerful a n d overreaching
of t h e w e a k . . . t h e M o t i o n is n o t for a C o m m i t t e e of I n q u i r y , b u t only
for p a p e r s . . .

166
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

[Vol. 98. London 1848.]


H. o. C. May 16 1848.

Urquhart. citirt die histoire des dix ans. " T h e C o n s u l of A u s t r i a h a d n o t


quitted W a r s a w . . . A u s t r i a n o t disinclined t o assist i n t h e re-establish-
5 m e n t of Polish n a t i o n a l i t y . . . b u t u p o n 2 c o n d i t i o n s : the first, t h a t P o l a n d
w o u l d accept for K i n g an A u s t r i a n Prince; t h e second, t h a t this p r o p o -
sition s h o u l d b e m a d e conjointly m i t F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d . Walewski
n a c h P a r i s . A n t w o r t : 'it w a s r e a d y t o j o i n E n g l a n d , i f E n g l a n d w o u l d
consent t o the project.' M r . Walewski t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o L o n d o n . L o r d
10 P a l m e r s t o n a v o w e d ' w i t h o u t reserve', t h a t F r a n c e a n d ' n o o t h e r P o w e r '
was the object of the 'distrust a n d fears of E n g l a n d ' , t h a t ' H i s B r i t a n n i c
Majesty e n t e r t a i n e d m o s t friendly relations w h i c h he w a s in nowise in-
clined t o d i s t u r b , w i t h St. P e t e r s b u r g h ' , t h a t h e ' w o u l d n o t c o n s e n t ' t o
unite his efforts w i t h t h o s e of the K i n g of F r a n c e , 'in an object hostile or
15 disagreeable to R u s s i a ' . " (Louis Blanc) K u r z n a c h h e r overtures m a d e by
the F r e n c h G o v . t o the n o b l e L o r d . (1831) u . e r a n t w o r t e t e : " t h a t a n a m i -
cable i n t e r m e d i a t i o n o n the Polish q u e s t i o n w o u l d b e declined b y R u s s i a
t h a t t h e P o w e r s h a d j u s t declined a similar offer o n t h e p a r t o f F r a n c e
t h a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t i o n of the 2 c o u r t s , F r . a n d Engl., c o u l d o n l y be by
20 force in case of a refusal on t h e p a r t of R u s s i a a n d t h a t t h e a m i c a b l e
and satisfactory relations between the C a b . o f St. J a m e s a n d the C a b i n e t
of St. P e t e r s b u r g h , w o u l d n o t allow his Brit. M a j . to u n d e r t a k e such an
interference. T h e time w a s n o t yet c o m e to u n d e r t a k e such a p l a n w i t h
success against t h e will of a Sovereign, w h o s e rights were i n d i s p u t a b l e . "
25 ... [1121,1122]

[Vol. 5. London 1831.]


H. o. C. Aug. 8, 1831

Poland. Hunt. " P e t i t i o n f r o m the W e s t m i n s t e r U n i o n , in f a v o u r of t h e


Poles . . . c o n c l u d i n g b y p r a y i n g the H o u s e t o a d d r e s s H . M a j . t o dismiss
30 Lord P a l m e r s t o n f r o m his councils. Hume he c o n c l u d e d from t h e silence
o f the G o v . , t h a t they i n t e n d e d t o d o n o t h i n g for t h e Poles, b u t a l l o w
them t o r e m a i n a t t h e m e r c y o f R u s s i a . " N a c h d e m e r v o r h e r d e n
Palmerston u m s o n s t gefragt " w h e t h e r a n y t h i n g w a s t o b e d o n e for
u n h a p p y P o l a n d ? " Palmerston: " w h a t e v e r obligations existing treaties
35 imposed, w o u l d at all times receive t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e G o v . "

167
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

[Vol. 6. London 1831.]


H. o. C. Aug. 16, 1831.

( A r t . 1 des W i e n e r Treaty: " T h e D u c h y of W a r s a w etc. shall be irrevoca-


bly b o u n d to the R u s s . e m p i r e by its c o n s t i t u t i o n . " ) Palmerston widersezt
sich d e m A n t r a g v. E v a n s f. P r o d u c t i o n of P a p e r s in B e z u g auf die n e u - 5
trality . . . " o b s e r v e d o r violated i n the p r e s e n t w a r b y t h e States b o r d e r i n g
on P o l a n d , particularly P r u s s i a " , sagt u. a.: t h e M i n i s t e r s of this c o u n t r y
could n o t h a v e witnessed t h a t contest w i t h o u t the deepest regret, a n d i t
w o u l d be m o s t satisfactory to t h e m to see it t e r m i n a t e d . [103, 107,108]

[Vol. 9. London 1832.] io


H. o. C. Jan. 26, 1832.

Herries " t h e r e w a s n o t t h e smallest i o t a of claim on t h e p a r t of R u s s i a for


t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e d e b t b y E n g l a n d . . . H o l l a n d refused t o p a y h e r
p o r t i o n , o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t the l o a n w a s c o n t r a c t e d t o c o n t i n u e her i n
u n d i v i d e d possession of t h e Belgic provinces, a n d t h a t she no l o n g e r h a d 15
t h e sovereignty o f t h a t c o u n t r y ; a n d i t w a s impossible, w h e n t h e principal
w a s e x o n e r a t e d t h a t the s u b o r d i n a t e p a r t y s h o u l d ||[27]| [be held] b o u n d
by his e n g a g e m e n t . . . [910, 911] Sir Edward Sugden t h e r e w a s n o t a single
d e b a t e a b l e p o i n t i n t h e p r e s e n t q u e s t i o n . . . the G o v . h a d n o p o w e r w h a t -
ever to p a y a shilling of t h e m o n e y , u n d e r the c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t a sepa- 20
r a t i o n h a d d e facto t a k e n place between Belgium a n d H o l l a n d . [947]
Palmerston. " e n o r m o u s sacrifices of R u s s i a to m a i n t a i n t h e integrity
of all existing m o n a r c h i e s against the military s w a y of N a p o l e o n " " t h e
sole r e c o m p e n s e , she d e m a n d e d w a s t h e p r e s e n t l o a n " , " a r d e n t desire
of R u s s i a to c o - o p e r a t e with E n g l a n d " " W a s this g r a t u i t o u s generosity 25
o n t h e p a r t o f R u s s i a t o b e n o w t u r n e d against herself?" " W e h a d h i t h -
e r t o acted in c o n c e r t with R u s s i a a n d t h e o t h e r P o w e r s . " "affairs in
general w e r e p r o c e e d i n g in a satisfactory t r a i n . " [964-966] Er b e h a u p t e t
s o g a r [Hemes:] " t h a t because t h e K i n g of H o l l a n d h a d n o t given his
c o n s e n t to t h e s e p a r a t i o n of H o l l a n d a n d Belgium, therefore t h e sepa- 30
r a t i o n h a d n o t t a k e n p l a c e . " Diese separation in des K i n g ' s speech selbst
e r w h n t . . . every p a y m e n t . . . m a d e since t h e K i n g ' s speech w a s a direct
v i o l a t i o n of the treaty. [967, 968]

168
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

[Vol. 13. London 1832.]


H. o. C. June 28. 1832

L o r d E b r i n g t o n rose to p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n c o m i n g f r o m Polish refugees


resident in L o n d o n . . . for Brit, interference in t h e affairs of P o l a n d .
5 [1115] Cullar Fergusson lenkt wieder die a t t e n t i o n des H o u s e a u f d e n
state of P o l a n d . Verlangt c o p y des Manifests des e m p e r o r of R u s s i a d. d.
F e b r u a r y , 2 6 a n d o f the " O r g a n i c S t a t u t e " t o w h i c h i t referred . . .
[1115,1130] Palmerston no person c o u l d regret m o r e t h a n he did the
expressions w h i c h h a d b e e n u t t e r e d , ( n h m l i c h d a d e r E m p e r o r o f R u s -
10 sia a miscreant c o n q u e r o r ) [1143] Wyse: "this w a s n o t t h e first t i m e
t h a t h e h a d h e a r d great t e n d e r n e s s r e c o m m e n d e d t o w a r d s t h e E m p e r o r
of R u s s i a " . [1144]

[Vol. 14. London 1832.]


H. o. C. July, 12. 1832.

15 Peel 2 F r a g e n v. P a l m e r s t o n " s t u d i o u s l y c o n f o u n d e d " ( R u s s i a n - D u t c h


L o a n ) , the one, w h e t h e r this c o u n t r y w a s u n d e r a n o b l i g a t i o n , o f h o n o u r
a n d g o o d faith, t o c o n t i n u e these p a y m e n t s t o R u s s i a ; t h e o t h e r , w h e t h e r
H . M ' s G o v . w e r e w a r r a n t e d , b y law, i n a d v a n c i n g t h e m o n e y i n J a n u a r y
last? [330]

20 H. o. C. Aug. 7, 1832

Colonel E v a n s giebt f o r w a r d t h e M o t i o n . . . o n the subject o f t h e infrac-


tion, by Russia, of the Treaty of V i e n n a , with respect to P o l a n d . . . [1209]
Palmerston: " W i t h respect to Poland, he c o u l d also say, w i t h o u t at all
touching o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f R u s s i a h a v i n g b r o k e n h e r faith t o the Poles
25 on the subject of a C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h a t , in t h e late w a r , t h e Poles, n o t t h e
Russians, were t h e aggressors, for t h e y commenced t h e contest." [1215]

169
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

[House of Commons] Aug. 8. [1832]

( G r e e k L o a n C o n v e n t i o n . ) Palmerston. It h a d b e e n said, t h a t we w e r e
u n d e r t a k i n g this g u a r a n t e e wholly t o please R u s s i a , a n d t h a t , i n t h e
G r e e k a r r a n g e m e n t , w e were following blindly t h e policy, a n d d o i n g t h e
w o r k , of the H o l y Alliance. [1273]

[Vol. 19. London 1833.]


H. o. C. July 9. 1833.

Cutlar Fergusson m o t i o n t h a t " H i s M a j . will be pleased n o t to recognize,


or in a n y w a y give t h e sanction of his G o v . , to t h e p r e s e n t political state
a n d c o n d i t i o n o f P o l a n d , the s a m e h a v i n g b e e n b r o u g h t a b o u t i n viola-
t i o n of the Treaty of V i e n n a to which G r e a t Brit, w a s a p a r t y " . . . . [416]
Lord Palmerston: no v o t e of this H o u s e w o u l d h a v e t h e slightest effect-
ing in reversing t h e decision of Russia, " t h e Brit. G o v . were p r e v e n t e d
f r o m interfering, k n o w i n g a s they did, t h a t their i n t e r p o s i t i o n w o u l d h a v e
b e e n t o o late t o save t h e Poles from d e s t r u c t i o n " . . . . " t h e p r e s e n t
e m p e r o r of R u s s i a w a s a m a n of high a n d g e n e r o u s feelings". . . .
[435-437]

H. o. C. July 11. 1833.

P. L. Bulwer verlangt die P a p i e r e ber die trk.-syrische G e s c h i c h t e .


Admiral Poussin arrived at C o n s t a n t i n o p e l , a n d e n g a g e d for t h e r e t r e a t
o f t h e P a s h a o n certain t e r m s , which i n c l u d e d t h e refusal o f R u s s i a n
assistance. To this R u s s i a refused her c o n s e n t " y o u h a v e a s k e d for m e ,
a n d y o u shall h a v e m e " ; h e r t r o o p s m a r c h e d accordingly o n C o n s t a n t i -
n o p e l . . . N o longer a g o t h a n last C h r i s t m a s . . . C o u n t A p p o n y , t h e A u s -
t r i a n A m b a s s a d o r at Paris, stated, in s p e a k i n g of the Affairs of t h e East,
t h a t this C o u r t h a d a greater a p p r e h e n s i o n o f F r e n c h Principles t h a n
R u s s i a n a m b i t i o n . . . [571, 576] Palmerston o p p o s e s t h e M o t i o n , because
t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s to w h i c h t h e p a p e r s called for referred, were i n c o m p l e t e ,
a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the w h o l e t r a n s a c t i o n w o u l d d e p e n d u p o n its t e r m i -
n a t i o n . . . a s the results were n o t yet k n o w n . . . t h e M o t i o n . . . p r e m a t u r e
. . . T h e h o n . G e n t l e m a n h a d u r g e d i t a s a n a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t ministers
t h a t they h a d n o t interfered t o defend t h e S u l t a n against M e h e m e t Ali
a n d p r e v e n t the a d v a n c e o f his a r m y . H e w a s n o t p r e p a r e d t o d e n y , t h a t ,
the latter p a r t o f last year a n a p p l i c a t i o n w a s m a d e o n t h e p a r t o f the

170
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

Sultan t o this c o u n t r y for assistance, b u t the G o v . was a t t h a t time n o t


p r e p a r e d to afford it; Ministers, in s h o r t , did n o t t h i n k it fit to afford
assistance t o the P o r t e a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r j u n c t u r e . N o d o u b t i f E n g l a n d
h a d t h o u g h t f i t t o interfere, the p r o g r e s s o f t h e i n v a d i n g a r m y w o u l d
5 h a v e b e e n s t o p p e d , a n d the R u s s i a n t r o o p s w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n called in
... T h e R u s s i a n G o v . , i n g r a n t i n g his aid t o t h e S u l t a n , h a d p l e d g e d its
h o n o u r , a n d in t h a t pledge he reposed the most implicit confidence, to
limit its assistance to t h e defence alone of the S u l t a n , a n d . . . to w i t h d r a w
w h a t e v e r force m i g h t be p l a c e d at the disposal of t h a t sovereign, for the
10 p u r p o s e of securing his defence, as s o o n as p e a c e w a s established b e t w e e n
the P o r t e a n d T u r k e y . . . i f t h e y h a d quietly b e h e l d the t e m p o r a r y occu-
p a t i o n of the T u r k i s h capital by t h e forces of R u s s i a , it w a s b e c a u s e t h e y
h a d full confidence in the h o n o u r a n d g o o d faith of R u s s i a . [578,
579,581] Col. Evans, he c o u l d n o t h e l p expressing his surprise at t h e
15 confidence w h i c h t h e n o b l e V i s c o u n t seemed to place in t h e g o o d faith of
Russia. [582]

[Vol.22. London 1834.]


H. o. C. March 17. 1834.

Sheil. I n the a u t u m n o f 1831, I b r a h i m P a c h a m a r c h e d i n t o Syria, o n


20 D e c e m b e r 3 A c r e besieged, fell in M a y 1832, t o o k D a m a s k u s on J u n e 14,
das fate of Syria entschieden d u r c h die b a t t l e at H o r n s . It w a s easy to
foresee these successes, a n d to a n t i c i p a t e t h e victory of Ejyptian dis-
cipline over T u r k i s h d i s o r g a n i s a t i o n . W a s i t n o t m o s t s t r a n g e t h a t a t this
period w e h a d n o A m b a s s a d o r a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ? . . . T r k e n v e r l a n g -
25 ten v. u n s n a v a l aid, w r d e a b g e s c h r e c k t h a b e n I b r a h i m from a d v a n c i n g .
H e m a r c h e d on, a n d forced the passes o f t h e T a u r u s . O n D e c . 2 1 , t h e
battle o f K o n i a h . . . fought, a n d the last T u r k i s h a r m y w a s a n n i h i l a t e d .
The m o m e n t for R u s s i a n interposition h a d arrived. T h e E m p e r o r N i c h o -
las, after E n g l a n d h a d refused h e r assistance, sent G e n . M a u r a v i e f f to
30 C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , m i t a letter, w r i t t e n in t h e l a n g u a g e of fraternal e n d e a r -
ment, t o t h e S u l t a n , offering fleets a n d t r o o p s . T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n w a s n o t
at first acceded to ||28| b u t on F e b r . 2, 1833, he applied for this sinister
aid. A s yet there w a s n o English o r F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r a t C o n s t a n t i -
th
nople. P o n s o n b y , e r n a n n t N o v e m b e r , a r r i v e d erst i n M a y . 1 7 F e b r u a r y
th
35 Admiral R o u s s i n r e a c h e d C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , on the 1 9 r e m o n s t r a t e d
(which E n g l a n d never did) o n t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f T u r k e y b y R u s s i a n
troops ... o n t h e next d a y t h e R u s s i a n f l e e t arrived i n the B o s p h o r u s .
Admiral R o u s s i n e m p l o y e d his best efforts to i n d u c e I b r a h i m to sign a

171
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

treaty, b u t h e w a s c o u n t e r a c t e d b y Russia, d a e r a l o n e w a s . . . D i e E r k l -
t e n l
r u n g P a l m e r s t o n s v o m l l . A m 8 der Treaty v o n U n k i a r Skelessi . . .
dieser t r e a t y a n n o u n c e d A u g u s t 2 1 , i m M o r n i n g H e r a l d . . . while C o u n t
Orloff w a s a p p a r e n t l y c o m p l y i n g mit d e n wishes o f F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d ,
he w a s p r e p a r i n g a s t r o k e which only b e c a m e k n o w n t h e d a y after his 5
d e p a r t u r e , which h a s since covered the A m b a s s a d o r s of t h o s e c o u n t r i e s
w i t h confusion, a n d h a s placed Turkey i n t h e h u g o f the b e a r . . . D i e
n a v i g a t i o n of all the T u r k i s h seas u. Passage d e r D a r d a n e l l e s den E n g -
l n d e r n gesichert d u r c h Vertrag v. 1675, d a n n 1809, . . . verlangt die
"copies der treaties zwischen Turkey u. R u s s i a seit 1833, u. of a n y cor- 10
r e s p o n d e n c e between the English, R u s s i a n , Turkish G o v . , respecting t h o s e
treaties, to be laid before the H o u s e . " [307-309, 315, 317]
Palmerston: gegen die M o t i o n . . . . [319] In their confidence M i n i s t e r s
w e r e n o t deceived; t h e R u s s i a n force did retire. . . . ( E r s t Sept. 1832, sagt
er, v e r l t Sir S t r a t f o r d C a n n i n g C o n s t a n t i n o p e l w o h i n er in the begin- 15
n i n g of 1832 k a m ) . . . it w a s perfectly impossible t h a t the t r e a t y (der
v. U n k i a r Skelessi) n o t to be ratified at Constantinople until the month of
September, should be officially known to him in A u g u s t . . . the assurances
and explanations which it ( the Brit. Gov.) had received from the contract-
ing parties to that treaty greatly tended to remove its objections ... (gibt 20
d e m Sheil zu, d a in d e m t r e a t y v. 8' July T u r k e y b o u n d to assist R u s s i a ,
if E n g l a n d was at war with Russia, Turkey m u s t exclude o u r ships f r o m
t h e D a r d a n e l l e s ) . . . h e did n o t m e a n t o say, t h a t u n d e r its p r o v i s i o n s
merchant vessels, m i g h t n o t , in effect, be practically excluded from the
Black sea . . . t h e H o n . G e n t l e m a n w o u l d , he w a s sure, excuse h i m for 25
n o t exactly stating w h y t h e Brit, fleet went to the Dardanelles, why ran
thence to Smyrna, u. why it returned from Smyrna to Malta ... [322-328]
Col. E v a n s . . . t h e speech o f t h e n o b l e L o r d a p p e a r e d t o h i m t h e m o s t
unsatisfactory t h a t h e h a d ever h e a r d f r o m h i m . . . . [330]
[Robert Peel:] Palmerston. "I t h i n k it very likely, t h a t t h e Treaty of July 30
m a y never c o m e i n t o o p e r a t i o n . " . . . Sir Robert Peel n e n n t P a l m e r s t o n "a
very inconclusive r e a s o n e r " . . . . t h e fact of R u s s i a h a v i n g o c c u p i e d C o n -
s t a n t i n o p l e , even for the p u r p o s e of saving it w a s as decisive a b l o w to
T u r k , i n d e p e n d e n c e , as if the flag of R u s s i a n o w w a v e d on t h e Seraglio.
B u t , said t h e n o b l e L o r d , the G o v . could n o t t a k e a n y step for t h e prs- 35
e r v a t i o n of Turkey; it did n o t receive a n y f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n from
t h e P o r t e for assistance u n t i l August or September; a n d a great b a t t l e was
w o n b y I b r a h i m P a s h a i n July. W h a t ? Were t h e n H . M ' s G o v . s o igno-
r a n t of w h a t w a s passing in t h e L e v a n t , t h a t they m u s t w a i t for a formal
a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m the P o r t e , before t e n d e r i n g her either advice or as- 40
sistance? . . . Wo w a r die fleet occupied: In b l o c k a d i n g t h e T a g u s a n d
Scheldt . . . [336-338]

172
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

. o. C. March 25,1834.

Palmerston. " t h e m e r e fact of this c o u n t r y b e i n g a p a r t y to the Treaty of


Vienna, w a s n o t a s s y n o n y m o u s w i t h o u r g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t t h e r e w o u l d
b e n o infraction o f t h a t t r e a t y b y R u s s i a " . O'Connell h a d h e a r d t h e
5 speech of t h e n o b l e l o r d m i t surprise u. regret. [656] Th. Attwood. No
h o n e s t m a n , in t h e p r i v a t e t r a n s a c t i o n s of life w o u l d say so. [657]

[Vol. 31. London 1836.]


[House of Commons] March 1,1836.

Sir Stratford Canning interpellirt d a s P a r l i a m e n t b e r d a s E i n r c k e n


10 v. P r e u e n , R u s s e n , s t r e i c h e r n , am 17 F e b r . in C r a c o w . Palmerston "I
a m n o t n o w p r e p a r e d t o give a n o p i n i o n o n t h e subject." [1129, 1130]

[Vol. 32. London 1836.]


[House of Commons] March 18,1836.

Sir Stratford Canning I n t e r p e l l a t i o n b e r C r a c o w . Palmerston. [403-420]

15 [House of Commons] April 20,1836.

Grote p r e s e n t s p e t i t i o n from 60 m e r c h a n t s of t h e city of L o n d o n m. B e -


zug auf die H a n d e l s r e g u l a t i o n e n der R u s s e n in B l a c k Sea. . . . Sir Strat-
ford Cannings p e t i t i o n b e r d e n s e l b e n G e g e n s t a n d v. G l a s g o w . Patrick
M. Stewart m o t i o n . . . e n a c t m e n t s u. restrictions i n t e n d e d to i n t e r r u p t
20 our c o m m e r c e on t h e D a n u b e . . . [1258-1260] Palmerston: g o v e r n m e n t do
intend to send a c o n s u l a r a g e n t to C r a c o w . I s h o u l d t r u s t , therefore, t h a t
m y h o n . friend s h o u l d c o n s e n t t o w i t h d r a w t h a t p a r t o f his m o t i o n . . .
[1284] A s t o t h e n a v i g a t i o n o f t h e D a n u b e . . . n o g r o u n d h a s b e e n s h o w n
u p o n which this H o u s e c o u l d b e called u p o n t o t a k e a n y s t e p w i t h r e g a r d
25 to t h a t p a r t of my H o n . friend's case a n d t h a t q u e s t i o n m a y fairly be left
in the h a n d s of t h e G o v . . . . [1289] Lord Mahon. W h e n he ( P a l m e r s t o n )
had sent only 2 m e n - o f - w a r to A l e x a n d r i a , n u r signified seine d i s a p p r o -
bation t o the P a s h a o f Ejypt, t h a t aggression (1831) w o u l d h a v e b e e n
arrested, a t its o u t s e t . . . D e r S u l t a n i m p l o r e d t h e aid o f E n g l a n d . H e sent
3 0 over t o this c o u n t r y f i r s t , M . M a u r o j e n i u . d a n n N a m i k P a c h a . . . t o t h e

173
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

refusal of the n o b l e L o r d m a y be m a i n l y ascribed t h e Treaty of t h e 8* of


July. . . . Sir S t r a t f o r d C a n n i n g q u i t t e d C o n s t a n t i n o p l e on A u g . 9, 1832,
L o r d P o n s o n b y a p p o i n t e d N o v . 29, k m m t erst d e n M a i 1 n a c h C o n -
s t a n t i n o p l e . . . [1297-1299]

[Vol. 37. London 1837.] 5


[House of Commons] March 17, 1837

Vixen, Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e . Roebuck: m o v e d for p a p e r s elucidatory of


this singular t r a n s a c t i o n . [628] Palmerston: I m u s t object to the p r o d u c -
t i o n of p a p e r s . If they b e a r u p o n a question n o w u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
their p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d be d a n g e r o u s : if they refer to q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e 10
g o n e by, they c a n obviously be of no use. [636]

[House of Commons] March 22, 1837

A u f S t u a r t s Interpellation, Palmerston: "he had altered his intention, and


had not sent a Consular Agent to Cracow, and it was not, at present,
his intention to do so". [702] 15

[Vol. 38. London 1837.]


[House of Commons. 25. Mai 1837.]

June 16, 1837: May 25 1837 S t u a r t m o t i o n b e r C o n s u l a r a g e n t in C r a -


cow. ( P a l m e r s t o n nicht da, H o u s e c o u n t e d aus) [1086-1088]

[Vol.43. London 1838.] 20


[House of Commons] June 21, 1838.

Vixen (Sir S t r a t f o r d C a n n i n g fr d a s a p p o i n t m e n t of a select C o m m i t t e e )


[903] Peel sagt: the n o b l e L o r d expressed his surprise t h a t C a n n i n g ' s
m o t i o n s h o u l d be of so trifling a c h a r a c t e r . . . p r o t e c t i o n of the Brit.
C o m m e r c e trifles? . . . T h e r e are 3 distinct p o i n t s in f a v o u r of M r . Bell: 25
1) the six years' concealment of blockade by the noble Lord; 2) his an-
swer r e t u r n e d to M r . Bell; 3) d a s e n c o u r a g e m e n t given h i m a b r o a d , by
L o r d P o n s o n b y u . M r . U r q u h a r t . [947, 952]
( M a j o r i t y gegen die M o t i o n n u r 16) (184 gegen 200) |

174
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

[Vol. 39. London 1838.]


|29| H. o. C. Dec. 14, 1837.

Thomas Attwood. t h e m o m e n t t h a t a n y c o u n t r y d e p e n d e d u p o n t h e
friendship of a t y r a n t , t h a t m o m e n t the p e o p l e b e c a m e slaves. T h e
5 m o m e n t t h a t R u s s i a a c q u i r e d p o w e r t o injure us, t h a t m o m e n t she a c -
quired d o m i n i o n over u s . . . . H e m i g h t b e told t h a t w e h a d 6 ships o f t h e
line at L i s b o n . T h e ostensible excuse for m a i n t a i n i n g so m a n y ships t h e r e
was to p r o t e c t t h e life of the Q u e e n of P o r t u g a l ; b u t they did n o t care so
m u c h a b o u t the life o f the Q u e e n ; the real object w a s t o p u t d o w n liberty,
10 to s u p p o r t d e s p o t i s m a n d fraud, a n d to d e s t r o y t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n which
the Q u e e n o f P o r t u g a l h a d s w o r n t o defend a n d m a i n t a i n . . . the R u s s i a n
w a r a g a i n s t Circassia. S o m e G e n t l e m e n t h o u g h t t h a t if the R u s s i a n s e s t a b -
lished their d o m i n i o n in Circassia, a n d , t h r o u g h it, in Persia a n d Tur-
key, o u r I n d i a n e m p i r e w o u l d b e i n d a n g e r . . . T h e n o b l e L o r d h a d decla-
15 red last y e a r t h a t R u s s i a h a d no r i g h t to b l o c k a d e t h e p o r t s of Circassia
against English ships. W h y , t h e n , h a d n o t t h e n o b l e L o r d t a k e n m e a n s t o
break up that blockade? ... the true question was ... whether it was our
interest t h a t she s h o u l d o c c u p y t h a t c o a s t ? . . . T h e London Gazette w a s
indeed the only q u a r t e r to w h i c h a Brit, m e r c h a n t s h o u l d refer for such
20 i n f o r m a t i o n , (als die Vixen w i t h r e g a r d to t h e b l o c k a d e of the c o a s t of
Circassia), a n d n o t t h e U k a s e s o f t h e E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a . . . the press . . .
the t o o l o f parties . . . M r . H u m e w a s sure t o b e o u t o f the w a y w h e n e v e r
a n y t h i n g o f i m p o r t a n c e w a s going f o r w a r d . . . . R u s s i a exercises h e r
e n c r o a c h m e n t s w i t h m e a s u r e d insolence . . . t h e b a s e a n d infernal press,
25 the m o s t infernal d e l u d e r . . . E n g l a n d w a s b o u n d in recognizances of
800 millions never t o g o t o w a r a g a i n (said a n H o n . M e m b e r i n t h a t
H o u s e seven years since); a n d a n o t h e r H o n . m e m b e r said h e k n e w it, a n d
he t h a n k e d G o d for it . . . his p o c k e t full of m o n e y , a n d his h e a r t of
cowardice . . . the bitterest a n d m o s t remorseless enemies t h a t the i n d u s t r y
30 and h o n o u r of E n g l a n d h a d w e r e t h e Radicals in t h a t H o u s e , a l t h o u g h he
was o n e o f t h e m ; b u t h e h o p e d h e w a s n o t q u i t e s o b a d . H e wished for
real l i b e r t y n o t t h e m e r e d e g r a d a t i o n o f the a r i s t o c r a c y . . . t h e liberty
h e m e a n t w a s , t h e raising u p o f t h e lower classes . . . H e w o u l d c o m e n o w
to the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi. T h i s t r e a t y w a s said to be o n e of reci-
35 p r o c i t y t h e n o b l e L o r d h a d so d e s i g n a t e d it on a f o r m e r occasion; t h a t
reciprocity being, t h a t if the D a r d a n e l l e s s h o u l d be closed a g a i n s t E n g -
land in the event of war, they s h o u l d be closed a g a i n s t R u s s i a also. T h i s
certainly w a s Irish reciprocity, for it w a s all on o n e side. . . . A t t w o o d s

175
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 1

r e s o l u t i o n u. a. " t o lay before the H o u s e copies of all c o m m u n i c a t i o n s


b e t w e e n t h e G o v . o f this c o u n t r y a n d R u s s i a w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e n a v a l
a r m a m e n t of C r o n s t a d t , t h e w a r between Russia and Circassia, and the
treaty of Unkiar Skelessi". [1095, 1097-1102]
Sir E. Codrington s e c o n d e d the m o t i o n . . . . R u s s i a (in 1828-9) w a s 5
d r a w n i n t o the w a r w i t h Turkey b y the c o n d u c t o f h e r allies. S h o r t l y after
t h e b a t t l e of N a v a r i n o it w o u l d be seen by a reference to certain G r e e k
papers, that the Emperor of Russia m a d e a proposal that in consequence
of t h e insults to t h e united flags of E n g l a n d , F r a n c e , a n d R u s s i a , if Tur-
key did n o t agree to the t r e a t y of L o n d o n , t h o s e 3 n a t i o n s w o u l d declare 10
w a r a g a i n s t her. B y t h a t p r o p o s a l Wallachia a n d M o l d a v i a w e r e t o c o n -
t i n u e i n the h a n d s o f R u s s i a ; a n d h e (Sir E . C o d r i n g t o n ) w a s t o h a v e the
c o m m a n d of t h e fleet, a n d t a k e possession of t h e D a r d a n e l l e s . If this
a g r e e m e n t h a d b e e n entered i n t o , the c o n s e q u e n c e w o u l d h a v e b e e n , i f
they were driven to the necessity of d i c t a t i n g t e r m s at t h e steps of the 15
Seraglio, T u r k e y m u s t h a v e ultimately s u b m i t t e d ; a n d by a p r o v i s i o n of
the treaty, after t h a t event occurred, each n a t i o n w a s to r e s u m e its orig-
inal p o s i t i o n . I f R u s s i a h a d n o t retired from Wallachia a n d M o l d a v i a , she
w o u l d h a v e been compelled t o d o s o b y t h e u n i t e d force o f E n g l a n d ,
F r a n c e , a n d T u r k e y . . . [1102,1103] 20
\ Palmerston. ... We do n o t m e a n to interfere in a w a r c a r r y i n g on
\ between R u s s i a a n d Circassia . . . As to t h e Vixen . . . R u s s i a h a d given
s u c h e x p l a n a t i o n s of her c o n d u c t as o u g h t to satisfy t h e G o v . of this
\ c o u n t r y . . . t h a t ship w a s n o t t a k e n d u r i n g a b l o c k a d e . . . it w a s c a p t u r e d
\ because t h o s e w h o h a d t h e m a n a g e m e n t of it contravened the municipal 25
I and custom-house regulations of Russia ... It is n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n of the
G o v . t o h a v e recourse t o hostile m e a s u r e s t o c o m p e l R u s s i a a n d Tur-
k e y t w o independent p o w e r s t o cancel t h e t r e a t y (of U n k i a r Skelessi)
m a d e b e t w e e n t h e m . . . W i t h r e g a r d t o the affair o f t h e Vixen, t h e w h o l e
m a t t e r is at an e n d . . . Now, Sir, with regard to the treaty of Unkiar 30
Skelessi, that, also, is a matter which has gone by; it is a t r e a t y which, at
present, is n o t o n e of t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d treaties of E u r o p e , a n d , conse-
quently, can f o r m n o g r o u n d w h a t e v e r for E n g l a n d t o declare w a r with
R u s s i a . It was a t r e a t y entered i n t o for a limited p e r i o d , a n d to meet
peculiar circumstances; a n d that period having expired, a n d those circum- 35
stances having disappeared, a n d the p r o b a b i l i t y also b e i n g t h a t the
2 p o w e r s parties to it will n o t find it necessary t h a t its e n g a g e m e n t s s h o u l d
be renewed, I t h i n k I am justified in saying t h a t its i n t r o d u c t i o n by the
h o n . M e m b e r u p o n t h e p r e s e n t occasion is wholly unnecessary and uncalled
for ... R u s s i a he ( A t t w o o d ) seems so desirous to c o n v e r t i n t o a general 40
a l a r m - g i v e r . . . . Between the beginning of 1814 a n d the e n d of 1815 R u s s i a

176
Aus Hansard's parliamentary debates (Fortsetzung)

received 7 millions by w a y of subsidies f r o m E n g l a n d , a n d 4 millions as


p a r t of a w a r c o n t r i b u t i o n from F r a n c e , a n d it w a s these s a m e 11 millions
which e n a b l e d h e r to b r i n g u n d e r a r m s t h o s e 160,000 m e n w h o m I myself
saw in the plains of C h a m p a g n e . . . . T h e p a p e r s connected with that treaty
5 were laid before the House 3 years ago . . . [1105,1109-1111]
Maclean. W h i l s t Circassia was in the possession of T u r k e y this c o u n t r y
h a d the s a m e r i g h t to t r a d e there by p a y i n g t h e s a m e dues paid as to t r a d e
t o any o t h e r Turkish p o r t , b u t u p o n t h a t coast she w a s n o w f o r b i d d e n t o
land g o o d s of a n y description which w e r e n o t included in the R u s s i a n
10 tariff, a n d t h e c o m m e r c e of E n g l a n d w a s in this respect greatly i m p e d e d
... the t r a d e of T r e b i z o n d a l o n e w a s w o r t h a million a-year. | [1112]

[Vol. 55. London 1840.]


130 [ H. o. C. July 6, 1840.

(Austrian Treaty of Commerce.) [Palmerston:] " W i t h respect to the o b -


15 jection, t h a t fully to realize t h e a d v a n t a g e s c o n t e m p l a t e d by this c o n -
nexion, a s u b s e q u e n t t r e a t y with T u r k e y w o u l d be necessary in o r d e r to
prevent t h a t p o w e r from excluding u s a l t o g e t h e r f r o m t h e D a n u b e , h e
would only r e m a r k , t h a t by virtue of existing treaties, English ships h a d a
right o f t r a d i n g i n a n y T u r k i s h p o r t s , a n d t h a t s o all p a r t s o f t h e D a n u b e
20 c o m p r e h e n d e d w i t h i n t h e T u r k i s h t e r r i t o r y whilst t h e f r e e d o m of the
remainder w a s g u a r a n t e e d by the t r e a t y with A u s t r i a . " | [487]

177
(Heft 2)
Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

[Notizen]

|[2. Umschlagseite]| C h o l e r a
strike at
dear dully-deadly D u d l e y

5 arms, entrenchment,
decide upon
forces enraged against him
varnished savage. August 12
brave words
10 b r a v e deeds
elegant tissue of generalities
ironical
Burnley
Jesuitism

glories of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l
skilful
system |
15
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

Ml [Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen]


1 October.

Strike of the Hop-pickers. A general strike h a s t a k e n p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t


t h e h o p - g r o w i n g districts. (Morning Advertiser)
L o r d P a l m e r s t o n . . . a p o p u l a r favourite. (Tallis) 5
A u t h e n t i c a c c o u n t s h a v e b e e n received t h a t the E n t i r e E n g l i s h a n d
F r e n c h f l e e t s h a v e entered the D a r d a n e l l e s a n d a r r i v e d a t C o n s t a n t i n o -
ple. (I.e.)
S t a t e d as certain t h a t Persia h a d placed at the disposal of the S u l t a n a
c o r p s of 6,000 of h e r best t r o o p s . (I. c.) 10
Bucharest Sept. 14. T h e quantities of c o r n a c c u m u l a t i n g at Braila a n d
G a l a t z are so large t h a t the w a n t of w a r e h o u s e r o o m s is severely felt.
T r a d e is in a state of u t t e r s t a g n a t i o n , a n d t h e l a b o u r i n g classes suffer
accordingly. (I.e.)
At P r e s t o n 13 mills are closed, a n d at t h e e x p i r a t i o n of a fortnight 15
every mill in the t o w n is to be s h u t ||2| up by the m a s t e r s . T h e weavers
h a v e this week a d d r e s s e d a m e m o r i a l to the e m p l o y e r s , soliciting an
interview, or offering to refer the m a t t e r s in d i s p u t e to a r b i t r a t i o n , b u t
t h e m a s t e r s h a v e declined this r e q u e s t . . . t h e r u p t u r e b e t w e e n the o p e r -
atives a n d e m p l o y e r s on all h a n d s seems to be increasing. (1. c.) 20

Bank of England returns


for the week e n d i n g t h e 24 Sept:

Depositors h a v e increased their w i t h d r a w a l s to t h e extent of .214,788.


Demand for discount h a s increased by .400,000 decrease of active cir-
culation to t h e extent of 486,475 . (nearly 500,000 I.) D e c r e a s e of bullion: 25
.181,615 b r i n g n o w . 15,680,783. |

180
Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

| 3 | Notes issued: 29,065,880.


Public deposits: . 6,712,265
Private deposits: . 10,839,185
.17,551,450
5 Active circulation: .21,935,445
Notes in reserve: . 7,130,435 (increase . 153,280,
p r o d u c e d b y the sale o f stocks t o t h a t a m o u n t )
Governmental securities: . 12,339,083
Private securities: . 17,143,223
10 29,482,306 |

|4| T h e Sicle, w h i c h is s u p p o s e d to h a v e its i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e


Turkish E m b a s s y , declares t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e P o r t e t o send for
ships from Besika B a y w a s m a d e o n t h e p r e t e x t t h a t d a n g e r w a s a p p r e -
h e n d e d d u r i n g t h e ftes of the B a i r a m for t h e C h r i s t i a n s ; b u t t h e P o r t e
15 refused, o b s e r v i n g t h a t t h e r e w a s no d a n g e r , a n d t h a t if t h e r e w a s it
w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e C h r i s t i a n s w i t h o u t foreign aid, a n d i t w o u l d n o t
degrade itself by calling for it. It w o u l d n o t , it said, a p p l y for ships until
after the ftes, a n d t h e n in s u p p o r t for its r i g h t s a n d a c c o r d i n g l y
ruische Schiffe. (Sunday Times) unscrupulous \

20 | 5 | Monday October 3

Yesterday t h e r e w a s a g r e a t a n t i - R u s s i a n m e e t i n g at Henley. In t h e
course of t h e week t h e r e will be similar expressions of p u b l i c feeling at
W o l v e r h a m p t o n , Leicester, M a n c h e s t e r , B i r m i n g h a m . O n , F r i d a y . . . a
m e t r o p o l i t a n d e m o n s t r a t i o n in f a v o u r of Turkey. (Morning Advertiser)
25 (London Tavern)
The Turks have caused troops to advance from Trebisond and Erze-
r o o m t o w a r d s t h e T u r k o - R u s s i a n frontier. O r d e r s h a v e b e e n sent for the
Minister of w a r at St. P e t e r s b u r g h to d e s p a t c h large b o d i e s of t r o o p s in a
great h a s t e from S e b a s t o p o l to re-inforce t h e ||6| g a r r i s o n s of t h e p o r t s of
30 Anaklia, P o t i u. Nicolaief. (I.e.)
Jassy Sept. 19. P r i n c e G o r t s c h a k o f f h a s j u s t c o m m u n i c a t e d to the
c o m m a n d i n g officers of the different c o r p s of t h e i n v a d i n g force the
instructions sent from St. P e t e r s b u r g h by t h e M i n i s t e r of W a r for t a k i n g
the steps necessary to establish the w i n t e r q u a r t e r s of t h e R u s s . a r m y in
35 Wallachia u. M o l d a v i a . (Daily News)
T h e K i n g o f P r u s s i a q u i t t e d Berlin o n S u n d a y evening for W a r s a w .
(Sun) I

181
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

| 7 | Let w a r c o m e o r n o t , a n d b e its result w h a t i t m a y , w e t u r n w i t h a b -


h o r r e n c e from t h a t policy which, instead o f r e s t r a i n i n g the i n v a d e r b y
a n a r m e d a n d resolute a t t i t u d e , has d o n e its best t o e n g a g e i n conflict
2 m i g h t y armies, inflamed by h e r e d i t a r y h a t e , a n d the fanaticism of
hostile creeds, u n d e r the false pretence of preserving t h e p e a c e of E u r o p e . 5
(Press) I

| 8 | Wednesday. October, 5.

W e h a v e n o w 2 dispatches from V i e n n a t h e o n e a n n o u n c i n g t h a t L o r d
W e s t m o r e l a n d h a d declared a t O l m u t z t h a t E n g l a n d w o u l d n o t s u p p o r t
the T u r k s , if R u s s i a agreed n o t to consider the p a s s a g e of t h e D a r d a n e l l e s 10
by o u r ships of w a r as an infringement of t h e t r e a t y of 1841; t h e o t h e r ,
t h a t t h e D i v a n h a d t a k e n the initiative, a n d d e c l a r e d w a r a g a i n s t t h e
s t e n
n o r t h e r n C o l o s s u s . (Morning Herald) Am 2 7 Sept. hielt der S u l t a n d e n
grossen R a t h . (Globe) P o t n a k l i a a n d P o r t St. N i k o l a i a r e to be placed
in a c o n d i t i o n of defence while her forces are a d v a n c i n g in t h e 15
n e i g h b o u r h o o d of ||9| the A r a x e s a n d of E r z e r o u m . (M. H.)
t h
T h e S u l t a n h a d o n the 2 7 c o n v o k e d a G r a n d C o u n c i l , consisting o f
120 o f t h e principal ministers, councillors, p a c h a s a n d o t h e r s t h e q u e s -
tion o f p e a c e a n d w a r w a s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e m b y h i m , a n d t h e y decided i n
f a v o u r of t h e latter alternative. ( G l o b e ) 20
Times. Oct. 3 (Paris Corresp. die Nachricht ber Westmoreland)
th
On the 2 6 a G r a n d Council, convoked by the Sultan, and numbering
122 civil a n d religious dignitaries, from a m o n g s t t h e m o s t experienced
a n d distinguished of his subjects, m e t to c o n s i d e r t h e rejection of t h e m o d -
ifications o f t h e V i e n n a N o t e b y t h e E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a a n d t h e c o u r s e t o 25
be p u r s u e d consequent on t h a t rejection. It w a s resolved by the C o u n c i l
t h a t , it w o u l d be c o n t r a r y to the dignity a n d subversive of t h e sovereign
a u t h o r i t y of t h e |] 10| Sultan to sign the V i e n n a n o t e w i t h o u t t h e modifica-
t i o n s suggested b y t h e D i v a n ; a n d t h a t i n a s m u c h a s t h e C z a r declared
t h o s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s to be totally inadmissible, a n d refused to a b a n d o n 30
his d e m a n d for an e n g a g e m e n t destructive of t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of the
O t t o m a n empire; it only r e m a i n e d for t h e C o u n c i l to advise the S u l t a n to
p r o c e e d at o n c e to a d o p t the m e a s u r e s necessary for t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of
his e m p i r e , a n d to free his d o m i n i o n s from t h e presence of their i n v a d e r .
(Morning Post) 35
G r a v e as t h e p r o s p e c t of w a r m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d , a feeling is gaining
g r o u n d t h a t a collision b e t w e e n the R u s s i a n s a n d T u r k s c a n n o t n o w b e
well avoided; b u t t h a t a message of a r m s b e t w e e n the forces w h o h a v e

182
Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

been || 111 w a t c h i n g e a c h o t h e r for t h e last 6 weeks on either side of t h e


D a n u b e , i s necessary for the h o n o u r o f b o t h parties. O n c e t h a t a n ex-
change of s h o t s h a s t a k e n place, it is h o p e d t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s m a y be
opened on a b r o a d e r a n d surer footing for t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of p e a c e .
5 (Guardian) |

|12| Thursday. October 6.

T h e Ottoman Porte h a s p r o n o u n c e d , by t h e decision of its I m p e r i a l


Council, for o p e n w a r . . . . O n the o t h e r side, t h e E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a h a s
declared for peace ... we c a n state u p o n u n d o u b t e d a u t h o r i t y , t h a t t h e
10 interests of t h e "Czar", as expressed at O l m t z by his o w n lips, are n o t
only in f a v o u r of a pacific settlement, b u t a r e reconcilable to a g r e a t
extent with the c o n d i t i o n s p r o p o s e d b y ourselves. H e r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t , a s
he h a d accepted t h e V i e n n a n o t e at t h e h a n d s of t h e conference in full
satisfaction o f E u r o p e a n d e m a n d s , a n d o n t h e t e r m s f r a m e d b y his o p -
15 ponents, he c o u l d n o t w i t h a n y r e g a r d to his o w n dignity, be n o w referred
to any second p r o p o s a l . He offered, h o w e v e r , to accept || 131 a d e c l a r a t i o n
o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which seems t o d e p r i v e the original V i e n n a n o t e o f t h e
objectionable features since discovered in it, a n d stated distinctly t h a t ,
although h e could n o t swerve from t h e c o n d i t i o n s f i r s t i m p o s e d u p o n
20 him, he was r e a d y to a d m i t at o n c e such an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h o s e c o n -
ditions as w a s c o n f o r m a b l e to t h e views of the F r e n c h a n d British
G o v e r n m e n t s , p r o v i d e d only t h a t his a c k n o w l e d g e d rights w e r e still
maintained. (Times) It c a n surely never be w o r t h while to p l u n g e E u r o p e
into w a r for the sake of such a difference as this. T h e r e is no l o n g e r a n y
25 dispute a b o u t t h e substance of t e r m s of p e a c e . (I.e.) " c o u p l e of savage
chiefs in the interior of Africa. (1. c.) After all, w h a t d o e s t h e w o r l d c a r e
for the E m p e r o r of R u s s i a , t h a t it s h o u l d go to w a r o u t of deference to
his political mistakes? (I.e.) |]14| If, as we b e g a n by asserting, t h e h y p o -
thetical w a r i m p e n d i n g is to be an H o m e r i c W a r of K i n g s , w h i c h of all
30 these R o y a l p e r s o n a g e s will find himself on t h e t h r o n e w h e n it is at e n d ! "
(I.e.)
t h
News from B u c h a r e s t d. d. 2 4 Sept., h a s b e e n received here (... Paris).
It contains sad r e p o r t s of t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e R u s s i a n t r o o p s in t h e
X
Principalities. N e a r l y \ of t h e m are in t h e h o s p i t a l or r a t h e r on t h e sick
A

35 list, for there is b u t very small h o s p i t a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n , a n d w r e t c h e d


medical a t t e n d a n c e . T y p h u s h a s b r o k e n o u t a m o n g s t t h e soldiery, a n d
cholera, t o o , h a s m a d e its a p p e a r a n c e . T h e i r f o o d i s scanty a n d u n w h o l e -
some, the c o m m i s s a r i a t being totally inefficient. (Morning Post) |

183
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

| 1 5 | T o - m o r r o w afternoon t h e r e will be a m e e t i n g in D o w n i n g s t r e e t of
t h e C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . (Globe)
bedquiltmakers w o r k i n g m e n t h r e w the lot, w h e t h e r t h e y s h o u l d c o m -
m e n c e i n striking, a n d t h e n t h e m a s t e r s closed u n a n i m o u s l y their s h o p s .
Bolton. 5
M a s t e r s , in t h e v a r i o u s places, strafen sich wechselseitig m i t 5000
( M a n c h e s t e r ) , 2000 (Bolton), 3000 (Preston) weiches zuerst n a c h g i b t .
Fabrikanten in Bury

|[16]| Ger st. Broadstr. gegenber Arzt in Freiburg | 10

|[17]| Friday. October 7.

T h e only result w o u l d be a d o c u m e n t b e a r i n g t w o conflicting i n t e r p r e -


t a t i o n s , e a c h of w h i c h m i g h t be m a d e available in t u r n . (Times) T h e west-
e r n p o w e r s , therefore, require t h a t the V i e n n a n o t e s h o u l d b e p u t entirely
aside, as d e s t r o y e d by t h e C z a r ' s o w n exposition of its p u r p o r t , a n d t h a t 15
a new i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d be framed to o b v i a t e a n y future m i s u n d e r s t a n d -
ing. T h i s is t h e q u e s t i o n n o w at issue b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d E u r o p e . (1. c.) It
is a q u e s t i o n , as the r e a d e r will see, of forms exclusively. (1. c.) t h e B a n k
o f F r a n c e h a s raised its r a t e o f d i s c o u n t t o 4 % , t h a t o f Berlin a t 5 % , a t
t h a t of St. P e t e r s b u r g h at 6% (1. c.) | 20
I [18] I T h e e n c r o a c h m e n t s of a P o w e r so m e n a c i n g as R u s s i a m u s t
u n d o u b t e d l y be e n c o u n t e r e d , if necessary, by t h e a r m e d resistance of
E u r o p e , b u t a t p r e s e n t n o e n c r o a c h m e n t s are t h r e a t e n e d . R u s s i a i s will-
ing to accept the c o n d i t i o n s we p r o p o s e ; a n d , if we fight, we shall be
fighting n o t for t e r m s , b u t for t h e forms in w h i c h t h o s e t e r m s shall be 25
framed (I.e.)
Bombay. M a s t e r Spinners a n d M a n u f a c t u r e r s a n n o u n c e R u s s i a gains
everything, if she c a n k e e p t h e Passage, a n d a v o i d a w a r . A n d , for t h e
p u r p o s e s procrastination is everything. (Morning Herald) \
I [19] I T h e F r e n c h G o v . h a s resolved to t a k e t h e bull by the h o r n s 30
3 0 , 0 0 0 m e n are u n d e r o r d e r s to be r e a d y at a m o m e n t ' s notice, to be
s h i p p e d o n b o a r d the O c e a n s q u a d r o n , w h i c h will waft t h e m t o S t a m -
b o u l T h e c o m m a n d of the c o r p s d ' a r m e will in all p r o b a b i l i t y be be-
stowed u p o n G e n e r a l C a n r o b e r t . . . t h e p l a n a r r a n g e d a t p r e s e n t is, t h a t
E n g l a n d will send 10,000 m e n , a n d t h a t F r a n c e will t a k e 20,000 f r o m the 35
late Hilfort C a m p , a n d ||[20]| 10,000 m o r e from Algiers. T h e y will p r o c e e d
a t o n c e t h r o u g h the Sea o f M a r m o r a a n d the B o s p h o r u s i n t o the Black

184
BP

Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

Sea, a n d b e d i s e m b a r k e d a t V a r n a , s o a s t o t a k e t h e R u s s i a n s i n t h e rear.
A p l a n is also f o r m e d to p r e v e n t t h e R u s s i a n s f r o m crossing t h e D a n u b e ,
or traversing the ||[21]| defiles of the B a l k a n . . .
T h e Patrie a n n o u n c e s , in a c o m m u n i c a t e d n o t e , t h a t t h e telegram re-
5 ceived this evening from t h e E a s t d o e s n o t c o n f i r m t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of w a r
by the S u l t a n , r e p o r t e d by t h e M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e . (1. c.) |

I [23] I Schiffe nach America.

Southampton, O c t o b e r 12, Wednesday Hermann.


O c t o b e r 26, Franklin.
10 N o v e m b e r 9, Washington.
November 23, Humboldt.
Liverpool O c t o b e r 19, Arctic.
N o v e m b e r 7, Baltic. |

I [24] I Colonel Maberley.

15 " T h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a h a s declared for P e a c e . " |


I [25] I t h e o p e r a t o r s h a v e inscribed on their b a n n e r s " 1 0 % , a n d no sur-
r e n d e r s " . (Tottis)

Monday. October 10.

T h e miserable c o n d i t i o n of R u s s i a n t r o o p s in t h e Principalities. (M. P.)


20 T h e o r a t o r s of the L o n d o n T a v e r n s h o w e d their g o o d ruse, in t h e
general expression o f their belief t h a t L o r d P a l m e r s t o n w a s the M i n i s t e r
best fitted to vindicate English interests. (I.e.)
4 0 articles, w e h a v e n o d o u b t , c o n d e m n a t o r y o f R u s s i a h a v e a p p e a r e d
in the Times. B u t w h e n a n y practical m e a s u r e is suggested which m i g h t ,
25 in any degree, rein or c o n t r o l this R u s s i a n a r r o g a n c e , t h e n forth c o m e s
the Times to d e p r e c a t e a n y t h i n g w h i c h m i g h t lead to w a r , a n d to insist
u p o n the c o n t i n u a n c e of endless a n d p u r p o s e l e s s n e g o t i a t i o n s . (M. H.)
G o v e r n m e n t h a s b e e n forced t o raise the interest o n Exchequerbills
from 1 d. to 2 d . p. c. per diem. (D. N.) w a r e n ||[26]| gefallen m e h r als
30 1 0 % discount. (I.e.) t h e u n f o r t u n a t e financier. (I.e.) We do n o t assert
that t r a d e m a y n o t a l r e a d y h a v e b o r r o w e d t o o m u c h . (I.e.) " H o w will
he ( G l a d s t o n e ) p r o v i d e for t h e p a y m e n t of t h e dissentions f r o m his c o n -

185
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

version scheme, which will require, first a n d last, a b o u t 8,000,000?" (1. c.)
Shameful will it be in the G o v . s h o u l d t h e difficulties w h i c h t r a d e
m a y h a v e t o e n c o u n t e r t h r o u g h t o o m u c h eagerness a n d m i s c a l c u l a t i o n
t h o u g h w e h o p e t h e y will n o t b e g r e a t b e a u g m e n t e d b y G o v e r n ,
c o m i n g i n t o the m a r k e t for a loan to supply deficiencies occasioned by 5
financial m i s c a l c u l a t i o n s , all the elements of w h i c h were at the c o m m a n d
of t h e F i n a n c i e r . (1. c.) |
I [27] I T h e C a b i n e t C o u n c i l season h a s b e g u n . T h e first w a s held on
F r i d a y , t h e s e c o n d on S a t u r d a y , a n d a t h i r d w a s a n n o u n c e d for this d a y .
(1. c ) . T h e S u l t a n a n d his Ministers are u n d e r s t o o d to h a v e i n t i m a t e d t h a t 10
if the e v a c u a t i o n of t h e D a n u b i a n principalities is n o t in p r o g r e s s in the
c o u r s e of 9 weeks, w a r will be declared. (1. c.)
" T h e O t t o m a n P o r t e h a s a n n o u n c e d a c o n d i t i o n t o the d e c l a r a t i o n o f
w a r , t h a t hostilities against the C z a r w o u l d only t a k e p l a c e i n t h e event
of t h e R u s s i a n t r o o p s n o t e v a c u a t i n g M o l d a v i a a n d W a l l a c h i a within 15
9 weeks."
The harvest in most parts of Germany and in Russia appears to have
given nearly as unsatisfactory a result as in this c o u n t r y ; indeed, as
r e g a r d s quality, ||[28]| t h e c o m p l a i n t s from the N o r t h o f E u r o p e are m o r e
general t h a n we r e m e m b e r for several years p a s t . Letters f r o m D a n z i g 20
i n f o r m us t h a t only a very small p r o p o r t i o n of n e w w h e a t w h i c h h a s b e e n
b r o u g h t f o r w a r d h a d p r o v e d o f suitable q u a l i t y for s h i p m e n t . . . . F r o m
K n i g s b e r g we h a v e similar r e p o r t s in respect to the result of t h e harvest;
a n d the failure of the P o t a t o c r o p is said to be g r e a t e r in t h a t n e i g h b o u r -
h o o d t h a n in a n y y e a r since 1847 . . . At R o t t e r d a m , on M o n d a y , w h e a t 25
w a s 5 s. p. qr. tighter t h a n on t h a t d a y week. . . . |
I [29] I F r o m t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n we learn t h a t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the
e x p e c t a t i o n of large supplies from t h e Black Sea, t h e value of w h e a t h a d
d
c o n t i n u e d t o m o v e u p w a r d s . . . . Letters from G a l a t z , o f t h e 2 2 ult., state
t h a t g o o d qualities of w h e a t m i g h t h a v e been b o u g h t there at 24 sh., a n d 30
t h e best descriptions a t 2 7 sh. p . qr. free o n b o a r d . F r e i g h t t o E n g l a n d
w a s , however, so high as to h a v e p u t a s t o p to s h i p m e n t ; t h e r a t e s asked
were, for the U n i t e d K i n g d o m 24 s. 6 d., a n d for Marseilles 21 s. 6 d.
p . qr. L a r g e stocks w e r e held there, a n d G r a n a r y r o o m h a d b e c o m e |
I[30]I scarce. (Mark Lane Express). 35
T h e r e h a v e b e e n riots a g a i n i n t h e C h a m p a g n e , the L o r r a i n e a n d the
Alsace (Leader u. Nation.)
In P a r i s t h e r e h a v e been s o m e slight d i s t u r b a n c e s a b o u t daily (I.e.)
t o u j o u r s p r o p o s des grains, et a u x cris d ' b a s N a p o l o n . (I.e.) A very
general i m p r e s s i o n prevailed in the a r o u n d t h a t this rgime w o u l d get 40
t h r o u g h the c o m i n g winter with difficulty, a n d t h a t w h e n t h e p o p u l a t i o n

186
Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

o f Paris crossed b y h u n g e r a n d b y t h e w a n t o f w o r k , s h o u l d b e stirred u p


to one of t h o s e terrible fits of p a s s i o n w h i c h s o m e t i m e s seize a p e o p l e ,
it w o u l d rise like o n e m a n , a n d sweep B o n a p a r t i s m f r o m its p a t h .
Alrea]|[31]|dy a d e e p d i s c o n t e n t is setting a m o n g the w o r k i n g m e n . T h e y
5 are flocking in f r o m t h e provinces, l u r e d by t h e c h e a p e r b r e a d , a n d are
c o m p e t i n g w i t h their fellow w o r k m e n for subsistence. Wages a r e begin-
ning to fall. M o r e o v e r , the r u n of w o r k is slackening sensibly, c o n s u m p -
tion is falling off. T h e p r o s p e c t of a crisis m a k e s t h e w o r k c a u t i o u s a n d
the stops early. W o r k s h o p s are closing h e r e a n d there. (Leader)
10 Bacup.
Burnley masters combination. At Burnley t h e y h a v e b o u n d themselves
u n d e r a p e n a l t y of 2,000 I. to be b o u n d to each o t h e r , a n d at B a c u p they
have entered i n t o a similar b o n d , with a p e n a l t y of . 5,000. (1. c.) |

I[32]I 15 October. Talus. Saturday

15 " G a o l I n q u i r i e s " are n o w a c o n s t a n t feature in t h e r e p o r t s of t h e press.


F r o m w h a t h a s b e e n disclosed till n o w , i t a p p e a r s t h a t P r i s o n discipline
in B i r m i n g h a m consists of collars a n d m u r a l t o r t u r e ; in Leicestershire of
cranks, a n d i n H a m p s h i r e o f t h e less artificial m e t h o d o f s t a r v a t i o n . A n d
you call this a free c o u n t r y ! (Tallis modified)
20 As stated in a f o r m e r letter t h a t t h e socalled p e a c e c o n c l u d e d w i t h
B u r m a h w a s b u t a c o m m e n c e of w a r , a n d t h a t the n e w acquisition to |
I [33] I t h e I n d o - B r i t i s h e m p i r e w o u l d p r o v e t h e s a m e s o u r c e of p e r m a n e n t
troubles. F r o m t h e last O v e r l a n d m a i l w e are i n f o r m e d o f t h e B u r m a h
war p a r t y increasing in strength, of t h e n e w p r o v i n c e s being literally
25 possessed by large b a n d s of r o b b e r s , instigated by the G o v . of A v a a n d
requiring a c o n s i d e r a b l e increase of military force at P r o m e ; a n d of " t h e
British t r o o p s being sickly a n d disgusted, h e a l t h y sites for b a r r a c k s
having n o t yet b e e n d i s c o v e r e d " . ( I . e . ) .
In the P a t n a district t h e shameful neglect of all m e a n s of irrigation on
30 the p a r t of t h e British rulers is a g a i n p r o d u c i n g , at this m o m e n t , its
regular c o n t i n g e n t o f c h o l e r a a n d famine, c o n s e q u e n t o n the l o n g - c o n -
tinued d r o u g h t . (I.e.)

t h
I [34] I It is s h o w n by a r e t u r n j u s t issued t h a t the y e a r e n d e d t h e 5 of
35 J a n u a r y last the d u t y on t o b a c c o a n d snuff a m o u n t e d to .4,542,572.
F r o m a n o t h e r official d o c u m e n t i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n the m o n t h e n d e d t h e
th
5 u l t , t h e r e w e r e 9,838 cwt. of p o t a t o e s i m p o r t e d , a g a i n s t 1,896 cwt. at

187
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

t h e s a m e year. A t h i r d p a r l i a m e n t a r y p a p e r i n f o r m s us of t h e q u a n t i t y of
t h
o p i u m i m p o r t e d i n t h e m o n t h e n d i n g the 5 ult. b e i n g 10,832 lbs, a g a i n s t
23,991 lbs. in the s a m e m o n t h in t h e p r e c e d i n g year. (I.e.)
A f o u r t h r e p o r t j u s t issued gives the following statistics of wrecks of
British a n d foreign vessels on t h e coast of ||[35]| t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . 5

total wrecks. Sunk by leaks stranded and damaged


or collisions. so as to require to
discharge cargo.
1850 277 84 304
total: 681 10
t o t a l lives lost: 784.
1851 353 348
lives lost: 750
[total:] 701.
1852 1100 15
lives lost: a b o u t 900 I

|[36]| Monday October 17.

th
T h e c o m b i n e d fleets were still in Besika B a y on t h e 6 .
T h e manifesto o f P o r t e h a d b e e n f o r w a r d e d t o t h e v a r i o u s P o w e r s .
It is said t h a t 6 F r e n c h f r i g a t e s t h e V a u b a n , t h e D e s c a r t e s , t h e A s m o - 20
de, t h e C a c i q u e , t h e M o n t e z u m a , a n d t h e P a n a m a a r e t o b e f i t t e d o u t
to j o i n the allied fleets. (Morning Post) \
I [37] I At all times the British d i p l o m a t i s t s try to a t t a i n t h e object of the
g o v e r n i n g classes w i t h o u t offending the prejudices a n d the feelings of the
g o v e r n e d classes. (Leader) 25
I n n o single y e a r from 1846-1852 h a v e t h e supplies f r o m R u s s i a ( w h e a t
u. flour) b e e n e q u a l to 2 0 % . (Economist.)
I t i s asserted i n P a r i s yesterday ( S u n d a y ) t h a t a n i m p o r t a n t dispatch
h a d been received f r o m St. P e t e r s b u r g h . T h e C z a r , w h o h a d p r o m i s e d t o
accept a n y p r o p o s a l s the m e d i a t i n g P o w e r s m i g h t m a k e , h a s , on receiving 30
the n e w s of t h e T u r k i s h d e c l a r a t i o n of w a r , declared, t h a t he retracts all
his concessions. H e a d d e d t h a t n o t h i n g r e m a i n e d n o w b u t w a r t o the
knife, (guerre l ' o u t r a n c e ) . Sun. \
I [38] I T h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l affirms, t h a t o r d e r s h a v e b e e n sent to T o u l o n
to get sufficient ships ready to convey t r o o p s to t h e D a r d a n e l l e s . 35
(Standard)

188
Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

T h e t e r m w h i c h the T u r k i s h m a n i f e s t o f i x e s for t h e e v a c u a t i o n o f t h e
tb
Principalities expires on t h e 2 5 i n s t . (Morning Chronicle)
T h e E m p e r o r N i c h o l a s h a d j u s t sent a c o u r i e r i n all h a s t e t o V i e n n a t o
declare t h a t h e accepted freely a n d completely t h e w h o l e o f t h e c o n d i -
5 tions p r o p o s e d by the m e d i a t i n g P o w e r s , w h e n he received t h e declara-
tion of w a r on t h e side of t h e P o r t e . (Times). \
t h
I [39] I On t h e 9 Prince G o r t c h a k o f f received t h e T u r k i s h U l t i m a t u m ,
b e r b r a c h t ihm die eigens d u r c h R e d s c h i d s s o n . (intimated by Omar Pasha
to Prince Gortchakoff)

10 Manifesto of the Sublime Porte.

T h e S u l t a n ' s c o n d u c t h a s given n o m o t i v e for q u a r r e l h e h a s a c t e d w i t h


a r e m a r k a b l e spirit of m o d e r a t i o n a n d conciliation. . . . T h e q u e s t i o n of
the H o l y Shrines h a d b e e n settled to t h e satisfaction of all p a r t i e s . . .
Russia h a s infringed all t h e treaties w i t h Turkey. . . . T h e V i e n n a n o t e i n
15 its p u r e a n d simple f o r m h a s n o t b e e n a d o p t e d by t h e P o r t e , b e c a u s e as a
whole i t w a s n o t different from t h a t o f P r i n c e M e n h i k o f f . . . T h e I n t e r -
pretation o f the g r e a t p o w e r s z u s t i m m e n d , s u c h t e n ihre g o o d i n t e n t i o n s .
It m u s t be r e m a r k e d , h o w e v e r , ||[40]| t h a t while we h a v e still before o u r
eyes a strife of religious privileges raised by R u s s i a , w h i c h seeks to b a s e
20 its claims on a p a r a g r a p h so clear a n d so precise in the t r e a t y of K a i -
n a r d j i . . . w a s w e r d e auf die G e f a h r h i n t h e risk o f placing i n the h a n d s o f
Russia v a g u e a n d o b s c u r e p a r a g r a p h s . . . w h i c h w o u l d offer to R u s s i a a
solid pretext for h e r p r e t e n t i o n s to a religious surveillance a n d p r o t e c -
torate . . . the very l a n g u a g e i h r e r eigenen e m p l o y s . . . is a p a t e n t p r o o f of
25 the justice of the o p i n i o n of t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t t h e refusal of
Russia t o a c c o r d t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d b y t h e S u b l i m e P o r t e w a s
grounded on its desire n o t to allow explicit t e r m s to ||[41]| replace v a g u e
expressions, w h i c h m i g h t at s o m e future p e r i o d furnish it w i t h a p r e t e x t
for i n t e r m e d d l i n g . . . t h e O t t o m a n C a b i n e t w a s o n t h e p o i n t o f e n t e r i n g
30 into n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e representatives of t h e P o w e r s on the basis of a
draft n o t e d r a u g h t up by itself in c o n f o r m i t y w i t h their suggestions (wel-
che occupying a m i d d l e place b e t w e e n t h e n o t e of t h e Sublime P o r t e a n d
that o f Prince Menhikoff). I t w a s a t this m o m e n t t h a t n e w s o f t h e p a s -
sage of the P r u t h by the R u s s i a n s arrived, a fact w h i c h c h a n g e d t h e
35 whole face of t h e q u e s t i o n . O m e r P a s h a to commence hostilities if after a
delay of 15 d a y s f r o m t h e arrival of his d e s p a t c h at t h e R u s s . h e a d q u a r -
ters an answer in the negative shall be r e t u r n e d . . . S h o u l d the reply of
Prince G o r h a k o f f b e negative, t h e R u s s i a n agents are t o q u i t t h e O t t o -

189
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

m a n states, a n d t h a t the c o m m e r c i a l relations of t h e respective subjects of


t h e 2 gov. shall be b r o k e n off. At the s a m e time the S u b l i m e P o r t e will
n o t consider i t j u s t t o lay a n e m b a r g o u p o n R u s s i a n m e r c h a n t vessels,
D a s h a s b e e n the practice. C o n s e q u e n t l y they will ||[42]| be w a r n e d to
resort either to the Black Sea or to the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , as t h e y shall think 5
fit, w i t h i n a t e r m t h a t shall hereafter be fixed . . . T h e S u b l i m e P o r t e will
leave t h e straits o p e n to the mercantile m a r i n e of friendly p o w e r s . |
e r
I [43] I Le I o c t o b r e , les r e p r s e n t a n t s des p u i s s a n c e s o n t reu la c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n de la lettre de s o m m a t i o n adresse au p r i n c e G o r h a k o f f et
du manifeste a n n o n a n t l ' E u r o p e les r s o l u t i o n s de la P o r t e . (Press) 10
L ' t a t de guerre e n t r e la Turquie et la R u s s i e restera l o n g t e m p s p u r e -
m e n t n o m i n a l , d e m o i n s d a n s les limites des d e u x e m p i r e s e n E u r o p e ,
et d a n s les d e u x lignes d ' o p r a t i o n s d a n s les p r o v i n c e s i m p r a c t i c a b l e s sur
la rive g a u c h e et sur la rive droite du D a n u b e infrieur. La g u e r r e est im-
possible d a n s la ||[44]| saison actuelle, et j u s q u ' a u p r i n t e m p s . (I.e.) 15
Le 9 c o u r a n t sa majest l ' e m p e r e u r a o r d o n n u n e r d u c t i o n i m p o r -
t a n t e de l ' a r m e . 1st blos cong fr u n g e f h r 100.000, les c a d r e s r e s t a n t
les m m e s . (I.e.) Les a m b a s s a d e u r s turcs P a r i s et L o n d r e s et les c o n -
sulats turcs en S a r d a i g n e , o n t t a u t o r i s p a r la P o r t e O t t o m a n e e n r -
ler des turcs p o u r le service du sultan et leur a n n o n c e r les frais de r o u t e . 20
. . . Ces j o u r s derniers M. de Bruck a fait des o b s e r v a t i o n s la P o r t e sur
l'in||[45]|tention q u ' o n lui p r t e de faire un appel a u x rfugis politiques
p o u r former u n e lgion t r a n g r e . R e s c h i d P a s h a a r p o n d u l'inter-
n o n c e d ' A u t r i c h e q u e , m a l g r les p r o p o s i t i o n s q u ' o n n e cessait d e faire a u
g o u v e r n e m e n t cet gard, il n ' a v a i t e n c o r e rien dcid, m a i s q u e si la 25
Turquie tait a b a n d o n n e p a r ses allis, elle se croirait p a r f a i t e m e n t en
d r o i t d ' u s e r de t o u s les m o y e n s p o u r sa p r o p r e dfense, et q u e si d a n s ce
cas elle e m p l o y a i t les services des rfugis politiques dissmins d a n s
divers p a y s de l ' E u r o p e , p e r s o n n e n ' a u r a i t y t r o u v e r redire. |
1 [46] J N o u s a v o n s lieu de croire q u e la d e m a n d e officielle du c o n c o u r s 30
de la F r a n c e et de l'Angleterre, de la p a r t de la P o r t e O t t o m a n e , est en ce
m o m e n t arrive P a r i s et L o n d r e s . (Constitutionnel)
Wien Sonntag 16 October (Teleg. d e s p a t c h ) F r s t G o r t s c h a k o f f b e a n t -
w o r t e t e O m e r P a s h a ' s Schreiben negativ; b e r die R u m u n g der F r -
s t e n t h m e r k n n e er nicht verfgen. | 35

190
Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

j [47] I 19 October Mittwoch.


Verfassungsentwurf f. das Herzogthum Schleswig.

Titel 1. 1. U n s e r H e r z o g t h u m Schleswig ist ein u n z e r t r e n n l i c h e s Z u -


b e h r u n s e r e r d n i s c h e n K r o n e . Hinsichtlich d e r Erbfolge in derselben
5 dient das Thronfolgegesetz v. 2 1 . Juli 1853 z u r R i c h t s c h n u r .
2 Hinsichtlich derjenigen A n g e l e g e n h e i t e n die n a c h B e k a n n t m a -
c h u n g v o m 28. J a n u a r 1852 z u d e m a m t l i c h e n W i r k u n g s k r e i s unseres
M i n i s t e r i u m s f. die a u s w r t i g e n A n g e l e g e n h e i t e n , K r i e g s m i n i s t e r i u m s ,
F i n a n z m i n i s t e r i u m s u . M a r i n e m i n i s t e r i u m s g e h r e n , h a t Schleswig m i t
10 den ||[48]| b r i g e n Bestandtheilen der M o n a r c h i e g e m e i n s a m e Gesetz-
gebung u. V e r w a l t u n g . . . 1 7 % des Defizits v. d e n besondren E i n n a h m e n
des H e r z o g t h u m s bestritten. R e i c h e n die E i n n a h m e n des H e r z o g t h u m s
zur Bestreitung der Q u o t e nicht hin, s o w i r d der L a n d t a g nicht b e r d e n
Betrag, s o n d e r n b e r die A r t des A u f b r i n g e n s Beschlu fassen. 9 ent-
15 zieht d e n G e r i c h t e n d a s Befugnisrecht eine obrigkeitliche Verfgung als
u n r e c h t m s s i g zu bestreiten.
Titel 2. 11 E i n b e r u f u n g der S t n d e in j e d e m 3 J a h r . 20 W a h l r e c h t
(actives u. passives) auf d e n W a h l d i s t r i k t b e s c h r n k t . |
I [49] I Un n o u v e a u conflict semble e m i n e n t C o p e n h a g u e , e n t r e le g o u -
20 vernement et la c h a m b r e des d p u t s . A p r o p o s de la prise en c o n s i d r a -
tion d u projet d e nouvelle loi f o n d a m e n t a l e p o u r l e r o y a u m e d e D a n e -
m a r k p r o p r e m e n t dit, la p l u p a r t des o r a t e u r s se sont p r o n o n c s avec
nergie c o n t r e l ' a b o l i t i o n d e C o n s t i t u t i o n existante, aussi l o n g t e m p s q u e
le g o u v e r n e m e n t n ' a u r a p a s s o u m i s au F o l k e t h i n g le projet de la C o n -
25 stitution p o u r la m o n a r c h i e t o u t entire. Le g o u v . s'est m o n t r trs -
rserv en prsence de cette p r t e n t i o n et rsolu ne p a s cder et ne p a s
prsenter d e n o u v e a u projet. A p r s u n e c o u r t e discussion l'assemble,
sous la prsidence de M. Tschaning, a dcid, d a n s la sance du
14 o c t o b r e , d ' c a r t e r le projet du gouv. ||[50]| et de p r e n d r e p o u r b a s e des
30 dlibrations la loi f o n d a m e n t a l e d a n o i s e de 1849, en s u p p r i m a n t les
articles qui a p p a r t i e n n e n t la c o n s t i t u t i o n c o m m u n e la m o n a r c h i e t o u t
entire. P o u r tre lecteur d a n s le H o l s t e i n il faut p o s s d e r en b i e n f o n d s
une valeur de 800 rixdalers, inscrite la caisse d ' a s s u r a n c e de l'tat
300 rixdalers suffisent d a n s le Schleswig. Les a u t r e s dispositions sont,
35 restes les m m e s p e u prs; l'assemble des tats H o l s t e i n o i s a u r a
49 m e m b r e s ; celle du Schleswig 4 3 . P o u r tre lecteur il faut tre agi de
25 ans d a n s le H o l s t e i n , de 30 d a n s le Schleswig. Les d p u t s ||[51]| ne
peuvent tre lus q u e d a n s le district qui'ils h a b i t e n t . Le d r o i t lectoral est
enlev t o u s les individus c o m p r o m i s d a n s la r v o l u t i o n et amnistis.
40 (Indpendance)

191
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

Il est positif q u ' o n a d e m a n d A b d e l K a d e r si en cas de g u e r r e c o n t r e


la Russie, il p r e n d r a i t un c o m m a n d e m e n t . Les n g o c i a t i o n s a u r a i e n t t
c o n d u i t e s p a r le Scheick-ul-Islam, et les Turcs a s s u r e n t q u e l'mir s'est
m o n t r dispos entrer au service de la Turquie, m a i s qu'il a u r a i t exig
q u ' o n prit l'avis de B o n a p a r t e . Le c o m m a n d e m e n t q u ' o n lui destine 5
serait celui de l ' a r m e d'Asie. (Wiener Presse) |
I [52] j We q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d the p o p u l a r i t y of a w a r w i t h R u s s i a on
behalf of t h e Poles or t h e H u n g a r i a n s , even if t h e r e w e r e no g r o u n d for
o u r interference, except political s y m p a t h y , a n d o u r interest in c o n s t i t u -
t i o n a l freedom. (Times. October 12) 10
T h e first collision between British a n d R u s s i a n a r m i e s w o u l d be a sig-
n a l o f r e v o l u t i o n all over the c o n t i n e n t , a n d w e t h i n k i t b y n o m e a n s
unlikely, n o r , indeed, a l t o g e t h e r objectionable, t h a t such a c o n s i d e r a t i o n
m a y h a v e occasionally passed t h r o u g h t h e m i n d s of o u r aristocratic, |
I[53]I p l u t o c r a t i c , timocratic, despotic, a n d a n y t h i n g b u t d e m o c r a t i c rul- 15
ers. (Times. October 19)
We are deliberately to go to w a r with R u s s i a in defence of t h e Turkish
nominal sovereignty over certain really i n d e p e n d e n t P r o v i n c e s , because
by so d o i n g we shall p r o v o k e a rebellion in t h e A u s t r i a n e m p i r e . (I.e.)

20

T h e Sicle of this d a y gives an a c c o u n t of the arrest of M. G o u d c h a u x ,


t h e b a n k e r a n d exminister o f F i n a n c e . T h e c h a r g e a g a i n s t h i m i n the
w a r r a n t w a s t h a t of being possessed of a r m s a n d of b e i n g affiliated with
secret societies. T h e r e w a s a great ||[54]| n u m b e r of receipts for m o n e y
given to t h e necessitous families of political exiles, a n d these were all k e p t 25
by the police; b u t M. G o u d c h a u x , after a d e t e n t i o n of few h o u r s , w a s set
at liberty. At N a n t e s M. M a n g i n , sen., the p r o p r i e t o r of a p a p e r , a n d his
son, h a v e been arrested. (Globe)
W i t h reference t o the proceedings o f the E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a d u r i n g his
late visits to O l m t z a n d Berlin, the C z a r ' s chief object w a s to m a k e a 30
n e w alliance between t h e N o r t h e r n P o w e r s . " T o o v e r c o m e t h e resistance
of Prussia he used every ||[55]| a r g u m e n t I m a y say every bribe; for he
offered, in the event of his a d v a n c i n g into a n d h o l d i n g T u r k i s h territory,
t o yield t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f W a r s a w a n d t h e military d o m i n i o n o f P o l a n d
to P r u s s i a . " (Morning Post Paris C o r r e s p o n d e n t ) 35 -
A r r e s t a t i o n le 17 O c t o b r e Paris. (Presse) |
|[56]| On O c t o b e r 7 t h e S u l t a n ' s manifesto w a s r e a d to be in all the
mosques.

192
Exzerpte aus britischen Zeitungen

October 21. Friday.


the F r a n k f u r t J o u r n a l .
th
A letter from V i e n n a , d. the 1 4 inst., a n n o u n c e s t h a t no a r r a n g e m e n t s
are yet b e i n g m a d e for c a r r y i n g i n t o execution the I m p e r i a l decree re-
5 lative to the r e d u c t i o n of t h e a r m y , a n d t h a t , on the c o n t r a r y , t h e gener-
als w h o c o m m a n d i n L o m b a r d y , H u n g a r y a n d C r o a t i a h a v e all d e m a n d -
ed reinforcements on a c c o u n t of the state of t h e p u b l i c m i n d in those
countries. ( M o r n i n g P o s t ) Peasant-leagues |
I[57]I A c c o r d i n g to a telegraphic d e s p a t c h d. d. Trieste, Oct. 19 " t h e Sul-
lo tan h a d d e m a n d e d the e n t r y of the English a n d F r e n c h fleets i n t o t h e
Dardanelles, a n d t h e A m b a s s a d o r s h a d p r o m i s e d t o give t h e m o r d e r s t o
c o m e . " ( M o r n i n g Chronicle)
As to t h e r e p o r t e d successes of the R u s s i a n s over S c h a m y l , letters h a v e
arrived which s h o w t h e m t o b e utterly false. N o e n g a g e m e n t o f a n y
15 description h a s been fought in the C a u c a s u s since the m o n t h of M a y ,
and w e all r e m e m b e r the victory t h e n g a i n e d b y S c h a m y l , a t M e n d o h ,
and I [58] I t h e r e t r e a t of the R u s s i a n s , w h o w e r e driven b a c k f r o m their
attempted e n c r o a c h m e n t s u p o n M a l k a . (Morning Post) \

193
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 2

[Notizen]
|[3. Umschlagseite]| September 1 (Palmerston) 1848
July 21, 1849 (idem) (totally ignores t h e R u s s i a n interference.) C l o v e n
foot exhibited.
Bigland. Hist, of Spain. 229 S. 5
Sheffield. Stafford, Leicester. |

194
(Heft 3)
Exzerpte aus Werken
von Georg Friedrich von Martens und Franz Schuselka
sowie aus Correspondence relative to the affairs
of the Levant und aus The Portfolio

| i | Correspondence relative
to the affairs of the Levant.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament.
1841. '

5 [Pt. 1]

C o u n t M o l e , in t h e course of a c o n v e r s a t i o n I h a d w i t h h i m 3 d a y s a g o , on
the affairs o f the E a s t o f E u r o p e , t o o k o c c a s i o n t o r e m i n d m e o f the a p -
p r o a c h o f t h e p e r i o d o f M e h e m e t Ali's r e t u r n f r o m his expedition t o t h e
mines o f S e n n a a r , a n d t o express his wish t h a t b y p r e v i o u s c o m m u n i -
10 cation, the F r e n c h a n d E n g l . G o v e r n , s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d to act in entire
concert, w h e n t h e P a s h a a g a i n b r o u g h t f o r w a r d t h e q u e s t i o n o f his in-
dependence o f t h e P o r t e , w h i c h h e w o u l d n o t fail t o d o s o o n after his
arrival at A l e x a n d r i a . (Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston. P a r i s .
Febr. 15, 1839 received F e b . 18.) " n o t h i n g " , sagt M o l e " w o u l d t e n d m o r e
15 to the a t t a i n m e n t of t h a t object, t h a n to i n d u l g e the P a s h a in t h e expec-
tation o f the g o o d offices o f F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d b e i n g e m p l o y e d a t C o n -
stantinople to secure to his son the succession to the G o v . of Ejypt, on t h e
same c o n d i t i o n on w h i c h it is n o w held by M e h e m e t A l i . " (I.e.) [1, 2]

Hafiz P a s h a h a s lately s h o w n a disposition to i n d u c e t h e S u l t a n to act


20 offensively a g a i n s t M e h e m e t Ali. (Lord Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston
Therapia. J a n u a r y 27, 1839) (received M a r c h 3)

195
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

I h a d endeavoured to prevent the a d o p t i o n of any warlike measures


a g a i n s t Ejypt. (Lord Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston Therapia Feb. 6,
1839. Received M a r c h 1.) [2]

I b r a h i m P a s h a says h e will b e c a u t i o u s n o t t o b e a n aggressor, b u t t h a t i f


a t t a c k e d b y t h e T u r k i s h A r m y , h e h a s n o d o u b t o f entirely defeating it, s
a n d t h a t h e shall i n t h a t case m a r c h u p o n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i m m e d i a t e l y .
(Granville to Lord Palmerston (receiv. March 14) Paris March 11,
1839.) [3]

S o m e t i m e a g o t h e S u l t a n sent a H a t t i - S h e r i f t o t h e G r e a t C o u n c i l t o t h e
following p u r p o r t . " H a f i z P a s h a i n f o r m s m e t h a t m y A r m y i s able t o 1 0
defeat t h e E j y p t i a n A r m y i n Syria. T h e C a p u d a n P a s h a tells m e t h a t m y
F l e e t is s t r o n g e n o u g h to defeat a n d d e s t r o y t h e E j y p t i a n fleet." (Lord,
Ponsonby to Viscount Pafmerston C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . March 4, 1839, Ree.
Aprilo.)'[]

" H i s ( P r i n c e Metternich's) p r i n c i p a l object in s e n d i n g for me . . . was to 15


beg m e t o call t h e e a r n e s t a t t e n t i o n o f H . M ' s G o v . t o t h e necessity o f a t
o n c e p u t t i n g a s t o p t o these warlike ebullitions, b y t h e u n i t e d r e m o n
s t r a n c e s o f all t h e G r e a t P o w e r s ; a n d h e said t h a t h e w a s a b o u t t o dis
p a t c h a m e s s e n g e r t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o B a r o n Str-
m e r , to state to the S u l t a n a n d his ministers, in t h e m o s t positive t e r m s , 20
t h a t A u s t r i a w o u l d n o t quietly allow events in t h e E a s t to a s s u m e a
c h a r a c t e r b y w h i c h t h e p e a c e o f E u r o p e itself m i g h t b e c o m p r o m i s e d .
T h a t i f t h e P a s h a o f Ejypt w a s t h e aggressor . . . t h e S u l t a n m i g h t c o u n t
u p o n t h e assistance o f t h e o t h e r P o w e r s i n repelling a n y a t t a c k . B u t , t h a t
if t h e a p p r o a c h of t h e Turkish A r m y to t h e S y r i a n frontier led to a 25
v i o l a t i o n o f t h e established status q u o , t h e T u r k . G o v . m u s t n o t b e sur-
prised i f t h o s e P o w e r s w i t h d r e w their c o u n t e n a n c e f r o m t h e S u l t a n , a n d
a b a n d o n e d t h e E m p i r e t o its fate. P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h t h e n a d d e d , t h a t a s
he conceived this to be a case which a d m i t t e d of no delay, he t r u s t e d t h a t
y o u r L o r d s h i p w o u l d n o t lose a m o m e n t in i n s t r u c t i n g L o r d P o n s o n b y 30
t o c o n c e r t w i t h his colleagues t h e m e a n s o f w a r d i n g off t h e mischiefs
w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t c o n d u c t o f t h e S u l t a n w a s calculated t o p r o d u c e . "
(M. Milbanke to Viscount Pafmerston (receiv. Aprilo) Vienna, March28,
1839) [5]

M. de Boutneff ( R u s s i a n a m b a s s a d o r at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ) h a d declared 35
t h a t t h e assistance t o t h e T u r k . G o v . s t i p u l a t e d i n t h e T r e a t y o f U n k i a r
Skelessi, c o u l d n o t be claimed, if t h e T u r k s w e r e t h e a g g r e s s o r s in a w a r
a g a i n s t M e h e m e t Ali ... d e r S u l t a n h a b e d e n n o c h n o t r e n o u n c e d his

196
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant.
Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie. Heft 3. Seite 1
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

warlike i n t e n t i o n s . (Granville to Viscount Palmerston Paris April 8, 1839.


Ree. April 11.) [5]

Hafiz P a s h a a n d his officers are incessant in their d e m a n d s a n d cries on


the P o r t e t o m a r c h against t h e Ejyptians, alleging t h a t t h e r e will never
5 again be so f a v o u r a b l e an o p p o r t u n i t y for driving t h e m o u t of Syria.
(Lord Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston Therapia, March 19, 1839. Ree.
April 14.) [ 8 ] " '

C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e tells me he is confident t h e S u l t a n will m a i n t a i n peace,


and resign t h e hostile i n t e n t i o n s h e cherishes a g a i n s t M e h e m e t Ali, p r o -
i o vided the R u s s . a n d Brit. A m b a s s a d o r s a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , h o l d t o t h e
Divan t h e s a m e l a n g u a g e on t h a t subject. (Marquess of Clanricarde to
Viscount Palmerston (Receiv. April 15). St. Petersburgh April 1, 1839) | [8]

|2| T h e P a s h a declares t h a t h e will n o t b e t h e aggressor, b u t t h a t i f t h e


Sultan does a t t a c k h i m , h e will follow h i m u p , a n d t a k e entire possession
15 of Orfa a n d D i a r b e k i r , a n d w h i c h n o t h i n g will t h e n oblige h i m to re-
linquish . . . T h e P a s h a a d d e d , t h a t h e h o p e d t h e S u l t a n w o u l d n o t b e s o
impolitic as to a t t a c k h i m . I a m , h o w e v e r , of o p i n i o n t h a t the P a s h a w a s
not sincere in his h o p e , a n d t h a t he d o e s desire a w a r with t h e P o r t e ,
provided t h e S u l t a n were the aggressor. (Col. Campbell to Viscount Palm-
20 erston. (Ree. May 9) Cairo, Aprili, 1839) [12]

(Minute of a treaty to be concluded entre la Sublime Porte u. Great Britain,


contre les projets insenss d'indpendance du Pasha d'Egypte, v. P a l m e r -
ston d e m R e d s h i d P a s h a z u L o n d o n vorgeschlagen i n d e n ersten W o c h e n
of May)
25 H a u p t s a c h e d a r i n , d a f. d e n F a l l M e h e m e t sich i n d e p e n d e n t m a c h t ,
od. wenn, in c o n s e q u e n c e of the d e a t h of t h e P a s h a , s o m e o n e of his sons,
o r some m e m b e r o f t h e P a s h a ' s family, o r s o m e o t h e r individual, m a y
render himself guilty of disobedience to t h e r e s o l u t i o n a n d t h e will of
H. H.: art. 1 t h e English fleet to d e t a i n t h e ships of w a r a n d m e r c h a n t
30 vessels of the P a s h a , a r t . 2.) t h e O t t o m a n a n d E n g l i s h fleets shall u n i t e to
act in concert on the coasts of Ejypt a n d Syria. [13-15]

Count N e s s e l r o d e expresses g r e a t confidence in t h e c o n t i n u a n c e of peace


between the S u l t a n a n d t h e P a s h a o f Ejypt. ( " H i s Excellency h a s s h o w n
m e the instructions h e h a s sent t o C o u n t M e d e m , t h e R u s s . C o n s u l -
35 general in Ejypt, to p e r s u a d e M e h e m e t Ali to w i t h d r a w his forces in Syria
from their p r e s e n t a d v a n c e d p o s i t i o n . " ) (St. Petersburgh May 14, 1839,
ree. May 27, Marquess of Clanricarde to Viscount Palmerston) [16]

199
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

B y letter f r o m M r . Werry this m o r n i n g f r o m D a m a s c u s (April 27) t h e


S u l t a n ' s forces h a v e crossed t h e E u p h r a t e s at Bir. (Col. Campbell to
Viscount Palmerston Alexandria May 4,1839. received M a y 27.) w h e r e
t h e y h a v e erected s o m e fortifications . . . I t a p p e a r s t o m e t h a t the p r e s e n t
m o v e m e n t of the S u l t a n ' s a r m y m u s t h a v e b e e n f o r m e d s o m e t i m e since, 5
a n d t h e necessary p r e p a r a t i o n s m a d e , a s b y crossing t h e E u p h r a t e s a t
Bir, they a v o i d all t h e fortified defiles of t h e T a u r u s , a n d will completely
c o m e in t h e r e a r of t h e m . (id. to id. Alexandria, May 5, 1839, ree.
M a y 27) [16,17]

H i s H i g h n e s s , t h e Viceroy, h a v i n g t h o u g h t t h a t this c o n d u c t o n the p a r t i o


o f t h e P o r t e m u s t h a v e h a d for its object t o t h r o w t h e b l a m e u p o n u s , h a s
w r i t t e n t o H . H i g h , t h e G e n e r a l i s s i m o t o m a k e n o m o v e m e n t before h e
w a s sure of t h e a d v a n c e m e n t of the t r o o p s of the S u l t a n . (Artin Bey,
first Secretary Interpreter to Mehemet Ali to Boghos Bey. 1 M a y 1839)
(ree. M a y 27) [17,18] " "" 15

th
C o u n t M e d e m r e a d t o m e , yesterday, a d e s p a t c h o f 1 2 April, from
C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e . C o u n t M e d e m i s directed t o i n t i m a t e t o M e h e m e t Ali,
t o recall I b r a h i m P a s h a from Syria, a n d t o retire t h e E j y p t i a n t r o o p s
t o w a r d s D a m a s c u s , w i t h o u t delay. T h a t as it is clear f r o m t h e r e p o r t s
received by t h e E m p e r o r from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a n d f r o m t h e P r u s s . offi- 20
cers in the service of t h e Sultan, t h a t t h e offensive m o v e m e n t s of the
E j y p t i a n a r m y h a v e b e e n the sole cause o f t h e a d v a n c e o f the S u l t a n ' s
forces, M e h e m e t Ali m u s t b e the f i r s t t o retire his t r o o p s , a n d t h e n t h e
E m p e r o r will prevail o n t h e S u l t a n t o cause his a r m y t o w i t h d r a w from
t h e Syrian frontier. C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e a d d s , t h a t a c o p y of t h e d e s p a t c h 25
will b e sent t o t h e different C o u r t s o f E u r o p e . . . C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e
a p p e a r s t o h a v e g r o u n d e d his d e s p a t c h o n very false d a t a , i n a s s u m i n g
t h a t M e h e m e t Ali w a s the aggressor. So far from M e h e m e t Ali being the
aggressor, it is a fact t h a t for s o m e m o n t h s p a s t , t h e letters of L o r d
P o n s o n b y to m e , a n d the despatches f r o m B a r o n S t r m e r a n d from 30
A d m i r a l R o u s s i n t o their C o n s u l s G e n e r a l h e r e , m e n t i o n t h e hostile p r e p -
a r a t i o n s o f the Sultan, a n d his i n t e n t i o n s t o a t t a c k Syria, a n d t h e efforts
o f the different A m b a s s a d o r s t o prevail o n t h e S u l t a n n o t t o t a k e s o rash
a step; . . . As to M e h e m e t Ali I assert confidently, t h a t it never was his
i n t e n t i o n to be the active aggressor, n o r to p a s s t h e frontiers of Syria, n o r 35
t o a t t a c k the S u l t a n ' s forces . . . Wollte e r retire his t r o o p s , h e c o u l d n o t
h a v e a n y security, t h a t after their w i t h d r a w a l , t h e S u l t a n ' s a r m y w o u l d
n o t enter Syria, a n d p e r h a p s d e s t r o y all t h e w o r k s erected b y I b r a h i m
P a s h a in t h e T a u r u s frontier; a n d if c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r o v e d favourable,

200
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

they m i g h t a d v a n c e still further. (Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston


Alexandria May 7, 1839 ree. M a y 27) [18,19]

W h a t e v e r m a y b e suggested b y H . M ' s gov. a s m o s t e x p e d i e n t t o b e d o n e


in the p r e s e n t a l a r m i n g state of affairs in t h e East, will be m o s t favour-
ably a t t e n d e d t o b y t h e F r e n c h G o v . ( G r a n v i l l e t o V i s c o u n t P a l m e r s t o n
Paris 24 M a y 1839, ree. M a y 27) [20]. |

| 3 | M a r s h a l Soult a n d his colleagues, w i t h m o s t o f w h o m I h a v e h a d the


o p p o r t u n i t y of c o n v e r s i n g u p o n this subject, express t h e strongest desire
t h a t the Brit, a n d F r e n c h gov. m a y act entirely in concert, (id. to id.
May 27 1839, ree. M a y 30) [20,21]

Pforte ( S u l t a n ) e r k l r t d e m Ostreich. I n t e r n u n c i u s : " I a m led t o suspect


... t h a t t h e w a r m t h a n d vivacity w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s e the l a n g u a g e o f
Prince M e t t e r n i c h , are the effect of t h e t o n e w h i c h h a s b e e n u s e d in
writing t o h i m , either f r o m hence o r f r o m o t h e r places. T h e I n t e r n u n c i o
has s p o k e n to N o u r i Effendi a b o u t a m i d d l e c o u r s e for the s o l u t i o n of
this q u e s t i o n , w i t h o u t h a v i n g r e c o u r s e t o a r m s ; . . . this . . . c a n n o t b e
realized, unless M e h e m e t Ali restores A d a n a , D a m a s c u s , A l e p p o , Seyda,
Jerusalem, a n d N a p l o u s , a n d reduces his p r e s e n t forces t o s u c h a m o u n t
as w o u l d a l o n e be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h his c o n d i t i o n as a subject." (Reply of
the Sultan to the Communication made to him, communicated by Mou-
steshar Nouri to etc Ponsonby, April 28, 1839) (Receiv. May 30) [22, 23]

The M a r s h a l w o u l d b e r e a d y t o give i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e F r e n c h A d m i r a l ,
in conformity w i t h t h o s e a d d r e s s e d to the Brit. A d m i r a l . H i s Exc. in-
formed m e , t h a t he h a d d i s p a t c h e d 2 officers, the o n e to p r o c e e d to C o n -
stanstantinople, the o t h e r t o A l e x a n d r i a , w i t h directions, after h a v i n g
c o m m u n i c a t e d w i t h t h e F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r a n d M . Cochelet, t o r e p a i r
to the h e a d - q u a r t e r s of t h e 2 armies, a n d to e n d e a v o u r by p e r s o n a l r e p -
resentations t o t h e respective c o m m a n d e r s , t o p r e v e n t the b r e a k i n g o u t
of hostilities, a n d to r e p o r t the exact s t a t e of affairs. H i s E x c . a d d e d ,
that s u p p o s i n g t h e t h r e a t e n e d collision s h o u l d this t i m e be averted, he
considered it w o u l d be necessary t h a t t h e 5 P o w e r s s h o u l d c o n c e r t t o -
gether as to the m e a n s of definitely settling t h e future r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n
the Sultan a n d t h e Viceroy. (Granville to V i s c o u n t P a l m e r s t o n (Received
Jun. 2) M a y 3 1 , 1839) [24]

to p. 75 kleines Heft) I h a v e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c o m m e n d e d to M. de
Barante to e n d e a v o u r to ascertain if t h e R u s s . G o v . c o n t e m p l a t e s ex-

201
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

t e n d i n g the o p e r a t i o n of the treaty of U n k i a r Skelessi to a s t a t e of things


to which it evidently d o e s n o t apply, since its stipulations are formally
conceived in t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n of an a t t a c k directed a g a i n s t t h e P o r t e , a n d
n o t of a struggle in w h i c h the P o r t e itself s h o u l d t a k e the initiative.
(Paris, M a y 30, 1839. Soult to B o u r q u e n e y . M a y 30 1839) [26] 5

Extract of despatch from M. Cochelet to Marshal Soult. T h e Viceroy h a s


declared t o M . Cochelet, C o n s u l - G e n e r a l o f F r a n c e , t h a t h e engages, i n
case the t r o o p s of t h e S u l t a n w h i c h h a v e passed t h e E u p h r a t e s n e a r Bir
shall retire to the o t h e r side of the river, to m a k e a r e t r o g r a d e m o v e m e n t
of his a r m y , a n d to recall his son I b r a h i m P a s h a to D a m a s c u s ; t h a t in 10
case this pacific d e m o n s t r a t i o n shall in its t u r n be followed by a r e t r o -
g r a d e m o v e m e n t o f t h e a r m y o f Hafiz P a s h a b e y o n d M a l a t i a , H . H . will
recall t h e G e n e r a l i s s i m o i n t o Ejypt. M o r e o v e r , H . H . t h e Viceroy h a s
a d d e d of his o w n a c c o r d , t h a t if t h e 4 G r e a t P o w e r s s h o u l d c o n s e n t to
g u a r a n t e e peace, a n d to interest themselves to o b t a i n for h i m t h e succs- 15
sion of his family, he w o u l d w i t h d r a w a p a r t of his t r o o p s f r o m Syria, a n d
w o u l d b e r e a d y t o c o m e t o a definitive a r r a n g e m e n t p r o p e r t o g u a r a n t e e
t h e security, a n d a d a p t e d to the w a n t s of t h e c o u n t r y . (Inclosed in Gran-
ville's to Viscount Palmerston (ree. June 7) Paris d. d. June 5, 1839) [27]

T h e M a r s h a l expressed his regret, t h a t I h a d n o t as yet b e e n able to m a k e 20


a n y official c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o h i m from y o u r L o r d s h i p , i n r e g a r d t o the
i n s t r u c t i o n s to be given to the A d m i r a l of t h e c o m b i n e d fleet on the
L e v a n t station. (Granville to Viscount Palmerston (receiv. June 9) Paris,
J u n e 7, 1839) [28]

N o b o d y here d o u b t s of w a r , a n d the general o p i n i o n is, t h a t the A r m y of 25


t h e S u l t a n will be defeated. (Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (Ree.
June 9) Therapia, May 20, 1839.) " T h e G r e a t P o w e r s h a v e established,
as the criterion of right or w r o n g , the abstinence f r o m aggression, declar-
ing the culpable t o b e the S u l t a n o r the P a s h a , a s the o n e o r the o t h e r
m i g h t be t h e first to c o m m e n c e hostilities. Judgment has been given by 30
Russia, w h o assumed to s p e a k in the n a m e of all; a n d the Pasha has been
declared the aggressor. T h e c h a r g e of aggression, m a d e a g a i n s t h i m by
R u s s i a , is confined to late acts d o n e by the P a s h a ; b u t f r o m t h e begin-
n i n g , d u r i n g t h e w h o l e period, as well as in this ||3| latter h o u r , t h e Pasha
h a s always b e e n t h e aggressor. . . . R u s s i a h a s declared a t r u t h a limited 35
t r u t h ; the G r e a t P o w e r s c a n n o t d e n y it; their r e p e a t e d d e c l a r a t i o n s
e n g a g e t h e m to o p p o s e t h e a g g r e s s o r . " (I.e.) [28,29]

202
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

M e t t e r n i c h schlgt v o r die succession d e m I b r a h i m P a s h a z u sichern . . .


I w o u l d r e m a r k , t h a t s u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t , if it w e r e p r a c t i c a b l e , w o u l d
offer the best c h a n c e of preserving o r d e r in Ejypt after M e h e m e t Ali's
death, which will otherwise be e x p o s e d to m a n y c h a n c e s . . . if w a r be-
5 tween the S u l t a n a n d the P a s h a is to be averted, a firm a n d early d e m o n -
stration on t h e p a r t of t h e 4 p o w e r s , m a y , p e r h a p s , be best calculated to
p r o d u c e t h a t effect. (Lord Beauvale to Viscount Palmerston (receiv.
June 9) Vienna, June 1, 1839) [29, 30] M e t t e r n i c h e r k l r t e es bedrfe des
joint m o r a l weight of the 4 P o w e r s , (id. to id.)

10 Col. Vincke ( P r e u zu C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ) h a d d r a w n up a m e m o r a n d u m , in
which he strategically p r o v e d to t h e T u r k s , t h a t t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t of
hostilities m u s t e n d by their defeat. (Lord William Russell to Viscount
Palmerston (ree. June 10.) Berlin June 5, 1839) [30]

I told the M a r s h a l t h a t t h o u g h I h a d no official i n s t r u c t i o n u p o n the


15 Turco-Ejyption question, I h a d received private letters f r o m y o u r L o r d -
ship ... of the c o n c u r r e n c e of H M ' s G o v . in the view t a k e n by the A u s -
trian a n d F r e n c h G o v . , a s t o t h e best a n d m o s t p r a c t i c a b l e settlement o f
the question, n a m e l y : t h a t Ejypt s h o u l d b e c o m e h e r e d i t a r y in t h e family
o f M e h e m e t Ali u n d e r t h e sovereignty o f the S u l t a n , a n d t h a t t h e E j y p -
20 tian t r o o p s s h o u l d e v a c u a t e Syria. M a r s h a l Soult said, t h a t in the des-
patches of C o u n t St. A u l a i r e from V i e n n a , of the 18 a n d 22 of last
m o n t h , a n d on the 4* inst., all r e p o r t i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n s he h a d held
with Prince M e t t e r n i c h of the affairs of Turkey, it d i d n o t a p p e a r t h a t t h e
Austrian M i n i s t e r h a d suggested t h e evacuation of Syria by t h e E j y p t i a n s ,
25 as forming p a r t of t h e p r o p o s e d a r r a n g e m e n t . I replied . . . t h a t y o u r
Lordship w a s under the impression t h a t this w a s the view b o t h of the
Aust. a n d F r e n c h G o v . . . . M a r s h a l Soult: o n all these m a t t e r s , his m o s t
anxious desire w a s , t h a t o u r 2 G o v . s h o u l d c o m e to a perfect u n d e r s t a n d -
ing; a n d t h a t if a conference of t h e 4 P o w e r s (or t h e 5, includ. Prussia)
30 should t a k e place on t h e affairs of t h e E a s t , the i n s t r u c t i o n s of t h e
Representatives o f F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d a t such conference s h o u l d b e
identical, (ree. June 16, Granville to Viscount Palmerston Paris June 14,
1839) [31]

I was informed on the 2 inst. of a m o v e m e n t a c r o s s the E u p h r a t e s of t h e


35 Turkish A r m y , by a letter from M r . Yeames. I m e t C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e
the following day; a n d as s o o n as I m e n t i o n e d t h e subject, he said he
believed t h a t there was not a word of truth in t h e r e p o r t : t h a t his a c c o u n t s
from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e were t h e m o s t recent possible, a n d they led h i m

203
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

entirely t o disbelieve t h e intelligence w h i c h h a d b e e n c o m m u n i c a t e d t o


m e , a n d w h i c h h a d a p p e a r e d i n t h e G e r m a n p a p e r s . I saw C o u n t Nessel-
r o d e again, last evening, a n d although it is impossible a n y l o n g e r to d o u b t
t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h h a s been received f r o m every q u a r t e r is well-
f o u n d e d , the R u s s i a n minister will n o t a d m i t t h a t it is accurately t r u e ; 5
a n d they m a i n t a i n the a c c o u n t s to be exaggerated. (Marquess of Clan-
ricarde to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. June 17) St. Petersburgh, June 8,
1839) [32]

l
U n d e r the 2 3 u l t , advices, r e a c h e d this G o v . b y spies, t h a t the S u l t a n ' s
a u t h o r i t i e s h a d b e g u n to cross t r o o p s at Bir, w h i c h were s t a t e d to consist 10
of 3 r e g i m e n t s of I n f a n t r y . . . . T h e s u b s e q u e n t advices which r e a c h e d this
G o v . the following d a y (24) a r e , t h a t 3,000 I r r e g u l a r s h a d crossed the E u -
p h r a t e s u n d e r K o o r d M a h o m e d P a s h a . . . t h e t r o o p s t h a t h a v e crossed a t
Bir, c o m p o s e p a r t of o n e of t h e c o l u m n s of the Turkish a r m y , which is
a d v a n c i n g on the frontier in t h a t q u a r t e r , a n d w h i c h , it is said, will be 15
j o i n e d by Ali P a s h a of B a g d a d , w h o , it is stated, h a s a l r e a d y arrived at
D i a r b e k i r w i t h a b o u t 25,000 o r 30,000 m e n . A n o t h e r c o l u m n , u n d e r the
Seraskier Hafiz Ali P a s h a , of, it is said, 60,000 s t r o n g , is a d v a n c i n g from
M a l a t i a , o n R o u m K a l e ; a n d the t h i r d c o l u m n o f 40,000 m e n , u n d e r
Halil P a s h a a n d S o l y m a n P a s h a , are a d v a n c i n g on the M a r a s h line . . . 20
N a c h advices f r o m D a m a s c u s , the H a o u r a n i n s u r r e c t i o n still c o n t i n u e d ,
a n d h a d a s s u m e d a m o r e ||4| d e t e r m i n e d c h a r a c t e r . T h i s m a y arise from
s o m e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . . b e t w e e n t h e m a n d t h e S u l t a n ' s Seraskier, t o act i n
u n i s o n w i t h Hafiz P a s h a ' s b r o t h e r a n d Suffook Bey, i n a n y o p e r a t i o n s
w h i c h t h e y m a y u n d e r t a k e to the S o u t h a n d on t h e D e s e r t line, to cut off 25
H . Exc. I b r a h i m P a s h a a n d his forces t o t h e S o u t h , f r o m his o p e r a t i o n s
o n this n o r t h e r n frontier . . . His ( I b r a h i m P a s h a ' s ) [instructions] a r e t o act
on t h e defensive, a n d on his o w n t e r r i t o r y to resist 2 a t t a c k s of t h e Sul-
t a n ' s forces; b u t o n the 3 ' h e gives h i m p e r m i s s i o n t o a d v a n c e . . . T h e
A n n a d i s or B e d o u i n Cavalry, sind his only t r o o p s on t h e frontiers: they 30
a r e s t a t i o n e d a t the Sedjour, w a t c h i n g t h e m o v e m e n t s o n t h e o t h e r side.
( M r . Acting Consul Werry to Viscount Palmerston (Received June 17)
(darin eingeschlossen das Citt Aleppo 4 May, 1839)) [35, 36]

a c c o u n t s h a v e b e e n received at this place, of the p a s s a g e of the E u p h r a t e s


by the S u l t a n ' s t r o o p s at Bir, a n d t h a t forces u n d e r Hafiz P a s h a are also 35
a d v a n c i n g o n the n o r t h e r n frontier . . . t h e Ejyptian t r o o p s h a v e been
s u m m o n e d t o A l e p p o b y I b r a h i m P a s h a , f r o m all p a r t s o f Syria, a n d h e
h a s e n c a m p e d his forces in t h e i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h a t city ...
T h e E m i r Bechir h a s received o r d e r s to send a force to D a m a s c u s a n d
Tripoli; a n d a b o u t 1,000 C h r i s t i a n t r o o p s will m a r c h to e a c h of t h e a b o v e 40

204
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

places, u n d e r the c o m m a n d o f the son a n d g r a n d s o n o f t h e E m i r . T h i s i s


a m e a s u r e of p r e c a u t i o n , as at neither of the a b o v e cities is t h e M a h o -
m e d a n p o p u l a t i o n believed t o b e well affected t o t h e existing G o v .
Indeed a n y success on t h e p a r t of t h e S u l t a n ' s t r o o p s , it is believed,
5 would be t h e signal for revolt n o t only at t h o s e places, b u t t h r o u g h o u t
Syria. A n exception . . . t h e C h r i s t i a n t r o o p s o f L e b a n o n , w h o certainly
entertain fears t h a t s h o u l d the S u l t a n repossess himself of Syria, t h e
M a h o m e d a n s w o u l d regain t h e a s c e n d a n c y , a n d o n c e m o r e exhibit their
naturally i n t o l e r a n t a n d fanatical c h a r a c t e r t o w a r d s o t h e r sects. (Consul
10 Moore to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. J u n e 17) Beyrout, May 9, 1839.)
[38, 39]

By the latest advices, it w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t the S u l t a n ' s a r m y w o u l d h a v e


its h e a d - q u a r t e r s , a n d f o r m t h e pivot o f its o p e r a t i o n s a t R o u m K a l e , its
left extending on t h e h i g h r o a d from Bir to A l e p p o , with its e x t r e m e left
15 to be s u p p o r t e d by the A r a b tribes u n d e r Suffook Bey, o p e r a t i n g by
crossing t h e E u p h r a t e s b e t w e e n Bir, a n d b e l o w D a i r . Its e x t r e m e r i g h t
resting o n M a r a s h , t o c o - o p e r a t e with t h e m a l c o n t e n t s o f the r a n g e s o f
the Taurus: B y w a y o f R o u m K a l e a n d Bir, a g a i n s t t h e centre a n d m a i n
body o f the E j y p t i a n a r m y , the c o l u m n s o f t h e f o r m e r t u r n i n g t h e E g y p -
20 tian positions at A i n t a b ; by w a y of M a r a s h , to c o - o p e r a t e with the m a l -
contents o f the r a n g e s o f t h e T a u r u s , e x t e n d i n g t o Byass, Beylan, a n d
Alexandretta, a n d t h r e a t e n i n g the left w i n g a n d r e a r o f the E j y p t i a n
army: the A r a b s u n d e r Suffook Bey a c t i n g o n t h e right o f the E j y p t i a n
army, a n d a t t a c k i n g t h e flank of Syria, u n i t i n g w i t h t h e i n s u r g e n t s of t h e
25 H a o u r a n , a n d intercepting t h e desert line f r o m s o u t h to n o r t h , c u t t i n g off
the o p e r a t i o n s o f I b r a h i m P a s h a t h e r e w i t h , a n d a t t a c k i n g h i m i n the r e a r
a t A l e p p o . Besides crossing the E u p h r a t e s u n o p p o s e d , a n d a d v a n c i n g
into the E g y p t i a n territories, a n d a t t a c k i n g I b r a h i m P a s h a ' s a r m y , t h e
Sultan's Seraskier h a s also t h e a d v a n t a g e of h a v i n g the p o p u l a t i o n in his
30 favour. ... It d o e s n o t a p p e a r by the p r o g r e s s m a d e by t h e E g y p t i a n G o v .
in forming d e p o t s of p r o v i s i o n s , w h i c h generally a r e at a c o n s i d e r a b l e
distance i n t h e r e a r o f A l e p p o , a n d o n t h e desert line, a n d b y t h e h a r d y
operation executing b y I b r a h i m P a s h a , o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e a r m y o n t h e
Aleppo frontier, t h a t H . H . h a d previously p l a n n e d t o t h r o w his o p e r a -
35 tions across the E u p h r a t e s , a n d m a k e M e s o p o t a m i a the t h e a t r e of his
campaign, w h e t h e r t o p r o s e c u t e t h e s a m e t o w a r d s B a g d a d , o r t o t h e
north. In fact, they w o u l d a p p e a r to h a v e b e e n p l a n n e d for defence r a t h e r
than for aggression. (Consul Werry to Viscount Palmerston (Ree.
June 17) Damascus, May 10, 1839) [40,41] In t h e event of I b r a h i m P a s h a
40 meeting with a repulse, a rise w o u l d ensue here ( A l e p p o ) a n d t h r o u g h o u t
the t o w n s of Syria, (gen die Christen.) (eingeschlossen in O b i g e m . ) | [49]

205
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

| 5 | " I t i s u n d e r these circumstances t h a t M . d e M e d e m c o m m u n i c a t e d t o


M e h e m e t Ali the d e s p a t c h o f C o u n t Nesselrode, w h i c h directs h i m t o o b -
t a i n a r e t r o g r a d e m o v e m e n t of the E g y p t i a n a r m y . . . M e h e m e t Ali, in
replying, s h o w e d g r e a t p r u d e n c e , a n d m u c h m o d e r a t i o n . H e said, t h a t all
t h a t h a d p a s s e d in T u r k e y since his d e p a r t u r e for S o u d a n , sufficiently 5
testified t h e hostile i n t e n t i o n s of t h e Sultan w i t h respect to h i m . . . if the
Turks repassed t h e E u p h r a t e s , he w o u l d w i t h d r a w his t r o o p s as far as
A l e p p o ; i f they t o o k u p their p o s i t i o n a g a i n a t M a l a t i a , h e w o u l d enjoin
I b r a h i m P a s h a t o w i t h d r a w t o D a m a s c u s ; a n d t h a t , lastly, i f Hafiz P a s h a
s h o u l d w i t h d r a w w i t h his a r m y b e y o n d M a l a t i a , he w o u l d recall I b r a h i m 10
P a s h a i n t o E j y p t . . . t h e Viceroy h a s a d d e d , o f his o w n a c c o r d , t h a t i f the
4 G r e a t P o w e r s c o n s e n t to g u a r a n t e e peace, a n d to interest themselves to
o b t a i n for h i m the succession of his family, he w o u l d w i t h d r a w a p a r t of
his t r o o p s from Syria, a n d w o u l d b e ready t o c o m e t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g
as to a definitive a r r a n g e m e n t etc. (Despatch from the Consul General of 15
France in Egypt. ( C o m m u n j a t e d by B a r o n de B o u r q u e n e y ) Alexandria
May 15 u. 16, 1839) [54]

T h e P o r t e is divided: against t h e w a r are r e c k o n e d Rouf, Khosreff,


N a z i f P a s h a , N o u r i Effendi, S a r i m Bey, a n d 3 C o u n c i l l o r s : in favour of
w a r , Said P a s h a , Seraskier, son-in-law of the S u l t a n , A c h m e t C a p u d a n 20
P a s h a ; a n d , f i n a l l y , Hafiz P a s h a , G e n e r a l i s s i m o , w h o h a s never c o n d u c t -
ed a w a r as G e n e r a l Officer. T h i s p a r t y is s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e p a r t i z a n s
of t h e M a b e i m , a n d by a g r e a t n u m b e r of R i d s a l s , . . . a n d also by t h o s e
still m o r e n u m e r o u s , w h o , enemies o f the present o r d e r o f things, w o u l d
o v e r t u r n it at a n y risk, even at t h a t of a revolution. All t h e U l e m a s are of 25
this p a r t y : t h e total loss of their influence, w h i c h t h e y h o p e to recover, is
their m o t i v e . " (Baron Roussin to the Duc de Dalmatie. Therapia. 16 Mai
1839) [57]

O n M a y 7 , C o u n t M e d e m sent t o B o g h o s Bey a c o p y o f t h e d e s p a t c h
from C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e . . . sent h i m a u c h d e n original d e s p a t c h of M. de 30
Boutneff; a n d as B o g h o s Bey gave those 2 d o c u m e n t s into my h a n d s , I
a m enabled t o send copies o f t h e m t o y o u r L o r d s h i p . . . I n c o n s e q u e n c e
of a letter f r o m B o g h o s Bey, the P a s h a arrived h e r e on t h e m o r n i n g
o f the 1 2 inst., a n d C o u n t M e d e m a n d M . d e L a u r i n h a d s o m e interviews
w i t h h i m on t h e 12, 13, a n d 14 inst., at the last of w h i c h he agreed to a 35
d e c l a r a t i o n i n t h e t e r m s agreed on, a n d which the P a s h a said h e w o u l d
send to t h e C o n s u l - G e n e r a l s of the 4 G r e a t P o w e r s . . . . I h a v e n o w the
h o n o u r t o t r a n s m i t etc. a c o p y o f t h a t d e c l a r a t i o n . . . M y latest a c c o u n t s
from A l e p p o are o f M a y 6 , a t w h i c h d a t e I b r a h i m P a s h a w a s a t A l e p p o

206
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

with the m a i n b o d y o f his a r m y ; a n d A l e p p o , Killis, a n d H a m a h , h a d


been reinforced b y t r o o p s f r o m the s o u t h , b u t only after t h e arrival o f t h e
a r m y of t h e S u l t a n at Bir; after w h i c h , also, the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e horses
o f the C a v a l r y a n d Artillery h a d b e e n b r o u g h t i n f r o m grass. I t c a n n o t ,
5 therefore, b e said t h a t I b r a h i m P a s h a w a s t h e f i r s t t o c o m m e n c e o p e r a -
tions indicative o f hostilities, a s even n o w h e h a s n o t reinforced A i n t a b ,
which is the n e a r e s t of his p o s t s to the T u r k i s h frontier, from w h i c h it is
distant a b o u t 7 h o u r s . . . . I b r a h i m P a s h a h a s s o m e B e d o u i n C a v a l r y n e a r
the Sedjour, to observe t h e m o v e m e n t s of t h e S u l t a n ' s a r m y . . . . I t r u s t
10 t h a t the r e m o n s t r a n c e s of L o r d P o n s o n b y a n d of t h e o t h e r A m b a s s a d o r s ,
will yet prevail on the P o r t e to retire t h e T u r k i s h A r m y before a n y a c t i o n
takes place . . . in the ineffective state of a T u r k i s h c o m m i s s a r i a t , a n y
Turk, a r m y c a n n o t l o n g h a v e m e a n s o f subsistence; a n d i t m u s t , there-
fore, either retire or a d v a n c e , a n d in this last case an e n g a g e m e n t will be
15 inevitable ... die M u s s u l m a n p o p u l a t i o n in Syria d e m M e h e m e t Ali q u i t e
alienated by their sufferings from c o n s c r i p t i o n s . (Col. Campbell to
Viscount Palmerston (Ree. June 17) Alexandria May 19 1839.) [58,59]
D a r i n eingeschlossen:
1) Count Nesselrode to Count Medem. Petersburgh March 29, 1839.
20 " T h u s t h e 2 A r m i e s a r e at this m o m e n t in presence of e a c h o t h e r . T h e
t r o o p s o f M e h e m e t Ali were t h e f i r s t t o a p p r o a c h t h e frontier. T h o s e o f
the S u l t a n only followed t h a t m o v e m e n t , in o r d e r n o t to be t a k e n by sur-
prise, a n d to be able ||6| to repel force by force, in case the E g y p t i a n a r m y
should c o m m i t a n y act of hostility . . . In attentively c o n s i d e r i n g the re-
25 spective p o s i t i o n of the 2 armies, o u r a u g u s t m a s t e r h a s satisfied himself
t h a t it is the a r m y of M e h e m e t Ali w h i c h first m a d e a m o v e m e n t , which,
w i t h o u t b e i n g o n e of aggression, yet b e a r s t h e c h a r a c t e r of a t h r e a t e n i n g
d e m o n s t r a t i o n , w h i c h n o t h i n g c a n justify . . . the P o w e r s o f E u r o p e h a v e
u n a n i m o u s l y resolved t o m a i n t a i n t h e p e a c e o f t h e E a s t . . . t h e d e t e r m i n a -
30 tion which the E m p e r o r h a s a d o p t e d in t h a t r e s p e c t . . . is irrevocable. It is
shared by all the C a b i n e t s of E u r o p e , for they all h a v e equally at h e a r t
the preservation of the Ottoman Empire from the dangers of a new com-
plication ... t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e m o m e n t a r e t o o serious for expla-
n a t i o n s a l o n e to be sufficient for u s . W h e n a r m i e s are in presence of e a c h
35 other, the m o s t pacific l a n g u a g e does n o t r e m o v e t h e d a n g e r of a conflict
which t h e smallest incident m a y p r o v o k e a t a n y m o m e n t . T o r e m o v e this
d a n g e r t h e r e is b u t o n e way; it is to re-establish afresh the distance w h i c h
hitherto s e p a r a t e d t h e 2 armies. T h u s , as t h e A r m y of the P a s h a of E g y p t
is the nearest to the frontier, it is t h a t a r m y w h i c h s h o u l d be t h e first to
40 retreat. Therefore, t h e fresh t r o o p s a n d the d e p o t s of w a r l i k e stores
which h a v e been b r o u g h t t o A i n t a b a n d A l e p p o , m u s t f o r t h w i t h r e t u r n

207
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

t o w a r d s D a m a s c u s , t o replace m a t t e r s i n the state i n w h i c h t h e y formerly


were. T h e n , w h e n t h a t A r m y shall h a v e r e s u m e d its f o r m e r p o s i t i o n s , the
C a b i n e t s , friends of t h e P o r t e , will be able, on their side, to a p p e a l to t h e
pacific inclinations of the Sultan, to engage t h a t Sovereign to give to
Hafiz P a s h a t h e o r d e r to r e t u r n i n t o the c a n t o n m e n t s w h i c h he h a s lately 5
left, a n d to p u t a stop to the defensive measures which t h e m e n a c i n g
a t t i t u d e o f t h e E g y p t i a n a r m y h a s r e n d e r e d necessary.
Oestr. d e L a u r i n : A u f t r a g v . d e m I n t e r n u n c i o a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e die
R u s s e n bei M e h e m e t Ali z u u n t e r s t t z e n . . . . t h e G r e a t C a b i n e t s u n i t e d t o
us in i n t e n t i o n s a n d principle, will w a t c h over t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of peace 10
in t h e L e v a n t . . . " [61, 62]
2) M. de Boutneff to Count Medem. Pera. April 24. 1839. " t h e p r e s e n t
is a f a v o u r a b l e m o m e n t for M e h e m e t Ali to p r o v e to his Sovereign, in a
m a n n e r which c a n n o t be m i s t a k e n , the sincerity of his pacific i n t e n t i o n s ,
t h e a s s u r a n c e of w h i c h y o u received from t h e P a s h a ' s o w n lips, by re- 15
calling his son I b r a h i m P a s h a , a n d by w i t h d r a w i n g a p a r t of his A r m y
from Syria, which m e a s u r e w o u l d , in t h e p r e s e n t state of t h e finances of
E g y p t , m a t e r i a l l y lighten the P a s h a ' s e x p e n s e s . " [64, 65]
3) Declaration made by Mehemet Ali to Col. Campbell. T h e Viceroy h a s
declared to Col. C a m p b e l l , H. Brit. M a j . A g e n t a n d C o n s u l - G e n e r a l , t h a t 20
he engages, in case the t r o o p s of t h e Sultan, etc. (Sieh d e n Brief v. C a m p -
bell S. 5) [65]
4) M. de Laurin to Baron de Strmer. Alexandria, May 16, 1839. M e h e -
m e t sei a n g e l a n g t d e n 12'. H a b e i h m gesagt " t h a t h e h a d been shamefully
c a l u m n i a t e d (alluding to t h e n o t e of C o u n t Nesselrode), . . . t h a t the 25
t r o o p s o f the S u l t a n h a d established themselves i n D i a r b e k i r a n d i n Asia
m i n o r , u n d e r p r e t e n c e o f c o m b a t i n g the K o o r d s , l o n g before t h e E g y p -
t i a n s h a d a d v a n c e d ; t h a t the p r o v o c a t i o n s a n d t h e cries o f w a r w h i c h h a d
c a u s e d the revolt o f t h e H a o u r a n , h a d u n i f o r m l y h a d their origin i n t h e
O s m a n l i c a m p s ; t h a t it w a s t r u e t h a t t h e incursions of the T u r c o m a n s 30
i n t o t h e p r o v i n c e s o f A d a n a a n d Tarsus, h a d obliged h i m t o send t r o o p s
t h i t h e r i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l t h e m , b u t t h a t they h a d always been sent b a c k
t o their c a n t o n m e n t s a s s o o n a s t h a t object h a d been a c c o m p l i s h e d ; t h a t
even t h e w e a k garrisons o f G u l e k a n d o f t h e Beilans h a d n o o t h e r object
t h a n t h a t of affording s u p p o r t to the m o v e a b l e c o l u m n s e m p l o y e d in t h e 35
p u r s u i t of the a b o v e n a m e d w a n d e r i n g tribes; t h a t it w a s only a b o u t at the
e n d o f J a n u a r y , t h a t s o m e re-inforcements, consisting o f Ejyptian
recruits, h a d been sent t o Syria; a n d t h a t a t t h a t p e r i o d the a r m y o f Hafiz
P a s h a w a s a l r e a d y organized . . . If I am a t t a c k e d , I shall t h r o w myself on
O r f a a n d D i a r b e k i r , a n d shall n o t give t h e m up a g a i n except on the 40
condition that hereditary tenure be granted to m e . " ... "They speak of

208
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

Peace (sagt ||7| M e h e m e t ) while p a s s i n g the E u p h r a t e s ; I m u s t defend


myself. T h e s u m m o n s o f t h e E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a t o cause t h e t r o o p s t o
return to their p e a c e c a n t o n m e n t s is very u n t i m e l y ; I s h o u l d n o t be able
to c o m p l y with it without ruining my cause in Syria . . . " . . . N a c h seinen
5 U n t e r r e d u n g e n m . M e d e m , e r k l r t d e L a u r i n : " h e w o u l d solemnly, a n d
in writing, declare to t h e C o n s u l s - G e n e r a l of the 4 G r e a t P o w e r s , t h a t he
never h a d e n t e r t a i n e d t h e i n t e n t i o n o f d i s t u r b i n g t h e peace; b u t t h a t ,
being a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e views of a p o r t i o n of the D i v a n at
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , h e h a d wished t o b e p r e p a r e d t o repel aggression; a n d
10 t h a t he w o u l d even cause p a r t of his a r m y to r e t u r n f r o m Syria to E g y p t ,
a n d w o u l d recall from thence his son a n d his family, so s o o n as t h e
E u r o p e a n P o w e r s w o u l d pledge themselves t o g u a r a n t e e t o h i m peace . . . "
L a u r i n e r k l r t i h m : " a s he h a d resolved to m a i n t a i n a p u r e l y defensive
position, his c o n d u c t w o u l d p r o b a b l y be j u d g e d c o r r e c t . . . I gave my
15 opinion to C o u n t M e d e m , t h a t he s h o u l d accept this d e c l a r a t i o n , al-
t h o u g h only a c o n d i t i o n a l o n e . 1) because I t h o u g h t the d e s p a t c h from
the C o u r t of St. P e t e r s b u r g h to be f o u n d e d on a very different state of
things from t h a t in w h i c h M e h e m e t Ali w a s actually p l a c e d w i t h respect
to the P o r t e ; t h a t i n s t e a d of being, as is therein s u p p o s e d , the aggressor,
20 he is himself, in fact, m e n a c e d by the t r o o p s of t h e S u l t a n . 2) because it
[is] r e a s o n a b l e to s u p p o s e t h a t the I m p e r i a l C o u r t , if it h a d b e e n a w a r e of
the existing c o m p l i c a t i o n , w o u l d n o t h a v e t h o u g h t it its d u t y to oblige
M e h e m e t Ali to recall his t r o o p s , in order not to deprive him of the means
of defence, a n d n o t to e n c o u r a g e the O s m a n l i s to a d v a n c e i n t o Syria, a n d
25 to disturb its repose; a n d finally 3) b e c a u s e t h e c o n d i t i o n stipulated by
M e h e m e t Ali, o f c o m m e n c i n g b y obliging t h e t r o o p s o f the S u l t a n t o
repass the E u p h r a t e s , is of little m o m e n t to t h e G r a n d S i g n o r . . . while it
is of the highest i m p o r t a n c e for t h e tranquillity a n d the repose of S y r i a . "
[68-70]

30 Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (Received June 17) Therapia


May 22, 1839 ... N o u r i Effendi a d m i t t e d t h a t the S u b l i m e P o r t e resolved
upon war. [71]

Id. to id. (Received J u n e 17) Therapia, May 26, 1839. C o u n t M e d e m h a s


written to M. de Boutneff, t h a t he is satisfied w i t h t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s
35 given by M e h e m e t Ali, t h a t t h e E g y p t i a n s are n o t the aggressors, as h a s
been supposed b y C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e . . . W e ( P o n s o n b y u . B a r o n S t r m e r )
have b o t h exerted o u r best m e a n s t o p e r s u a d e the S u b l i m e P o r t e n o t t o
risk a w a r . . . [72] D a r i n eingeschlossen:
Baron Strmer to Prince Metternich. Constantinople May 22, 1839.
t h
40 Tahar P a s h a , w h o left this for M a l a t i a on the 5 of A p r i l last, arrived

209
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

th
i n this c a p i t a l o n t h e 1 9 . . . h e m u s t h a v e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e a r m y a s being
i n t h e m o s t a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n for the c o m m e n c e m e n t o f hostilities
a n d for a g r e a t blow. A c c o r d i n g to the s a m e a c c o u n t s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n
to m a k e w a r was t a k e n at a Council c o n v o k e d at t h e P o r t e , by o r d e r of
t h e S u l t a n , on t h e 20 inst . . . As I foresaw, a n d as I h a d t h e h o n o u r of 5
r e p o r t - ing t o y o u r H . a t t h e time o f the d e p a r t u r e o f T a h a r P a s h a , t h a t
officer's mission was evidently only u n d e r t a k e n w i t h a view to gain time,
a n d to free the P o r t e d u r i n g 6 weeks from t h e d e m a n d s for e x p l a n a t i o n of
the foreign M i s s i o n s , to which it stated, t h a t it w a s u n a b l e to give e x p l a n a -
t i o n s as to its i n t e n t i o n s , before t h a t G e n e r a l s h o u l d h a v e e x a m i n e d w i t h 10
his o w n eyes t h e state of affairs ... t h e p a r t i z a n s of M e h e m e t Ali are
a n x i o u s to t h r o w t h e b l a m e of aggression on t h e P o r t e ; they say, t h a t a
m i s t a k e h a s b e e n c o m m i t t e d i n E u r o p e , i n accusing the P a s h a o f E g y p t o f
h a v i n g a d v a n c e d his t r o o p s to the extreme frontier of Syria, t h o s e t r o o p s
h a v i n g always been from 9 - 1 5 leagues r e m o v e d f r o m t h a t frontier . . . 15
t h a t a l t h o u g h last year h e s p o k e o f w a r a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e , h e h a s since
s h e a t h e d his s w o r d , p a i d t h e t r i b u t e w h i c h h e o w e d , a n d p u t himself i n
r i g h t w i t h respect t o t h e P o r t e , w h i c h a p p e a r e d satisfied w i t h this a p p a r -
ent submission . . . I ... a d v e r t to the question of the aggression ... because
the c o n d u c t of R u s s i a , in case the P o r t e s h o u l d see itself c o m p e l l e d to 20
d e m a n d the assistance of t h a t P o w e r , will d e p e n d on its solution. [74, 75]

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston Therapia May 26, 1839, in-


closing: M. Frdric Pisani (the Chief D r a g o m a n ) to ||8| Viscount Pon-
sonby, Pera, 26 Mai, 1839: Said Bey expressed H. H ' s desire t h a t E n g l a n d
s h o u l d give h i m assistance to o v e r c o m e M e h e m e t Ali. I gave h i m clearly to 25
u n d e r s t a n d t h a t Y o u r Exc. k n o w s t h a t E n g l a n d will n o t aid t h e P o r t e t o
d e s t r o y the status quo at present, b u t t h a t if the aggression c o m e s from t h e
side of M e h e m e t Ali, E n g l a n d will assist t h e S u l t a n in repelling the a t t a c k
. . . [76]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston ( R e e . J u n e 19) Paris, June 17, 30


1839.
M a r s h a l Soult a g a i n expressed t o m e his d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t h a t I h a d n o
official c o m m u n i c a t i o n s to m a k e to h i m relative to the i n s t r u c t i o n s to be
given t o the Brit, a n d F r e n c h A d m i r a l s i n the L e v a n t ; a n d h e r e q u e s t e d
me earnestly to press u p o n the a t t e n t i o n of H. M ' s G o v . , t h e necessity of 35
i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e r t i n g t h e m . . . a l r e a d y 7 sail of F r e n c h ships of t h e line
h a d arrived off S m y r n a , o n e w a s to sail y e s t e r d a y f r o m T o u l o n for the
s a m e destination, 2 o t h e r s will speedily follow . . . a n d t h u s the F r e n c h
fleet on the L e v a n t s t a t i o n will consist of 10 sail of t h e line, besides

210
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

frigates a n d sloops o f w a r . . . h e l o o k e d f o r w a r d w i t h g r e a t confidence t o


the m o r a l effect of t h e u n i o n of t h e 2 fleets, a m o u n t i n g a l t o g e t h e r to 20
sail, o n t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e S u l t a n a n d o f M e h e m e t Ali, a s well a s t o t h e
p o w e r they will h a v e of p r e v e n t i n g a collision b e t w e e n t h e T u r k i s h a n d
5 E g y p t i a n s q u a d r o n , a n d of s u s p e n d i n g t h e military o p e r a t i o n s of t h e
2 armies, by c u t t i n g off their supplies by sea. In r e g a r d to a p e r m a n e n t
settlement o f t h e differences b e t w e e n t h e S u l t a n a n d t h e P a s h a o f E g y p t ,
the M a r s h a l was of o p i n i o n t h a t it c o u l d only be effected by t h e c o n c u r -
rence of all the G r e a t P o w e r s of E u r o p e , a n d t h a t a conference of their
10 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o u l d a l o n e afford a n y h o p e of their agreeing u p o n t h e
terms o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t ; a n d t h a t V i e n n a a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e m o s t
central a n d c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e for its assembling. [76, 77]
Soult to the Baron de Bourqueney (Communicated by Baron de Bour-
queney) Paris le 17 Juin, 1839. At St. P e t e r s b u r g h . . . M. de B a r a n t e s u p -
15 posed from i n d i c a t i o n s which I do not consider decisive, t h a t the
Russ. G o v . w a s inclined to seize every h o n o u r a b l e p r e t e x t to a v o i d in-
volving itself in the e m b a r r a s s m e n t s which t h e e x e c u t i o n of t h e t r e a t y
o f U n k i a r Skelessi w o u l d e n t a i l . . . A t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , t h r o u g h the veil o f
pacific p r o t e s t a t i o n s , the P o r t e m a n i f e s t e d its hostile i n t e n t i o n s in t h e
20 eagerness w i t h w h i c h it s o u g h t grievances a g a i n s t M e h e m e t Ali, even in
the m o s t trivial c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d i n t h e m o s t i m p r o b a b l e r e p o r t s . . . ( I
will n o w enable y o u t h e answers des L o r d P a l m e r s t o n a s t o t h e o p i n i o n
der F r e n c h G o v . ) t h e Engl, a n d F r e n c h s q u a d r o n s , a s s u m i n g a sort of
a r m e d m e d i a t i o n , s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e themselves mistresses of the sea;
25 should i m p o s e c o m p l e t e i n a c t i o n u p o n t h e n a v a l forces of E g y p t a n d of
the P o r t e , a n d s h o u l d i n d u c e t h e m t o re-enter their h a r b o u r s i n the event
of their h a v i n g left t h e m . . . the e m p l o y m e n t of such forces, by r e n d e r i n g
war a l m o s t impossible, will deprive R u s s i a of every p r e t e x t for p u t t i n g
i n m o v e m e n t h e r S e v a s t o p o l fleet o r h e r l a n d a r m y . I n o r d e r t h e better t o
30 obtain the result w h i c h we h a v e in view, it m a y p e r h a p s be e x p e d i e n t
that the A u s t r i a n flag s h o u l d a p p e a r a m o n g t h e c o m b i n e d F r e n c h a n d
Engl, s q u a d r o n : o n e or 2 frigates . . . sufficient for t h e p u r p o s e . . . P r i n c e
Metternich h a s a l r e a d y expressed this o p i n i o n . . . I f o u r d e c l a r a t i o n s a n d
the a t t i t u d e of o u r s q u a d r o n s s h o u l d fail in p r e v e n t i n g t h e 2 parties from
35 coming to hostilities, o d . zu cease t h e r e f r o m . . . R u s s i a wird n i c h t refrain
wollen v. physical i n t e r v e n t i o n . . . a b e r d a n n a E u r o p e a n C o n v e n t i o n
should t a k e t h e place of t h e stipulations of U n k i a r Skelessi . . . the n e -
cessity of c o n c e d i n g to M e h e m e t Ali t h e h e r e d i t a r y investiture of a p a r t
at least of his a c t u a l possession, a p p e a r s to be a l m o s t generally a d m i t t e d
40 ... dies f. Ali s c h o n n t h i g to place his family in security f r o m t h e venge-
ance of the P o r t e after his d e a t h . . . D a f r w r e der P o r t e eine c o m -

211
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

p e n s a t i o n z u m a c h e n . L o r d P a l m e r s t o n t h i n k s t h a t n o t h i n g less t h a n t h e
r e s t i t u t i o n of the w h o l e of Syria w o u l d suffice . . . At Berlin . . . a p a r t only
of this p r o v i n c e . . . Dieser p o i n t s h o u l d be referred to t h e Conference
w h i c h , if o u r views prevail, will be established b e t w e e n the P o w e r s . . . We
anxiously await the answer of Lord P a l m e r s t o n of t h e decision of the 5
L o n d o n C a b i n e t u p o n the subject o f the c o m m o n d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f w h i c h
we ||9| p r o p o s e to establish t h e seat at V i e n n a , (u. die I n s t r u k t i o n f. d e n
A d m i r a l S t o p f o r d . ) [80-82]

Viscount Palmerston to Earl Granville. June 19, 1839.


" T h e inclosed p a p e r c o n t a i n s the s u b s t a n c e of the i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h 10
H . M ' s G o v . p r o p o s e t o give Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d , t h e C o m m a n d e r - i n -
Chief o f H . M ' s N a v a l F o r c e s i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , a n d u p o n w h i c h
they r e q u e s t t h e previous o p i n i o n o f the F r e n c h G o v . T h e p a r t o f these
instructions which relates to the possibility of the Engl, a n d
F r e n c h s q u a d r o n s going up to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e in t h e event of a R u s s i a n 15
force entering t h e T u r k , territory, m a y r e q u i r e s o m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . . .
s u c h a m e a s u r e w o u l d . . . be . . . the only w a y of effectually c o u n t e r a c t i n g
t h e bad consequences which might result from the entrance of the Russians
into Turkey; b u t if t h a t m o v e m e n t were to be effected a g a i n s t a v i g o r o u s
resistance on t h e p a r t of the Turk, forts in t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , it w o u l d be 20
difficult to a c c o m p l i s h it, unless t h e fleet w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d by s o m e
force w h i c h c o u l d be l a n d e d to c a r r y the forts by t h e r e a r . . . t h o s e forts
a r e w e a k o n the l a n d side, a n d m i g h t b e t a k e n o n e after t h e o t h e r , b y a n y
m o d e r a t e force w h i c h a t t a c k e d t h e m in the r e a r . " [82]
Inclosure, Substance of proposed instructions to Sir Robert Stopford. 25
T h e A d m i r a l t o p r o c e e d w i t h the ships u n d e r his c o m m a n d t o the bay
o f S c a n d e r o o n , o r t o a n y o t h e r n e i g h b o u r i n g p a r t o f the c o a s t o f Syria
w h i c h m a y b e n e a r t o the places w h e r e t h e a r m i e s o f t h e S u l t a n a n d o f
M e h e m e t Ali m a y h a p p e n t o b e . . . i t w o u l d n o t b e easy for t h e s q u a d r o n
to force its w a y up to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . 30
XXX (kleines Heft) " T h e r e w o u l d be t i m e for t h e A d m i r a l to c o m -
m u n i c a t e o n this m a t t e r with H . M ' s A m b a s s a d o r a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , for
t h e p u r p o s e o f a s c e r t a i n i n g i n w h a t m a n n e r this m e a s u r e c o u l d b e best
executed; a n d h a v i n g stated t o the A d m i r a l their o p i n i o n o n this p o i n t ,
H. M ' s gov. m u s t leave it to his discretion, to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r , in the 35
event of permission to pass n o t being g r a n t e d , the force u n d e r his c o m -
m a n d w o u l d b e s t r o n g e n o u g h t o force t h e p a s s a g e w i t h o u t sustaining
s u c h a n a m o u n t o f loss i n m e n , a n d o f d a m a g e t o the ships, a s w o u l d
cripple the s q u a d r o n a n d unfit it for a n y useful o p e r a t i o n after t h e p a s -
sage h a d been effected . . . " 40

212

Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

( w e n n W i d e r s p r u c h v. ejyptischer Seite erst p r e v e n t all f u r t h e r c o m


m u n i c a t i o n b y E j y p t i a n vessels, w h e t h e r o f c o m m e r c e o r w a r , b e t w e e n
Syria a n d Ejypt . . . H e w o u l d t h e n leave o n t h e c o a s t o f Syria s u c h ships
o f w a r a s h e m i g h t t h i n k necessary for t h i s p u r p o s e , a n d w o u l d p r o c e e d
5 with t h e rest of his force to A l e x a n d r i a . . . If M e h e m e t Ali (mit his o r d e r s
t o s e n d n a c h Syria for s u s p e n d i n g hostilities) c o m p l i e d ... t h e A d m i r a l
s h o u l d r e m a i n off A l e x a n d r i a w i t h his s q u a d r o n , till h e h a d l e a r n t t h a t
the o r d e r h a d a c t u a l l y b e e n o b e y e d , a n d h e m i g h t then r e t u r n t o t h e c o a s t
o f Syria . . . I f t h e P a s h a s h o u l d refuse t o give t h e o r d e r , t h e A d m i r a l
10 should t h e n e m p l o y s u c h m e a n s of p r e s s u r e , g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g in their
stringency etc.) [83-85]

Lord Beauvale to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. June 24) Vienna, June 14,
1839.
T h e P r i n c e ' s ( M e t t e r n i c h ! ) r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s seem t o h a v e m a d e little
1 5 effect u p o n t h e P o r t e , a n d t h a t t h e t o n e o f t h e T u r k i s h M i n i s t e r s w a s de
cidedly warlike. T h e o n l y o v e r t u r e t o w h i c h t h e y seem t o h a v e listened,
was o n e for o b t a i n i n g t h e immediate restitution of Syria to the Sultan,
by means of the intervention of the 4 Powers. This overture was m a d e by
B a r o n S t r m e r in his o w n n a m e , not in that of H. Gov. ... Since I saw h i m
20 ( M e t t e r n i c h ) , I h a v e l e a r n t t h a t F r a n c e h a s a l r e a d y p r o n o u n c e d herself
u p o n s o m e o f t h e l e a d i n g p o i n t s o f t h e affair. K i n g L o u i s P h i l i p p e t h i n k s
a conference i n d i s p e n s a b l e , a n d t h a t t h e place at w h i c h to assemble it is
Vienna. He is willing to c o n c u r t h e succession in E g y p t to t h e family of
M e h e m e t Ali, a n d t h e reversion o f Syria, t o t h e S u l t a n , after t h e P a s h a ' s
25 d e a t h . . . [87, 88]

Telegr. Despatch from Marseilles d. d. June 22, 1839.


" A t t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e ' D a n t e ' f r o m A l e x a n d r i a , n e w s h a d arrived,
on J u n e 7, of t h e i n v a s i o n of the E g y p t i a n t e r r i t o r y by the T u r k s , w h o
h a d possessed themselves of 15 villages, t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of w h i c h h a d
30 been a r m e d . ( Z u r R e v o l t gegen M e h e m e t Ali.) On this intelligence I b r a -
him P a s h a h a d m a r c h e d a division o f 25,000 m e n a g a i n s t t h e m ; t r a n s -
ports h a d left A l e x a n d r i a w i t h t r o o p s o n b o a r d . " [90]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston. (receiv. June 27) Paris, June 24,
1839: " M e h e m e t Ali on t h e receipt of this (viz. d e n d e s p a t c h o b e n er-
35 whnt.) intelligence, h a d invited t h e C o n s u l s of t h e 5 E u r o p e a n P o w e r s to
attend him, a n d h a d laid before t h e m t h e d e s p a t c h e s o f I b r a h i m P a s h a ,
and asked their advice a s t o t h e c o n d u c t h e s h o u l d p u r s u e . T h e y advised
him t o act entirely o n t h e defensive; a n d u p o n their r e m o n s t r a t i n g a g a i n s t

213
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

the i n t e n t i o n h e h a d a v o w e d o f sending his f l e e t t o sea, h e gave u p t h a t


i n t e n t i o n . " | [95]

|10| Count Nesselrode to Count Pozzo di Borgo, (communicated by M. de


Kisseleff June 27, 1839) St. Petersburgh June 15, 1839.
" t h e m o v e m e n t of Hafiz P a s h a u p o n Bir, situated at t h e extremity of 5
t h e frontiers of Syria, a p p e a r s to indicate t h a t it e n t e r e d really i n t o t h e
views of t h e S u l t a n , all the while declaring his pacific i n t e n t i o n s , to cause
t h e a r m y of the T a u r u s to a d v a n c e to such a p o i n t as to r e n d e r a conflict
inevitable, b y a t t r i b u t i n g i t t o s o m e c h a n c e c i r c u m s t a n c e , w i t h o u t the
P o r t e a p p e a r i n g to h a v e given a n y p r o v o c a t i o n for i t . . . events m a y h a v e 10
n o w p r o c e e d e d with t o o great rapidity for the efforts of the Allied R e p -
resentatives to h a v e succeeded in arresting the e x e c u t i o n of a p l a n of
aggression, w h i c h t h e P o r t e a p p e a r s to h a v e m e d i t a t e d for a l o n g time,
a n d w h i c h it h a s c o n t r i v e d to veil in the m o s t p r o f o u n d m y s t e r y . . . t h e
r e m o n s t r a n c e s w h i c h we m i g h t n o w a d d r e s s to the P o r t e w o u l d certainly 15
be s o m e w h a t late . . . T h e r e r e m a i n s b u t o n e t a s k for us to fulfil, i. e., to
confine this struggle within the n a r r o w e s t possible b o u n d s , so t h a t it m a y
n o t c o m p r o m i s e t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e general r e p o s e o f E u r o p e . . .
T h e real d a n g e r for E u r o p e at large is n o t in a c o m b a t carried on in Syria
b e t w e e n the t r o o p s of the Sultan a n d t h o s e of the P a s h a of Ejypt . . . 20
t h e d a n g e r w o u l d n o t begin t o b e c o m e serious until, i n t h e event o f the
fate of a r m s declaring against the Sultan, t h e P a s h a of E g y p t s h o u l d
profit by this a d v a n t a g e to place the safety of Constantinople a n d the
existence o f the O t t o m a n E m p i r e i n peril . . . T h e r e w o u l d n o l o n g e r b e
q u e s t i o n of a struggle between 2 M u s s u l m a n f o r c e s , t h e r e w o u l d be 25
q u e s t i o n of a E u r o p e a n c o m p l i c a t i o n . . . To p r e v e n t things r e a c h i n g such
a p o i n t , it is of c o n s e q u e n c e to t a k e m e a s u r e s in t i m e for confining the
struggle b e t w e e n t h e S u l t a n a n d M e h e m e t Ali within certain limits. ...
C o n s e q u e n t l y ... i n o r d e r . . . t o set d u e b o u n d s t o the a c t i o n o f the P a s h a
of Ejypt . . . it w o u l d be necessary to declare to h i m in t h e m o s t formal 30
m a n n e r , ' T h a t as long as he shall confine himself to t h e defence of the
territories w h i c h h a v e been assigned t o h i m b y t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f
K u t a y a ; a s long a s h e shall n o t extend his military o p e r a t i o n s b e y o n d the
district of D i a r b e k i r a n d Orfa, as he h a s formally p r o m i s e d to the Allied
C o n s u l s , so l o n g will G r e a t Britain, in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r P o w e r s 35
of E u r o p e , r e m a i n a passive s p e c t a t o r of t h e struggle w h i c h is g o i n g on in
Syria; b u t t h a t from the i n s t a n t he shall act on t h e offensive, from the
m o m e n t t h a t he shall extend t h e t h e a t r e of t h e w a r b e y o n d t h e defiles of
the T a u r u s in o r d e r to c a r r y it into the centre of A s i a M i n o r , from t h a t
m o m e n t E n g l a n d w o u l d consider such act of hostility as if it were direct- 40

214
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

ed against herself . . . t h a t in t h e s a m e m a n n e r she w o u l d c o n s i d e r herself


in a state of w a r w i t h h i m , if he a t t e m p t e d to send o u t his fleet to enter
u p o n a n a v a l c o n t e s t with t h e Sultan If E n g l a n d etc. (Siehe vorige
K o r r e s p o n d e n z ) . . . It (this frank e x p l a n a t i o n ) will p r o v e to the Brit.
5 Ministry t h a t , far from wishing to b r i n g a b o u t a c o m p l i c a t i o n in t h e
Levant, w e a r e using all o u r care t o p r e v e n t o n e ; a n d t h a t , instead o f
greedily availing ourselves of the s t i p u l a t i o n s of o u r Treaty of Alliance
with t h e P o r t e , we are ourselves t h e first to desire to p r e v e n t t h e recur-
rence of a crisis w h i c h w o u l d c o m p e l us, in spite of ourselves, a g a i n to
10 take up a military a t t i t u d e on the shores of t h e B o s p h o r u s . . . H a v e t h e
goodness, Sir, n o t to delay a m o m e n t in i n f o r m i n g us of t h e r e c e p t i o n it
(this step) meets w i t h f r o m L o r d P a l m e r s t o n . The Emperor flatters him-
self, that this reception will fully answer our wishes, a n d t h a t t h e u n d e r -
s t a n d i n g w h i c h will b e established between the English C a b i n e t a n d o u r
15 own {l'entente q u i s'tablira e n t r e le C a b i n e t A n g l a i s et le n t r e ) for t h e
preservation of t h e P e a c e of the L e v a n t , will serve speedily to re-establish
it, even if the short-sighted policy of t h e D i v a n s h o u l d h a v e a t t e m p t e d
m o m e n t a r i l y to d i s t u r b it." [98-101]

Instructions to the French Admiral in the Levant, Paris June 26, 1839,
20 ( Communicated by M. de Bourqueney, (June 29. )
Vorliegend I n s t r u c t i o n s an A d m i r a l S t o p f o r d , gleichzeitig an den
French A d m i r a l v. Soult geschickt, w o r i n es heit: t h e 2 a d m i r a l s s h o u l d
reciprocally c o m m u n i c a t e t o e a c h o t h e r their i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d s h o u l d act
t o w a r d s each o t h e r with all t h e confidence a n d frankness requisite to in-
25 troduce i n t o their o p e r a t i o n s t h e s a m e u n a n i m i t y w h i c h subsists b e t w e e n
the 2 G o v e r n m e n t s . W h e n e v e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s m a y r e q u i r e c o n c e r t a n d
co-operation, the chief direction will b e l o n g to t h e officer of t h e highest
rank or of t h e longest s t a n d i n g . . . [102] ( A d m i r a l w a s Lalande) Soult
natrlich " o m i t t e d t h a t p a r t " der P a l m e r s t o n s c h e n i n s t r u c t i o n , w o e r i h m
30 change o d . m o d i f i c a t i o n v o r s c h l a g e n zu m s s e n g l a u b t e . |

]11| Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. June 30) Paris, June 28,
1839.
" I learnt f r o m M a r s h a l Soult, t h a t h e h a d directed M . d e B o u r q u e n e y
t o propose t o y o u r L o r d s h i p , t h a t the Brit, a n d F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r s a t
35 C o n s t a n t i n o p l e s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d to b r i n g u n d e r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of
the D i v a n , t h e e n t r a n c e o f the c o m b i n e d F r e n c h a n d Engl, f l e e t i n t o t h e
Sea of M a r m a r a , in case a R u s s i a n n a v a l a n d military force shall h a v e
entered t h e B o s p h o r u s . T h e M a r s h a l said, h e fully c o n c u r r e d i n y o u r

215
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

L o r d s h i p ' s view of its being desirable t h a t the Brit, a n d F r e n c h flags


s h o u l d a p p e a r before C o n s t a n t i n o p l e a t the s a m e t i m e w i t h t h a t o f R u s -
sia; b u t he h a d d o u b t s ' a s ' to allowing so i m p o r t a n t a q u e s t i o n as t h a t of
declaring w a r a g a i n s t T u r k e y a n d Russia, t o w h i c h the forcing o f t h e
passage of t h e D a r d a n e l l e s w a s t a n t a m o u n t , to be left to t h e discretion of 5
t h e A d m i r a l s . T h a t q u e s t i o n h a d better, h e t h o u g h t , b e reserved for the
c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e 2 G o v e r n . T h e passage of the fleet up to C o n s t a n t i -
n o p l e , he observed, w o u l d be a d a n g e r o u s a n d difficult o p e r a t i o n , if
really resisted by t h e T u r k s , unless a military force w e r e a t t a c h e d to it to
t a k e possession of the forts by land, a n d no military force a d e q u a t e to 10
such a n u n d e r t a k i n g h a d been e m b a r k e d o n b o a r d either f l e e t . T h e fire o f
t h e forts w a s n o t t h e only d a n g e r t o which, h e said, t h e f l e e t w o u l d b e
exposed; it m i g h t h a v e to e n c o u n t e r in a d a m a g e d a n d crippled state the
hostility o f t h e R u s s . f l e e t , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h a t o f Turkey, p r e p a r e d i n t h e
B o s p h o r u s for c o m b a t , a n d aided by the R u s s i a n a r m y . " [104] 15

Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. June 27) Alexandria,


May 28, 1839.
" I t h e n b r o u g h t the c o n v e r s a t i o n r o u n d t o t h e m o u n t a i n e e r s o f P y a s s ,
a n d a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h a t r a n g e t o the T a u r u s , e x t e n d i n g t o
M a r a s h . I b r a h i m P a s h a replied: 'All is quiet in t h a t p a r t . . . I m u s t h a v e 20
M a r a s h . I r e q u i r e it for t h e keeping of these m o u n t a i n e e r s in o r d e r ; as it
w a s evident; t h e o t h e r day they c o m m i t t e d all sorts of d e p r e d a t i o n s in
G i a o u r D a g h , a n d t h a t r a n g e : I w e n t against t h e m ; w h a t followed? T h e y
merely w e n t on t h e o t h e r side of t h e m o u n t a i n , saying, We are in the
S u l t a n ' s t e r r i t o r y . . . M a r a s h I m u s t h a v e , as also a l o n g t h e line to Orfa; 25
a n d t h e n all will be quiet a n d right in Syria. I shall n o t t h e n r e q u i r e to
k e e p such a large force, to keep these m o u n t a i n s etc. in o r d e r , a n d I shall
b e a b l e t o give m y a t t e n t i o n t o the interests o f t h e c o u n t r y , a n d t o further
t h e c o m m e r c i a l interests of all, a n d particularly of t h e E n g l i s h . ' " . . . T h e
C h r i s t i a n s in Syria are all in M e h e m e t Ali's favour, a n d t h e y d r e a d any 30
success of the Sultan: the m o r e as t h e T u r k i s h p o p u l a t i o n in Syria h a s for
s o m e time b a c k b e e n t h r e a t e n i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n s , t o w h o m they h a v e said
t h a t their reign w a s nearly over . . . M e h e m e t Ali h a d i n t e n d e d a few days
a g o to send o u t his fleet to cruise off A l e x a n d r i a , a n d the o r d e r h a d
a l r e a d y b e e n given by h i m to t h a t effect, b u t t h e C o n s u l s - G e n e r a l of 35
A u s t r i a , F r a n c e , a n d Russia, as well as myself, h a v i n g separately m e n -
tioned to him our opinions, ... that it would be ... perhaps conducive to
t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f peace, t h a t his f l e e t s h o u l d r e m a i n i n h a r b o u r , h e
immediately acceded t o o u r desires, a n d t h e f l e e t n o w r e m a i n s here.
[105-107] 40

216
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

id. to id (Ree. June 27) Alexandria June 6, 1839 enthlt die folgenden:
Inclos. I.) Col. Campbell to Viscount Ponsonby. Alexandria, June 5,
1839. " Y o u r Excellency will perceive t h a t t h e P a s h a writes to his son t h a t
we told h i m to ' r e p o u s s e r la force p a r la force', b u t as is seen by the
5 procs-verbal, we said so, in t h e event only t h a t t h e a r m y of I b r a h i m Pasha
should be attacked in its positions in his territory." Am 4 J u n e verliest i h n e n
M e h e m e t Ali (den 4 G e n e r a l c o n s u l n ) t h a t t h e t r o o p s of the Sultan h a d
actually p a s s e d over i n t o the territory of Syria, a n d h a d o c c u p i e d the vil-
lage of O u r o n t . . . O u r o n t , w h e r e t h e T u r k i s h C a v a l r y n o w is is a village of
10 the P r o v i n c e of A i n t a b . . . f r o m O u r o n t , schreibt I b r a h i m P a s h a an M e h e -
met Ali, a c c o r d i n g t o y o u r o r d e r s , o u r soldiers retired . . . [108-113]
Inclosure II. id. to Viscount Ponsonby ... s o m e T u r k i s h C a v a l r y of H a -
f i z P a s h a h a d a t t a c k e d t h e E g y p t i a n C a v a l r y e n c a m p e d i n front o f A i n -
t a b , a n d h a v e excited the villages in t h e A i n t a b district to revolt; eleven
15 villages h a v i n g received a r m s a n d a m m u n i t i o n f r o m Hafiz P a s h a , are
n o w i n revolt. O n receipt o f those news, I b r a h i m P a s h a h a d left A l e p p o
t h
o n the 2 9 M a y , a n d g o n e t o a small village b e t w e e n A l e p p o a n d A i n t a b ,
where he awaits the arrival of S o l y m a n P a s h a w i t h a b r i g a d e a n d w i t h
some artillery, m o s t p r o b a b l y t o drive b a c k the a d v a n c e w h i c h h a d at-
20 tacked his C a v a l r y . . . t h e great causes of c o m p l a i n t on || 12| the p a r t of t h e
Porte, d a t e from t h e p e a c e o f K u t a y a , a n d f r o m m u t u a l i r r i t a t i o n o n t h e
p a r t of t h e P o r t e at the t r i u m p h of M e h e m e t Ali, as also from the semi-
independent a n d a n o m a l o u s p o s i t i o n o f t h a t P a s h a . . .
Inclos. III.) Id. to Viscount Ponsonby , Alexandria, June 6, 1839.
25 ... it is m o s t clearly evident t h a t t h e P o r t e h a s been the aggressor in t h e
c o m m e n c e m e n t of active hostilities: as n o t only h a s Hafiz P a s h a incited
the p o p u l a t i o n o f Syria t o revolt, a n d supplied t h e m w i t h a r m s , a m m u n i -
tion, a n d m o n e y , b u t he h a s also a t t a c k e d a c o r p s of the C a v a l r y of
I b r a h i m P a s h a , at a p o i n t i n c o n t e s t a b l y within t h e Syrian territory . . .
30 it should be b o r n e in m i n d t h a t it is a certain fact t h a t M e h e m e t Ali h a s a
powerful p a r t y a m o n g s t the g r e a t dignitaries of the P o r t e , a n d even in t h e
Divan itself; a n d I a m a l m o s t certain t h a t h e c o u l d a t a n y m o m e n t raise
up the Turkish p r o v i n c e s in E u r o p e (certainly A l b a n i a ) in rebellion
against the S u l t a n . [114,115]
35 Subinclosure. " T h e 14 villages of the district of O u r o n t in t h e p r o v i n c e
o f A i n t a b h a v e b e e n o c c u p i e d b y t h e t r o o p s o f Hafiz P a s h a . H e h a s
distributed a r m s a n d a m m u n i t i o n t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f these villages . . .
C a n n o n were f i r e d a t N e z i b t o a n n o u n c e t h e arrival o f Hafiz P a s h a i n
that t o w n . . . the P a s h a o f M a r a s h also i s stirring u p t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f
40 K o u r d D a k ; t h a t o n e of t h e s u p e r i o r officers of t h a t P a s h a ' s t r o o p s h a s
been noticed a m o n g t h e tribe o f K o o r d s w h o p l u n d e r e d B o u l a n i c k . . . "
[116,117]

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Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

Viscount Palmerston to Lord Beauvale. June 28, 1839.


All t h r e e o f those G o v e r n m e n t s (the A u s t r i a n , F r e n c h , a n d R u s s i a n )
a p p e a r to be strongly impressed w i t h t h e necessity of p r e v e n t i n g , if p o s -
sible, the o u t b r e a k o f hostilities between the S u l t a n a n d M e h e m e t Ali, o r
of p u t t i n g a speedy e n d to those hostilities, if they s h o u l d u n f o r t u n a t e l y 5
h a v e a l r e a d y b r o k e n o u t . . . T h e R u s s i a n G o v . a b e r scheint z u m e i n e n
t h a t the P o w e r s o f E u r o p e m i g h t b e c o n t e n t e d t o r e m a i n passive spec-
t a t o r s of the c o n t i n u a n c e of those hostilities, so l o n g as t h e c o n t e n d i n g
parties s h o u l d c a r r y on their conflict within t h e limits of Syria. B u t in this
view H. M ' s G o v . c a n n o t agree; because it is n o t so m u c h t h e scene of 10
action, as the possible result of t h e conflict, w h i c h m a y exercise a decisive
influence on the great interests of E u r o p e , a n d a signal defeat a n d disper-
sion of t h e a r m y of the Sultan, w o u l d be scarcely less d i s a s t r o u s on o n e
side o f the T a u r u s , o r t h e E u p h r a t e s , t h a n u p o n t h e o t h e r . . . H . M ' s G o v .
are n o t willing to c o n s e n t t h a t M e h e m e t Ali s h o u l d c o n t i n u e to o c c u p y 15
the districts of D i a r b e k i r a n d Orfa: districts b e y o n d the p r o v i n c e of
Syria, a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e in a military a n d political p o i n t of
view, a n d which it h a s long been the desire of M e h e m e t Ali to a c q u i r e . . .
A l t h o u g h R u s s i a h a s h i t h e r t o e n d e a v o u r e d t o r e t a i n with h e r o w n dis-
cretion e v e r y t h i n g belonging to her relations w i t h T u r k e y , yet t h e C a b i n e t 20
of St. P e t e r s b u r g h m u s t clearly see t h a t t h e general interests of all the
P o w e r s of E u r o p e are so directly interested in t h e fate of t h e T u r k .
E m p i r e , t h a t n o o n e P o w e r c a n s e p a r a t e herself f r o m the rest i n h e r
dealings with respect t o Turkey; b u t t h a t T u r k i s h affairs m u s t hencefor-
w a r d be c o n s i d e r e d to be as m u c h a E u r o p e a n q u e s t i o n , as any o t h e r 25
affairs w i t h w h i c h t h e C a b i n e t s o f E u r o p e h a v e b e e n occupied. T h e
F r e n c h G o v . p r o p o s e d t h a t these m a t t e r s s h o u l d b e discussed i n a C o n -
ference of the 5 P o w e r s , to be held at V i e n n a . P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h h a s
s t a t e d r e a s o n s w h y , i n his o p i n i o n , these m a t t e r s c a n n o t p r o p e r l y b e s u b -
m i t t e d to a f o r m a l conference, b u t he h a s p r o p o s e d t h a t V i e n n a s h o u l d be 30
the seat o f n e g o t i a t i o n o n those affairs. H . M ' s G o v . saw m a n y s t r o n g
r e a s o n s i n f a v o u r o f t h e F r e n c h p r o p o s a l ; a n d s o m e o f m u c h weight
a g a i n s t it; the p r o p o s a l of Prince M e t t e r n i c h is o p e n to fewer objections,
a n d h o l d s o u t less a d v a n t a g e s . . . H . M ' s G o v . . . . a r e willing t o agree t o
p r o p o s i t i o n of P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h , p r o v i d e d it shall be acceded to by Rus- 35
sia a n d Prussia, as well as by G r e a t Britain a n d F r a n c e . . . . T h e general
view which H. M ' s G o v . . . . e n t e r t a i n of the affair in q u e s t i o n . . . : t h a t
t h e r e c a n b e n o e n d t o the d a n g e r with which these affairs m e n a c e the
p e a c e of E u r o p e , u n t i l M e h e m e t Ali shall h a v e r e s t o r e d Syria to t h e direct
a u t h o r i t y of t h e Sultan; shall h a v e retired i n t o E g y p t ; a n d shall h a v e 40
i n t e r p o s e d t h e D e s e r t b e t w e e n his t r o o p s a n d a u t h o r i t i e s a n d the t r o o p s

218
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

a n d a u t h o r i t i e s o f the S u l t a n . B u t M e h e m e t Ali c o u l d n o t b e expected t o


consent t o this, unless s o m e equivalent a d v a n t a g e were g r a n t e d t o h i m ;
a n d this equivalent a d v a n t a g e m i g h t be h e r e d i t a r y succession in his
family to the P a s h a l i c of E g y p t . . . [ [ 1 1 8 , 1 1 9 ]

5 1131 Viscount Palmerston to Earl Granville. June 29, 1839. I herewith


transmit etc. a c o p y of a d e s p a t c h (der vorigen S. 12) w h i c h I h a v e a d -
dressed t o H . M ' s A m b a s s a d o r a t V i e n n a . . . I t seems t o H . M ' s G o v . ,
that the g r e a t interests of the P o w e r s , as r e g a r d s the affairs of Turkey,
can never be considered as secure, until M e h e m e t Ali shall h a v e evacu-
ici ated Syria, a n d shall h a v e w i t h d r a w n his forces i n t o E g y p t . . . [119, 120]

D u r c h d e n alten Soult gezwungen, m u schreiben:


Viscount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonby. July 5, 1839. I h a v e to
instruct y o u r E x c . to state to t h e P o r t e , t h a t if the c o u r s e of events s h o u l d
lead the P o r t e t o a s k o r t o accept military o r n a v a l aid f r o m a n y E u r o -
15 pean P o w e r , in the c o n t e s t with M e h e m e t Ali, H. M ' s gov. t r u s t t h a t the
Porte will a t the s a m e t i m e a d d r e s s itself t o G r e a t Britain t o t h e s a m e
effect: a n d y o u r E x c . will say, t h a t A d m i r a l Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d h a s
orders to repair with his s q u a d r o n to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , for the p u r p o s e of
affording t o t h e S u l t a n physical a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t , t h e m o m e n t Sir
20 R o b e r t S t o p f o r d shall receive from the P o r t e , t h r o u g h y o u r E x c , an
invitation to t h a t effect. Similar i n s t r u c t i o n s will be given by t h e F r e n c h
G o v . t o A d m i r a l R o u s s i n , a n d y o u will m a k e y o u r c o m m u n i c a t i o n o n
this m a t t e r t o t h e P o r t e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h a t o f t h e F r e n c h A m b a s -
sador. [124,125]

25 Mr. Pro-Consul Werry to Viscount Palmerston (received July 5) Aleppo


June 4, 1839, d a r i n aus d e n Inclosures: the S u l t a n ' s t r o o p s c o n t i n u e d
advancing, a n d h a d crossed t h e river Sedjour; a n d h a d c o m e a s far a s
Telbashir, 2 h o u r s on this side of the river, a n d 5 h o u r s to Tellisheir,
where H . Exc. I b r a h i m P a s h a ' s c a m p i s . . . t h e S u l t a n ' s t r o o p s t h a t
30 have o c c u p i e d Telbashir, a r e principally all Koord Irregular Cavalry
... [127]

Consul Werry to Viscount Palmerston. (Receiv. July 5) Damascus. June 7,


1839. it does n o t a p p e a r to me in t r u t h a n d justice, t h a t it c a n be e s t a b -
lished in the p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e of the rival a r m i e s , t h a t t h e status quo of
35 the Treaty of K u t a y a is o b s e r v e d by the S u l t a n ' s Seraskier on t h e n o r t h -
ern frontiers o f Syria . . . W h i l e t h e m a i n b o d y o f his a r m y , e n c a m p e d o n
this side o f t h e E u p h r a t e s between R o u m K a l e a n d Bir, m a k e s a d v a n c e s

219
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

t o w a r d s a n d o n t h e E g y p t i a n territory, this m o v e m e n t i s g r a d u a l , a n d i n
p r o p o r t i o n t o t h o s e o p e r a t e d b y his irregulars a n d t h e m a l c o n t e n t s o n
b o t h wings o f the E g y p t i a n A r m y , a n d H . H . I b r a h i m P a s h a ' s p o s i t i o n a t
A l e p p o . . . I b r a h i m P a s h a h a s quitted A l e p p o with all his forces, between
t h s t
t h e 2 9 a n d 3 1 ult., a n d f i x e d his h e a d q u a r t e r s , a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d his 5
a r m y at Tellisheir; 10 h o u r s in a d v a n c e of A l e p p o . . . [136,137]

Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (Received July 5) Alexandria,


June 14, 1839. M e h m e t Ali schreibt J u n e 10 an I b r a h i m P a s h a : Y o u in-
f o r m m e t h a t o u r adversaries c a r r y their aggression a n d invasion further
a n d further; t h a t they h a v e a r m e d t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of all the villages sit- 10
u a t e d b e y o n d A i n t a b , a n d those of Kessil H i s s a r on this side of the
villages of A i n t a b ; t h a t they have gained to their side the chief m e n of
A i n t a b ; t h a t besides h a v i n g (p. 142) from first to last, c o r r u p t e d the terri-
t o r y of Pyass, t h e m o u n t a i n Kourd Daghi a n d t h a t of Giaour Daghi, they
h a v e incited the i n s u r g e n t s to a t t a c k A k h a r , a d e p e n d e n c y of Tripoli, a n d 15
t o assassinate a n d p l u n d e r t h e G o v e r n o r o f the place . . . I f w e h a v e
p a t i e n c e a n y longer, w e shall b e u n a b l e t o s t o p t h e m , for b y degrees they
will scatter d i s o r d e r everywhere . . .
Id. to id. (ree. July 5) Alexandria, June 16, 1839. O n e of t h e P a s h a s of
t h e S u l t a n , S o l y m a n P a s h a of M a r a s h , h a s entered i n t o , a n d t a k e n p o s - 20
sesin of A i n t a b , the chief t o w n of a district in Syria, a n d Hafiz P a s h a
himself w a s w i t h the c o r p s . . . N o d o u b t c a n therefore r e m a i n i n r e g a r d t o
t h e aggression o f Hafiz P a s h a o n Syria. . . . t h e m o d e r a t i o n o f M e h e m e t
Ali h a s been clearly s h o w n in the orders he gave to I b r a h i m P a s h a to re-
m a i n at A l e p p o as long as possible, even at the risk of seeing the insur- 25
rection c a u s e d by Hafiz P a s h a , s p r e a d in Syria, a n d giving time to the
T u r k s to c o n c e n t r a t e their forces a n d receive all their reinforcements . . .
t h e S u l t a n ' s emissaries were using all their m e a n s to cause a revolt against
h i m in every p a r t of Syria . . . D a r i n die Inclos. :
Ibrahim schreibt an Mehemet: T h e regiments which w e r e at A i n t a b 30
h a v e been w i t h d r a w n by me, a n d I h a v e left only )|14| o n e b a t t a l i o n of
I n f a n t r y in the fortress of t h a t t o w n . S o l y m a n P a s h a of M a r a s h h a s
entered A i n t a b . . . [143,144]
Letter of Ibrahim Pasha to His Exc. Hafiz Pasha (d. d. J u n e 8, 1839):
" A c c o r d i n g to t h e despatches addressed by the G r e a t P o w e r s to their 35
C o n s u l s - G e n e r a l a t A l e x a n d r i a , I a m p e r s u a d e d t h a t they d o n o t a p -
p r o v e o f the w a r , a n d t h a t H . H . ... i s o f the same o p i n i o n . N e v e r t h e -
l e s s , 1) S o l y m a n P a s h a of M a r a s h has sent a b o d y of C a v a l r y , a n d he
h a s a t t a c k e d o u r Cavalry, which was at Boulanic. 2) Y o u h a v e sent a
c o r p s of K o u r d Mistic Bey to P a y a s s , with the view of raising t h e p o p - 40

220
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

ulation. 3 ) H a d j i O m a r O g l o u h a s b e e n sent t o K o u r d - D a g h w i t h t h e
same object. 4 ) Y o u h a v e a t t a c k e d o u r H a n a d i s i n o u r t e r r i t o r y w i t h
regular a n d irregular C a v a l r y . 5 ) Y o u h a v e d i s t r i b u t e d a r m s a m o n g s t
the i n h a b i t a n t s of the villages of t h e P r o v i n c e of A i n t a b , a n d S o l y m a n
5 P a s h a entered t h a t t o w n , a n d is still t h e r e . Y e s t e r d a y also y o u r E x c ,
with a C o r p s o f R e g u l a r C a v a l r y , m a d e a n i n c u r s i o n n e a r t o o u r c a m p ,
a n d discharged y o u r artillery u p o n o u r a d v a n c e d g u a r d o f H a n a d i s . . .
If y o u r Exc. h a s o r d e r s to begin the w a r , wherefore these intrigues, these
plots?" [145]

10 Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (receiv. July 5) Alexandria, June 16,


1839.
T h e F r e n c h p a c k e t - s t e a m e r arrived h e r e late in t h e evening of the
th
13 inst. w i t h C a p t a i n Caillier, a n a i d e - d e - c a m p o f M a r s h a l Soult.
Capt. Caillier w a s the b e a r e r of d e s p a t c h e s , d. d. M a y 28, f r o m t h e M a r -
is shal to M. Cochelet, directing h i m to call on M e h e m e t Ali to cease all
hostilities in the event of their h a v i n g t a k e n place, a n d to retire his
army into Syria, if they h a d p a s s e d b e y o n d t h e limits of t h a t p r o v i n c e .
The M a r s h a l says in his d e s p a t c h , t h a t t h e 5 G r e a t P o w e r s h a v e resolved
t o maintain the integrity o f the O t t o m a n E m p i r e . . . t h a t M e h e m e t h a v i n g
20 in these late affairs given p r o o f s of g o o d faith, a n d h a v i n g k e p t his w o r d ,
he h a d acquired fresh titles to t h e good-will of t h e E u r o p e a n p o w e r s s o
much the m o r e , a s the P o r t e , o n its p a r t , h a d evidently b e e n t h e aggres-
sor; t h a t F r a n c e c o n s u l t s a t this m o m e n t w i t h E n g l a n d a n d w i t h the
Allies, o n the m e a n s o f e m p l o y i n g t h e u n i t e d s q u a d r o n s o f E n g l a n d a n d
25 France ... M. C o c h e l e t h a v i n g explained this to M e h e m e t Ali, the P a s h a ,
on the 15 inst., agreed to give a f o r m a l letter to C a p t . Caillier to be
delivered b y h i m t o his s o n I b r a h i m P a s h a , i n w h i c h h e directs h i m n o t t o
pursue the T u r k s b e y o n d his frontier, in case t h e T u r k s s h o u l d a l r e a d y
have repassed it, a n d to h a l t wherever C a p t . Caillier m a y find h i m , in
30 case the E g y p t i a n a r m y s h o u l d a l r e a d y h a v e e n t e r e d t h e S u l t a n ' s t e r r i t o r y
and occupied any p a r t o f i t . . . M . C o c h e l e t w a s , I believe, s o glad t h a t h e
has prevailed so far on t h e P a s h a w i t h o u t the aid of his Colleagues, t h a t
h e hastened t o accept t h e P a s h a ' s offer, i n o r d e r t h a t h e m i g h t b e able t o
say t h a t F r a n c e h a d d o n e everything a n d t h a t h e r voice w a s all-powerful.
35 [145, 146] Inclosed:
Mehmet an Ibrahim (d. d. 16 June 1839) M. d e m b e a r e r dieses letter,
Aide-de-Camp des M a r s h a l Soult . . . a n o t h e r a i d e - d e - c a m p goes t o C o n -
stantinople, to p r o c e e d from t h e n c e to Hafiz P a s h a . . . . If, before the a r -
rival of M. Caillier, y o u h a v e n o t yet driven across t h e frontier t h e T u r k -
40 ish t r o o p s which h a d entered w i t h i n o u r b o u n d s , t h a t officer will c a u s e

221
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

y o u t o r e m a i n w h e r e y o u are, a n d after h a v i n g b e e n t o Hafiz P a s h a , seen


the Aide-de-camp despatched to him, and ascertained what he has done,
he will r e t u r n to m a k e his r e p o r t to y o u t h e r e u p o n . If, on his r e t u r n , he
tells y o u t h a t t h e O t t o m a n A r m y r e m a i n s s t a t i o n a r y , a n d t h a t the Turk-
ish t r o o p s w h i c h h a d entered within o u r limits are a b o u t to be with- 5
d r a w n , y o u will n o t m a k e a n y m o v e m e n t o n y o u r o w n p a r t , a n d y o u will
r e m a i n w h e r e y o u are. B u t if after the r e t u r n of M. Caillier with this
a s s u r a n c e , Hafiz P a s h a d o e s n o t r e m a i n s t a t i o n a r y , i f h e c o n t i n u e s the
s a m e m o v e m e n t s a s formerly, a n d d o e s n o t w i t h d r a w his t r o o p s from o u r
frontier, y o u will m a r c h against h i m a n d e n g a g e h i m . Finally, in case 10
y o u s h o u l d , o n t h e arrival o f t h a t officer, h a v e a l r e a d y driven a w a y the
Turk, t r o o p s which h a d entered within o u r b o u n d s , a n d i f y o u s h o u l d
h a v e a d v a n c e d , y o u m u s t still r e m a i n w h e r e y o u m a y t h e n be, a n d wait
until the a r r a n g e m e n t s which the G r e a t P o w e r s m a y m a k e , shall b e
k n o w n , a n d shall h a v e been notified to y o u by m e . [147] 15

Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (ree. July 5) Alexandria, June 18,


1839. t h e S u l t a n ' s v a n g u a r d h a s retired u p o n t h e m a i n b o d y , a n d t h u s
e v a c u a t e d the t e r r i t o r y of M e h e m e t Ali . . . D a g e g e n die efforts of Hafiz
P a s h a to cause revolt in the lower ranges ||15| of t h e T a u r u s , e x t e n d i n g to
Beylan a n d P y a s s . A n d his p l a n , therefore, seems to be to a v o i d a b a t t l e , 20
a n d t o cause revolt, a n d t o m o v e o n i n the r e a r o f t h a t m o v e m e n t . . . [148]

Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 5) Alexandria, June 19,


1839.
th
I b r a h i m P a s h a w a s (on the 1 0 J u n e ) w i t h his a r m y at Touzel, w h i c h is
n o t far from A i n t a b , a n d Hafiz P a s h a w a s a b o u t 3 h o u r s ' distance at 25
N e z i b , n e a r the b a n k s of the Sedjour river, b u t in t h e t e r r i t o r y of the
Sultan; a n d S o l y m a n P a s h a o f M a r a s h w a s still i n A i n t a b w i t h t r o o p s
of t h e S u l t a n . . . [150]

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 7) Therapia, June 16,


1839 ... T h e F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r . . . r e a d to me a p a r t of a d e s p a t c h from 30
M a r s h a l S o u l t . . . I t c o n t a i n e d instructions t o apply i n the strongest m a n -
n e r t o the Sublime P o r t e t o p r e v e n t hostilities, i f they h a d n o t already
c o m m e n c e d , a n d t o p u t a n i n s t a n t e n d t o t h e m i f they h a d ; a n d i t direct-
e d H i s Exc. t o c o m m u n i c a t e with m e , a n d said t h a t the Brit. G o v . en-
tirely c o n c u r r e d with t h e F r e n c h in everything relating to affairs in this 35,"
c o u n t r y . . . H i s E x c . a s k e d me w h a t I w o u l d d o . I replied, t h a t having no
instructions, I c o u l d n o t t a k e a n y steps etc etc [152]

222
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 8) Paris. July 5, 1839.


T h e D e b a t e i n the C h a m b e r o f D e p u t i e s , o n the v o t e o f credit de-
m a n d e d by t h e gov. for t h e a u g m e n t a t i o n of t h e F r e n c h N a v a l [Force] in
the L e v a n t . . . N o t a dissentient voice w a s h e a r d a g a i n s t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n
5 of the gov. . . . die speakers der different political p a r t i e s , c o n c u r r e d in the
policy of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d integrity of the Turk, empire;
of rescuing t h e S u l t a n f r o m t h e p r o t e c t i o n of R u s s i a ; a n d of resisting,
with d e t e r m i n a t i o n , the p r e t e n t i o n s of R u s s i a to t h e exclusive right of
stationing h e r fleets in t h e B o s p h o r u s . t h e d e b a t e lasted 5 d a y s . . . t h e
10 vote will m u c h s t r e n g t h e n the h a n d s of t h e F r e n c h G o v . ; a n d t h e g r o u n d
on which it w a s s u p p o r t e d by m o s t of t h e s p e a k e r s , c a n n o t fail to show,
that F r a n c e is n o t less d e t e r m i n e d t h a n E n g l a n d to resist the principle of
U n k i a r Skelessi [153,154]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston ( R e e . J u l y 4) Paris, July 2, 1839. ...


15 M a r s h a l Soult expressed his entire c o n c u r r e n c e in y o u r o p i n i o n , in r e g a r d
to the impolicy of c o n t i n u i n g t h e p r e s e n t relative p o s i t i o n of t h e S u l t a n
and of M e h e m e t Ali, a n d the necessity of settling on a p e r m a n e n t footing
their relations t o e a c h o t h e r ; b u t h e w a s n o t p r e p a r e d t o assert t o y o u r
L o r d s h i p ' s p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t n o settlement w o u l d b e satisfactory w h i c h
20 did n o t restore t h e w h o l e of Syria to t h e direct a u t h o r i t y of t h e Sultan.
H e said, t h a t the C o u r t o f Berlin h a d suggested t h e p l a n o f the Pashalics
of Tripoli a n d of A l e p p o b e i n g given up by I b r a h i m P a s h a , leaving to
him the possession o f t h e P a s h a l i c o f A c r e a n d o f D a m a s c u s ; t h a t h e w a s
not a w a r e of the view of the C o u r t of V i e n n a in r e g a r d to this m a t t e r ,
25 and t h a t t h e F r e n c h gov. h a d n o t yet f o r m e d a n y o p i n i o n u p o n it. M a r -
shal Soult, however, gave me to u n d e r s t a n d , t h a t his h e s i t a t i o n to accede
to y o u r L o r d s h i p ' s p r o p o s a l , a r o s e from his d o u b t of t h e possibility of
obtaining M e h e m e t Ali's acquiescence in it, r a t h e r t h a n f r o m a n y objec-
tion to the a r r a n g e m e n t itself. [153]

30 Lord William Russell to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 8) Berlin, July 3,


1839. M. de R i b e a u p i e r r e r e a d to me a d e s p a t c h , a d d r e s s e d by C o u n t
Nesselrode t o t h e R u s s i a n A m b a s s a d o r i n L o n d o n . . . M . d e R i b e a u -
pierre told m e , t h a t the K i n g o f P r u s s i a h a d s p o k e n t o h i m t h r e e t i m e s
during his visit at P o t s d a m , on the subject of this d e s p a t c h , expressing
35 the pleasure he received from t h e m o d e r a t e a n d politic views of Russia,
and his h o p e t h a t they w o u l d b e acceptable t o t h e Brit. C a b i n e t . B a r o n
Werther h a s since expressed to me his satisfaction at t h e l a n g u a g e held by
Russia; c o n c l u d i n g by saying, t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n w a s p l a c e d by all parties
i n the h a n d s o f H . M ' s G o v . . . . F r e d e r i c k t h e G r e a t said i t w a s n o t t h e

223
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

P o w e r which s t r u c k t h e f i r s t b l o w t h a t w a s guilty o f aggression, b u t t h e


P o w e r which by its a r m a m e n t s forced a n o t h e r P o w e r to strike a b l o w in
its o w n defence. T h e a c c e p t a t i o n o f this definition w o u l d m a k e M e h e m e t
Ali t h e aggressor. [155]

Lord William Russell July 3, 1839, Berlin. " C o u n t B r e s s o n s h o w e d me 5


s o m e d e s p a t c h e s of C o u n t St. A u l a i r e ' s , relating his c o n v e r s a t i o n with
P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h . . . H . H i g h n . ( M e t t e r n i c h ) h a d suggested t h e expedi-
ency (in case t h e S u l t a n ' s a r m y s h o u l d be defeated) of allowing the R u s -
sian a r m y t o o c c u p y C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , whilst the English, F r e n c h , a n d
A u s t r i a n fleets sailed up the D a r d a n e l l e s . " [155] 10

Viscount Palmerston to Lord William Russell. July 9, 1839 ... T h e R u s -


sian G o v . p r o p o s e s i n the event o f a n y m a r k e d success o n t h e p a r t
of M e h e m e t Ali, to leave the E g y p t i a n s in t h e possession of O r f a a n d
D i a r b e k i r ; b u t D i a r b e k i r is the c e n t r a l key of A s i a m i n o r ; a n d w h o e v e r is
strongly in military possession of t h a t p o s t , will h a v e t h e c o m m a n d of the 15
w h o l e ||16| c o u n t r y . . . . w h e n R u s s i a a n d M e h e m e t Ali s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e
to c o - o p e r a t e t o g e t h e r a g a i n s t t h e S u l t a n , a R u s s i a n force from G u m r i ,
u n i t e d w i t h t h e t r o o p s o f M e h e m e t Ali a t D i a r b e k i r , w o u l d sweep
t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e extent o f A s i a m i n o r . . . [156]

Viscount Palmerston to the Marquess of Clanricarde. July 9, 1839 ... 20


I h a v e t o instruct y o u r E x c , t o t h a n k t h e R u s s . G o v . for this c o m m u n i -
cation, (d. d. 15 J u n e ) H. M ' s G o v . fully a p p r e c i a t e the confidence thus
evinced in the Brit. Gov. by the Cab. of St. Petersburgh, and are rejoiced to
f i n d , t h a t t h e general t e n o u r o f t h e views w h i c h h a v e b e e n t a k e n o f the
m a t t e r s in q u e s t i o n by the 2 C a b i n e t s , s h o u l d be so m u c h the s a m e . ... 25
T h e only a r r a n g e m e n t . . . w h i c h c o u l d a p p e a r t o H . M ' s G o v . t o b e cal-
c u l a t e d to secure peace for t h e future, w o u l d be t h e e v a c u a t i o n of Syria
b y M e h e m e t Ali . . . u n d m a k i n g t h e P a s h a l i c o f E g y p t h e r e d i t a r y i n his
family . . . If t h e R u s s . G o v . s h o u l d c o n c u r in this general view, and
s h o u l d instruct its A m b a s s . at V i e n n a accordingly, t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t , 30
t h a t s u c h an expression of the p a r t of R u s s i a , w o u l d c a r r y with it all the
weight which n a t u r a l l y belongs to t h e s e n t i m e n t s of R u s s i a u p o n such a
m a t t e r . . . [156,157]

Lord Beauvale to Viscount Palmerston (ree. July 11) Vienna. July 1, 1839
Prince M e t t e r n i c h , . . . a t t a c h e s the greatest value to an i n v i t a t i o n from 35
the 2 P o w e r s to the E m p e r o r of R u s s i a to j o i n his s q u a d r o n to theirs in
t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n . . . r e a s o n . . . of this affair, b e i n g t h e j o i n t c o n c e r n of

224
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

all E u r o p e . ( K n d i g t i h m die K r a n k h e i t des S u l t a n s a n . ) t h e A u s t r i a n


s q u a d r o n in the L e v a n t will be reinforced, a n d place itself u n d e r t h e
orders of A d m i r a l S t o p f o r d . [159,160]

Viscount Palmerston to Lord Beauvale. July 13, 1839. ... Was dies n u n
5 angeht t h a t E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e s h o u l d invite R u s s i a t o send h e r Black
Sea s q u a d r o n i n t o t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n , t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the c o m b i n e d
Brit., F r e n c h , a n d A u s t r i a n f l e e t . . . H . M ' s G o v . a r e inclined t o d o u b t
the expediency of such a m e a s u r e at p r e s e n t . . . fr die suspension d e r
hostilities i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n , die c o m b i n e d f l e e t w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t . . .
io If, indeed, t h e 5 P o w e r s s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e to press u p o n the P o r t e a n d
u p o n M e h e m e t Ali, t h e a r r a n g e m e n t b y w h i c h M e h e m e t Ali w o u l d h a v e
to e v a c u a t e Syria, a n d if the Pasha should demur to accede to that ar-
rangement, there might then be an o b v i o u s a d v a n t a g e in p r o v i n g to
the P a s h a , by t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n of the R u s s i a n flag w i t h t h a t of A u s t r i a ,
15 France, a n d E n g l a n d , t h a t the G r e a t P o w e r s a r e u n a n i m o u s in their deci-
sion. [160,161]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (ree. July 11) Paris, July 8, 1839
M a r s h a l Soult h a s r e a d t o m e t h e N o t e w h i c h h e p r o p o s e s s h o u l d b e
addressed b y the F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r t o t h e S u b l i m e P o r t e , r e q u e s t i n g
20 that a F r e n c h fleet m a y p a s s t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , in case an E g y p t i a n a r m y
should a p p r o a c h C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a n d foreign s u c c o u r b e r e q u i r e d for t h e
defence o f the c a p i t a l . . . H e expressed his h o p e s t h a t H . M ' s G o v . w o u l d
instruct L o r d P o n s o n b y to a d d r e s s to t h e T u r k . G o v . a similar n o t e , for
the admission of the Brit, fleet within the D a r d a n e l l e s . . . [161, 162]

25 Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 13) Therapia,


s
June24,1839 ... O n the 2 1 t h e F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r h a d a n interview
with N o u r i Effendi, to receive a verbal reply f r o m t h e P o r t e to his E x c ' s
note, d e m a n d i n g the recall of t h e t r o o p s f r o m the A l e p p o side of t h e
Euphrates. T h e P o r t e w o u l d n o t give a w r i t t e n reply. T h e verbal o n e w a s ,
30 "that the ministers h a d n o t c o m m u n i c a t e d to t h e S u l t a n the d e m a n d s
made by the F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r " . [163]

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (receiv. July 13) Therapia,


June 24, 1839. r e p o r t . . . t h a t t h e F r e n c h fleet will o p p o s e by force t h e p r o -
gress o f the O t t o m a n f l e e t . . . T h e C a p u d a n P a s h a i n t e n d s t o sail o n S a t u r -
35 day with all his fleet for R h o d e s . . . T h e P a s h a considers t h a t the F r e n c h
have no right to h i n d e r h i m f r o m following t h e o r d e r s of his Sovereign:
and h e says t h a t h e h a s positive o r d e r s t o e n g a g e t h e E g y p t i a n f l e e t . . .

225
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

if t h e F r e n c h w e r e alone in their present p r o c e e d i n g s , t h a t w o u l d n o t


p r e v e n t h i m f r o m following his o w n p l a n s ; b u t if t h e English s h o u l d be
agreed w i t h the F r e n c h , in t h a t case he s h o u l d feel himself c o n s t r a i n e d ,
m u c h against his inclination, to s u b m i t to their will. | [164, 165]

|17| Viscount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonby July 13, 1839. . . . if the 5


S u l t a n s h o u l d die, a n d if in consequence of his d e a t h , t h e presence of
t h e Brit. S q u a d r o n at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e s h o u l d a p p e a r useful . . . offer the
assistance o f the s q u a d r o n t o t h e T u r k . G o v . , i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e F r e n c h
A m b a s s a d o r , w h o will h a v e instructions to m a k e a similar offer of the
assistance of the F r e n c h fleet . . . A d m i r a l Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d to go up 10
t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , i f invited t o d o s o b y t h e T u r k . G o v . . . . d e r F r e n c h
A m b a s s a d o r will h a v e instructions to m a k e a similar offer of the assist-
a n c e of t h e F r e n c h fleet . . . [166]

Viscount Palmerston to the Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty. July 18.


1839 ... a c q u a i n t A d m i r a l . Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d , t h a t a further instruction 15
will b e sent t o H . M ' s A m b a s s a d o r a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , stating, t h a t i f the
R u s s i a n fleet should, for any r e a s o n w h a t e v e r , enter the B o s p h o r u s , his
E x c . will a p p l y for p e r m i s s i o n for the Brit, fleet to do t h e s a m e . . . D a s -
selbe schreibt Viscount Palmerston an P o n s o n b y , d. d. July 18, 1839.
[167,168] 20

Marquess of Clanricarde to Viscount Palmerston. St. Petersburgh July 8,


1839. I h a v e every r e a s o n to believe t h a t t h e S u l t a n deceived M. de B o u -
tneff, a n d t h a t his c o m m e n c e m e n t of hostilities w a s as disagreeable to,
as it w a s u n e x p e c t e d by H i s I m p . M a j . . . . [169]

Earl of Granville to Viscount Palmerston (ree. July 17) Paris, July 15, 25 *
1839. ... Soult i n f o r m e d me t h a t B o u r q u e n e y h a d c o m m u n i c a t e d ...
to y o u . . . the readiness of t h e F r e n c h G o v . to b e c o m e a p a r t y to a
general g u a r a n t e e of t h e integrity of t h e T u r k , e m p i r e by t h e 5 G r e a t
E u r o p . P o w e r s . . . [171]

id. to id. (receiv. 17 July) inclosed despatch, d a S u l t a n M a h m o u d died 30 ;


on the 30* of J u n e . His eldest son, declared of age by t h e D i v a n , was
p r o c l a i m e d E m p e r o r . O n t h e 28' o r d e r s h a d b e e n sent t o Hafiz P a s h a t o
s u s p e n d hostilities. [172]

Baron Bourqueney to Viscount Pahnerston. (receiv. July 21) London,


July 19, 1839 communicated officiellen, dem Palmerston mitzutheilenden 35
Brief v.:

226
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

Duke of Dalmatia (Soult) to the Baron of Bourqueney d . d . Paris,


July 17, 1839 . . . all t h e C a b i n e t s wish for the integrity a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e
o f the O t t o m a n M o n a r c h y u n d e r the d y n a s t y n o w reigning . . . a n d
they w o u l d n o t hesitate t o declare themselves a g a i n s t a n y c o m b i n a t i o n
5 whatever, w h i c h m i g h t i m p a i r it . . . Palmerston d. d. July 22, 1839, a n t -
wortet i n denselben P h r a s e n a n B a r o n B o u r q u e n e y . [173-175]

The Marquess of Clanricarde to Viscount Palmerston ( R e e . July 23)


St. Petersburgh July 15, 1839. ... C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e said " A u s t r i a p r o -
poses, t h a t for the h e r e d i t a r y t e n u r e of t h e P a s h a l i c of E g y p t assured to
10 his family, M e h e m e t Ali s h o u l d relinquish Syria at his d e a t h . We do n o t
object t o t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t . Y o u r G o v . say, t h a t Syria s h o u l d b e i m m e d i -
ately restored to t h e Sultan. We also think that better. B u t h a v e y o u a n y
reason to s u p p o s e t h a t M e h e m e t Ali will accede to such a p r o p o s a l ? "
[177]

15 Lord Beauvale to Viscount Palmerston (ree. July 23) Vienna, July 11,
1839 . . . the o r d e r s to t h e C o m m a n d e r s (den t u r k i s h ) , by sea a n d land, to
t h t h
suspend o p e r a t i o n s , were sent o n t h e 2 8 o r 2 9 . . .
Id to id. (ree. July 23) Vienna, July 11, 1839. As to t h e p l a n of pacifi-
cation, Prince M e t t e r n i c h fully a d o p t s y o u r L o r d s h i p ' s ideas; b u t t h e
20 Porte having itself d e s i g n a t e d the t e r m s u p o n which it is willing to confer
Egypt u p o n t h e family of M e h e m e t Ali, he considers these, consisting of
the restitution of Syria a n d C a n d a , a n d t h e d i s a r m i n g , as a sine qua non;
whereas t h e restitution of the e a s t e r n coast of the R e a d Sea, a n d t h e
terms u p o n w h i c h E g y p t is to be held as a fief, are o p e n to n e g o t i a t i o n .
25 His p l a n for t h e c o n d u c t of this n e g o t i a t i o n is t h e following. It m u s t
begin a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a n d will b e c o m p l e t e w h e n t h e P o r t e shall h a v e
agreed with t h e 5 P o w e r s u p o n the t e r m s to be g r a n t e d to the P a s h a : this
agreement to be c o n s i g n e d to official n o t e s . W h e n this is d o n e , t h e 5
Powers will notify t o the P a s h a t h e t e r m s , a n d call u p o n h i m t o accept
30 them, s u p p o r t i n g their i n t i m a t i o n by s u c h pressure, in case of refusal, as
may be sufficient to d e t e r m i n e his assent. T h i s assent b e i n g o b t a i n e d , t h e
arrangement to be placed u n d e r the g u a r a n t e e of the 5 P o w e r s . T h e o u t -
line of t e r m s is a l r e a d y sketched, a n d m a y be c o n s i d e r e d as a d o p t e d
b y England, A u s t r i a , Prussia, a n d R u s s i a . F r a n c e r e m a i n s ; a n d Prince
35 Metternich requests t h e Brit. G o v . to p e r s u a d e F r a n c e . . . it is p r o b -
able that the P o r t e || 181 will i n s i s t . . . u p o n a d i m i n u t i o n of M e h e m e t Ali's
fleet, a n d this d i m i n u t i o n is precisely w h a t will be m o s t u n p l e a s a n t to
France, w h o h a s always l o o k e d u p o n t h e n a v a l p o w e r of E g y p t as a
re-inforcement to h e r o w n , a n d t h e r e b y a c o u n t e r p o i s e to o u r m a r i t i m e

227
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie - Heft 3

superiority in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n . . . If t h e m o r a l w e i g h t of t h e 5 P o w e r s
s h o u l d n o t d e t e r m i n e the submission of the P a s h a . . . t h e Russian p r o p -
osition to consider ourselves in a state of war m i g h t be f o u n d the o n l y o n e
efficacious . . . t h e A d m i r a l s s h o u l d be furnished w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s . . . I
h a v e c o m p r i s e d in this d e s p a t c h the result of m a n y c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h 5
P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h . . . [178-180]

id. to id. (ree. 23 July) V i e n n a July 11, 1839 . . . Russia a l r e a d y a d o p t s the


principle, t h a t everything i s t o b e d o n e i n c o m m o n . U p o n all t h e details
P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h agrees t o y o u r L o r d s h i p ' s ideas w i t h o u t reserve, a n d i s
sure of their a d o p t i o n by R u s s i a : so t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to h i m , E n g l a n d , 10
A u s t r i a , a n d R u s s i a , are p l a c e d exactly u p o n t h e s a m e line, a n d there
o n l y r e m a i n s to i n d u c e F r a n c e to relinquish h e r d e v i a t i o n s f r o m it. [180]

id. to id. (Ree. July 23) d, d. Vienna July 11, 1839 M e t t e r n i c h . . . told me
. . . t h a t its (der A u s t r i a n s q u a d r o n ) sailing w o u l d b e delayed until a n
a n s w e r s h o u l d be received f r o m P a r i s to an a p p l i c a t i o n calling u p o n the 15
F r e n c h G o v . to confirm its instruction to its Admiral to that which had
been given by England, the principle of p a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e S u l t a n a n d the
P a s h a being o n e w h i c h A u s t r i a could n o t a d m i t , a n y m o r e t h a n she c o u l d
its a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e e q u a l t r e a t m e n t of their vessels. Till this w a s d o n e
P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h said t h e A u s t r i a n s q u a d r o n c o u l d n o t j o i n t h e c o m - 20
b i n e d fleet, a s i t w o u l d n o t k n o w w i t h w h o m t o act. [180,181]

id. to id. (received July 23) Vienna, July 14, 1839. ... a r r i v a l of an estafette
f r o m C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . I inclose L o r d P o n s o n b y ' s d e s p a t c h e s received by
this occasion; t h o s e of t h e I n t e r n u n c i o will be c o m m u n i c a t e d by Prince
E s t e r h a z y . T h e r e are 2 differences between t h e m . T h e first is, t h a t B a r o n 25
S t r m e r m e n t i o n s i t t o b e i n t e n d e d b y the P o r t e t o a p p r i z e M e h e m e t Ali
t h a t t h e S u l t a n m a y b e i n d u c e d t o a p p o i n t o n e o f his s o n s t o t h e Pashalic
of o n e of t h e P r o v i n c e s he ( M e h e m e t Ali) at p r e s e n t h o l d s , w h i c h is
virtually a r e l i n q u i s h m e n t of Syria to I b r a h i m P a s h a . T h e o t h e r , t h a t the
I n t e r n u n c i o notifies t h e c o n s e n t of t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the 5 P o w e r s 30
h a v i n g been given t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e P o r t e , while L o r d
P o n s o n b y only speaks of their h a v i n g agreed to notify the facts to the
C o n s u l s . T h e r e is a further difference b e t w e e n this o v e r t u r e m a d e by
N o u r i Effendi, a n d t h e o n e h e m a d e t o the I n t e r n u n c i o ; i n t h a t , the
e v a c u a t i o n of t h e H o l y Cities w a s o m i t t e d , as in this, is t h e disarming. 35
[181]

228
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 24) Therapia.


July 3, 1839 In p u r s u a n c e of t h e desire of the Sublime P o r t e , the M i n -
isters of the 5 G r e a t P o w e r s assembled this d a y at the H o u s e of the O t t o -
m a n M i n i s t e r for F o r e i g n Affairs . . . N o u r i E f f e n d i . . . t h e S u l t a n (erklrt
5 N o u r i Effendi) . . . d e t e r m i n e d to send o n e of the e m i n e n t m e n of his
C o u r t t o offer t h e E g y p t i a n P a s h a p a r d o n for the p a s t , a n d a s s u r a n c e o f
favour for t h e future (of which t h e S u l t a n sent a d e c o r a t i o n as the m a r k
a n d evidence), a n d t o p r o m i s e t h a t H . H . w o u l d confer u p o n the P a s h a
a n d his family t h e h e r e d i t a r y G o v . o f E g y p t t o b e held b y the P a s h a a n d
10 his d e s c e n d a n t s as vassals, on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t Syria etc. s h o u l d be im-
mediately r e s t o r e d to t h e Sultan. [183]

Viscount Palmerston to Lord Beauvale. F o r . Office, J u l y 2 3 , 1839 (incloses


him "Draft of Note to be presented to the Porte by Admiral Roussin",
worin es u. a. heit: F r d e n F a l l d e r G e f a h r : the S u b l i m e P o r t e w o u l d
15 doubtless u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e surest m e t h o d of reconciling a r e g a r d for
its dignity, a n d even for its security, w i t h the grievous necessity to w h i c h
it w o u l d find itself r e d u c e d , w o u l d be, to request, n o t f r o m o n e P o w e r in
particular, b u t f r o m t h e w h o l e o f E u r o p e , the s u p p o r t w h i c h w o u l d b e
indispensable for it. A g r e a t E m p i r e . . . is n o t d e g r a d e d by placing itself
20 under the p r o t e c t i o n of t h e great E u r o p e a n interests. It finds even in t h e
diversity of those interests, w h e n they u n i t e in c o m i n g to its s u c c o u r , the
sure g u a r a n t e e t h a t this p r o t e c t i o n c a n n o t be t r a n s f o r m e d into a s u p r e m -
acy d a n g e r o u s to its i n d e p e n d e n c e . This system of c o n d u c t . . . is, m o r e o -
ver, the o n l y o n e which is consistent w i t h the duties a n d the j u s t suscep-
25 tibilities of t h e policy of t h e G r e a t C o u r t s . . . H. [M's] (die french) G o v .
therefore is p e r s u a d e d , t h a t it meets the i n t e n t i o n s of t h e Sublime P o r t e
by requesting t h a t , in the event of the l a n d or sea forces of o n e or m o r e of
the Allied P o w e r s b e i n g invited to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , o r d e r s m a y be given
immediately to o p e n t h e p a s s a g e of t h e D a r d a n e l l e s to a F r e n c h
30 s q u a d r o n which w o u l d arrive for the p r o t e c t i o n of the ||19| t h r o n e of t h e
sultan ... [185, 186]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 25) Paris, July 22. 1839.
... complete r o u t e o f t h e Turk, a r m y u n d e r Hafiz P a s h a . . . b a t t l e o f
June24 ...
35 Inclosure I. Alexandria July 6. T h e E g y p t i a n a r m y u n d e r t h e o r d e r s
o f I b r a h i m P a s h a , h a v i n g a t t a c k e d the Turk. A r m y c o m m a n d e d b y t h e
Seraskier Hafiz P a s h a , a t N e z i b , b e y o n d A l e p p o , the latter a b a n d o n e d
the field of b a t t l e after an a c t i o n of 2 h o u r s . All the matriel, in g u n s ,
cannon, a n d a m m u n i t i o n , h a s fallen i n t o the p o w e r o f the E g y p t i a n s .

229
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

l
I b r a h i m w r o t e this intelligence the 2 5 of J u n e f r o m t h e tent of the Turk-
th
ish General-in-Chief. H e h a d r e t u r n e d t o A i n t a b o n t h e 2 8 , b u t h a d
o r d e r e d 3 r e g i m e n t s of I n f a n t r y a n d 3 r e g i m e n t s of C a v a l r y , to a d v a n c e
u p o n Orfa a n d D i a r b e k i r . [187]

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston ( R e e . July 26) Therapia, July 8, 5


1839. "'
. . . A h m e d P a s h a accused H o s r e w a n d Halil P a s h a o f h a v i n g m u r d e r e d
S u l t a n M a h m o u d , a n d o f t h e intention t o give u p this c o u n t r y t o the
R u s s i a n s . H e said h e h a d written o n July 2 t o Hafiz P a s h a , t o call u p o n
h i m to m a r c h with his a r m y to d e p o s e the p r e s e n t M i n i s t e r by force. He 10
w o u l d ask M e h e m e t Ali for his s u p p o r t i n t h e u n d e r t a k i n g a n d a n -
n o u n c e d his i n t e n t i o n t o t a k e the O t t o m a n fleet t o C a n d i a . . . [188]
Inclos. I. Baron Roussin to Viscount Palmerston Therapia July 7, 1839.
. . . t h e C a p u d a n P a s h a is in insurrection w i t h his fleet a g a i n s t t h e G o v . of
H. H . , a n d h a s set o u t for R h o d e s , p r e t e n d i n g t h a t this G o v . is sold to 15
R u s s i a . . . they ( o u r gov's) are the Allies of the S u l t a n A b d u l Medjid, a n d
their wishes will be in his favour. I h a v e given this a s s u r a n c e to the G o v .
of H. H. on the p a r t of my o w n . As I h a v e not the least doubt of the
perfect understanding which exists between o u r s etc . . . [189]
D a s g a n z e s t a t e m e n t erfuhr P o n s o n b y v. R o u s s i n , dieser wieder v o m 20
fzs. A d m i r a l L a l a n d e , w h o w a s visited b y t h e s e c o n d i n c o m m a n d o f the
O t t o m a n Fleet, O s m a n Bey, bearer of a m e s s a g e f r o m A h m e d P a s h a . . .
Inclosure III. Viscount Ponsonby to Col. Campbell, Therapia, July 7,
1839. ... T h e F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r . . . advised the P o r t e to send couriers
in all h a s t e to Hafiz P a s h a ; a n d I believe he h a s advised t h a t orders 25
s h o u l d be given for t h e recall of the a r m y b a c k to this n e i g h b o u r h o o d . 1
shall give advice, t h a t t h e a r m y be left w h e r e it is, b e c a u s e t h a t p a r t of the
E m p i r e o u g h t n o t t o b e exposed t o b e c o m e t h e p r e y o f M e h e m e t Ali . . .
[190]

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (ree. July 26) Therapia, 30


Juli 8, 1839. Before these late events, a n d after t h e d e a t h of M a h m o u d ,
I told the G r a n d Visier t h a t I t h o u g h t it very possible t h e O t t o m a n a r m y
w o u l d be defeated; a n d I advised him in t h a t case to avoid, with pertinac-
ity, making any concessions to Mehemet Ali of territory, etc. before the
advice o f t h e G r e a t P o w e r s s h o u l d b e given. H e a s s u r e d m e , t h a t h e 35'
w o u l d n o t m a k e a n y concessions . . . I t i s n o t impossible t h a t H o s r e w
k n e w , w h e n he a n s w e r e d m e , t h a t Hafiz h a d b e e n defeated. [191]

230
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

Lord Beauvale to Viscount Palmerston ( R e e . J u l y 26) Vienna, July 17,


839 . . . t h e first n e w s of t h e b a t t l e ... r e a c h e d t h e C o r p s D i p l o m a t i q u e
a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . t h r o u g h C o u n t K n i g s m a r k , w h o received i t o n
July 7 ... Prince M e t t e r n i c h is in possession of r e p o r t s w h i c h p r o v e to his
5 satisfaction, t h a t t h e defeat w a s k n o w n before t h e o v e r t u r e to M e h e m e t ,
and t h a t it decided t h a t m e a s u r e . . . It is called a b a t t l e , b u t in fact t h e r e
was n o n e , the w h o l e Turk, a r m y h a v i n g r u n a w a y a s s o o n a s t h e c a n n o n -
ade grew h o t . . . t h e a t t a c k w a s m a d e b y I b r a h i m u p o n the receipt o f
M e h e m e t All's o r d e r t o t h a t effect. C a p t a i n Caillier, w h o b o r e t h e c o u n t e r
10 order, will h a v e r e a c h e d the c a m p within 48 h o u r s after t h e defeat of t h e
Turk, a r m y , s o t h a t w e m a y h o p e t h a t I b r a h i m will h a v e h a l t e d u p o n t h e
E u p h r a t e s . . . the T u r k , a r m y is to be c o n s i d e r e d as totally d i s b a n d e d . . .
[191,192]

id. to id. (received J u l y 2 6 ) Vienna, July 19, 1839. . . . It a p p e a r s highly


15 p r o b a b l e t h a t the P o r t e a n d t h e P a s h a will c o m e to an a g r e e m e n t .
The overture, of w h i c h Akiff Effendi is t h e b e a r e r , h a v i n g been sent w i t h
the k n o w l e d g e of the defeat of t h e T u r k . A r m y , it is to be s u p p o s e d t h a t
he is a u t h o r i z e d to s u b m i t to the P a s h a ' s c o n d i t i o n s , a n d M e h e m e t Ali
will prefer closing at o n c e w i t h the S u l t a n in a m o m e n t of defeat, r a t h e r
20 than await t h e i n t e r p o s i t i o n of ||20| t h e 5 P o w e r s . . . P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h . . .
purposes sending a c o u r i e r in a few d a y s to L o n d o n , by w h o m he will
enter into a full c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e a c t u a l p o s t u r e of affairs . . . da d e r
death of the S u l t a n M a h m o u d , the accession of a successor, t h e d e s t r u c -
tion of the a r m y , the defection of t h e fleet, a n d t h e rivalry of t h e leading
25 persons of t h e e m p i r e , h a v e totally c h a n g e d t h e state of things . . . [192]

Viscount Palmerston to Lord Beauvale F. O. July 26, 1839. . . . T h e s e


Beauvale's) d e s p a t c h e s p r o v e t h a t t h e r e exists perfect identity b e t w e e n
the views o f A u s t r i a a n d t h o s e E n g l a n d , u p o n t h e T u r c o - E g y p t i a n Affair:
and that full reliance m a y be placed u p o n t h e c o m p l e t e c o - o p e r a t i o n of
30 Russia with t h e o t h e r P o w e r s etc [193]

t h
id. to id. July 26, 1839 ... t h e result of the b a t t l e of t h e 2 4 c a n n o t entitle
Mehemet Ali to a n y greater f a v o u r from t h e 5 P o w e r s , b u t r a t h e r t h e
contrary; because t h e b a t t l e w a s f o u g h t in defiance of t h e r e m o n s t r a n c e s
and warnings of the 5 P o w e r s , his a r m y b e i n g t h e assailant, a n d t h e field
35 of action h a v i n g b e e n b e y o n d the frontier of Syria. B u t n e i t h e r can the
results of t h a t b a t t l e diminish the force of t h o s e political c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
which h a v e led the P o w e r s to t h i n k t h a t t h e e v a c u a t i o n of Syria by
Mehemet Ali is essential for t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e Turk. E m p i r e , a n d
consequently for t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of the p e a c e of E u r o p e . [193,194]

231
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

Sir George Hamilton to Visount Palmerston (Ree. July 30) Berlin,


July 24, 1839. ... B a r o n W e r t h e r assured m e , t h a t t h e K i n g w o u l d derive
m u c h satisfaction f r o m a k n o w l e d g e of y o u r L o r d s h i p ' s l a n g u a g e to R u s -
sia on the occasion . . . His Exc. ( B a r o n W e r t h e r ) c o n c u r r e d entirely in
y o u r o p i n i o n as to t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t s h o u l d be a s s u m e d by G r e a t Britain 5
a n d R u s s i a in t h e p r e s e n t state of things . . . P r u s s i a (sagt derselbe Wer-
ther) w o u l d entirely agree in the line of c o n d u c t w h i c h y o u r L o r d s h i p
p r o p o s e d t o a d o p t , i n conjunction with t h e view o f t h e A u s t r i a n C a b i n e t
. . . [202]

Col. Campbell to Visount Palmerston (Ree. July 27) Alexandria, July 6, 10


1839. ... C a p t . Caillier will h a v e r e a c h e d t h e c a m p of I b r a h i m P a s h a on
l
t h e 2 7 ult. . . . t h e S u l t a n refused t o allow t h e officer sent b y M a r s h . Soult
t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , t o p r o c e e d with a n y mission t o Hafiz P a s h a t o sus-
p e n d his o p e r a t i o n s ; a n d this is the m o r e to be l a m e n t e d , as t h e officer
m i g h t possibly h a v e r e a c h e d in t i m e to p r e v e n t t h e late battle. [204] 15
Inclos. The Austrian Consul-Gen. at Aleppo, June 26, 1839, Evening ...
N o t o n e o f t h e m (the Turks.) could h a v e r e a c h e d t h e E u p h r a t e s h a d
I b r a h i m P a s h a wished seriously t o p r e v e n t i t . . . T o - m o r r o w o r n e x t d a y
t h e E g y p t i a n a d v a n c e d g u a r d , c o m m a n d e d b y O s m a n P a s h a , will c o m -
m e n c e passing the E u p h r a t e s . E v e r y t h i n g indicates t h a t s u c h is t h e in- 20
t e n t i o n o f the E g y p t i a n Seraskier.

Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July27), July6, 1839. ...


3 regiments of I n f a n t r y a n d 3 of C a v a l r y h a d b e e n sent by I b r a h i m P a s h a
t o t a k e possession o f O r f a a n d D i a r b e k i r , a n d h e w a s g o i n g t o send o n
t r o o p s to M a l a t i a . . . [205] 25

Visount Palmerston to the Marquess of Clanricarde. F. O., July 30, 1839.


t h o s e events ( v o n N e z i b etc.) . . . d o n o t a p p e a r t o H e r M ' s G o v . t o
afford to t h e 5 P o w e r s a n y r e a s o n for altering in a n y degree the course
w h i c h they h a d previously i n t e n d e d to p u r s u e . [206]

Mr. Pro-Consul Werry to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 31, 1839) 30


Aleppo, July 1, 1839. ... T h i s m o r n i n g . . . I b r a h i m P a s h a h a s reached
A i n t a b w i t h all the forces, from w h e n c e it is said he h a s s t a r t e d for
M a r a s h , darin:
th
Inclosure3 . . . On the 2 7 i n s t . , in the evening, M. Caillier, o n e of
M a r s h . Soult's A i d e s - d e - C a m p , r e a c h e d this ( A l e p p o ) c o m i n g from Alex- 35,
a n d r i a in 6 d a y s . . . he left this yesterday ( J u n e 28,) a f t e r n o o n , accom-
p a n i e d by his H i g h n e s s M e h e m e t Ali's i n t e r p r e t e r , r e p a i r i n g with

232
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

all speed in q u e s t of his E x c . I b r a h i m P a s h a , w h o m ... I d a r e say he will


find between A i n t a b a n d M a r a s h . . . [206, 209]

Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 31) Alexandria, July 11,
1839. ... On the evening of the 8 inst. . . . positive intelligence of the d e a t h
5 of the Sultan; a n d t h e P a s h a d e s p a t c h e d i m m e d i a t e o r d e r s to I b r a h i m
P a s h a to s u s p e n d all hostilities ... On t h e 9' (evening) we h e a r d ... t h a t
A c h m e t P a s h a w a s c o m i n g t o place his fleet a t the disposition o f M e h e -
t h
met Ali ... O n t h e 0 , M e h e m e t Ali e r k l r t e : "If A c h m e t P a s h a wishes
to deliver over to me the fleet of t h e S u l t a n , 11|211 will n o t accept it, a n d I
10 will send it b a c k to t h e S u l t a n " ... At t h e r e c e p t i o n of H o s r e w P a s h a ' s
letter (on the 10', im N a m e n des Sultans) M e h e m e t Ali c a u s e d an o r d e r
t o b e p r e p a r e d for I b r a h i m P a s h a , b y w h i c h h e enjoins h i m t o w i t h d r a w
his t r o o p s t o this side o f t h e E u p h r a t e s , a n d a s far a s M a r a s h , l o o k i n g o n
the w a r a s n o w a t a n end. M e h e m e t Ali says h e wishes t o have possession
15 of M a r a s h , w h i c h is o n l y about 3 hours beyond his present frontier,
because it gives h i m t h e m e a n s of k e e p i n g in o r d e r the m o u n - taineers of
G i a o u r D a g h , w h o h a v e always, a l t h o u g h i n his present territory, b e e n
very t r o u b l e s o m e ; a n d t h a t he will p a y the S u l t a n for t h e accession of
that territory twice t h e t r i b u t e w h i c h t h a t district p a y s a t present. T h e
20 Pasha says, t h a t he is confident t h a t all differences will n o w be firmly
settled w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n of t h e G r e a t P o w e r s ... he professes g r e a t
respect for, a n d submission t o , the y o u n g S u l t a n . . . he himself will p r o -
ceed t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , i n o r d e r t o p a y his p e r s o n a l h o m a g e t o his
Sovereign ... n o t only h a s M e h e m e t Ali s t r o n g friends i n the D i v a n , b u t
25 he is r e g a r d e d by all p a r t i e s as the only p e r s o n w h o c a n h e l p the S u l t a n to
sustain the O t t o m a n E m p i r e ... [219, 220]

id. to id. (Ree. July 31) Alexandria , July 13, 1839.


... In t h e letter of the to V i s c o u n t P o n s o n b y , inclosed in des leztern
despatch of M a y 1, t h e S u l t a n gives as a r e a s o n for his military p r e p -
30 arations a n d fortifications, the levies of t r o o p s by M e h e m e t Ali, a n d t h e
redoubts etc., erected b y h i m o n t h e frontier. B u t surely t h e S u l t a n m u s t
have been a w a r e t h a t M e h e m e t Ali c o u l d n o t , a n d d a r e d n o t t o , a t t a c k
the Sultan, as in such case he w o u l d h a v e h a d a r r a y e d a g a i n s t h i m t h e
Great P o w e r s , T h e S u l t a n h a d c o n s e q u e n t l y n o t h i n g t o fear f r o m M e h e -
35 met Ali, a n d it w a s his interest clearly to allow M e h e m e t Ali to e x h a u s t
his resources ...It was, however, clearly the object of Russia to urge the
Sultan to weaken himself by useless preparations and expences ... t h e
Sultan played t h e g a m e of R u s s i a . " I n r e g a r d to t h e desire of t h e S u l t a n
for M e h e m e t Ali t o give u p A d a n a , D a m a s c u s , A l e p p o , Seyda, J e r u s a -
40
lem, a n d N a p l o u s ... h e ( M e h e m e t Ali) w o u l d n o t h a v e c o n s e n t e d t o d o

233
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

so, a n d at p r e s e n t he will be still less disposed to listen to such a p r o -


p o s a l . " [221]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. July 31) Paris, July 29, 1839.

Viscount Palmerston to Lord Beauvale, F. 0., August I, 1839.


All things considered, the d e a t h of t h e S u l t a n , a n d t h e defeat of t h e 5
T u r k . A r m y r a t h e r increase t h a n diminish t h e force o f t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h
h a d previously led t h e F i v e P o w e r s t o t h i n k i t necessary t h a t Syria s h o u l d
be r e s t o r e d to t h e direct rule of the Sultan . . . end is t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of
t h e T u r k . E m p i r e ; t h e danger by which t h a t E m p i r e is t h r e a t e n e d is t h e
u s u r p e d P o w e r of M e h e m e t Ali a n d if t h e possession of Syria was to
t h o u g h t t o r e n d e r M e h e m e t Ali d a n g e r o u s l y s t r o n g w i t h r e l a t i o n t o the
S u l t a n d u r i n g t h e life of M a h m o u d , a v i g o u r o u s a n d experienced Sov-
ereign, still m o r e m u s t the possession of Syria r e n d e r M e h e m e t Ali t o o
s t r o n g etc ... w h e n t h a t Sovereign is a m i n o r , a n d h a s b e e n enfeebled by
the defeat a n d dispersion of his a r m y , a n d by the defection of his fleet... 15
The Five Powers therefore . . . s h o u l d l o o k to p e r m a n e n t interests a n d n o t
t o t e m p o r a r y accidents; a n d a s they possess t h e m e a n s o f effectually
s u p p o r t i n g Turkey, they ought to employ those means to accomplish t h a t
p u r p o s e . . . [224]

Id. to Id. F. 0. Dasselbe Datum. 20


T h e Five P o w e r s a p p e a r to be all equally of o p i n i o n , t h a t Syria, C a n d i a
a n d A r a b i a , ought to be immediately restored to t h e direct rule of t h e
S u l t a n ... b u t s o m e of the Five P o w e r s a p p e a r to doubt w h e t h e r t h e alli-
a n c e w o u l d h a v e t h e m e a n s o f i n d u c i n g M e h e m e t Ali t o acquiesce i n such
an a r r a n g e m e n t if he could strongly object to it. . . . such d o u b t s h a v e no 25
sufficient f o u n d a t i o n . . . Sezt n u n a u s e i n a n d e r die simple m e a n s of c o -
ercion the Five P o w e r s possess . . . [225]

Visount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonby. F. O. Aug. 1, 1839. . . . I h a v e


. . . t o instruct Y o u r Exc. t o c a r r y i n t o execution a n y m e a s u r e w h i c h y o u
m a y be i n f o r m e d by L o r d Beauvale h a s been agreed to by h i m on behalf 30
of the Brit. G o v . , a n d has also been c o n c u r r e d in by the A u s t r i a n G o v . ,
a n d by the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e o t h e r 3 P o w e r s at V i e n n a . . . [226]

Marshal Soult to the Consul-Gen. of France at Alexandria. ( Communicated


Aug. 1) Paris, July27, 1839. ... Rffelt b e d e u t e n d d e n M e h e m e t . . . fell
h i m , t h a t if on this occasion, as on m a n y o t h e r s , F r a n c e is t h e first to 35
m a k e h i m h e a r counsels, w h i c h he m a y at first d e e m h a r s h , it is precisely

234
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

because t h e goodwill w h i c h we feel t o w a r d s h i m causes us to view w i t h


deep regret these d a n g e r o u s courses u p o n w h i c h h e i s a b o u t t o enter . . .
the p r o p o s i t i o n s for ||22| a c c o m o d a t i o n . . . c o n t a i n e d in t h e letter a d d r e s -
sed t o h i m b y t h e n e w G r a n d Vizier . . . a p p e a r t o m e perfectly a d a p t e d
5 for forming, at a n y r a t e , the basis of a serious n e g o t i a t i o n . [231]

Viscount Palmerston to Baron de Bourqueney, Aug. 3, 1839. Inclosure I


Sketch of proposed Instructions to the 2 Admirals in the Mediterranean,
wie sie die Aejyptische F l o t t e abfassen sollen u. n a c h C o n s t a n t i n o p e l
senden . . . t h e c a p t u r e o f the E g y p t i a n f l e e t o u g h t n o t h o w e v e r t o i n d u c e
10 the A d m i r a l s to desist from exacting f r o m t h e P a s h a t h e s u r r e n d e r of
the Turk, ships; a n d they s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o use m e a s u r e s o f c o e r c i o n t o
p r o d u c e t h a t result, a n d w o u l d b e a u t h o r i z e d t o d e t a i n all m e r c h a n t ships
sailing u n d e r t h e E g y p t i a n flag. Inclosure II. Supplementary Instruction
to the Admirals. D i e h c h s t s o n d e r b a r e S u p p l e m e n t lautet:

15 "If, w h e n t h e A d m i r a l s receive these i n s t r u c t i o n s , c i r c u m s t a n c e s s h o u l d


have arisen to r e n d e r t h e presence of the c o m b i n e d fleet i m m e d i a t e l y
necessary at the D a r d a n e l l e s , in the Sea of M a r m o r a , or in the B o s p h o -
rus, the A d m i r a l s will of c o u r s e p o s t p o n e a c t i n g u p o n the o t h e r instruc-
tion of this day, until after the m o r e pressing service shall h a v e b e e n
20 accomplished; a n d if while they are c a r r y i n g t h e o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n of this
date i n t o execution, they s h o u l d find t h a t the occupation of Con-
stantinople by a Russian force, or a n y o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w o u l d r e n d e r
it inexpedient to send to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e t h e E g y p t i a n or T u r k , ships
which t h e y m a y o b t a i n possession o f a t A l e x a n d r i a , t h e A d m i r a l s i n s u c h
25 case s h o u l d be a u t h o r i z e d to send such ships to be held in safe d e p o s i t in
any o t h e r T u r k . P o r t . " . . . [233, 234]

The ConsuUGeneral an Soult, Alexandria, July 16 ... T h e Turk, fleet,


under the c o m m a n d o f t h e C a p u d a n P a s h a , arrived o n t h e 14', i n o r d e r t o
place itself a t the D i s p o s a l o f M e h e m e t Ali. T h e Viceroy h a s said t h a t h e
30 would n o t r e s t o r e it to t h e P o r t e , until the G r a n d Vizier H o s r e w P a s h a
should be r e m o v e d from office, a n d t h e hereditary G o v . of the c o u n t r i e s
which h e rules s h o u l d b e conferred o n h i m . T h e E g y p t . A r m y h a s re-
ceived orders to retire b e h i n d the E u p h r a t e s . [234]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (ree. Aug. 5) Paris, Aug. 2. 1839.


35 ... A d m i r a l D u p e r r . . . d o u b t e d the p r u d e n c e (of a b l o c k a d e of the
Egyptian coasts), unless assured t h a t t h e R u s s . fleet f r o m t h e Black Sea
would n o t enter t h e B o s p h o r u s of t h e F r e n c h a n d Engl, fleet o c c u p y i n g a

235
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

p o s i t i o n s o d i s t a n t f r o m the D a r d a n e l l e s . H e w a s decidedly o f o p i n i o n ,
t h a t p r e c a u t i o n s s h o u l d b e t a k e n b y the A d m i r a l s t o p r e v e n t t h e E g y p -
tian fleet, o r t h e T u r k , f l e e t u n d e r the C a p u d a n P a s h a , f r o m e n t e r i n g the
Straits o f t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , with intentions hostile t o t h e S u l t a n ' s G o v . a t
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . . . [235]

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston (ree. Aug. 5.) Berlin,


July 31, 1839. ... t h e R u s s i a n M i n i s t e r called u p o n me this a f t e r n o o n . . .
H i s Exc. (der R u s s ) said: "We u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e Engl, a n d F r e n c h G o v .
i n t e n d to p r o p o s e t h a t t h e F i v e P o w e r s shall m a k e a d e c l a r a t i o n of their
d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n the integrity a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e O t t o -
m a n Empire under the present dynasty, and that n o n e of them would
seek to profit by the present state of things, for t h e p u r p o s e of gaining
a n y acquisition of territory. As far as t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of the
T u r k . E m p . i s c o n c e r n e d , a n d the latter p r o p o s i t i o n , t h a t R u s s i a , a m o n g
t h e rest, s h o u l d n o t seek to profit by t h e p r e s e n t state of things, the
E m p e r o r w o u l d instantly sign a n y i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h w o u l d r e c o r d such a
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o n his p a r t ; b u t g u a r a n t e e i n g the integrity o f t h e e m p i r e
w a s a n o t h e r thing; t h a t it p e r h a p s m i g h t fall u p o n R u s s i a at a m o m e n t
m o s t i n c o n v e n i e n t t o herself t o b e called u p o n , a s t h e n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r ,
to b r i n g b a c k a rebellious vassal u n d e r t h e d o m i n i o n of t h e Sultan, a n d
t h e E m p e r o r m i g h t b e exposed t o n u m e r o u s inconveniences b y entering
i n t o such a c o m p a c t . " [236, 237]

Marquess of Clanricarde to Viscount Palmerston ( R e e . A u g . 5.) St. Pe-


tersburgh, July 27, 1839 ... R u s s i a w o u l d n o t refuse h e r assent to t h e Pa-
shalic of Syria being conferred for his life u p o n I b r a h i m P a s h a , if t h e Sul-
t a n s h o u l d c o n s e n t to such a d e m a n d . ||23| D i e vorhin an B o u r q u e n e y
u . d u r c h i h n d e m Soult mitgetheilten I n s t r u c t i o n u . S u p p l e m e n t wrtlich
n u n definitiv erstattet v o m F o r . Off. an die L o r d C o m m i s s i o n e r s of the
A d m i r a l t y , d . d . A u g u s t 5, 1839 . . . (f. die U n i t e d F r e n c h u. Engl,
s q u a d r o n s ) schickt sie denselben T a g an G r a n v i l l e , f. c o m m u n i c a t i o n
an Soult. [238-240]

Visount Palmerston to Sir George Hamilton. F. O. A u g . 6, 1839 ...


B a r o n W e r t h e r will, n o d o u b t , h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n i n f o r m e d t h a t the
F r e n c h G o v . is of o p i n i o n t h a t the defeat of t h e T u r k . A r m y , t h e defec-
tion o f the fleet, a n d the timidity o f t h e D i v a n , o u g h t t o m a k e n o alter-
a t i o n in t h e c o u r s e which the 5 P o w e r s h a d i n t e n d e d to p u r s u e before
t h o s e events were k n o w n ; a n d y o u will s t a t e to B a r o n W e r t h e r , t h a t in
t h a t o p i n i o n H . M ' s G o v . entirely c o n c u r . " T h o s e u n f o r t u n a t e events

236
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

c a n n o t i n a n y degree diminish t h e g r e a t interest w h i c h E u r o p e h a s i n


m a i n t a i n i n g t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e i n its integrity a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e a s a n
essential element of t h e b a l a n c e of p o w e r . " [240]

Col Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (ree. A u g . 6) A l e x a n d r i a , July 17,


5 1839, e n t h l t die folgenden inclosures:
r d
1) Viscount Ponsonby to Col. Campbell T h e r a p i a , July 5, 1839. On the 3
inst., the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the 5 G r e a t P o w e r s were invited to m e e t
the O t t o m a n M i n i s t e r for F o r . Affairs ( N o u r i Effendi.), a t his H o u s e o n
the B o s p h o r u s . . . E r sagte der S u l t a n h a b e d e t e r m i n e d t o send o n e o f
10 the e m i n e n t m e n of his C o u r t to offer the E g y p t i a n P a s h a p a r d o n for t h e
past, a n d a s s u r a n c e of f a v o u r for t h e future (of w h i c h t h e S u l t a n sent a
decoration a s t h e m a r k a n d evidence), a n d t o p r o m i s e t h a t H . H . w o u l d
confer u p o n the P a s h a a n d his family t h e h e r e d i t a r y G o v . o f E g y p t . . . o n
the c o n d i t i o n t h a t Syria etc. s h o u l d b e i m m e d i a t e l y r e s t o r e d t o t h e S u l t a n
15 ...[241]
2) id. to id. Therapia, July 7,1839. ... T h e s t a t e m e n t c o m e s f r o m A d -
miral L a l a n d e , w h o w a s visited b y the s e c o n d i n c o m m a n d a t the O t t o -
m a n fleet, O s m a n Bey, b e a r e r of a m e s s a g e f r o m A h m e d P a s h a . . .
A h m e d P a s h a asserts t h a t t h e S u l t a n w a s m u r d e r e d b y H o s r e w , n o w
20 G r a n d Vizier, a n d Halil P a s h a . T h a t t h o s e p e r s o n s i n t e n d to give up this
C o u n t r y to R u s s i a ; t h a t it is necessary to oblige t h e S u l t a n to a p p o i n t
another M i n i s t r y . [242]
4) Col. CampbeU to Viscount Ponsonby Alexandria. July 16, 1839. ...
long c o n v e r s a t i o n with M e h e m e d Ali (der engl., russ., Ostreich. C o n s u l ,
25 der franzsische ( C o c h e l e t k r a n k ) , t h e s u b s t a n c e of w h i c h is detailed
th
in the R s u m inclosed, (den 14. k a m die T u r k , fleet an.) . . . On t h e 1 5
interview s m m t l i c h e r consuls m . M e h e m e t Ali . . . t h e e n m i t y b e t w e e n
Mehemet Ali a n d H o s r e w P a s h a i s t o o bitter t o a d m i t o f any reconcil-
iation; a n d . . . M e h e m e t a p p e a r s t o feel t h a t t h e r e c a n n o t b e a n y security
30 for him, or a n y g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e S u l t a n a n d h i m , so l o n g
as H o s r e w P a s h a is in p o w e r . . . Capudan Pasha sagt z u m C a p t a i n of t h e
Sultan's s t e a m e r w h i c h conveyed Akiff Effendi f r o m C o n s t a n t i n o p l e :
"I did n o t c o m e h e r e as a rebel, b u t seeing t h a t the t r u e w a y to save t h e
empire was to c o m e h e r e , I h a v e d o n e s o , as all t h e n a t i o n feels t h a t
35 the counsels of M e h e m e t Ali, a n d n o t t h o s e of H o s r e w P a s h a ; c a n restore
the O t t o m a n E m p i r e . " [243, 244]
Eingelegt in d e n Brief an P o n s o n b y :
2) Brief summary of 2 interviews which took place between the Pasha of
' Egypt, and the Consuls-Gen. of the 4 Great Powers

237
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

On the 14' of July, t o w a r d s 5 o'clock in t h e evening, t h e T u r k i s h fleet,


with t h e C a p u d a n P a s h a o n b o a r d , a p p e a r e d i n sight o f A l e x a n d r i a . . .
T h e C o n s u l - G e n . o f F r a n c e , being k e p t a t h o m e b y indisposition, h a d re-
q u e s t e d his Colleagues t o s p e a k i n his n a m e . . . M e h e m e d Ali replied:
" . . . A s to t h e concession m a d e by the S u l t a n , I do n o t c o n s i d e r it as 5
a m a r k of generosity on his p a r t , b u t as an act of necessity. As l o n g as
H o s r e w P a s h a shall be at the h e a d of affairs I m u s t m i s t r u s t all his
assertions . . . H o w c o u l d I p u t faith i n H o s r e w w h o i s m y m o r t a l foe? . . . "
In time of w a r , it w a s p e r m i t t e d to receive deserters . . . In 2 d a y s Akiff
Effendi will set o u t a g a i n for C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . He will be t h e b e a r e r of a 10
letter o f c o n g r a t u l a t i o n a n d o f submission from m e , t o t h e n e w S u l t a n ,
A b d u l Medjid. I shall also write a letter to H o s r e w P a s h a , in w h i c h I shall
r e p r e s e n t t o h i m : 1 ) t h a t the late S u l t a n M a h m o u d m a d e t o m e a t one
time, t h r o u g h the m e d i u m o f S a r i m Effendi, m u c h m o r e a d v a n t a g e o u s
p r o p o s a l s t h e n t h o s e which H. H. h a s n o w a d d r e s s e d to m e , since he t h e n 15
p r o p o s e d t o m e t h e h e r e d i t a r y G o v . o f E g y p t , a s well a s t h a t o f the
district of Seyda, a n d of the Sandjack of Tripoli. 2) t h a t u n d e r the p r e s e n t
c i r c u m s t a n c e s , I ask for the h e r e d i t a r y G o v . of E g y p t , w i t h t h a t of Syria
a n d C a n d a , i. e. of all t h a t I n o w possess, as I h a d previously a n n o u n c e d .
3) t h a t on this c o n d i t i o n . . . I will defend h i m (the S u l t a n ) w h e n e v e r a n d 20
a g a i n s t w h o m s o e v e r he m a y wish ... I formally e n g a g e to r e s t o r e the
f l e e t , the m o m e n t m y p r o p o s a l s shall h a v e b e e n accepted. . . . I f H o s r e w
P a s h a r e m o v e d from the direction of t h e affairs, I shall n o t hesitate
t o p r o c e e d t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e presenting m y h o m a g e i n p e r s o n t o m y
Sovereign . . . " F i n a l l y I declare to y o u , t h a t if my p r o p o s a l s a r e n o t 25
accepted (sagt er zu d e n C o n s u l s ) I will n o t m a k e w a r , b u t I will m a i n -
t a i n myself in my p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n , a n d I will w a i t . . . " In d e m 2' Inter-
view, on t h e 15, sagt er wieder: H o s r e w P a s h a . . . is detested by the whole
n a t i o n . . . I h a v e j u s t w r i t t e n a private letter to the G r a n d Vizier, in |
|24| w h i c h I advise h i m to retire from affairs, a n d to t e n d e r his resigna- 30
t i o n . . . [246-249]
Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. Aug. 6) Alexandria, July 17,
1839.
C a p t a i n Caillier, t h e a i d e - d e - c a m p o f M a r s h a l Soult, r e a c h e d I b r a h i m
P a s h a on July 1, n e a r A i n t a b , a n d delivered to h i m t h e o r d e r from 35
M e h e m e t Ali t o s u s p e n d t h e a d v a n c e o f his a r m y . I b r a h i m P a s h a then
r e p r e s e n t e d , t h a t his a c t u a l p o s i t i o n w a s n o t at all a m i l i t a r y o n e , a n d
m o r e o v e r , t h a t h e c o u l d n o t t h e r e p r o c u r e forage for his h o r s e s , o n which
C a p t a i n Caillier c o n s e n t e d to his t a k i n g a p o s i t i o n at M a r a s h . . . since
t h e n I b r a h i m h a s received the o r d e r to e v a c u a t e t h e c o u n t r y to t h e east 40,
of t h e E u p h r a t e s , a n d he h a s in c o n s e q u e n c e w i t h d r a w n all his t r o o p s f

238
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

from O r f a a n d Bir, a n d h a s n o t n o w a single soldier b e y o n d the E u p h r a -


tes ... [250] Inclosure. Ibrahim Pasha to Mehemet Ali (1 Juillet 1839) . . .
(sezt seinem A l t e n a u s e i n a n d e r , w a r u m e r nicht s t e h n bleiben k o n n t e a n
d e m P l a t z wo Caillier i h n traf.) [251, 252]

5 Col. Campbell to Visount Palmerston (Ree. Aug. 6) Alexandria, July 17,


1S39. ... T h e only a r m y n o w in t h e T u r k . E m p i r e is t h a t of M e h e m e t Ali,
a n d the P o r t e is also w i t h o u t a fleet... S u c h is t h e influence of M e h e m e t
Ali i n the T u r k . E m p i r e , t h a t h e c o u l d raise u p i n his f a v o u r n o t only
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , b u t every p a r t of Turkey; a n d , if he desired it, he c o u l d ,
10 by those m e a n s , o v e r t h r o w H o s r e w P a s h a at his will. [252]

Inclosure 1). Viscount Ponsonby to Col. Campbell. July 5, 1839. . . . I never


believed t h a t M e h e m e t Ali w o u l d act o t h e r w i s e t h a n h e h a s d o n e . H e
m u s t a d v a n c e o r h e m u s t fall. T h e E u r o p . P o w e r s will b e t r a y their o w n
interests if t h e y suffer h i m to a d v a n c e . T h e c o n c l u s i o n seems to me clear.
15 His p o w e r is a h o u s e of c a r d s , a n d a n y of the G o v ' s c a n d e s t r o y it w i t h a
breath . . .
inclosure 2) Col. Campbell to Visount Ponsonby, Alexandria, July 16,
1839. ... t h e feeling of revenge t o w a r d s M e h e m e t Ali t h a t p r e d o m i n a t e d
in all his (the late S u l t a n ' s ) actions, h a s , I fear, inflicted m o r e evils on the
20 Turkish E m p i r e t h a n m a n y years of wise g o v . can r e m e d y . It w a s scarcely
to be expected t h a t a m a n of s t r o n g feelings like S u l t a n M a h m o u d , c o u l d
b e b r o u g h t t o forget t h e h u m i l i a t i o n t o w h i c h h e h a d been e x p o s e d i n his
former contest w i t h t h e P a s h a o f E g y p t . . . E r (der alte S u l t a n ) declared
selbst " h e w o u l d s o o n e r b e c o m e a vassal of R u s s i a t h a n relinquish the
25 hope of r e v e n g e " . . . . A reconciliation w i t h M e h e m e t A l i . . . in my h u m b l e
opinion, is a l m o s t all t h a t is r e q u i r e d for t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n of the O t t o m a n
Empire. M e h e m e t Ali gave t h e f i r s t i m p u l s e t o r e f o r m i n Turkey. U n d e r
his a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r a p i d p r o g r e s s h a s been m a d e in civilisation, in e d u c a -
tion, a n d in the f o r m a t i o n of an efficient a r m y a n d n a v y . T h e recovery of
30 the H o l y Cities from the W a h a b e e s , a n d the heavy expense he h a s in-
curred t o k e e p A r a b i a i n subjection, all these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w h i c h h a d
rendered his n a m e c o n s p i c u o u s a m o n g M a h o m e d a n s , c o n t r i b u t e a claim
to some c o n s i d e r a t i o n for himself a n d family . . . H i s a m b i t i o n h a s always
been to r e s t o r e his n a t i o n to its f o r m e r p o w e r , a n d to place it in a situa-
35 tion to resist e n c r o a c h m e n t s . . . [253, 254]

Col. Campbell to Viscount Palmerston (ree. Aug. 6), Alexandria, July 17,
1839. M e h m e t Ali sagt. " C a p u d a n P a s h a w o u l d h a v e b e e n a t r a i t o r if he
had given u p his f l e e t t o R u s s i a , b u t t h a t i t w a s t o a v o i d t h a t , t h a t h e h a d

239
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

c o m e to A l e x a n d r i a , as a faithful subject of the S u l t a n , a n d to u n i t e with


h i m for t h e service o f t h e Sultan, a n d for t h e g o o d o f t h e O t t o m a n
E m p i r e . " [255]

Viscount Palmerston to the Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty. A u g . 7,


1839. further i n s t r u c t i o n addressed t o A d m i r a l Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d . . .
Sir R o b e r t Stopford will n o t only call u p o n M e h e m e t Ali t o deliver u p
t h e T u r k i s h fleet, if it s h o u l d be in a n y w a y u n d e r his c o n t r o l , b u t also
enter i n t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e officers of t h e T u r k i s h ships . . . Sir
R o b e r t S t o p f o r d will n o t use force, unless he is so s u p e r i o r in s t r e n g t h as
t o p u t resistance o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n . . . n o t t o e m p l o y force a g a i n s t t h e
T u r k i s h fleet, unless it s h o u l d p r o c e e d to acts of hostility a g a i n s t its
sovereign . . . I f Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d s h o u l d u p o n arriving a t A l e x a n d r i a ,
f i n d the T u r k , ships outside the h a r b o u r , a n d a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f their o w n
officers, a n d n o t d e p e n d e n t u p o n the will o f M e h e m e t A l i . . . t h e r e w o u l d
b e n o valid r e a s o n w h y Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d s h o u l d c o m m i t a n y act o f
hostility against the E g y p t i a n ships . . . ( s a n d t e diese Scheisse d e m G r a n -
ville z u r c o m m u n i c a t i o n an Soult.) | [255, 256]

|25] Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (ree. Aug. 7) Paris, Aug. 5,


1839. ... I b r a h i m P a s h a h a d d e t e r m i n e d , after his victory over Hafiz
P a s h a , t o send a p a r t o f his a r m y a s far a s K o n i a h , a n d t h a t h e h a d
directed S o l y m a n Bey t o p r o c e e d with a n o t h e r c o r p s t o M a l a t i a . . . . C a p -
tain Caillier's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n d u c e d h i m t o o r d e r t h e c o r p s w h i c h w a s
t o h a v e m a r c h e d u p o n K o n i a h , n o t t o g o b e y o n d t h e district o f M a r a s h ,
a n d to recall S o l y m a n Bey, leaving only a small force in O r f a a n d in Bir
. . . I t w a s evident f r o m t h e t o n e o f M a r s h a l S o u l t ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h a t his
first i m p r e s s i o n is n o t in f a v o u r of the a d o p t i o n of the (v. P a l m e r s t o n )
p r o p o s e d instructions. [257]

Count Nesselrode to M. de Kisseleff ( c o m m u n i c a t e d A u g . 8 by M. de


KisselefQ St. Petersburgh, 27 July, 1839. . . . T h r e e possible contingencies
o c c u r to u s : 1) M e h e m e t Ali m a y wholly a n d simply accede to t h e offers
t h a t h a v e b e e n m a d e to h i m : in t h a t case all difficulties will of themselves
b e r e m o v e d . 2 ) M e h e m e t Ali m a y , w i t h o u t absolutely rejecting t h e terms
o f t h e p r o p o s e d a r r a n g e m e n t , e n d e a v o u r t o o b t a i n m o r e f a v o u r a b l e con-
ditions from the P o r t e . In this case, a n e g o t i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e 2 parties
will be o p e n e d at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; a n d it will t h e n be for the R e p r e s e n t -
atives of t h e Allied C a b i n e t s to lend their g o o d offices w h e n e v e r the
D i v a n shall see occasion for t h e m .

240
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

3) M e h e m e t Ali m a y obstinately refuse all reconciliation with the


Porte. If, c o n t r a r y to o u r expectation, this latter s u p p o s i t i o n s h o u l d t u r n
out true, t h e D i v a n m a y consider itself justified in h a v i n g r e c o u r s e to the
Allied R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s for s u p p o r t in o r d e r to o v e r c o m e t h e resistance of
5 the P a s h a ; in such case we s h o u l d t h i n k it right a n d necessary t h a t the
Great P o w e r s s h o u l d u n i t e their efforts t o c o m p e l t h e P a s h a o f E g y p t t o
agree t o a n equitable a r r a n g e m e n t , w h i c h shall h a v e o b t a i n e d a t o n c e t h e
sanction of the P o r t e as well as the c o n c u r r e n c e of all t h e P o w e r s of
E u r o p e . [261]

10 Lord Beauvale to Visount Palmerston (ree. Aug. 9.) Vienna, July 30,
1839. ... M. de Boutneff h a d received a fresh i n s t r u c t i o n for t r a n s m i s -
sion t o C o u n t M e d e m , directing h i m t o a d d r e s s himself a g a i n t o
M e h e m e t Ali, a n d r e n e w t o h i m , i n t h e E m p e r o r ' s n a m e , t h e m e n a c e ,
that if he o v e r s t e p p e d the districts of O r f a a n d D i a b e k i r , a R u s s i a n A r m y
15 would enter A s i a m i n o r to o p p o s e h i m . . .

Lord Beauvale to Visount Palmerston (ree. August 9) Vienna, July 30,


th
1839. A letter of t h e 1 7 inst. f r o m L o r d P o n s o n b y , i n f o r m s me t h a t
Nouri Effendi a n d his colleagues say, t h a t it is fit t h e P o r t e s h o u l d settle
the affairs of their c o u n t r y like M u s s u l m a n s , a m o n g s t e a c h o t h e r , a n d
20 avoid the interference of t h e E u r o p e a n s , for w h i c h r e a s o n , t e r m s of a
more agreeable n a t u r e s h o u l d be offered to M e h e m e t Ali. [262]

Lord Beauvale schreibt an Visount Palmerston (receiv. Aug. 9) d. d.


July 30, 1839 er h a b e seine d e c l a r a t i o n d e m M e t t e r n i c h geschickt, w o r i n
der Brit. G o v e r n o r seinen E n t s c h l u s s e r k l r t " t o m a i n t a i n t h e integrity
25 and i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h e T u r k . E m p i r e u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t d y n a s t y " , keine
"acquisition" o d . "exclusive influence" g e w i n n e n zu wollen etc. B e a u v a l e
schreibt: "There is but one word in my declaration which is not authorized
by your L o r d s h i p ' s d e s p a t c h : it is t h a t of reciprocity of d e c l a r a t i o n s b e -
tween all t h e P o w e r s . Being in the french note, a n d highly v a l u a b l e in
30 itself, I did n o t hesitate to a d o p t it." Diese bezgliche Stelle heit: " T h e
Brit. G o v . confidently anticipates, t h a t this declaration will be recipro-
cated by t h e other E u r o p . C o u r t s e t c . " ( A n selbem 23 July stellt C o u n t
St. Aulaire (fzs. G e s a n d t e r ) hnliches S c h r e i b e n d e m M e t t e r n i c h zu.
Soult an Aulaire, d. d. Paris July 17, 1839 ... t h e C a b i n e t s w o u l d effect
35 something i m p o r t a n t t o w a r d s t h e settlement of peace, by recording, in
written d o c u m e n t s , t o b e reciprocally c o m m u n i c a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r , a n d
which necessarily w o u l d n o t be l o n g before they a c q u i r e d a publicity
more o r less c o m p l e t e , t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t i o n s j u s t m e n t i o n e d . . .
[262-266]

241
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

Lord Beauvale to Viscount Palmerston (ree. Aug. 9) Vienna, July 30, 1839.
C o u n t St. A u l a i r e i n f o r m s m e , t h a t P r i n c e M e t t e r n i c h h a s declined t o
m a k e c o m m o n cause with France under certain circumstances in her
d e m a n d for t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e D a r d a n e l l e s saying, t h a t i t w o u l d d e s t r o y
his position of t h e juste milieu, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y his m e a n s of usefulness. 5
C o u n t St. A u l a i r e is a p p r e h e n s i v e , t h a t this will c r e a t e m u c h i r r i t a t i o n in
t h e F r e n c h G o v . I t will b e desirable t o c a l m this a s m u c h a s possible. T h e
d e m a n d , i f n o t m a d e i n c o n c e r t w i t h E n g l a n d , o u g h t n o t t o h a v e been
m a d e at all; b u t they c o m m i t t e d the a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r of a n n o u n c i n g t h a t I
s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d to c o n c u r in it; they obtained a sort of promise under 10
this expectation, and when it was falsified, it of c o u r s e t u r n e d a g a i n s t
themselves . . . I n c o n s e q u e n c e o f this incident, t h e o r d e r s t o t h e A u s t r i a n
s q u a d r o n t o place itself u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d o f Sir R o b e r t S t o p f o r d will
be modified, a n d it will preserve an i n d e p e n d e n t p o s i t i o n , l e a n i n g in
doubtful cases m o r e to t h e Brit. A d m i r a l t h a n t h e F r e n c h o n e . | 15
|26| (Inclos.: Queries a d d r e s s e d by C o u n t St. A u l a i r e to M e t t e r n i c h . . .
d a r i n h e i t ' s u. a. Syria left for life to M e h e m e t d u r c h d a s a r r a n g e m e n t of
K u t a y a h . . . ) I n d e r A n t w o r t v . M e t t e r n i c h a u f die A n f r a g e des St. A u -
laire, d. d. Vienna, July 24,1839: d a r i n nichts . Wichtigkeit. [266-270]

Lord Beauvale to Viscount Palmerston (ree. Aug. 9) Vienna, Aug. 1, 1839 20


. . . d i s p o s i t i o n of t h e Turk. M i n i s t e r s to get rid of o u r assistance ... [271]

Earl Granville to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. Aug. 10) Paris, Aug. 8, 1839.
... S o u l t sagt, d a hostilities ceased, E g y p t i a n t r o o p s w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e
left side o f t h e E u p h r a t e s etc ... " i t w o u l d b e r a s h a n d d a n g e r o u s t o have
r e c o u r s e to t h e e x t r e m e m e a s u r e of firing u p o n t h e E g y p t i a n fleet to 25
o b t a i n t h e i m m e d i a t e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e T u r k , f l e e t . M e h e m e t Ali pressed
e t c w r d e p u s h further his victories b y l a n d , a n d exciting i n s u r r e c t i o n i n
A s i a M i n o r as well as in t h e E u r o p . d o m i n i o n s of t h e S u l t a n . . . This is
t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e g r o u n d s o n w h i c h M a r s h a l S o u l t objected t o a d o p t
t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s of H. M ' s G o v . p r o p o s e d to give to t h e A d m i r a l s in the 30
L e v a n t . . . t h e decision der french G o v . s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e wellfounded
a p p r e h e n s i o n , t h a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e E g y p t i a n f l e e t b y F r a n c e would
raise a c l a m o u r in this c o u n t r y , fatal to the existence of a M i n i s t r y u n d e r
w h o s e o r d e r s it h a d been effected." [272, 273]

Id. to id. (ree. Aug. 12) Paris Aug. 9, 1839. . . . I h a v e since received from 35*
t h e M a r s h a l a c o p y of a telegraphic d e s p a t c h f r o m M. de B o u r q u e n e y ,
stating t h a t t h e E n g l . C a b i n e t w i t h d r a w s its first project of instructions, j
a n d will c o n c e r t with t h e F r e n c h G o v . fresh i n s t r u c t i o n s t o b e d r a w n u p

242
Aus Correspondence relative to the affairs of the Levant (Fortsetzung)

within the limits t r a c e d i n M a r s h a l S o u l t ' s d e s p a t c h t o M . d e B o u r q u e n e y


... [273]

Id. to id. (ree. Aug. 14) Paris, Aug. 12, 1839. ... Soult sagt: "if we insist
u p o n t h e r e s t i t u t i o n o f m o r e t h a n M e h e m e t Ali will c o n c e d e , w e risk
5 accelerating t h e crisis w h i c h we a p p r e h e n d . " [274]

The Marquess of Clanricarde to Visount Palmerston (Ree. Aug. 12)


St. Petersburgh, Aug. 3, 1839. On W e d n e s d a y d e r F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r
called u p o n N e s s e l r o d e , t o c o m m u n i c a t e die d e s p a t c h o f Soult o n t h e
affairs of Turkey; similar to t h a t of w h i c h y o u r L o r d s h i p received a c o p y
10 from M. de B o u r q u e n e y . M. de B a r a n t e h a d a l o n g c o n v e r s a t i o n m i t d e m
Vicechancellor u p o n t h e subject o f the d e s p a t c h ; b u t h e d i d n o t g a t h e r
any i n t i m a t i o n o f w h a t w o u l d b e the f o r m a l reply o f t h e R u s s . G o v . . . .
M . d e B a r a n t e did n o t conceal f r o m the R u s s . minister, t h a t his G o v . h a d
instructed t h e F r e n c h A m b a s s a d o r a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e t o m a k e a d e m a n d
15 for leave to pass t h e D a r d a n e l l e s , a n d an offer of t h e services of t h e
French s q u a d r o n , t o the S u l t a n , i n case h . H . s h o u l d r e q u i r e t h e as-
sistance of a n y E u r o p . P o w e r . [274, 275]

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston (Ree. Aug. 12) July 22, 1839
Darin:
20 Inclos. M. Frederic Pisani to Viscount Ponsonby Pera, July 22, 1839.
The P o r t e is disposed to t r e a t w i t h M e h e m e t Ali on t h e following bases,
proposed, as it says, by Prince M e t t e r n i c h . . . 1) t h e G o v . of E g y p t given
hereditary to M e h e m e t Ali 2) t h e G o v . of t h e w h o l e of Syria given to
Ibrahim P a s h a . 3 ) A t the d e a t h o f M e h e m e t Ali, I b r a h i m P a s h a shall
25 have the G o v . of E g y p t , a n d Syria shall a g a i n c o m e u n d e r the i m m e d i a t e
authority of the P o r t e , as w a s the case in f o r m e r times. [280]

Soult to Bourqueney. ( c o m m u n i c a t e d by B o u r q u e n e y ) Paris, Aug. 6, 1839.


... Gegen die original i n s t r u c t i o n s des L o r d P a l m e r s t o n , i n L o n d o n t o o
much stress seems to be laid on the a g g r a n d i s e m e n t of M e h e m e t Ali, in
30 consequence of always c h o o s i n g to view t h a t side of the q u e s t i o n in light
in which it w o u l d be if a E u r o p e a n S t a t e w e r e c o n c e r n e d . . . ( M e h e m e t
could excite in A s i a M i n o r , M a c e d o n i a , A l b a n i a , s o m e revolt of a n a t u r e
to bring on again t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e Russian i n t e r v e n t i o n . . . sagt Soult
vorher) . . . b u t w e m u s t n o t exaggerate the evil; the O t t o m a n e m p i r e
35 itself, divided administratively by s t i p u l a t i o n s to w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n of
succession, h o w e v e r precise it m i g h t be, c a n n o t give a c h a r a c t e r of real
permanence; the O t t o m a n E m p i r e , united, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the m o r e o r

243
Karl Marx Exzerpte zur Geschichte der Diplomatie Heft 3

less d u r a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n , by t h e powerful tie of m a n n e r s a n d religion, will


c o n t i n u e nevertheless t o form, with r e g a r d t o t h e E u r o p e a n P o w e r s , t h a t
g r e a t b o d y . . . o v e r t h r o w i n g the P a s h a o f E g y p t w o u l d effectually w o r k
t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t