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M O D U L A R S Y S T E M

CYTOLOGY

Musa ZET

Tan ERDOAN

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Dear students
Biology is rapidly developing, and seems to be the determining science of the 21st. century. 17th.
century was age of math, 18th. century age of chemistry, 19th. Century age of physics, and 20th. Century
was the age of technology and health. And now genetic engineering techniques, improvements in
molecular biology, biological application in health care (such as cloning), increase in ecological problems
and their solution methods and finally, use of biology as a cold war agent have increased the importance
of biology and brought it to its deserved place at the beginning of this century.
Besides these global phenomena, human biology is another important branch of biology, that
provides practical and important information for everybody. An effective and adequate biology education
helps you understand your body and your surrounding and provides you correct understanding,
controlling, getting benefit and avoiding from the dangers of this surrounding and the organisms in it.
Furthermore in order to leave a clean, peaceful and more natural world to our children, we have to
have basic biology knowledge. Actually we have to have a biology based culture since, humanistic-social
values and being aware of how to live with all other organisms friendly, can be provided by biology
supported education. In addition, like all other sciences too, biology also aims to make you gain a reliable
point of view. It does not only provide you some simple use of practical hints in life, but it also help you
in having a multi-dimensional approach which makes you a different and distinct member of the same
society. But unfortunately like other sciences, this side of biology is unconscious too, until you become
an adult you will hardly ever realize how it has fulfilled its aim and has provided you that much.
Finally biology not only provides you a meaningful life but it also makes you understand others and
helps you make mutual relationships with others, and hopefully, the result will be happier and healthier
society and world which can only be formed by happier and healthier individuals.
This Test-bank is, specially prepared and designed to support the related course books of the
modular system and help you understand it easier. The importance of repetition and use of the
knowledge to provide long-term memory is a scientific fact. These tests include some questions that are
designed to check your basic comprehension and practise your gained knowledge, where as some
selected questions require more detailed information and comment. By this way these tests make your
biology knowledge more durable. The image-supported questions make you, use several different
phenomena and imagine the process in your mind. So you will be able to criticize some different factors
and make predictions about the future results when you change some variable factors.
At the end of chapters you will see general review tests of miscellaneous questions from different
parts. Such tests aims to make repetition of whole subject and help you remember previous parts.
Dear students, we wish you enjoyment in your lessons and success in examinations.
AUTHORS
CHAPTER 01 : CHEMISTRY OF LIFE CHAPTER 06 : MASTER MOLECULES
Checkpoint Test 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Checkpoint Test 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Checkpoint Test 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Checkpoint Test 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Checkpoint Test 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Checkpoint Test 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Checkpoint Test 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Checkpoint Test 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Checkpoint Test 05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Checkpoint Test 05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Checkpoint Test 06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Checkpoint Test 06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Checkpoint Test 07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
CHAPTER 07 : GENERAL REVIEW
CHAPTER 02 : MICROUNIVERSE Checkpoint Test 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Checkpoint Test 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Checkpoint Test 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Checkpoint Test 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Checkpoint Test 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Checkpoint Test 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Checkpoint Test 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Checkpoint Test 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Checkpoint Test 05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Checkpoint Test 05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Checkpoint Test 06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Checkpoint Test 06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Checkpoint Test 07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Checkpoint Test 07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Checkpoint Test 08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Checkpoint Test 09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
CHAPTER 03 : METABOLISM Checkpoint Test 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Checkpoint Test 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Checkpoint Test 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Checkpoint Test 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

CHAPTER 04 : PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Checkpoint Test 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Checkpoint Test 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Checkpoint Test 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Checkpoint Test 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

CHAPTER 05 : CELLULAR RESPIRATION


Checkpoint Test 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Checkpoint Test 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Checkpoint Test 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Checkpoint Test 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Inor ganic Compounds
1. Which of the following foods supplies important 5. Some properties of a mineral are given below.
minerals for humans? - It is found in the structure of hemoglobin
AAA
- It gives hardness to bones
A) Milk and milk products
- It aids in the transmission of impulses in neurons
B) Legumes
- It is found in the structure of master molecules
C) Vegetables
D) Seafood(products) Which of the following minerals does not match any of
the above functions?
E) Vitamins
BBB
A) Calcium B) Chlorine C) Potassium
D) Phosphorus E) Iron

2. Which of the following abnormalities is not caused by


a deficiency of any mineral?
BBB
A) Poor healing of wounds
6. Minerals are regulatory molecules in the body of living
B) Increasing hardness of bones organisms.
C) Failure of impulse transmission
Some minerals and their functions are:
D) Lack of hemoglobin
I. Ca: plays a role in blood coagulation and contraction
E) Inability to synthesize chlorophyll of muscles in many different parts of the body
II. Na and Cl ions are necessary for the nervous system
III. Fe is the element which is essential in hemoglobin
structure
Which statements above are correct?
3. Which of the following does not produce an acidic EEE
environment when added to a test tube filled with A) I only B) II only C) III only
water?
D) I and III E) I, II and III
DDD
A) Sea water B) Vinegar C) Lemon juice
D) HCl E) Tomato juice

7. Some molecules which are found in the structure of living


things are as follows:
4. The following events take place in the human body: I. Acids
I. skeletal deformation II. Bases
II. bleeding of the gums III. Vitamins
III. night blindness IV. Water
V. Minerals
Which of the situations listed above are caused by a
deficiency of minerals as well as vitamins? Which of the molecules above are inorganic?
AAA DDD
A) I only B) II only C) III only A) III only B) I and II C) I, II and III
D) I and II E) II and III D) I, II, IV and V E) I, II, III, IV and V

6
CHECKPOINT TEST 1
8. Some functions of minerals in the human body are given 11. Water is an inorganic substance, used as a
below. I. structural essential.
- Muscular contraction II. source of energy.
- Production of red blood cells III. regulatory substance.
- Formation of bones and teeth
Which of the properties given above are true for
- Impulse transmission through neurons water?
Which of the following does not match with these DDD
functions? A) I only B) III only C) I and II
EEE D) I and III E) I, II and III
A) Calcium B) Iron C) Potassium
D) Sodium E) Iodine

12. Minerals are an indispensable requirement for human


health. Therefore they must be consumed in sufficient
9. Inorganic molecules are essential structural elements in amounts. Deficiency of minerals cause some illnesses.
living organisms. - Anemia
Some properties of inorganic molecules are: - Goiter
I. All of them include carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in - Failure of impulse transmission in neurons
their structure. - Failure of muscle contraction
II. They can be produced by photosynthesis in plants A deficiency of which of the following minerals is not
III. Generally, they are taken into the body in food. related to any of the above illnesses?
DDD
Which of the statements given above are true for
A) Iron B) Sodium C) Calcium
inorganic molecules?
BBB D) Manganese E) Iodine
A) II only B) III only C) I and II
D) I and III E) I, II and III

13. Water is an indispensable requirement for living organisms.


Some properties of water are:
10. A kind of mineral in the human body has the following
I. The lowest concentration of water in the human body
functions:
is found in the enamel of the teeth
- Transmission of impulses in nerve cells
II. Below +4oC water freezes and the distance between
- Holds interstitial fluid in tissues water molecules increases.
Which mineral below matches the above statements? III. The human cell is composed of 3/4 water.
EEE
Which of the statements above are correct?
A) Calcium B) Iodine
EEE
C) Phosphorus D) Iron A) I only B) II only C) III only
E) Sodium D) I and III E) I,II and III
7
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Pr oteins 1
1. Some facts about monosaccharides (monomers of 4. Which of the following molecules are synthesized
carbohydrates) are as follows: according to the DNA code?
I. Glucose is synthesized by plants. BBB
A) Proteins and ATP
II. They are used as energy producers in cellular respiration.
B) Proteins and enzymes
III. When they are hydrolyzed they form ribose and
deoxyribose molecules. C) Cellulose and RNA
IV. They can pass through the cell membrane via D) ATP and glycogen
diffusion. E) Neutral lipids and RNA
Which of the facts above are true for monosaccha-
rides?
EEE
A) I only B) I and II C) II and III
D) III and IV E) I, II and IV
5. Which of the following events can take place inside
AND also outside the body in living things?
DDD
A) Starch synthesis from glucose molecules
B) Glucose synthesis from inorganic substances
2. Which of the following is not a product of catabolic C) Conversion of monomers one to another
reactions?
D) Hydrolysis of starch
AAA
A) Glucose E) Reaction of glucose with oxygen
B) Pentose sugar
C) Phosphate
D) Energy
E) Nitrogenous organic base

6. An amino acid structure is given below.


H
Amino Carboxyl
group group
NH2 C COOH
3. Some properties of an organic molecule are given below: I II
R
- It is used as an energy source III
- It is synthesized by DNA according to the DNA code. Radical
group
- It is used as a regulator.
Some organic molecules: Which of the groups above are the same or different in
all amino acids?
I. Protein
DDD
II. Lipid Different groups Same groups
______________ ______________
III. Carbohydrate
A) I only II and III
Choose the organic molecules that have all the
B) I and II III only
properties above?
AAA C) I and III II only
A) I only B) II only C) III only D) II only II and III
D) I and III E) I, II and III E) III only I and II

8
CHECKPOINT TEST 2
7. Some types of carbohydrates are given below. 10. Lipids release twice the energy of proteins or carbohydrates
I. Starch when they are completely oxidized or catabolized into
their constituent units.
II. Cellulose
III. Galactose Lipids release more energy because
IV. Glycogen I. after digestion, they can pass directly into the blood.
II. they have more H atoms in their structure than the
Which are produced in plant cells?
others.
AAA
A) I and Il B) II and III C) II and IV III. they have unsaturated fatty acids in their structure.

D) I, II and III E) I, III and IV Which of the statements given above is the true reason
why lipids release more energy?
BBB
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and III E) I, II and III
8. Which of the following is not an abnormality caused
by lack of protein in humans?
EEE
A) Poor healing of wounds
B) Inability to synthesize enzymes
C) Decrease of resistance to infections 11. The carbon in a protein molecule is marked (by isotopes)
and this protein molecule is put into a person.
D) Decrease of resistance to toxic materials
E) Increase in the amount of glucose in the blood The carbon can not be found in which of the following
molecules formed in the person?
DDD
A) Amino acid B) Fatty acid C) Glucose
D) Vitamin E) Enzyme
9. Food provides more energy when it contains more lipid
molecules. It provides less energy when it contains much
water. According to the graph,
Energy (calories)
12. In living organisms bodies there are some molecules, as
follows:
- Sucrose
- Starch
- Maltose
Which of the following properties is not common of all
the molecules above?
CCC
X Y Z P T N L Nutrient
A) There are glucose molecules in their structures.
which nutrients contain the most lipids and the most B) There are glycosidic bonds between molecules.
water molecules, respectively? C) They can be synthesized in bacteria.
DDD D) They can be broken down into monomers by
A) X and Y B) X and L C) Z and P digestive enzymes.
D) Z and L E) T and L E) They are found in plant cells.

9
Carbohydrates, Lipid and Pr oteins 2
1. The following events occur in a cell: 4. Carbohydrates are organic molecules made up of carbon,
I. consumption of monomers hydrogen and oxygen atoms. They can be found in
different forms in different living things.
II. enzymes play a role in reactions
III. formation of water by dehydration reaction Some types of carbohydrates are given below:
I. Starch
Which of the above events are common, when there is
polysaccharide, protein and lipid synthesis in the cell? II. Maltose
CCC III. Glycogen
A) I only B) II only C) I and III IV. Lactose
D) II and III E) I, II and III V. Saccharose
VI. Cellulose
Which of the following match the types of molecules
in plants and animals?
EEE
Plants
___________ Animals
___________
2. Some of the organic molecules that are used in the A) I, III and IV II, V and VI
metabolism of living things are as follows: B) I, II, IV and VI III and V
- Proteins C) I, II and VI III, IV and V
- Lipids D) I, IV and V II, III and VI
- Carbohydrates E) I, II, V and VI III and IV
- Amino acids
Which of the following molecules does not form when
these organic molecules are used in animal cells?
EEE
A) Ammonia B) Energy C) Carbon dioxide 5. Which of the following is the most appropriate
explanation for the importance of protein in living
D) Water E) Vitamin
things?
EEE
A) It is a source of energy.
B) It is stored in the body.
C) It causes formation of urea and uric acid.
D) Nitrogen is found in its structure.
3. Big molecules are formed by bonding of small molecules E) It is effective in growth and development.
(monomers).
Some types of bonds in molecules are as follows:
I. Phosphodiester
II. Peptide
6. Which of the following is not a result of lack of
III. Glycosidic protein?
IV. Ester EEE
A) Slow down of growth
Which of the above do not bind two monomers
together? B) Weakness in the immune system
AAA C) Insufficient number of metabolic reactions
A) I only B) III only C) I and III D) Structural defects
D) II and IV E) I, II and IV E) Increase of lipid synthesis in the cells
10
CHECKPOINT TEST 3
7. In an experiment, starch enzymes and starch indicator 10. Lipids are classified as neutral lipids, steroids and
(iodine) are placed into a test tube in a hot water bath. phospholipids.
Which of the following results can not be observed at Some properties of lipids are given, as follows:
the end of the experiment? I. Steroids form the structure of some hormones.
CCC
II. Phospholipids are found in the structure of the cell
A) Decrease in the amount of starch.
membrane.
B) No change in the amount of enzyme.
III. Neutral lipids are used as an energy source.
C) Color of the mixture turns blue.
Which of the above properties are true for lipids?
D) No change in the amount of iodine.
EEE
E) Increase in the amount of glucose. A) I only B) III only C) I and III
D) II and III E) I, II and III

8. Which of the following is not true for amino acids?


AAA
A) Combination of two amino acids forms ammonia 11. Excess nutrients are stored and converted into lipid
B) There are 20 types of amino acids in nature molecules in animals.
C) They cause variation in protein types Which of the following is not an advantage of storing
D) Acid and alkane groups are found in their structure nutrients in living things?
DDD
E) They are so small that they can pass through the cell
A) It prevents loss of body heat.
membrane
B) It is used for reserve nutrients.
C) It is used as an energy source.
D) It is used as a catalyst in biological reactions.
E) It provides metabolic water to the body.
9. The structure of some fatty acids are shown in the figure
below:

H H H H H H H H

H C C C C OH H C C C C OH
12. Some general information about carbohydrates is as
H H H H follows:
Fatty acid X Fatty acid Y - They are used first in cellular respiration.
- They combine with the structure of the cell membrane
Some sentences related to fatty acids X and Y are given
- They can be converted into proteins and lipids.
below:
I. X is saturated but Y is an unsaturated fatty acid Below are some results from using the information about
carbohydrates above.
II. With the addition of H to fatty acid Y, margarine is
formed I. They are structural essentials.
III. Respiration of X yields less energy than Y II. They are energy producers.
III. They are synthesized in photosynthesis.
Which of the definitions above are true for the fatty
acids? Which of the above results can be obtained?
BBB DDD
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) II and III E) I, II and III D) I and II E) I, II and III
11
Vitamins
1. When there is a deficiency of a vitamin, the related 4. Some properties of vitamins are given as follows:
enzymes can not carry out their functions properly. Thus, I. They are part of the structure of enzymes as
some illnesses come about. coenzymes.
Which of the following illnesses is not caused by a II. They promote development of bones and teeth.
deficiency of a vitamin? III. They increase body resistance to disease.
AAA
A) Color-blindness Which of the above properties prove that vitamins
have a role as regulators?
B) Failure of blood clotting
AAA
C) Rickets A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) Infertility
D) I and II E) II and III
E) Night blindness

5. Vitamin K can dissolve in lipid. It is used with antibiotics


2. Vitamins are organic molecules. to treat different infections.
Some properties of vitamins are given below. Which of the following properties of vitamin K may be
I. They are taken in from outside the body in food. the reason why we use it in antibiotics?
CCC
II. They are not used as an energy source in the cell.
A) After a period of time, it loses its properties.
III. They combine with the structure of enzymes.
B) When there is a deficiency of it, blood clotting
IV. They can pass directly through the cell membrane reactions can not take place.
without digestion.
C) It is produced by some beneficial bacteria in the
Which of the above properties are common to the intestine.
same types of vitamins that are found in both plant D) It can not be stored in all living things.
and animal cells?
E) It is part of the structure of some enzymes that have
EEE
responsibility in the cell.
A) I only B) I and III C) II and IV
D) I, II and III E) II, III and IV

6. Some definitions about vitamins are as follows:


I. Vitamin B and C are soluble in water; vitamin A, D, E
3. Some properties organic molecules are given below. and K are soluble in lipid.
I. They can pass directly into the blood without II. The molecular size of all types of vitamins is so small
digestion. that they can pass through the cell membrane.
II. They can dissolve in water and lipids. III. They are energy producers.
III. They have a role as regulators. IV. All of them can be produced in animal cells.
Which of the following organic molecules has the Which of the above definitions are not true about
above properties? vitamins?
BBB CCC
A) Lipid B) Vitamin C) Protein A) III only B) II and lII C) III and lV
D) Amino acid E) Mineral D) I, II and IV E) II, III and IV
12
CHECKPOINT TEST 4
7. Some statements are given below. 10. Some disorders which result from vitamin deficiencies are
I. No effective absorption in digestive tract given below.
II. No adequate lipid molecule in the nutrients - Skin wounds
III. Using antibiotics for a long time kills beneficial - Nerve disorders
microorganisms in the intestine - Anemia
Which of the above statements can cause a deficiency - Fatigue and headache
of vitamin K in the body? A deficiency of which of the following can cause all of
EEE these disorders?
A) I only B) II only C) III only DDD
D) I, and III E) I, II and III A) Vitamin K and C
B) Vitamin A and K
C) Vitamin A and D
D) Vitamin B
E) Vitamin K and E
8. Vitamins are regulatory substances in living things, but
there are different types of them.
Which of the following may be the reason for the
different types of vitamins?
AAA 11. Which of the following vitamin pairs can be produced
A) They have their own unique reactions in human cells?
B) They are in the form of monomers CCC
A) Vitamin K and B
C) They are inorganic structures
B) Vitamin A and K
D) They pass directly through the cell membrane
C) Vitamin A and D
E) They have different molecular sizes
D) Vitamin B and C
E) Vitamin K and E

9. Some properties of vitamins are given below.


I. Some of them dissolve in water and some dissolve in 12. Vitamins are organic molecules and they must be ingested
lipid
by living things.
II. Some of them can not be stored in the bodies of
heterotrophs Some definitions related with vitamins are as follows:
III. Each vitamin plays a role in a reaction peculiar to itself I. Vitamins combine with the structure of enzymes as
coenzymes
IV. They can not be synthesized directly by heterotrophic
living things II. They can pass through the cell membrane without
digestion
Which of the above properties may be the reason for
III. They are effective in growth and development
a disorder in heterotrophic living things that is caused
by a deficiency of one type of vitamin and can not be Which of the definitions given above are true for
relieved with other types of vitamins? vitamins?
BBB EEE
A) II only B) III only C) I and II A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) II, and IV E) III and IV D) I and II E) II and III

13
Chapter R eview 1
1. Some functions of minerals in the human body are given 3. Human beings obtain some molecules when they eat.
below. I. Vitamins
- Muscle contraction II. Glucose
- Production of red blood cells III. Protein
- Formation of bone and tooth IV. Minerals
- Impulse transmission through neurons
An excess of which of the molecules above can be
Which of the following does not match with these converted and stored as fat in the body?
functions? BBB
EEE A) I and Il B) II and III C) I and IV
A) Calcium B) Iron C) Potassium
D) II and IV E) I, III and IV
D) Sodium E) Iodine

4. Some properties of lipid-soluble vitamins are as follows:


2. Basic food sources in living organisms are carbohydrate,
I. They are stored in the liver.
lipid and protein. The stored and consumed amounts of
carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the human body are II. They can transform from one to another.
shown in the graph below. III. They are necessary for sight.
Stored nutrient Which properties do all lipid-soluble vitamins have in
common?
AAA
A) I only B) III only C) I and Il
Protein
D) I and III E) I, II and III
Lipid

Carbohydrate

Time

According to the graph, some observations are as follows:


I. Carbohydrate is the least stored basic food source.
5. Some molecules found in plants are given below:
II. Lipid and protein give the same amount of energy
when they are used in respiration. I. Starch
III. Stored protein molecules can never be used as a II. Glucose
source of energy in the body. III. Saccharose
Which of the above observations are true, according Which of the following is the correct ascending order
to the graph? of the molecules, according to their potential energy?
AAA EEE
A) I only B) II only C) III only A) I - III - II B) III - II - I C) I - II - III
D) I and II E) I, II and III D) III - I - II E) II - III - I
14
CHECKPOINT TEST 5
6. In digestion of which of the following molecules do 9. Some structural parts of an amino acid are given below:
enzymes break down peptide bonds? I. NH2 (Amino)
BBB
A) Maltose B) Protein C) Cellulose II. COOH (Carboxyl)
III. R (Radical group)
D) Glycogen E) Lactose
IV. CH3 (Methyl)

Which of the above are not common to all types of


amino acids?
EEE
7. Which of the following is not a property common to A) I only B) IV only C) I and II
both starch and lactose?
BBB D) II and III E) III and IV
A) Types of bonds in their structure
B) Types of living things in which they are produced
C) Number of C atoms in each sugar molecule in their
structure
D) Broken down by hydrolysis
E) Have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in their structure
10. Some organic molecules:
I. Sucrose
II. Starch
8. In an experiment, lipid particles are placed into a test tube III. Protein
and a few drops of ether are added. After stirring, the Which of the above molecules has the most different
mixture is poured onto white paper. monomer type from the others?
CCC
A) I only B) II only C) III only
Test tube
D) I and II E) I, II and III

White paper

Ether

Lipid particles
11. Some vitamins are stored in the liver. A deficiency of them
Some definitions related to the mixture are as follows:
can cause illnesses.
I. Amounts of glycerol and fatty acid increase in the
mixture Some types of illnesses are given below:
II. It is a hydrolysis reaction I. Scurvy
III. After dropping the mixture onto the white paper, a II. Failure of blood clotting
translucent spot develops on the paper III. Rickets
Which of the above definitions are true about the Which of the illnesses given above are caused by
mixture? deficiency of a vitamin that is stored in the liver?
BBB EEE
A) I only B) III only C) I and II A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and III E) II and III D) I and II E) II and III
15
Chapter R eview 2
1. In the formation of neutral lipid, water molecules are 4. Small molecules combine and form big molecules.
released as in the formation of other polymer types. During the reaction, water molecules are released. This
kind of reaction is called a dehydration reaction.
Some definitions are given below for the formation of
three molecules of neutral lipid. Which of the following is not formed by dehydration
I. 9 ester bonds are formed reaction?
DDD
II. 3 molecules of water are released
A) Glycogen B) DNA C) Enzyme
III. 9 fatty acids are used
D) Vitamin E) Lactose
Which of the above definitions is true?
DDD
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and III E) I, II and III
5. Some properties of organic molecules are as follows:
I. They are joined to the structure of living things
II. In their structure there is nitrogen
III. They are used as energy producers
2. Starch and cellulose are formed by many glucose IV. They are synthesized in the cell
molecules. Starch can be digested, but cellulose can not
be digested by the human digestive system. Which of the above properties are common to protein,
carbohydrate and lipid?
Which of the following may be an explanation for DDD
indigestion of cellulose molecule by the human A) I only B) I and II C) I and III
digestive system?
CCC D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV
A) For the hydrolysis of cellulose, high temperature is
required
B) Digestion of cellulose takes place at high pH 6. The effects of deficiency and sources of some vitamins
C) There are different types of glucose linkages in are shown in the table below.
cellulose than in starch
Vitamin Types Effects of Deficiency Sources
D) There are more glucose molecules in cellulose
Thiamine (B1) Legumens, liver,
E) There are no glycosidic linkages in cellulose Beri beri
peanuts

Riboflavin (B2) Liver, meat, milk,


Pause in growth
cereals, egg

Pyridoxine (B6) Central nervous Cereals, meat,


system disorders legumes, liver
3. An enzymatic reaction takes place in plant cells, as shown Anemia, birth Liver, legumens,
below. Folacin (B9)
defects orange
enzyme Cyanocobalamin (B12) Anemia
Milk, liver, meat,
K+L M + H2O kidney, egg

Which of the following does not match with the reaction Some properties of these five vitamins are as follows:
that is given above? I. They are water soluble.
CCC II. Deficiency of them causes anemia.
K
___________ L
___________ M
___________ III. They are found in the liver.
A) Amino acid Amino acid Dipeptide
Which of the properties above are common to all of
B) Glucose Galactose Lactose
these vitamins?
C) Glucose Amino acid Glycolipid CCC
D) Glucose Glucose Maltose A) I only B) I and II C) I and III
E) Glucose Fructose Saccharose D) II and III E) I, II and III
16
CHECKPOINT TEST 6
7. Water is essential to life. All organisms need water, but the 10. Which of the following organic molecule pairs are not
amount of water present in a structure varies according to found together in the same cell?
its function. EEE
A) Starch-Cellulose
Which of the following statements is not true about
water? B) Glycogen-Lactose
EEE C) Protein-Cellulose
A) It protects the body. D) Lipid-Vitamin
B) It regulates body temperature. E) Maltose-Lactose
C) It helps maintain a stable ionic and pH balance.
D) Metabolic reactions need sufficient water concentration.
E) It plays a very important role in excretion of metabolic
wastes.

11. Fatty acid is one of the monomers in a lipid molecule. It


is formed by a long carbon chain.
8. Synthesis of saccharose is given below; Some definitions related to fatty acids are given below.
Glucose + Fructose Saccharose + H2O I. Unsaturated fatty acids are found in liquid state at
room temperature.
I. It takes place in plant cells.
II. All lipid types originate from saturated lipid in nature.
II. Two monomers bind with each other in a glycosidic
III. Unsaturated lipids are separate from saturated ones,
bond.
containing double bonds between carbon atoms in
III. It is a dehydration reaction. their structure
Which of the above definitions are true for synthesis of IV. Margarine is produced by the saturation of unsaturated
saccharose? fatty acids with hydrogen
EEE
Which of the above definitions are true?
A) I only B) II only C) I and II
EEE
D) II and III E) I, II and III A) I and III B) II and IV C) II and III
D) I, II and IV E) I, III and IV

9. Carbohydrates are nutrients and are widely used for


production of energy.
Some properties of carbohydrates are given below.
I. Catabolism is easier than for the other energy 12. Proteins are vital for body growth and repair of damaged
producers tissue.
II. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Some definitions related to proteins are as follows:
atoms
I. They are found in the structure of enzymes.
III. They are found in different forms in plants, animals,
II. They are found in the structure of some hormones.
fungi and people
III. They are found in the structure of muscle cells.
Which of the above properties may be the reason for
IV. They are formed by nucleotides.
carbohydrates being the primary energy source for all
organisms? Which of the above definitions is true for proteins?
AAA DDD
A) I only B) II only C) III only A) I only B) III and IV C) II and IV
D) I and II E) II and III D) I, II and III E) II, III and IV

17
Chapter R eview 3
1. Carbohydrates are organic molecules. They are part of 3. A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with
the structure of living things and they are made up of large molecular mass and repetition of monomer
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. structural units.
Some definitions related to carbohydrates are given Which of the following has a polymer structure?
below. BBB
I. They are found in all living things. A) Glucose B) Glycogen C) Galactose
II. They are synthesized by DNA according to the DNA D) Fatty acid E) Ribose
codes.
III. They are found in the structure of the cell membrane.
IV. They have a regulatory role in the body
Which of the above definitions are true for carbohydrates?
CCC 4. A reversible reaction in an animal cell is given below.
A) IV only B) I and II C) I, II and III
I
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV Lipid Glycerine + 3 Fatty acids
II

Which of the following is not true for the reaction


2. During anabolism and catabolism of a dipeptide above?
molecule, some reactions take place, as shown in the EEE
figure below. A) It is a hydrolysis reaction.
B) It is an anabolic reaction.
X Reaction
C) It is a dehydration reaction.
Enzyme
A D) The same enzyme is used in both reactions I and II.
E) Water is formed in both reactions I and II.

Glycine + Alanine B + Dipeptide


Amino acids

Enzyme 5. Small molecules (monomers) combine with each other to


form large molecules (polymers).
Y Reaction
Which of the following polymers is larger than the others?
Which of the following is not true of the reactions AAA
shown above? A) Starch B) Sucrose C) Peptide
BBB D) Maltose E) Lactose
A) X reaction takes place in the ribosome, but Y reaction
can take place in different parts of the cell.
B) The enzyme used in catabolism of dipeptides also can
be used in synthesizing dipeptides.
C) B is water, which is used in Y reaction, but A is ATP,
which is used in X reaction. 6. In the synthesis of a protein molecule, 89 water molecule
D) Enzymes, which enable dipeptide synthesis, are used are released.
to add the same amino acids to the dipeptide again What is the number of amino acids in the structure of
and again. the protein synthesized?
E) While Y reaction takes place inside or outside the cell, CCC
ATP is not needed. A) 300 B) 88 C) 90 D) 75 E) 178
18
CHECKPOINT TEST 7
7. Water is essential to life. Most of the body of a living thing 10. Which of the following is not related to lipids?
is water. The amount of water varies in different living EEE
things. The amount of water present in a structure also A) They are found in the structure of the cell membrane.
varies according to its function in a living thing. B) They can form a new molecule with other organic
Some definitions about water are given below. molecules.
I. It is a principle solvent. C) Excess amounts of them are stored in the body.
II. It helps maintain a stable ionic balance. D) Some of them play a role in hormones.
III. It regulates body temperature. E) They are used as a primary energy source in cells.

Which of the above definitions are true for water?


EEE
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III
D) II and III E) I, II and III

11. Stored nutrients are broken down to their monomers by


respiration to supply the energy necessary to a germinating
seed.
8. Some metabolic reactions are as follows:
Which the following is not used in a germinating
I. Protein synthesis seed?
II. ATP synthesis CCC
III. Catabolism of glucose A) Glucose B) Starch C) Cellulose
Which of above reactions are common to nerve and D) Stored lipid E) Stored protein
liver cells of an adult human?
EEE
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) I, II and III

12. Illnesses which result from a deficiency of some vitamins,


and some food sources which are used to treat the
9. During carbohydrate metabolism, some reactions occur. illnesses are shown in the table below.
They are given below.
Vitamin types Effects of deficiency Sources
CO2, H2O
X Night blindness Liver
V Y Scurvy Lemon
I I
Starch Glucose Glycogen Z Beri beri Rice
II II
Which of the following is true for vitamins X, Y, and Z?
Which of the following is not true for the reactions AAA
above? X Y Z
EEE ______ ______ ______
A) I takes place in plant and animals. A) A C B
B) II takes place only in plants. B) K C E
C) III takes place in animals . C) B C K
D) IV takes place in plants. D) A B K
E) V is respiration reaction. E) A C K

19
Cell and Or ganelles 1
1. Which of the following properties of the mitochondrion 5. Change in the amount of amino acid in the cell cytoplasm
can not be seen in the chloroplast? over a period of time is shown in the graph below:
CCC Amount of free
A) It is composed of a double membrane. amino acids

B) It synthesizes organic molecules.


C) It has respiratory enzymes.
D) It has the ability to divide to increase its number.
E) It synthesizes protein. Time
X Y

According to the graph, if X and Y are the organelles:


X
__________ Y
__________
2. Which of the following is not true about the functions
I. Chloroplast Ribosome
of the plasma membrane?
EEE II. Lysosome Golgi
A) It maintains the integrity of the cell. III. Golgi Leucoplast
B) It gives protection against environmental hazards. Which of the above organelles provide free amino
C) It provides the cell with shape. acids, as in the graph?
D) It forms a barrier between the cell and its environment. AAA
A) I only B) III only C) I and II
E) It provides enzymes for the production of ATP in
active transport. D) I and III E) II and III

3. Which of the following is a correct match between


anabolic and catabolic reactions and organelles in
eukaryotic cells? 6. Some properties of eukaryotic cells:
BBB
I. They have DNA and RNA.
Anabolism
___________________ Catabolism
____________________
II. They synthesize ATP.
A) Ribosome-Golgi Chloroplast-Leucoplast III. They synthesize RNA.
B) Chloroplast-Ribosome Mitochondria-Lysosome
Which of the above properties are true of BOTH
C) Centrosome-Lysosome Lysosome-Chloroplast mitochondria and chloroplasts?
D) Mitochondria-Ribosome Centrosome-Golgi EEE
E) Chloroplast-Golgi Golgi-Lysosome A) I only B) II only C) I and III
D) II and III E) I, II and III

4. Which of the following is true for BOTH mitochondria


and lysosomes?
DDD
A) They break down monomers.
7. Which of the following organelles does not have any
B) They increase the concentration of the cytoplasm. enzyme related to its function?
C) They include master molecules. AAA
D) Enzymatic reactions take place in them. A) Food vacuole B) Leucoplast C) Lysosome
E) They synthesize ATP with ETS. D) Ribosome E) Golgi
22
CHECKPOINT TEST 1
8. Some membranous organelles form other membranous 12. Some of the organelles in eukaryotic cells are grouped as:
organelles, in order. I. Chloroplast-mitochondria
Which of the following is the correct order? II. Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum
AAA III. Centrosome-ribosome
A) Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-lysosome
Which of the following is not considered when they are
B) Cell membrane-food vacuole-contractile vacuole
grouped?
C) Golgi-secretory vacuole-centrosome DDD
D) Nuclear membrane-mitochondria-Golgi A) For the 1st group: they carry DNA
E) Cell membrane-endoplasmic reticulum-lysosome. B) For the 1st group: they increase in number
C) For the 2nd group: they synthesize some materials that
are found in the cell membrane
D) For the 3rd group: they are non-membranous structures
9. Some organelles responsible for enzyme synthesis: E) For the 3rd group: they are found in all cell types
I. Golgi
II. Ribosome
III. Endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following is the correct order of enzyme
synthesis?
DDD
A) I - II - III B) I - III - II C) II - I - III
D) II - III - I E) III - I - II

13.
10. Which of the following organelles does not form any
master molecule when it is broken down?
Golgi
DDD
A) Chloroplast B) Ribosome C) Golgi Cell wall

D) Mitochondria E) Leucoplast Nucleus


Endoplasmic
Mitochondria Reticulum

11. Some reactions: Ribosome


I. Glucose synthesis in the chloroplast
II. Active transport in the membrane According to the figure above, which of the following
III. Protein synthesis in the ribosome can not be observed in the cell?
BBB
Which of the above reactions are not directly affected A) It can respire.
if the amount of ATP produced in the mitochondria is
B) It can undergo photosynthesis.
not sufficient?
AAA C) It can secrete.
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III D) It is a eukaryotic cell.
D) II and III E) I, II and III E) It is a plant cell.

23
Cell and Or ganelles 2
1. Onion membrane cell and tongue epithelial cell are 4. Exchange of material between two different organelles in
compared in the figure below. a eukaryotic plant cell is shown in the figure below.
Vacuole CO2 IV

Cytoplasm

Cell
membrane III I
Nucleus

Cell wall
II Glucose

Onion membrane cell


Tongue epithelial cell Which of the following statements is not true according
to the figure?
Which of the following is not true about the cells? CCC
CCC A) l is a chloroplast
A) The plant cell is an old cell. B) II may be an O2 molecule
B) Metabolic activity of the plant cell is slow.
C) In III there is cellular respiration
C) Cell division rates of both cells are same.
D) IV may be an H2O molecule
D) Both cells have different structures.
E) II and IV are products of photosynthesis
E) Both cells are eukaryotic cells.

2. If there is a centrosome in the cells of a living organism,


excess glucose can be converted into other molecules.
I. Glycogen
II. Cellulose
III. Lipid
IV. Starch
Which of the above molecules can be formed from
excess glucose?
BBB
A) I only B) I and III C) II and IV
D) I, II and III E) I, III and IV
5. Some organelles:
I. Nucleolus
II. Centriole
3. Which of the following statements can indicate that
the cell is a prokaryote? III. Leucoplast
AAA IV. Ribosome
A) Protein synthesis
Which of the above organelles are common to BOTH
B) ATP production plant and animal cells?
C) ATP consumption CCC
D) Presence of chlorophyll in the cytoplasm A) I and II B) I and III C) I and IV
E) Oxygen usage D) II and IV E) III and IV
24
CHECKPOINT TEST 2
6. Which of the following matches is not true about 9. Some properties of an organelle are given below:
organelles and their functions ? - It is part of the internal membrane of the cell.
DDD
- It stores Ca.
A) Leucoplast starch storage
- It synthesizes lipid.
B) Smooth ER lipid synthesis
- It neutralizes toxic materials.
C) Rough ER enzyme synthesis
D) Mesosomes protein synthesis Which of the following is the organelle that has the
properties above?
E) Lysosome break down of aged
EEE
organelles
A) Golgi body B) Vacuole C) Lysosome
D) Mitochondria E) Endoplasmic reticulum

7. Some cell organelles and functions are given below: 10. Which of the following organelles does not form any
- Nucleus. master molecule when it is broken down?
DDD
- Mitochondria
A) Chloroplast B) Ribosome C) Golgi
- Chloroplast
D) Mitochondria E) Leucoplast
- Holding interstitial fluid in tissues
related with these organelles:
I. presence of nucleic acid
II. energy production 11. There are some reactions:
III. presence of ETS I. Glucose synthesis in the chloroplast
IV. presence of a double membrane II. Active transport in the membrane
III. Protein synthesis in the ribosome
Which of the above properties are common to the
given organelles and functions? Which of the above reactions are not directly affected
DDD if the amount of ATP produced in the mitochondria is
A) IV only B) I and III C) II and III not sufficient?
AAA
D) I and IV E) III and IV
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III
D) II and III E) I, II and III

8. Some properties of an organelle are given below: 12. Which of the following is not true about the structure
- It has respiratory enzymes. and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts?
AAA
- It can increase its number by division. A) Mitochondrial membrane is permeable, but chloroplast
- It has a double membrane. membrane is impermeable.
- It has DNA and RNA molecules. B) Both of the organelles have distinctive DNA.
Which of the following is the organelle with the C) In mitochondria there is crista, in chloroplasts there is
properties above? granum.
AAA D) For ATP synthesis; in mitochondria O2 is needed, in
A) Mitochondria B) Chloroplast C) Lysosome chloroplasts light is needed.
D) Nucleus E) Ribosome E) In the liquid part of both organelles there are ribosomes
25
Nucleus and Cell Membrane 1
1. Some statements about the nucleus of eukaryotic cells: 3. In the cell, molecules can be transported by:
I. There is a certain ratio between the size of the - Diffusion
nucleus and the mass of the cytoplasm. - Osmosis
II. Generally, if metabolic activities are greater, the - Active transport
nucleus is bigger.
Which of the following is common to all of the above
III. There is only one nucleus in all types of cells.
methods?
IV. All nucleated cells divide after a certain amount of DDD
development A) Enzymes are used
Which of the above statements are true for the B) Can take place only in living cells
nucleus of a eukaryotic cell? C) Carrier molecules are used
AAA
D) Works maximum rate if there is optimum temperature
A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III
E) Molecules are transferred from high concentration to
D) II and IV E) III and IV low concentration

4. Which of the following is not true about the structure


and function of the nucleus?
BBB
A) It has a membranous structure only in eukaryotic
2. Transport through the cell membrane is shown in the cells.
figure below.
B) It directs the cell with the help of the nucleolus.
C) Its pores are larger than the cell membrane pores.
D) It increases in number by cell division.
E) In some cells, there can be more than one.

Which of the following is not true about material 5. A cell is in osmotic balance with its environment.
transport?
DDD Which of the following can occur if it starts to synthesize
A) Carrier protein combines with molecule in transfer sucrose?
B) Molecules are transferred from high concentration to AAA
low concentration A) Water molecules are released from the cell.
C) The same enzyme can be used again and again in the B) Concentration of the cell doesnt change.
transport of molecules C) Glucose molecules are taken inside the cell by active
D) ATP is used to transport molecules transport.
E) During transportation, there is no change in the cell D) Amount of glucose in the cell increases
membrane E) Amount of fructose in the cell increases

26
CHECKPOINT TEST 3
6. A cell lives in normal temperatures and the following are 9. Which of the following properties is different in plant
observed: and animal cells?
I. Diffusion CCC
A) Transport of materials by active transport
II. Osmosis
B) Breakdown of protein molecules into amino acids
III. Active transport
C) Starch synthesis from glucose
The reaction rate of which of the above activities can
D) Lipid synthesis
increase if the cell is at the optimum temperature?
EEE E) Replication of DNA
A) I only B) III only C) I and II
D) II and III E) I, II and III

10. One end of an intestine is folded and tied. Glucose and


starch solutions are poured in and a graduated pipette is
placed into the intestine. Then the intestine is placed into
7. Which of the following molecules can pass through a beaker full of water. Iodine solution is added to the
water.
the cell membrane only by diffusion?
DDD
A) O2 and vitamin
B) Glucose and CO2
C) Amino acid and H2O
D) CO2 and O2
E) H2O and NaCl

After two hours, a small amount of water is taken from the


beaker and Benedict solution is added. This mixture is
8. A unicellular organism is placed into distilled water. heated and the color changes to brick red.
Hemolysis occurs.
Which of the following statements is not true about
Which of the following is not found in the cell the experiment?
structure? DDD
AAA A) Glucose molecules pass into the beaker by diffusion
A) Contractile vacuole B) Benedict solution is an indicator for glucose
B) Centrosome C) Water molecules pass from the beaker into the intestine
C) Ribosome D) Starch can pass into the beaker by active transport
D) Glycogen E) Osmotic pressure of the solution decreases in the
E) Nuclear membrane intestine

27
Nucleus and Cell Membrane 2
1. Some molecules can pass by diffusion through the cell 4. The cells of three plants in different conditions are
membrane pores: observed under the microscope and the following views
I. Na+ are obtained:
II. Glucose
III. O2
IV. NaCl
Which of the following is the correct order for the rate
of diffusion, from fastest to slowest?
CCC
A) I>II=III>IV B) I>II>III>IV C) III>I>IV>II
D) IV>I>III>II E) IV>I>II>III

2. Some events in the plasma membrane:


Which of the following matches is correct?
I. Active transport AAA
II. Diffusion X
_____ Y
_____ Z
_____
III. Endocytosis A) I II III
IV. Exocytosis B) II I III
Which of the above events cause changes in the size C) III I II
of the cell membrane? D) I III II
EEE
A) III only B) I and II C) I and III E) II III I

D) II and IV E) III and IV

5. An animal cell is placed into a medium which has the


3. Which of the following is not true about the nuclear same glucose concentration as the cell.
membrane?
I Diffusion
EEE
A) It is double-layered. II Active transport
B) It is formed by the endoplasmic reticulum. III Phagocytosis
C) Its outer membrane has ribosomes. Which of the above methods can be used to transport
D) It enables exchange of materials between the cytoplasm glucose into the cell?
and the nucleoplasm. BBB
A) I only B) II only C) I and II
E) Nuclear membrane pores are smaller than plasma
membrane pores. D) I and III E) II and III
28
CHECKPOINT TEST 4
6. Some methods of transporting molecules by using energy 9. Some organic molecules in a cell:
are given below: I. Glycogen
I. Active transport II. Galactose
II. Pinocytosis III. Amino acid
III. Phagocytosis IV. Fatty acid
IV. Exocytosis V. ATP
Which of the above methods can transport materials Some of the molecules above can pass through the pores
without changing the shape of plasma membrane ? of the cell membrane, but some can not.
AAA
A) I only B) I and II C) II and III Which of the following matches is correct?
AAA
D) II and IV E) III and IV passing molecules non-passing molecules
________________ _____________________
A) II, III and IV I and V
B) I, II and V III and IV
C) III and IV I, II, IV and V
D) I and III II, IV and V
7. Some statements about transportation of molecules by E) I, III and IV I and V
diffusion across the cell membrane to the inside of the
cell are given below:
I. There is a high concentration of molecules outside
the cell.
II. The molecules size is smaller than the pore size.
III. The molecules can dissolve in water and lipid.
Which of the above statements are absolutely
necessary for diffusion of molecules?
CCC
A) I only B) II only C) I and II
D) I and III E) II and III
10. Concentration of some molecules inside and outside the
cell are given below:
Inside the cell
_____________ Outside the cell
______________
I. Ca 0.05 0.01
8. Some statements about endocytosis and exocytosis: II. Na 0.01 0.06
III. K 0.07 0.02
I. Energy is used in transporting materials.
IV. Starch 0.00 0.15
II. Transportation is unidirectional.
V. Cl 0.06 0.02
III. Transportation occurs from the outside to the inside
of the cell. VI. Glycogen 0.08 0.00

Which of the above statements are true for BOTH Which of the above molecules are transported into the
endocytosis and exocytosis? cell by active transport?
BBB DDD
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III A) I and III B) II and IV C) V and VI

D) II and III E) I, II and III D) I, III and V E) II, III and V

29
Chapter R eview 1
1. Which of the following does not indicate that the cell 4. In a cell of salted animal leather:
membrane is alive? I. Active transport-hemolysis
BBB
II. Osmosis-plasmolysis
A) Semipermeable structure of the cell membrane
III. Osmosis-deplasmolysis
B) Passage of water molecules into the cell from a medium
of low water concentration Which of the above can take place?
C) Transport of big molecules which are larger than the BBB
pores A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) Using ATP and enzymes in transportation of molecules D) I and II E) I, II and III
E) Transportation of molecules from low concentration
to high concentration

2. Some molecules:
I. DNA
II. Protein
5. Starch solution and starch digestive enzyme are placed
III. RNA into one branch of a U test tube. Into the other branch,
IV. ATP iodine (starch indicator) solution is placed.
Which of the above molecules can not be synthesized
in the nucleus?
DDD
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) II and IV E) I, II and III

3. Passive transport is a kind of molecule transportation


method and kinetic energy of molecules is used. Diffusion
is also one type of passive transport.
Some statements about diffusion:
I. Molecules are transported from high concentration to
low concentration At the end of the experiment, there are some changes in
II. ATP and enzyme are used during transportation the A and B branches of the test tube.
III. It can take place in non-living and living cells Which of the following is not true?
IV. It can take place in membranous and non-membranous AAA
conditions. A) Branch B beomes blue.
B) In branch A, the amount of starch decreases.
Which of the statements are true about diffusion?
DDD C) In branch B, glucose molecules appear.
A) I only B) I and III C) II and IV D) In branch A, the amount of enzyme doesnt change.
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV E) In branch A, the concentration of liquid increases.

30
CHECKPOINT TEST 5
6. The amounts of some molecules in the paramecium and 9. The fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane and
its environment are given below. some of its structures are shown in the figure below.

Which of the following matches is correct about struc-


tures in the fluid mosaic model and where they are
synthesized?
DDD
Molecules are moving according to the direction of the Protein
___________ Lipid
_________ Glycolipid
___________ Glycoprotein
____________
arrows. A) Mitochondria Ribosome Golgi Golgi
The movement of which of the above molecules B) Ribosome Lysosome Lysosome Lysosome
could indicate that the paramecium is alive? C) Chloroplast Golgi Mitochondria Mitochondria
BBB
D) Ribosome Golgi Golgi Golgi
A) I only B) I and II C) II and IV
E) Ribosome Golgi Nucleus Nucleus
D) II and V E) I, II and V

7. Which of the following matches is not correct?


EEE
A) Mitochondria-matrix
B) Chloroplast-granum
C) Ribosome-RNA
D) Centrosome-centriole
E) Golgi-DNA
10. Protein molecules are synthesized in ribosomes and pass
into the endoplasmic reticulum. They then pass into
8. When a unicellular living organism is placed in distilled Golgi bodies and finally are secreted from the cell by
water there is no hemolysis. active vesicles.
Which of the following organelles is found in the cell Which of the following reactions does not take place
to protect the cell from hemolysis? as explained above?
CCC DDD
A) Ribosome A) secretion of pepsin into the stomach
B) Centrosome B) secretion of lipase into the small intestine
C) Contractile vacuole C) delivery of insulin hormone into the blood
D) Mitochondria D) formation of lysosome in the cell
E) Nuclear membrane E) secretion of saliva into the mouth
31
Chapter R eview 2
1. Results of the analysis of the cytoplasm of an amoeba 4. In an experiment, when the nucleus of the amoeba is
over a period of time are shown in the table below. removed, the nucleus and the cytoplasm die. If the nucleus
is removed with a small amount of cytoplasm, it continues
Ratio in the cytoplasm
Analysis no. to live and the cytoplasm renews itself.
Protein Amino acid
Some conclusions:
1 90 % 10 %
I. The nucleus contains the life of the cell
2 30 % 70 %
II. The nucleus enables genetic continuity
3 7% 93 %
III. The nucleus controls cell division and growth in number
Which of the following organelles can cause these
results?
BBB
A) Ribosome
B) Lysosome
C) Golgi body
D) Mitochondria
E) Vacuole

Which of the above conclusions can not be made from


the results of the experiment?
EEE
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) II and III
2. Which of the following organelles produces ATP from
the chemical energy in sugar and other molecules?
AAA
A) Mitochondria
B) Chloroplast
C) Lysosome
D) Nucleus
E) Ribosome

3. Which of the following matches is not correct about an 5. Which of the following is common to plant and animal
organelle and its function? cells?
DDD EEE
A) Chloroplast-O2 production A) Starch synthesis from glucose
B) Nucleus-division B) Cytoplasmic division by furrowing
C) Ribosome-protein synthesis C) Taking in food particles by phagocytosis
D) Lysosome-cellulose synthesis D) Transformation of light energy into chemical energy
E) Golgi body-secretion E) ATP synthesis from organic molecules
32
CHECKPOINT TEST 6
6. A unicellular organism lives in fresh water. 9. Glucose, fructose, galactose and molecules that are
I. It takes in O2 from the environment. insoluble in both water and lipid are transported through
the cell membrane by facilitated diffusion.
II. It releases CO2 to the environment.
Comparison of active transport and facilitated diffusion:
III. It synthesizes enzymes.
Active Transport
______________________ Facilitated Diffusion
______________________
IV. It takes all its minerals from the environment.
I. Energy is used. Energy is not used.
Which of the above reactions take place without ATP?
AAA II. Molecules are transported Molecules are transported
A) I and II B) II and III C) III and IV from high to low from low to high
concentration. concentration.
D) I and IV E) II and IV
III. Enzyme is used. Enzyme is used.
Which of the above matches are correct?
DDD
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and III E) II and III

7. A plant cell is placed into a solution. It is in osmotic balance 10. There are some organelles in a cell:
with the solution. I. Chloroplast
There are some events in the cell: II. Ribosome
I. Cellulose synthesis III. Mitochondria
II. Starch digestion IV. Vacuole
III. Protein synthesis Which of the above two organelles use each others
Which of the above reactions require H2O from outside synthesized materials?
DDD
the cell?
A) I and II B) II and III C) I and IV
BBB
A) I only B) II only C) II and III D) I and III E) III and IV
D) I and II E) I and III

11. The plasma membrane differentiates and forms different


structures in different cells.
Some organelles:
I. Cilia
II. Lysosome
III. Microvillus
8. Which of the following factors decreases the rate of
IV. Chloroplast
diffusion?
DDD V. Golgi
A) The transferred molecules size is smaller than the VI. Flagella
pore size
Which of the above organelles are not formed by
B) Increase in temperature differentiation of the plasma membrane?
C) Transfer of liquid-soluble molecules EEE
D) Increase in molecular size of transferred materials A) I and II B) II and V C) III and VI
E) Increase in concentration difference D) I, III and VI E) II, IV and V
33
Chapter R eview 3
1. An experiment with the nucleus of an alga is shown in the 3. Some transport methods of molecules are given below.
figure below. I. Diffusion
II. Osmosis
III. Active transport
IV. Phagocytosis
V. Pinocytosis
Which of the above methods require energy?
DDD
A) I and II B) IV and V C) I, III and V
D) III, IV and V E) II, III, IV and V

4. Which of the following transport methods can occur


Which of the following results can be obtained from ONLY through the pores of the plasma membrane?
the experiment? DDD
EEE A) Osmosis, diffusion, phagocytosis
A) Nucleus adapts living organisms to the environment B) Phagocytosis, pinocytosis
B) The rate of reproduction is different in the two algae C) Active transport, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
C) In a cell, there can be different nuclei that have different D) Diffusion, osmosis, active transport
properties
E) Active transport, endocytosis
D) Cells can live without the nucleus
E) Properties of a living organism are determined by the
nucleus

5. A sugar cube dissolving in a glass of water is shown in the


figure below.

2. Some organelle functions are:


I. It produces secretory substances.
II. It produces energy.
III. In the vacuole, it uses enzymes to break food particles
into small pieces.
Which of the following matches is true about Some actions:
organelles and their functions? I. Increasing the temperature of the solution
AAA
II. Stirring the mixture
I
__________ II
____________ III
____________
III. Adding water to the solution
A) Golgi body Mitochondria Lysosome
Which of the above actions increases the rate at which
B) Lysosome Mitochondria Golgi body the sugar dissolves?
C) Golgi body Ribosome Lysosome EEE
D) Ribosome Chloroplast Golgi body A) I only B) II only C) III only
E) Lysosome Ribosome Golgi body D) I and III E) I, II and III
34
CHECKPOINT TEST 7
6. An amoeba is placed in fresh water. The fresh water 8. Which of following is not true about mitochondria?
includes some molecules that are smaller than the amoebas EEE
plasma membrane pores. After a certain period of time, A) Consume organic molecules
the fresh water was analyzed and all the small molecules B) Inner membrane is folded
were found in the cytoplasm of the amoeba.
C) Has a double membrane
Which of the following transport methods was used to D) Synthesizes ATP
transport the small molecules into the amoebas
E) Found in all cell types
cytoplasm?
DDD
A) Phagocytosis, pinocytosis
B) Diffusion, pinocytosis
C) Plasmolysis, deplasmolysis 9. Some statements about lysosomes:
D) Diffusion, active transport I. Have enzymes in the membrane for synthesis of lipids
E) Osmosis,phagocytosis II. Have enzymes for digestion reactions
III. Produce necessary hormones for the cell
Which of the above are correct?
BBB
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) I, II and III
7. Transportation of required materials from outside to inside
the cell is shown in the figure below.

10. The cell vacuole is formed by other structures in the cell.


Which of the following structures and organelles do
not form any vacuole?
EEE
A) Cell membrane
B) Endoplasmic reticulum
C) Golgi body
D) Nuclear membrane
E) Mitochondria

Which of the following matches for the numbers and 11. The number of mitochondria is different in different types
organelles or events in the figure is correct? of cells.
EEE Which of the following organs includes fewer
I II III IV mitochondria than the others?
__________ ___________ ___________ ________
EEE
A) Food vacuole Digestive vacuole Lysosome Endocytosis A) Heart
B) Lysosome Food vacuole Digestive vacuole Exocytosis B) Brain
C) Mitochondria Lysosome Digestive vacuole Exocytosis C) Stomach
D) Cell membrane Golgi Exocytosis Endocytosis D) Liver
E) Cell membrane Lysosome Digestive vacuole Exocytosis E) Skin
35
Enzymes and ATP 1
1. Methods of ATP synthesis in the cell are given below: 4. A biochemical reaction in a cell is given below:
I. Phosphorylation at the substrate level Substrate - Enzyme
II. Photophosphorylation Substrate + Enzyme Complex Product + Enzyme
III. Oxidative phosphorylation During a biochemical reaction, changes in the
Which of the above reactions take place in all types of concentration of substrate, enzyme, substrate-enzyme
cells? complex and product are given in the graph below:
AAA
Concentration
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) II and III II
I

III
2. Which of the following molecules is synthesized in IV
both plants and animals? Time
BBB
A) Maltose B) Enzyme C) Fructose In which of the following are substrate, enzyme,
substrate-enzyme complex and product correctly
D) Galactose E) Saccharose matched, according to the graph?
CCC
Substrate-Enzyme
Substrate
__________ Enzyme
__________ Complex
__________ Product
__________
3. The change in reaction rate of a biological reaction at A) I III IV II
different temperatures is shown in the graph below: B) II III I IV
Reaction rate C) II IV III I
D) IV II I III
E) IV III II I

-10 -5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 C

There are some interpretations related to the graph


above, as follows:
5. Enzymes are one of the indispensable molecules for
biochemical reactions in the cell.
I. An increase in temperature slows the rate of reaction
and may stop it. Which of the following is not true for enzymes?
II. Enzymes operate at a definite temperature. BBB
A) Every enzyme is a protein, but every protein is not an
III. A decrease in temperature slows the rate of reaction. enzyme.
IV. Keeping nutrients in the refrigerator may cause B) Enzymes are synthesized and can be used only in the
damage to enzyme structure. cell.
Which of the above interpretations are true according C) Enzymes can be used again and again, as in ATP and
to the graph? mRNA molecules in the cell
EEE D) Each enzyme is effective in only one kind of reaction
A) I and II B) II and III C) II and IV
E) Enzyme synthesis is a complicated reaction and it is
D) III and IV E) I, II and III under the control of genes
38
CHECKPOINT TEST 1
6. There are some enzymes in plants that break down 9. ATP is the energy unit in living things. Its structure is
(hydrolyze) starch molecules. shown below:
An experiment is prepared for verification of the hypothesis.
Adenine Ribose P P P
Which of the following mixtures can be used to verify
the hypothesis?
CCC According to the figure, some definitions are given below:
A) Starch indicator + starch hydrolyzing enzyme + plant
I. The second and third phosphate bonds of ATP have
extract
high capacity to yield energy.
B) Starch hydrolyzing enzyme + monosaccharide
II. The sugar type in the structure of ATP and in all types
indicator + plant extract
of nucleic acids is same.
C) Starch + monosaccharide indicator + plant extract
III. Energy types in the structure of ATP and nutrients are
D) Monosaccharide + starch hydrolyzing enzyme + different from each other.
plant extract
Which of the above definitions are not true for ATP?
E) Monosaccharide + monosaccharide indicator + plant
BBB
extract
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) I, II and III

7. Heavy metals like mercury and lead enter the body with 10. In which of the following reactions does ATP synthesis
different effects. They have an inhibiting effect on take place?
enzymes. CCC
Which of the following correctly defines the inhibiting A) Synthesis of starch from glucose
effect of these heavy metals? B) Formation of two amoebae from one amoeba
BBB C) Synthesis of glucose from CO2 and H2O in the
A) They increase enzyme activity. chloroplast
B) They prevent formation of the enzyme-substrate D) Formation of maltose from glucose
complex.
E) Break down of protein molecules into amino acids
C) They denature the structure of enzymes.
D) They block synthesis of enzymes.
E) They disrupt the gene-enzyme relationship. 11. Some structural essentials in the structure of complex
enzymes are as follows:
I. Apoenzyme
II. Coenzyme
8. Some properties of enzymes are given below: III. Co-factor
I. They reduce the activation energy of reactions. Which of the following matches is correct according to
II. They have an effect on dehydration reactions. molecules I, II and III?
BBB
III. Each is unique to a particular substrate. I II III
________ ________ ________
IV. They are affected by temperature.
A) Protein Metal ions Vitamin
Which of the above properties are common to all
B) Protein Vitamin Metal ions
types of enzymes?
DDD C) Vitamin Protein Metal ions
A) III only B) I and II C) I, II and IV D) Protein Metal ions Protein
D) I, III and IV E) I, II and III E) Protein Vitamin Protein

39
Enzymes and ATP 2
1. All cells must synthesize ATP molecules to carry on their 3. Enzymes are affected by changes in the temperature of
life activities. the medium, because of their proteinaceous structure.
Therefore, they work best at definite temperatures. They
Which of the following is not a property of ATP?
operate most rapidly at the optimum temperature.
CCC
Some properties of enzymes are given below:
A) In its structure, an adenine base and ribose sugar are
found. I. Enzymes denature at high temperatures.
B) It is produced as a result of enzymatic reactions. II. A decrease in temperature slows the rate of reaction,
but has no effect on the structure of the enzyme.
C) It can be absorbed from outside the cell to the inside.
III. Denatured enzymes at high temperatures can not
D) It has high-energy bonds in its structure.
work again when the temperature is decreased.
E) There are organic and inorganic molecules in its
structure. Which of the above properties explains why nutrients
are preserved by freezing?
BBB
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) I, II and III

4. Some enzymes are found in all kinds of cells, but some


enzymes are found only in certain cells.
2. Metabolism is all the breaking down and building up
reactions that occur within a cell. For a reaction to start, Which of the following enzymes is found in all kinds of
reactants need energy to pass the activation energy level. cells?
DDD
Energy A) Starch synthesis enzyme
2
B) Lactose synthesis enzyme
Substarte

1
C) Glycogen hydrolysis enzyme
AE2 AE1
D) Protein synthesis enzyme
E) Cellulose synthesis enzyme
Product

Carbonhydrate
Rection rate
5. Some events that occur in ATP synthesis in different cells
are shown in the figure below:
Some definitions related to the graph are given below.
I. Energy requirement for the 2nd reaction is less than Light ATP Nutrient
the 1st reaction.
II. The most important factor for lowering the activation ?
energy requirement in the 1st reaction is an enzyme.
Which of the following can not fit into the unknown
III. A change in the temperature of the medium affects part of the figure?
the 1st reaction. CCC
Which of above definitions are not true according to A) Protein synthesis
the graph? B) Activation energy
AAA C) Dissolution of sugar in water
A) I only B) II only C) III only D) Impulse transmission in nerve cells
D) II and III E) I, II and III E) Contraction of muscle cells

40
CHECKPOINT TEST 2
6. In an experiment, substrate M and enzyme N react 9. The steps in a metabolic reaction in living cells are as
(Enzyme N breaks down substrate M). At the end of the follows:
reaction, product X and enzyme N are present. Then
enzyme Y is added into the medium and substrate X is Energy producing
reactions
broken down.
After these observations, some hypotheses are generated
by a scientist as follows: Energy

I. Enzymes work in teams.


ATP production
II. The product of one reaction can be the substrate of
the next. ADP + Pi ATP
III. The enzyme of one reaction is used in other reactions.
IV. Enzymes are used only once in all reactions.
Which of the hypotheses above are correct?
AAA Energy
A) I and II B) I and III C) I and IV Energy consuming
reactions
D) II and III E) I, II and IV
Some definitions related to the metabolic reactions above
are as follows:
7. Which of the following molecules is synthesized in I. In the production of an ATP molecule, energy is
both plants and animals? consumed.
BBB II. At the end of catabolism of ATP, energy is produced.
A) Maltose B) Enzyme C) Fructose III. In ATP synthesis, organic and inorganic molecules are
D) Galactose E) Saccharose used.
Which of the above definitions are true for the
metabolic reactions?
EEE
8. The change in reaction rate of an enzymatic reaction is A) I only B) II only C) III only
shown in the graph below.
D) I and III E) I, II and III
Reaction rate

I II III X factor 10. Some enzyme types are given below.


I. DNA polymerase
Which of the following statements, related to reaction
rate determining factors I, II and III, is true? II. ATP synthase
AAA III. RNA polymerase
A) In II, the amount of enzyme is decreased. IV. Antibody-producing enzymes
B) In I, the amount of substrate is decreased. V. Hydrolysis enzymes
C) In III, an activator is used.
Which of the enzymes above causes a different type of
D) In II, there is a sufficient amount of substrate in the reaction than the others?
medium. EEE
E) In I, the temperature is higher than 55 oC. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

41
Enzymes and ATP 3
1. A chain of reactions is shown in the figure below. 4. The amount of which of the following molecules
increases at the end of enzyme synthesis in an animal
Feed back cell?
EEE
A) ATP B) Amino acid C) tRNA
Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3
A B C D D) mRNA E) Water

Some statements about the reactions are given below.


I. Each enzyme can act only in one type of reaction.
II. In enzymatic reactions, the last product affects the
activity of the first enzyme and stops the reaction. 5. A biochemical reaction can take place at two different
III. The three enzymes that are responsible for the reactions energy levels, as shown in the graph below.
can be used only one time.
Activation energy level
Which of above definitions are true according to the 1
chain of reactions? 2
DDD
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) II and III

Time
2. ATP is the source of energy in cells. The structure of it is
shown below. Some statements about reaction 2 are given below.
I. Decrease in the amount of substrate molecules
Adenine Ribose P P P
II. Enzyme takes role in the reaction
III. Increase in the amount of substrate molecules
I II III
Which of the statements above are true about reaction 2?
Which parts of the ATP molecule above are also used BBB
in the synthesis of DNA? A) I only B) II only C) III only
EEE
D) I and II E) II and III
A) I only B) III only C) I and II
D) II and III E) I and III

3. Microorganisms can not live in a normal concentration of 6. Some factors affect the activity of enzymes:
honey or jam.
I. pH
Which of the following could be the reason for this
II. Temperature
statement?
AAA III. Enzyme concentration
A) The amount of water is not sufficient for enzymes to IV. Substrate concentration
operate.
An increase of which factor above also increases the
B) Variability in the pH of honey and jam reaction rate?
C) Variability in the temperature EEE
D) No substrate in the medium A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III
E) Lower amount of enzyme in the medium D) II and IV E) III and IV
42
CHECKPOINT TEST 3
7. Some molecules are given below. 10. The steps in a reaction that is realized by three different
I. Glucose enzymes are given below:
II. Amino acid 1E + NAD2 3 E + FAD E + NAD
X Z Y P (Product)
III. Mineral
IV. Fatty acid Which of the following statements is not true about
the reactions above?
Which of the molecules above appear when enzymes AAA
are hydrolyzed? A) A coenzyme can react with only one type of enzyme.
BBB B) Each enzyme is unique to one type of reaction.
A) I and II B) II and III C) II and IV
C) Enzymes work in teams.
D) I, II and III E) I, III and IV D) Enzymes that are responsible for reactions are
complex enzymes.
E) A specific apoenzyme is only functional with one type
of prosthetic group.

8. Some molecules are given below.


I. Adenine base 11. Catabolism of an ATP molecule is shown below.
II. Ribose sugar ATP ADP + P
III. Thymine base
Which of the following statements is not true according
IV. Amino acid to the reaction given above?
V. Phosphoric acid CCC
A) It converts energy into a useful form.
Which of the molecules above are not found in the
structure of ATP? B) It occurs with enzymes.
CCC C) It increases the amount of ATP in the environment.
A) I and II B) I and III C) III and IV D) It takes place in all types of cells.
D) I, II and IV E) I, II and V E) It causes a decrease in the amount of water in the cell.

12. Enzymes are proteinaceous-structured organic molecules.


They can operate only within a narrow range of temperature
and pH. Conditions outside this range destroy or denature
9. Some definitions are given below related to biochemical their protein structure.
reactions in a cell.
I. Energy is needed to initiate a biochemical reaction in Some definitions related to enzyme-pH relationship are
the cell. given below:
II. Enzymes work in teams and catalyze a series of I. For all enzymes, the optimum pH is 7.
reactions. II. Changes in pH negatively affect the work of enzymes.
III. Enzymes initiate reactions. III. The optimum pH of each enzyme is different.
Which of above definitions are correct? Which of the definitions above are true?
CCC CCC
A) I only B) II only C) I and II A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and III E) II and III D) I and III E) I, II and III
43
Light Dependent R eactions
1. Factors that play a role in photosynthesis are as follows: 4. Parts of the chloroplast are shown in the figure below:
I. Chlorophyll-b plays a role
II. Water is used
III. Absorption of light
IV. Formation of NADPH2
V. Cytochromes play a role
Which of the above factors are common to both cyclic
and noncyclic phosphorylation?
CCC
A) I and II B) II and III C) III and V
D) I, II and V E) II, III and V
Some statements about chloroplasts:
I. ETS takes place in the grana
II. ETS enzymes are found in the inner membrane
III. Light energy is converted into chemical bond energy
in the grana
2. Some statements about photosynthesis are given Which of the above are correct?
below: EEE
I. Photolysis of water A) I only B) II only C) III only
II. CO2 is used D) I and III E) I, II and III
III. Oxidation of NAD
IV. Hydrolysis of ATP
Which of the above does not take place in light
dependent reactions?
EEE
A) I only B) I and II C) II and III
D) III and IV E) II, III and IV

5. Some molecules of the light dependent reactions of


photosynthesis are given below:
I. Chlorophyll-a
3. Some metabolic reactions in the cell are given below: II. Chlorophyll-b
I. Glycolysis III. H2O
II. Cyclic phosphorylation IV. NADP
III. Noncyclic phosphorylation V. ETS
IV. Calvin cycle Which of the above are common to both cyclic and
Which of the above are directly affected by light? noncyclic phosphorylation?
CCC DDD
A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III A) I and II B) II and III C) III and IV

D) I and IV E) II and IV D) I and V E) II, IV and V

46
CHECKPOINT TEST 1
6. Some reactions in the light dependent phase of 9. Types of pigments in some plants are given below:
photosynthesis: I. Chlorophyll
I. Oxidation of chlorophyll II. Carotene
II. Water is split III. Xanthophyll
III. Reduction of NAD
Which of the above can directly convert light energy
IV. Production of atmospheric oxygen into chemical bond energy?
V. Conversion of light energy into chemical bond energy AAA
A) I only B) II only C) III only
Which of the above are common to both cyclic and
noncyclic phosphorylation? D) I and II E) I, II and III
BBB
A) I only B) I and V C) II and IV
D) III and V E) II, III and IV

10. Some statements about photosynthesis:


I. Reduction of chlorophyll
7. Which of the following is not a feature of chlorophyll? II. Reduction of NAD
EEE III. Oxidation of cytochromes
A) Fe is a catalyst in the formation of chlorophyll
IV. Formation of ADP
B) It absorbs light
C) It can remove and replace electrons Which of the above takes place in the grana of the
chloroplast?
D) It has Mg in its structure, giving it a green color DDD
E) It is an acceptor for CO2 A) I and II B) I and III C) II and IV
D) I, II and III E) II, III and IV

8. Photosynthesis is the greatest and best recycling of energy.


There are some molecules:
I. Oxygen 11. Some reactions in cyclic phosphorylation of
photosynthesis:
II. ATP
I. Oxidation of chlorophyll-a
III. NADPH2
II. Reduction of ferrodoxin
IV. H2O
III. Oxidation of cytochromes
V. CO2 IV. Reduction of chlorophyll-a
Which of the above are used in the light dependent In which of the following is the sequence of reactions
reactions of photosynthesis? shown correctly?
AAA AAA
A) IV only B) I and IV C) II and III A) I, II, III, IV B) II, I, III, IV C) III, II, I, IV
D) III and V E) I, III and IV D) III, II, IV, I E) IV, I, III, II
47
Light Independent R eactions and the R ate of Photosynthesis
1. Some of the events in photosynthesis are given 3. Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis are shown in
below: the graphs below.
I. Reduction of carbon dioxide Rate of pho.syn. Rate of pho.syn. Rate of pho.syn.
I. II. III.
II. Oxidation of chlorophyll
III. Reduction of chlorophyll
IV. Formation of DPGAL
V. Cytochromes receive electron 35 40 55
C
Yellow Green Red
Light intensity
Which of the above are not directly related to light?
DDD Which of the above are not true?
A) I and II B) II and III C) III and V DDD
A) I only B) III only C) I and II
D) I and IV E) II and IV
D) I and III E) II and III

2. Carbon dioxide plays a role as a source of carbon and


oxygen for food synthesis in photosynthesis.
Which of the following graphs shows the influence of 4. Some of the events in photosynthesis are given below.
CO2 on the rate of photosynthesis?
I. CO2 is used
DDD
A) Rate of photosynthesis B) Rate of photosynthesis
II. Reduction of NAD
III. ATP synthesis
IV. Reduction of chlorophyll
V. Water is split
Which of the above are not seen in the dark phase?
EEE
CO2 concentration CO2 concentration A) II and IV B) III and V C) I, II and IV
D) II, III and V E) II, III, IV and V
C) Rate of photosynthesis D) Rate of photosynthesis

5. Some events in a plant cell are given below.


CO2 concentration CO2 concentration I. Granum ATP synthesis
II. Cytoplasm ATP synthesis
E) Rate of photosynthesis III. Granum O2 synthesis
IV. Mitochondria CO2

Which of the events above continue when the plant is


placed in a dark environment?
DDD
A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III
CO2 concentration D) II and IV E) II, III and IV

48
CHECKPOINT TEST 2
6. Some statements about photosynthesis in bacteria and in 9. Which of the following are not common to both
green plants: photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms?
I. Atmospheric oxygen is produced DDD
A) Enzyme is used
II. Takes place in chloroplasts
B) Food is produced
III. Enzymes take a role
C) Carbon dioxide is used
IV. Sources of hydrogen are H2 or H2S
D) Same type of energy is used
V. Light is used
E) Water is used
VI. Organic material is synthesized
In which of the following are they correctly matched?
CCC
Bacterial photosynthesis
_____________________ Plant photosynthesis
__________________
A) I, II and III IV, V and VI
B) I, III, IV and V II, III, V and VI
10. Which of the following is not a factor that affects the
rate of photosynthesis?
C) III, IV, V and VI I, II, III, V and VI BBB
D) I, II, III, V and VI III, IV, V and VI A) Carbon dioxide B) Oxygen C) Water
E) II, V and VI II, IV, V and VI D) Minerals E) Temperature

11. Formation of a glucose molecule in dark phase reactions:


7. Which of the following materials is not used in
I. 6 CO2 is used
bacterial chemosynthesis?
BBB II. 6 NADPH2 is used
A) Carbon dioxide B) Chlorophyll C) Oxygen
III. 18 ATP is used
D) Water E) ATP IV. 6 H2O is formed

Which of the above are correct?


EEE
A) I and II B) I, II and III C) I, II and IV
D) I, III and IV E) I, II, III and IV

8. Some events in autotrophic living things:


I. Oxidation of inorganic molecules
II. NADPH2 synthesis
III. Reduction of CO2 12. Some of the factors affecting the rate photosynthesis are
IV. Organic molecules are synthesized given below.

Which of the above are common to both photosynthetic Which of the following is not one of the environmental
and chemosynthetic organisms? factors?
EEE DDD
A) I and II B) II and III C) I, II and IV A) Water B) Light C) Temperature

D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV D) Amount of chlorophyll E) CO2 concentration

49
Chapter R eview 1
1. Which of the following reactions does not take place in 5. Some statements about noncyclic photophosphorylation
photolysis in light dependent reactions? of light dependent reactions in photosynthesis:
EEE I. Providing missing electrons to chlorophyll-b
A) Formation of oxygen
II. Releasing oxygen into the atmosphere
B) Synthesis of NADPH2
III. Providing a source of hydrogen for glucose molecule
C) Provision of electrons to chlorophyll-b synthesis
D) Formation of metabolic water Water molecules are used in which of the above?
E) Production of CO2 EEE
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) II and III E) I, II and III

2. Which of the following is not common to both cyclic


and noncyclic phosphorylation?
DDD
A) ATP synthesis
B) Light energy is used
6. Energy is produced during oxidation of inorganic
C) Chlorophyll molecules play a role materials in chemosynthesis in bacteria.
D) Water is split
Some events are given below.
E) ETS plays a role
I. Reduction of CO2
II. ATP synthesis
III. Reduction of NADPH2

Energy is directly used in which of the above events?


3. Which of the following does not take place in the light
DDD
dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
A) II only B) I and II C) I and III
DDD
A) Ionization of water D) II and III E) I, II and III
B) Synthesis of NADPH2 molecules
C) ATP synthesis
D) Synthesis of organic food molecules
E) Release of oxygen to the atmosphere

7. Some autotrophic living things do not release oxygen to


their environment when they produce organic food.
There are some statements:
4. Which of the following is not related to the dark phase
reactions of photosynthesis? I. Their enzymes are different.
DDD II. They use H2S in photophosphorylation.
A) CO2 is used III. Energy is produced by oxidizing inorganic materials.
B) ATP is used Which of the above are correct?
C) Enzymes play a role EEE
D) ATP is produced A) II only B) I and II C) I and III
E) NADPH2 is used D) II and III E) I, II and III
50
CHECKPOINT TEST 3
8. Some events in photosynthesis: 11. The light and dark phases of photosynthesis are shown in
I. Water is split the figure below.
II. Oxidation in chlorophyll
III. CO2 is used
IV. Oxidation in NAD
V. ATP synthesis
VI. Release of oxygen
Which of the following cyclic and noncyclic Which of the following matches is correct, according
photophosphorylation and dark phase reactions are to the figure?
matched correctly with the events above? AAA
BBB I II III IV V
________ ______ _______ ________ ________
Cyclic Noncyclic Dark
Photophosphorylation Photophosphorylation Phase A) O2 ATP NADP CO2 C6H12O6
________________ ________________ ________
A) I and II III and IV V and VI B) ATP CO2 O2 CO2 C6H12O6
B) II and V I, II, V and VI III and IV C) CO2 ATP O2 NADPH2 C6H12O6
C) III and IV I, II and V III and VI D) NADPH2 O2 ATP C6H12O6 CO2
D) I, II, V and VI II and V III and IV
E) ATP O2 CO2 C6H12O6 NADPH2
E) I, II and IV II and V III and VI

9. Which of the following is peculiar to photosynthesis? 12. The structure of the chloroplast is shown in the figure
EEE below.
A) More than one enzyme plays a role.
B) CO2 is used.
C) ATP is synthesized.
D) Organic molecules are synthesized.
E) Light energy is converted into chemical energy.

Which of the following matches of reaction types and


where they take place in the chloroplast is correct?
10. Some statements about photosynthesis and CCC
chemosynthesis: Stroma
___________________ Grana
___________________
I. Utilization of light energy A) Cyclic Noncyclic
II. Plays a role in production of atmospheric oxygen photophosphorylation photophosphorylation
III. Production of energy B) Noncyclic Cyclic
IV. Synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic photophosphorylation photophosphorylation
compounds C) Dark phase Noncyclic
Which of the above are common to BOTH? photophosphorylation
DDD D) Noncyclic
A) I and II B) II and III C) II and IV photophosphorylation Dark phase

D) III and IV E) I, II and III E) Light phase Dark phase

51
Chapter R eview 2
1. Some statements about noncyclic photophosphorylation 4. The last part of the dark phase reactions is given below:
in photosynthesis:
Starch
I. Oxidation of chlorophyll
II. Reduction of NAD
III. Production of atmospheric oxygen 2PGA Fructose phosphate Glucose
IV. Hydrolysis of water
V. ATP synthesis Saccharose
NO3 X
Which of the above are also seen in cyclic
photophosphorylation?
AAA Which of the following can not be X?
A) I and V B) III and V C) IV and V DDD
A) Nucleotide
D) I, III and V E) II, III and IV
B) Amino acid
C) Vitamin
D) Ribose
E) Guanine base

2. Some molecules are given below:


I. ATP
5. Some statements are given below:
II. Carbon dioxide
I. Light is used
III. H2O
II. It takes place in chlorophyll
IV. Oxygen III. Carbon dioxide is used
Which of the above are consumed in the light IV. ETS plays a role
dependent reactions of photosynthesis? V. Organic materials are synthesized
BBB
A) I only B) III only C) I and III Which of the above are common to BOTH chemosynthesis
and photosynthesis?
D) II and IV E) I, III and IV CCC
A) I and V B) II and V C) III and V
D) IV and V E) II, III and V

3. Some statements about photosynthesis: 6. Some events in bacteria are given below.
I. Chlorophyll-a and -b are used I. Photosynthesis
II. NADPH2 is formed II. Chemosynthesis
III. O2 is released III. Cell division
IV. Phosphorylation IV. Protein synthesis
V. Water gives electron There must definitely be oxygen in the cell for which
of the events above?
Which of the above are common to BOTH cyclic and
BBB
noncyclic photophosphorylation?
A) I only B) II only C) I and III
DDD
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V D) II and III E) III and IV
52
CHECKPOINT TEST 4
7. Some living things are put in a closed environment as in 10. Some molecules are formed in photosynthesis as follows:
the following figure: I. NADPH2
II. O2
III. ATP
IV. DPGA
In which of the following sequences is the formation
of these molecules given correctly?
DDD
I. Producers can produce their own food and oxygen. A) I, II, III, IV B) II, III, I, IV C) III, II, I,IV
II. All consumers directly or indirectly need producers for
D) I, III, II, IV E) III, II, IV, I
food and oxygen.
III. When producers and consumers are together, both of
them grow well.
Which of the above are correct?
EEE
A) I only B) II only C) III only 11. Some autotrophic living things and their types of
synthesis are given below:
D) I and II E) I, II and III
I. Bacteria Chemosynthesis
II. Euglena Photosynthesis
III. Blue green alga Chemosynthesis
IV. Bacteria Photosynthesis
Which of the above matches are correct?
8. Which of the following parts of the photosynthesis DDD
reaction takes place after all the others? A) I and II B) II and III C) II and IV
EEE
A) CO2 is added to ribulose biphosphate D) I, II and IV E) I, III and IV

B) Photolysis of water
C) Hydrogen is added to NADP molecule
D) ATP synthesis
E) NADPH2 is used
12. There are some molecules:
- CO2
- ATP
- NADPH2

and there are some reactions:


9. Which of the following is most affected when there is
a change in the temperature during photosynthesis in I. Cyclic phosphorylation
plants? II. Noncyclic phosphorylation
EEE III. Sark phase reactions
A) ATP synthesis
In which of the reactions above are all of these
B) Reduction of NADP
molecules used together?
C) Split of water CCC
D) Oxidation in cytochromes A) I only B) II only C) III only
E) Reduction in CO2 D) I and II E) II and III
53
Aer obic R espiration
1. Parts of a mitochondrion are given in the figure below: 3. Some molecules are required during aerobic respiration
in an animal cell:
I. Oxygen
II. Metabolic enzymes
III. Organic food
Which of the above come from outside the cell?
EEE
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) I and III

Some reactions in aerobic respiration:


I. Glycolysis
II. Krebs cycle
III. ETS (oxidative phosphorylation)
Which of the following matches is correct for the 4. Some statements about green plants:
reactions and the parts of the mitochondrion where I. CO2 is produced by respiration and is used in
the reactions take place?
photosynthesis
DDD
I II III II. Respiration of plants starts with expiration of
_________ _________ _________
photosynthesis
A) Matrix Cristae Cell
III. Plants produce their own organic food that is required
cytoplasm
in respiration
B) Cristae Matrix Cell
cytoplasm Which of the above are correct?
DDD
C) Cell Cristae Matrix
A) I only B) II only C) III only
cytoplasm
D) Cell Matrix Cristae D) I and III E) II and III
cytoplasm
E) Cristae Cell Matrix
cytoplasm

5. The steps of a respiration reaction are given below:


2. In an organelle, the following events are observed:
I. Krebs cycle
- O2 consumption
II. Formation of Acetyl Co-A
- Formation of CO2 and H2O
III. E.T.S.
- Organic molecules are used IV. Glycolysis
- Production of energy
Substrate level phosphorylation is seen in which of the
Which of the following is the organelle? above steps?
AAA BBB
A) Mitochondria B) Chloroplast C) Golgi A) IV only B) I and IV C) II and III
D) Ribosome E) E. reticulum D) III and IV E) I, II and IV
56
CHECKPOINT TEST 1
6. When one molecule of glucose is used in aerobic respiration, 8. Some events related to cellular respiration are given
the amounts of some molecules change: below:
- Enzyme I. Formation of pyruvate
- CO2 II. Lactic acid fermentation
- Glucose III. Ethyl alcohol fermentation
In which of the following graphs is the change in the IV. Formation of acetic acid from pyruvate
amount of molecules correctly given? V. Krebs cycle reactions
DDD In which of the above is CO2 produced?
A) B) EEE
Glucose
A) I and II B) I, II and III C) II, III and IV
CO2 D) II, IV and V E) III, IV and V
Enzyme
Enzyme
Glucose
CO2

Time Time

C) D) 9. Some organic molecules are given below:


Glucose CO2 - Glucose
- Amino acid
Enzyme Enzyme - Fatty acid
- Glycerol
CO2 Glucose
When they enter the Krebs cycle, they are converted
Time Time into______________ ?
BBB
E) A) Pyruvate
B) Acetyl Co-A
CO2 C) Phosphoglyceraldehyde
D) Phosphoglyceric acid
Enzyme
E) Citric acid
Glucose

Time

10. In the breakdown of a glucose molecule into subunits in


respiration, the following reactions are seen:
7. Which of the following is the descending order for the I. Glycolysis
amount of ATP produced by the break down of
glucose during respiration? II. Formation of Acetyl Co-A
DDD III. Krebs cycle
A) Krebs cycle - ETS - Glucose
In which of the following is the descending order of
B) Krebs cycle - Glucose - ETS energy released during reactions given correctly?
C) Glucose - ETS - Krebs cycle DDD
D) ETS - Glucose - Krebs cycle A) II - I - III B) I - II - III C) III - II - I
E) Glucose - Krebs cycle - ETS D) III - I - II E) II - III - I

57
Anaer obic R espiration
1. Some statements: 4. Some statements about respiration:
I. Nutrients are broken down into monomers. I. Formation of CO2
II. ETS is not used. II. E.T.S.
III. The reaction is named according to the products of III. Formation of pyruvic acid
the reaction.
IV. Synthesis of NADH2 and FADH2
IV. In glycolysis, two ATP are used for activation of
glucose. Which of the above are seen in both yeast and muscle
cells?
Which of the above are seen in anaerobic respiration?
BBB
EEE
A) I only B) III only C) I and II
A) I only B) IV only C) I and II
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV
D) II and III E) II, III and IV

2. The lactic acid fermentation reaction is shown below: 5. Th ethyl alcohol fermentation reaction in some bacteria is
shown below:
C2H12O6 2 Lactic acids + 2 ATP (Net)
2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP 2 NADH2 2 NAD
Which of the following is not true about lactic acid Fructose 2 Ethyl
Glucose 2 Pyruvate
fermentation? diphosphate alcohol
EEE 2 ADP 2 NADH2 CO2
A) It is seen in striated muscle cells of vertebrates and in
some bacteria. Which of the following is not true about the reaction
B) Accumulation of lactic acid in muscles causes fatigue shown above?
in living organisms. EEE
C) Lactic acid is converted into glycogen in the liver. A) Net 2ATP is produced
D) Lactic acid is converted into pyruvate and enters the B) NAD is reduced and also oxidized
Krebs cycle in the presence of oxygen. C) The last product is an organic molecule
E) The main difference between lactic acid and ethyl D) Reactions take place under the control of enzymes
alcohol is that the NADH2 molecules that are E) Oxygen is used as the last electron acceptor
synthesized in glycolysis are not used in the formation
of lactic acid.

6. Glycolysis is common to both anaerobic and aerobic


reactions.
3. In aerobic respiration, according to the enzyme type, final
products are formed differently. Which of the following is not true for glycolysis
EEE
If different types of fermentation reactions are A) Synthesis of ATP
considered, which of the following is common to all
types of fermentation reactions? B) Reduction of NAD
AAA C) It takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell
A) Pyruvate B) Lactic acid C) Ethyl alcohol D) It takes place under the control of enzymes
D) Acetic acid E) Citric acid E) As a final product, Acetyl Co-A is formed

58
CHECKPOINT TEST 2
7. When one molecule of glucose breaks down in ethyl 10. Some properties of different types of anaerobic
alcohol fermentation: respiration:
I. amount of ATP gained (net) I. ATP synthesis
II. amount of CO2 released II. Release of CO2
III. amount of ATP consumed III. Takes place in the cytoplasm
In which of the following is the amount of the IV. Takes place under the control of enzymes
molecules above given correctly? Which of the above are common to all types of anaer-
EEE obic respiration?
I
_______ II
_______ III
_______ DDD
A) 2ATP 4CO2 4ATP A) I and II B) II and III C) II and IV

B) 2ATP 2CO2 4ATP D) I, III and IV E) I, II, III and IV


C) 4ATP 2CO2 2ATP
D) 4ATP 4CO2 2ATP
E) 2ATP 2CO2 2ATP 11. Alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
reactions are shown below:
C6H12O6 + 2 ATP 2 C2H5 _ OH + CO2 + 4 ATP
8. Some events during alcohol fermentation are given
below: C6H12O6 + 2 ATP 2 C3H6O3 + 4 ATP
I. Activation of glucose
Which of the following is not a common property to
II. Formation of phosphoglyceraldehyde the reactions shown above?
III. Formation of pyruvate DDD
IV. Formation of ethyl alcohol A) ATP is used
V. Release of CO2 B) ATP is formed
C) Takes place in the cytoplasm
VI. Reduction of NAD
D) Takes place in the same cells
Which of the following is the correct order for the
E) Enzymes are used
events above in alcohol fermentation?
CCC
A) I - II - III - IV - V - VI
B) VI - V - IV - III - II - I
12. Amount Changes in the amounts of materials
C) I - II - VI - III - V - IV
a a and b in a suspension of bakers
D) I - II - VI - III - IV - V yeast are shown in the graph.
E) VI - V - III - II - I - IV
Which of the following matches is
correct for a and b?
9. Which of the following is not common to both ethyl b BBB
alcohol and lactic acid fermentation? Time
AAA
A) Release of CO2 a
_____________ b
_____________
A) Carbon dioxide Nitrogen
B) Formation of an organic compound as a result of
fermentation B) Carbon dioxide Glucose
C) Synthesis of net 2 ATP C) Ethyl alcohol Bakers yeast
D) Takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell D) Glucose Carbon dioxide
E) 2 ATP are consumed for activation of glucose E) Bakers yeast Oxygen

59
Chapter R eview 1
1. At the end of anaerobic respiration, some materials are 4. Fermentation reactions include 4 steps:
formed in striated muscle cells:
3C 3C 3C 2C
I. NADH2
6C 6C
II. ATP 3C 3C 3C 2C
III. Lactic acid
I II III IV
Which of the above are used in the same striated
muscle cell?
Which of the following matches is true?
EEE
AAA
A) II only B) I and II C) I and III
I
________ II
__________ III
_______ IV
_______
D) II and III E) I, II and III A) ATP is NADH2 is ATP is NADH2
used formed formed is used
B) ATP is NADH2 ATP is NADH2
formed is used formed formed
C) NADH2 ATP is CO2 is Last
is formed formed formed product
2. One molecule of glucose is broken down into small
molecules in aerobic respiration and releases energy. D) ATP is CO2 is ATP is Last
used formed formed product
Some reactions related to aerobic respiration are
E) ATP is Glucose NADH2 CO2 is
given below:
used breaks down is used formed
I. Formation NADH2
II. Conversion of FADH2 to FAD
III. Substrate level phosphorylation
IV. Formation of Acetyl Co-A
In which of the reactions above is one molecule of
glucose definitely broken down into small molecules?
BBB
A) I and II B) II and IV C) I, II and IV
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV

5. Some reactions related to aerobic respiration:


I. Combination of acetic acid with citric acid
II. Break down of glucose to pyruvate
III. ATP synthesis from hydrogen
3. Some reactions in a cell: Which of the following correctly matches the reactions
I. Formation of Acetyl Co-A above with the system in which they occur?
II. Krebs cycle CCC
I
_________ II
_________ III
_________
III. Formation of water
A) Glycolysis Krebs ETS
Which of the above indicates that O2 is used in
B) Glycolysis ETS Krebs
respiration?
EEE C) Krebs Glycolysis ETS
A) I only B) III only C) I and II D) Krebs ETS Glycolysis
D) II and III E) I, II and III E) ETS Glycolysis Krebs

60
CHECKPOINT TEST 3
6. Lactic acid fermentation in human striated muscle cells is 9. Some molecules are formed in the cell:
shown in the figure below: I. Acetyl Co-A
Glycogen Lactic acid II. Glycerol
I III. Amino acid
IV
IV. Glucose
Glucose Pyruvic acid Which of the above are used directly in mitochondria?
BBB
II III A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III

Fructose diphosphate Phosphoglceraldehyde D) I, II and IV E) I, III and IV

Which of the following is not true about lactic acid


fermentation, as shown above?
EEE
A) I is a hydrolysis reaction
B) In II, ATP is consumed
C) In III, NADH2 is formed 10. Glucose The products of glucose
D) In III, ATP is synthesized catabolism in the respiration
reaction are shown in the
E) IV enters the Krebs cycle 2 x Pyruvate figure.
Which of the following is not
true about the products?
Lactic Acetyl Ethyl DDD
7. Some molecules are used in respiration: acid Co-A alcohol
I. Glucose (I) (II) (III)

II. NADH2 A) I takes place in muscles


III. Acetyl Co-A B) The beginning reaction is the same in I, II and III
IV. Pyruvic acid C) II is seen in aerobic bacteria

In which of the following is the descending order of D) II and III can be seen at the same time in a bacterium
energy released from the molecules above shown E) I is seen also in bacteria
correctly?
AAA
A) I>IV>III>II B) I>III>IV>II C) II>III>IV>I
D) I>II>IV>III E) II>I>III>IV

11. Which of the following events indicate that a plant is


8. Which of the following events is different from the respiring?
others according to the type of respiration? CCC
AAA A) Taking CO2 from the environment
A) Muscular contraction
B) Releasing O2 to the environment
B) Decay of unopened canned food
C) Releasing CO2 to the environment
C) Formation of yogurt
D) Fermentation of dough D) Using CO2 in the cells
E) Souring of milk E) Transportation during the day

61
Chapter R eview 2
1. Some reactions related to respiration: 4. Cellular respiration is observed as alcohol fermentation,
I lactic acid fermentation and aerobic respiration.
Pyruvate Acetyl Co-A
Which of the following is not common to these
II reactions?
Pyruvate Ethyl alcohol CCC
III A) ATP is used
Pyruvate Lactic acid B) ATP is formed
IV
C) Breakdown takes place completely
Which of the above releases energy because of D) Pyruvate is formed
hydrogen? E) NAD and NADH2 are formed
AAA
A) I only B) I and III C) I and IV
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV

5. Entrance of different nutrients into respiration is shown


2. Monomers of nutrients must be converted into molecules below in a schematic diagram:
in order to enter aerobic respiration.
II
I. Glucose Pyruvate
II. Glycerol Pyruvate
I Glycolysis III IV
III. Fatty acid Pyruvic acid
IV. Amino acid Acetyl Co-A
Pyruvate
Which of the above conversion reactions are correct?
CCC
Acetyl Co-A
A) I and II B) I and IV C) I, II and IV
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV
Krebs

ETS
3. Fermentation reactions are shown below:
I II Which of the following correctly matches nutrients
Glucose Fructose 2x Pyruvic 2x Lactic with the numbered boxes above?
diphosphate acid acid CCC
III IV IV III I
__________ II
_________ III
________ IV
_________
A) amino acid fatty acid glycerol glucose
Which of the following is correct for I, II, III and IV?
with 2C
DDD
I
_______ II
_______ III
_______ IV
_______ B) glucose amino acid glycerol fatty acid
with 2C
A) O2 H2O ADP ATP
C) amino acid glucose glycerol fatty acid
B) NAD NADH2 ADP ATP with 2C
C) ATP ADP NADPH2 NAD D) glucose amino acid fatty acid glycerol
with 2C
D) ADP ATP NAD NADH2
E) fatty acid glycerol glucose amino acid
E) NADH2 ATP NAD ADP with 2C
62
CHECKPOINT TEST 4
6. When we consider all types of aerobic and anaerobic 10. Aerobic respiration consists of glycolysis, Krebs and ETS
respiration: stages.
I. Oxygen is used Some events:
II. Carbon dioxide is formed I. Use of O2
III. They take place under the control of enzymes
II. Release of CO2
IV. They take place in mitochondria
III. ATP synthesis
V. ATP is formed
IV. Use of enzyme
Which of the above do all types of respiration always
have in common? Which of the above are common to all of the three
DDD stages?
A) I and III B) I and IV C) II and V EEE
A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III
D) III and V E) II, III and V
D) II and IV E) III and IV

7. Some events in aerobic respiration: 11. Respiration reaction types and where they take place
are given below:
I. Use of oxygen
I. Glycolysis - Mesosome
II. Reduction of NAD
II. Alcohol fermentation - Cytoplasm
III. ATP synthesis at substrate level
III. Lactic acid fermentation - Ribosome
IV. Hydrolysis of ATP
IV. E.T.S. - Mitochondria
Which of the above takes place only in the matrix or
cristae of mitochondria? Which of the matches above are correct?
AAA AAA
A) I only B) I and II C) II and III A) II and III B) II and IV C) I, II and IV

D) II and IV E) III and IV D) II, III and IV E) I, III and IV

12. Steps of aerobic respiration are:


8. Which of the following is not formed in BOTH anaerobic - Glycolysis
and aerobic respiration? - Krebs cycle
EEE - ETS
A) Pyruvate B) PGA C) PGAL
and some molecules formed:
D) CO2 E) Acetaldehyde
I. Acetyl CoA
II. Pyruvic acid
III. Phosphoglyceraldehyde
IV. CO2
9. Which of the following does not occur if CO2 is formed In which of the following is the formation order of
in cellular respiration? molecules given correctly?
EEE DDD
A) NADH2 B) Pyruvate C) Consuming ATP A) I - II - III - IV B) IV - III - II - I C) I - III - II - IV
D) Using ATP E) Lactic acid D) III - II- IV - I E) II - III - I - IV
63
Nucleic Acids
1. In the structure of DNA there is: 4. Which of the following is not a property of RNA?
EEE
I. Deoxyribose
A) It has uracil nucleotides.
II. Phosphoric acids
B) It is synthesized from DNA.
III. Guanine nucleotide
C) It includes ribose sugar.
IV. Adenine nucleotide
D) It is single-stranded.
Which of the above are found in the same number in E) It can be formed by replication.
a DNA molecule?
AAA
A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III
D) I and IV E) II and IV

5. In one strand of DNA there are 1800 nucleotides.


If the number of Thymine nucleotides is 300,
find the number of Cytosine in the DNA molecule.
2. Some definitions related to mRNA are given below. DDD
A) 300 B) 400 C) 500 D) 600 E) 900
I. It is used as a template in protein synthesis.
II. It combines with the structure of proteins which are
synthesized in the cell.
III. There are Uracil, Adenine, Guanine and Cytosine
nucleotides in its structure
Which of above definitions are true for mRNA?
DDD
A) I only B) II only C) III only 6. If 18% of a cells DNA is Adenine nucleotide,
D) I and II E) II and III which of the following is the ratio of (G+C) in the
DNA?
EEE
A) 21 % B) 26 % C) 36 % D) 49 % E) 64 %

3. The DNA of two cells from different tissues is compared.


I. the number of hydrogen bonds
II. total number of nucleotides
III. the order of nucleotides 7. Which of the following is not a function of RNA?
IV. the number of active genes BBB
A) Transportation of amino acids in the cytoplasm
Which of the above characteristics are not different in
B) Being a structural unit of enzymes
the two DNA samples?
EEE C) Being a structural unit of ribosomes
A) II only B) III only C) I and II D) Transportation of genetic codes to the ribosome
D) II and IV E) I, II and III E) Synthesis of antibody molecules

66
CHECKPOINT TEST 1
8. Some properties of different types of RNA are given in the 11. Which of the following is not a common property of
table below. both DNA and RNA?
DDD
Uracil base Codes Anticodes A) Formed by nucleotides
mRNA + II B) In their structure there is a 5-carbon sugar
tRNA I + C) Monomers link to each other by phosphodiester and
rRNA + III glycosidic bonds
D) There is Thymine organic base in their structure
Which of the following is the correct match of the E) They play a role in photosynthesis
numbers in the table?
DDD
I II III
_ +
A) +

B) + + +
_ _
C) +

+ + _
D)
_ _
E) +
12. In a cell there are some molecules, as follows:
I. DNA
II. tRNA
III. ATP

9. Which of the following is a common property of both In which of the molecules above can a nucleotide also
DNA and RNA in eukaryotic cells? be used as a monomer, as in the structure of mRNA ?
DDD DDD
A) Ability to copy itself and produce a similar molecule A) I only B) II only C) I and II
B) Presence of ribose sugar in its structure D) II and III E) I, II and III
C) Double-stranded structure
D) Plays a role in photosynthesis
E) Found in the cytoplasm of the cell

10. The sense strand of DNA synthesizes mRNA that has the
following sequence of nucleotides: AUGACCC. 13. In a cell there are some molecules, as follows:
I. ATP
Find the sequence of nucleotides on the sense strand
of DNA. II. mRNA
CCC III. DNA
A) AUGACCC
Which of the following is the correct order, according
B) ATGACGC to the size of the molecules above?
C) TACTGGG DDD
D) AUGAGGG A) I = II < III B) I < III = II C) I < II = III
E) TTUGAGGG D) I < II < III E) II < I < III
67
Chr omosomes and Cell Division
1. Which of the following is common to both mitosis and 4. Meiosis takes place in two steps.
meiosis in plant and animal cells?
In meiosis-I, there are some events:
DDD
A) Replication of centrosomes I. Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers with their
centrosomes.
B) Cytoplasm is subdivided into two by a furrow
II. Replication of DNA
C) Golgi forms cell plate in cytokinesis
III. Replication of centrosomes
D) Nuclear membrane disappears
IV. Separation of homologous chromosomes
E) Spindle fibers form and attach to centrosomes
Which of the above events can also be seen in
meiosis-II?
CCC
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III
D) II, III and IV E) I, III and IV

2. Two phases in two different cells are given in the figure


below.

5. Which of the following is not a difference between


mitosis and meiosis?
AAA
A) Cytoplasm is subdivided into two by a furrow
B) Formation of germ cells
C) Takes place in body cells
Which of the following is not correct about the phases D) Separation of homologous chromosomes
given above? E) Daughter cells carry same genetic material as each
CCC other and parent cell.
A) After phase I, sister chromatids separate from each
other.
B) Phase I, belongs to mitosis, Phase II belongs to meiosis.
C) In phases I and II, there is crossing over.
D) After phase II, homologous chromosomes separate
from each other.
E) Phases I and II are seen only in animal cell. 6. Some statements about mitosis:
I. It starts at the end of interphase and continues until
initiation of another interphase.
II. It includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase and
telophase.
III. After karyokinesis, cytokinesis takes place.
3. In which of the following does crossing over take Which of the above are true about mitotic cell
place? division?
BBB EEE
A) Interphase B) Prophase C) Anaphase A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) Telophase E) Metaphase D) I and II E) I, II and III
68
CHECKPOINT TEST 2
7. Meiotic cell division takes place in mother cells. 11. Which of the following is common to division of both
human cheek epithelial cells and plant apical meristem
Some statements about meiosis: cells?
I. At the end of cell division, it reduces the chromosome CCC
number by half. A) Formation of cell plate
II. At the end of cell division, two types of cell are formed. B) Replication of centrosome
III. At the beginning of meiosis-I and meiosis-II, DNA C) Formation of spindle fibers
replicates itself. D) Increase in number of chloroplasts
IV. It ensures a constant number of chromosomes in a E) Increase in synthesis of cellulose
species from one generation to the next.
Which of the above statements are true about
meiosis?
CCC 12. Some events:
A) I only B) I and II C) I and IV I. Exchange of genetic material by crossing-over
D) III and IV E) I, III and IV II. Mutations
III. Division of cytoplasm equally into two parts
8. Some cell division types are: IV. Separation of chromatids

I. Amitosis Which of the above events can cause change in the


genetic material of the two daughter cells that are
II. Meiosis
formed at the end of mitotic cell division?
III. Mitosis BBB
DNA replicates itself in which of the above? A) I and II B) II and IV C) I, II and III
EEE D) I, II and IV E) II, III and IV
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) I, II and III

13. All cells have a self-imposed limit on their size. When this
9. Which of the following is common to both mitosis and limit is exceeded, the cell divides.
meiosis?
Some statements:
EEE
A) Crossing - over I. Chromosomes begin to uncoil and form chromatids
B) Daughter cells carry different genetic material from the II. Secretion materials are produced by the cell
parent cell III. Change in the ratio of the cell surface to its volume
C) A reduction in the chromosome number by half Which of the above statements may be the reason for
D) Division takes place in two steps cell division?
E) Nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions are seen CCC
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) II and III
10. Which of the following can not be seen in interphase of
mitotic cell division?
DDD
A) Replication of DNA 14. There are 8 chromosomes in onion germ cells.
B) Replication of centromere
What number of chromosomes would be expected in
C) High metabolic rate the leaf cells of the onion?
D) Disappearance of nucleus CCC
E) Protein synthesis A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 32 E) 64
69
Pr otein Synthesis
1. Protein synthesis starts with a starting codon and ends 4. Some statements about protein synthesis:
with a stopping codon. These codons are common to all I. Formation of new phosphodiester bonds
living things.
II. Formation of weak hydrogen bonds
Which of the following are the starting and stopping III. Formation of peptide bonds
codons, respectively?
CCC Which of the above takes place in translation?
A) TAC-UAG B) AUG-AUG C) AUG-UAA EEE
A) II only B) III only C) I and II
D) UGA-UAA E) AUG-UUG
D) I and III E) II and III

2. Which of the following graphs shows the change in the


amount of ATP, enzyme and amino acid during protein
synthesis in a cell?
5. Steps in mRNA synthesis:
CCC I. Organic base synthesis
A) Amount B) Amount II. Bonding of phosphates to nucleotides
III. Formation of weak hydrogen bonds between bases
ATP Which of the following is the correct sequence of
Enzyme
Enzyme ATP steps?
AAA
Amino acid Amino acid A) I, II, III B) II, I, III C) III, I, II
Time Time D) II, III, I E) I, III, II
C) Amount D) Amount

Enzyme

6. Which of the following is the last step of protein


Enzyme
ATP
synthesis in a eukaryotic cell?
ATP BBB
Amino acid Amino acid
A) mRNA is synthesized by DNA.
Time Time B) Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids.
E) Amount C) Formation of hydrogen bonds between mRNA and
tRNA.
Amino acid D) Genetic code is carried to the ribosome by mRNA.
ATP
E) Transfer of amino acids to the ribosome by tRNA
Enzyme

Time
7. Some events in the cell:
I. Amino acid synthesis
II. Nucleotide synthesis
3. There are 50 adenine, 100 guanine, 150 thymine and 200
III. Formation of peptide bonds
cytosine nucleotides in the non-sense strand of DNA. The
sense strand of DNA synthesizes mRNA. Which of the above takes place according to the
nucleotide sequence of mRNA in the ribosome?
Which of the following is the ratio of guanine
CCC
nucleotides in the mRNA?
A) I only B) II only C) III only
CCC
A) 1/10 B) 2/5 C) 1/5 D) 3/5 E) 2/3 D) I and II E) I and III
70
CHECKPOINT TEST 3
8. Which of the following does not affect synthesis of 12. Some events in protein synthesis of eukaryotic cells:
different types of proteins? I. mRNA synthesis from DNA.
EEE
II. mRNA attaches to ribosome
A) Number of amino acids
III. transfer of amino acids to the ribosome by tRNA
B) Types of amino acids
IV. formation of peptide bonds between amino acids
C) Sequence of amino acids
D) Number of codons in mRNA Which of the above does not take place in the nucleus
of the cell?
E) Number of ribosomes
EEE
A) I only B) II and III C) III and IV
D) I, II and III E) II, III and IV
9. Some events in the cell:
- Replication
- Transcription
- Translation
Which of the following is the general name for all of
13. Some substances in protein synthesis in a cell:
these events?
AAA I. Water
A) Central dogma II. Energy
B) Duplication III. Free amino acids
C) Mutation IV. tRNA
D) One gene - one enzyme hypothesis V. DNA
E) Protein synthesis During protein synthesis, there is no change in the
amount of which of the above molecules?
BBB
A) I and IV B) IV and V C) I, IV and V
10. Which of the following amounts does not change at
the end of protein synthesis? D) I, II and V E) II, III and IV
AAA
A) tRNA B) H2O C) Amino acid

D) ATP E) Protein

14. Some statements about protein synthesis:


11. Some events in protein synthesis: I. starting code is TAC and starting codon is AUG in all
I. mRNA attaches to the ribosome living things
II. mRNA is released from the ribosome II. stopping codons are UAG, UAA, and UGA
III. addition of new amino acids into the peptide series III. an amino acid can be coded for by more than one
IV. binding of tRNA to its distinctive amino acid codon
IV. for each amino acid there is only one tRNA in a cell
Which of the following sequences is correct for protein
synthesis? Which of the above are correct for protein synthesis?
BBB DDD
A) I, II, III, IV B) I, IV, III, II C) I, III, IV, II A) I and II B) II and III C) II and IV
D) II, IV, III, I E) IV, I, III, II D) I, II and III E) II, III and IV
71
Chapter R eview 1
1. Molecules used in protein synthesis: 4. Some statements about protein synthesis:
I. mRNA I. Length of polysomes
II. tRNA II. mRNA codons
III. DNA III. tRNA codons
Which of the following is the correct order of steps in Which of the above has an effect on the sequence of
protein synthesis? amino acids in the protein?
DDD BBB
A) II, I, III B) III, II, I C) I, II, III A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) III, I, II E) II, III, I D) I and II E) I, II and III

5. There is no replication at the beginning of which of the


following?
2. The sequence of nucleotides on a template strand of DNA DDD
in protein synthesis is shown in the figure below:
A) Mitosis
I II III IV V
B) Reproduction in prokaryotes
A G C A G T C G A G T C T A T C) Meiosis I
D) Meiosis II
Which of the following codons can not be synthesized
when there is mutation in part IV of the DNA? E) Replication of mitochondria
DDD
A) AUA B) GCU C) UCA
D) CAG E) UCG

6. Protein synthesis in ribosomes is shown in the figure


below.

3. Some events in a plant cell:


I. Growth at the tip of the stem
II. Formation of egg in the flower
III. Germination of the seed
Which of the following matches is correct for the
events and the types of cell division?
Which of the following is not true?
DDD
EEE
I
________ II
________ III
________ A) tRNA attaches to large units of ribosomes.
A) Mitosis Mitosis Meiosis B) mRNA attaches to small units of ribosomes.
B) Mitosis Meiosis Meiosis C) More than one ribosome is used in protein synthesis.
C) Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis D) Ribosomes are formed by two units.
D) Mitosis Meiosis Mitosis E) The large and small units of ribosomes are always
E) Meiosis Meiosis Mitosis together.
72
CHECKPOINT TEST 4
7. Some events in telophase: 11. In a DNA molecule there are 5000 nucleotides, and 600
I. Chromosomes begin to uncoil and form chromatins. of them are adenine nucleotides.
II. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear. What are the numbers of cytosine and hydrogen
III. Spindle fibers disappear. bonds in the DNA molecule?
AAA
IV. Cell plate is formed between two cells.
Cytosine
________ Hydrogen Bond
_______________
V. Cytoplasm is subdivided in two by a furrow.
A) 1900 6900
Which of the above are common to mitosis in both
plant and animal cells? B) 850 3450
DDD C) 600 6400
A) I only B) I and II C) II and IV D) 1950 5400
D) I, II and III E) II, IV and V E) 2200 6900

8. Some cell structures are given below:


I. Centriole
II. Chromatid 12. For a DNA molecule, in which is the ratio of purine to
III. Spindle fibers pyrimidine 1?
CCC
Which of the above are not common to both plants A+T G+ C G+ A A T
and animals? A) B) C) D) E)
G+ C A+T T+C G C
AAA
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) I, II and III

9. Some properties of hereditary material in a cell: 13. Which of the following is the largest molecule?
EEE
I. Ratio between types of nucleotides A) RNA B) ATP C) Vitamin
II. Sequence of nucleotides
D) Glucose E) DNA
III. Binding type of nucleotides
IV. Location in the cell
Which of the above are common to all members of a
species?
BBB
A) I and II B) III and IV C) I, II and III 14. Types of nucleic acids:
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV I. mRNA
II. tRNA
III. DNA
IV. rRNA
10. There are 70 adenine nucleotides and 290 hydrogen
bonds in DNA. Which of the above includes hydrogen and phosphodiester
bonds in its structure?
What would be the expected amino acid number in
CCC
protein synthesis?
A) I only B) III only C) II and III
AAA
A) 40 B) 70 C) 120 D) 140 E) 240 D) I, II and III E) II, III and IV
73
Chapter R eview 2
1. Some events that occur during reproduction of a living 3. The genetic make-up of both parent and daughter cells
thing are shown in the figure below. are identical at the end of mitosis.
Which of the following can explain the statement
I n 2n II
above?
BBB
IV n n III
A) Synthesis of RNA from DNA
B) Replication of DNA
C) DNA is formed by two strands
2n
D) Decrease in metabolic rate
E) Matching of purines with pyrimidines
n V

Which of the following matches is correct about cells


that carry identical and unidentical genetic make-up?
CCC 4. Some statements about tRNA:
Identical
___________ Unidentical
___________ I. They have hydrogen bonds.
A) II and V I and IV II. They carry amino acids.
B) IV and V II and V III. They have anticodons.
C) I and IV I, III and V
Which of the above are correct?
D) II and III I and V EEE
E) IV and V II and III A) I only B) III only C) I, and, II
D) II and III E) I, II and III

5. Which of the following does not include nucleic acid in


2. mRNA codons and their coded amino acids are listed its structure?
below. CCC
AAU Asparagine AGC Serine CGG Arginine A) Chromosome B) Virus C) Ribosome
CCA Proline CCU Proline GGC Glycine
GCC Alanine GGA Glycine UGC Cysteine D) Mature red blood cell E) Bacteria
During transcription, adenine nucleotides on DNA are
matched with cytosine nucleotides, as a result of
mutation.
On the sense strand of DNA, there are ACCTCGAAT
nucleotides. 6. Some statements:
Which of the following amino acids would be expected I. number of amino acids in the cell
at the end of protein synthesis? II. types of RNA in the cytoplasm
CCC III. sequence of nucleotides on DNA
A) Alanine Serine Glycine
Which of the above are directly related to codons of
B) Serine Alanine Arginine
mRNA?
C) Arginine Serine Proline CCC
D) Proline Asparagine Cysteine A) I only B) II only C) III only
E) Cysteine Glycine Arginine D) I and II E) II and III
74
CHECKPOINT TEST 5
7. Sense strands of DNA, mRNA, and tRNA are shown in the 10. Some statements about mitotic and meiotic cell
figure below. division:
G C I. Increase in cell number
G C I tRNA1 III II. Variation in living things
C G III. DNA replication
T A IV. Separation of chromatids
A U
T A A U
tRNA2 Which of the above are common to both mitosis and
A T U A
meiosis?
T A
EEE
C G II tRNA3 IV A) I and II B) I and III C) Il and IV
C G
D) I, II and III E) I, III and IV
Sense Non-sense mRNA
strand strand

Which of the following matches of I, II, III, IV with the


sequence of nucleotides is correct?
DDD
I
_______ II
_______ III
_______ IV
_______ 11. mRNA nucleotide order is shown in the figure below.
A) UUA GCG AAU CGC U A G C C G C U G A G U U U C

B) CCG GGC CCG AGG


C) GGC CCG GGC UCC Which of the following codons is not found in the
D) CCG AGG GGC UCC sense strand of DNA that synthesized this mRNA?
E) CCG CCG CCG UCC BBB
A) ATC B) CAG C) GGC D) TCA E) AAG

8. If the parent cell of an onion root tip has 16


chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be in
each daughter cell?
CCC
12. Two nucleotides of the sense and non-sense strands of a
A) 14 B) 8 C) 16 D) 32 E) 10 DNA molecule are given in the figure below.

X X

Y Y
9. Some statements related to cell division:
Guanine Z
I. Sister chromatids separate and move into different
cells.
II. The characteristics of the cell do not change. Which of the following matches is correct for X, Y and Z?
CCC
III. Tetrads, crossing-over and synapsis are seen.
X
_________ Y
_________ Z
_________
IV. A cell divides twice and forms four daughter cells.
A) Pentose Phosphate Thymine
Which of the above statements are true for mitotic cell
division? B) Adenine Phosphate Cytosine
BBB C) Phosphate Pentose Cytosine
A) I only B) I and II C) III and IV D) Pentose Cytosine Phosphate
D) I, II and III E) II, III and IV E) Phosphate Cytosine Pentose
75
Chapter R eview 3
1. A cell has 2n = 46 chromosomes and undergoes 4. Which of the following graphs is not correct for protein
mitotic cell division. synthesis in a cell?
I. There are 92 chromatids in interphase. BBB
II. There are 23 tetrads in prophase-I. A) ATP B) mRNA

III. Crossing-over takes place in prophase-I.


IV. Crossing-over takes place between homologous
chromatids.
Which of the above are correct?
EEE
A) III only B) I and II C) I and III Time Time

D) II and IV E) I, II, III and IV C) Enzyme D) Water

2. Some statements about mitotic cell division in


prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
I. Absence of some organelles Time Time

II. DNA replication


E) Free Amino acids
III. Presence of nuclear membrane
Which of the above are different in eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells?
CCC
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) II and III Time

5. In a DNA molecule there are 3200 hydrogen bonds. The


number of hydrogen bonds in triple-bond groups is 1800.
3. A cell that has 2n = 4 chromosomes is
T+A
shown in the figure at left. What is the ratio of =?
C+G
DDD
4 5 5 7 8
A) B) C) D) E)
5 6 7 6 9
Which of the following cells is formed at the end of
mitotic cell division? 6. Some properties of cell division:
CCC
l. No change in chromosome number
A) B) C)
ll. Variation in the species
lll. A cell divides twice
lV. Replication of chromosomes
Which of the above belong only to meiotic cell
D) E) division?
CCC
A) II only B) III only C) Il and III
D) ll and lV E) II, lII and IV
76
CHECKPOINT TEST 6
7. Some molecules involved in protein synthesis: 10. Some statements about protein synthesis:
I. Amino acid I. each tRNA can carry only one type of amino acid
II. ATP II. there are 20 types of anticodon for 20 types of amino
III. DNA acids in RNA
IV. mRNA III. a maximum of 20 different types of amino acids can
be used
V. tRNA
Which of the above are correct?
Which of the above can be used many times in protein
DDD
synthesis without being synthesized again ?
A) I only B) II only C) III only
EEE
A) III only B) II and III C) I, II and III D) I and III E) I, II and III
D) I, IV and V E) III, IV and V

11. Some molecules:


8. Codons and their coded amino acids are given in the list I. Inorganic phosphate
below. II. Organic base
Phenylalanine UUU III. Pentose sugar
Lysine AAG IV. Amino acid
Arginine CGA Which of the above is found in the structure of DNA
Alanine GCA and RNA?
DDD
Which of the following codes in DNA can produce the
A) I and II B) I and III C) III and IV
above amino acids, respectively?
BBB D) I, II and III E) I, II, III and IV
A) AAA, TTC, ACC, CCA
B) TTA, AAT, CCA, GGG
C) AAA, TTC, GCT, CGT
D) CCA, GGT, TTA, TAC
E) TAC, AAA, GGA, TTA 12. If n = 10 in a cell, what is the number of chromatids in
prophase II?
BBB
A) 10 B) 20 C) 30 D) 40 E) 5

9. Some events:
I. decrease in number of free amino acids
II. enzyme reduces activation energy 13. Which of the following is formed when a nucleotide of
III. decrease in the amount of water in the cell a DNA molecule is hydrolyzed?
IV. replication of DNA DDD
A) Base, phosphate, nitrogen.
Which of the above do not take place during protein
B) Base, pentose, nitrogen.
synthesis?
DDD C) Pentose, phosphate, sulphur
A) III only B) I and II C) II and III D) Base, pentose, phosphate
D) III and IV E) I, III and IV E) ATP, pentose, phosphate

77
General R eview
1. Mammals that live in cold climates use lipids for different 5. Which of the following organisms can produce
purposes: unsaturated lipids?
I. To supply energy CCC
A) Human B) Cow C) Corn
II. To supply water
III. For protection from cold D) Camel E) Dog

Which of the purposes given above are also useful to


mammals that live in the desert?
CCC
A) I only B) III only C) I and II
D) I and III E) II and III 6. The best description of an enzyme is that it
CCC
A) becomes hydrolyzed during chemical reactions.
B) becomes dehydrated during chemical synthesis.
2. Which of the following clues would tell you whether a C) speeds up the rate of chemical reactions.
cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic? D) serves as an inorganic catalyst.
BBB E) is the source of energy for a chemical reaction.
A) The presence or absence of a rigid cell wall
B) Whether or not the cell is partitioned by interval
membranes
C) The presence or absence of ribosomes
D) Whether or not the cell carries out cellular metabolism
E) Whether or not the cell contains DNA 7. Which of the following is not true about enzymes?
DDD
A) The protein part of an enzyme is called the apoenzyme.
B) The active part of an enzyme is the prosthetic group.
C) Enzymes react with substrates.
3. Which of the following structures can not be found in D) All enzymes become functional with prosthetic
prokaryotic cells? groups.
EEE
E) Enzymes reduce the activation energy of reactions.
A) Flagella B) RNA C) Ribosome
D) Cell membrane E) Mitochondria

8. Some events in aerobic respiration:


4. Which of the following must be increased in the I. Use of oxygen
medium for an enzymatic reaction to continue
permanently? II. Reduction of NAD
(there is sufficient enzyme in the medium) III. ATP synthesis at substrate level
BBB IV. Hydrolysis of ATP
A) Product
Which of the above takes place only in the matrix or
B) Substrate
crista of mitochondria?
C) pH AAA
D) Temperature A) I only B) I and II C) II and III
E) Protein D) II and IV E) III and IV
80
CHECKPOINT TEST 1
9. In which of the following events in a cell is carbon 13. A plant, at certain times in the day, releases oxygen to its
dioxide released? environment, as shown in the figure below.
DDD
O2 concentration
A) Glycolysis
B) Chemosynthesis
C) Photosynthesis
D) Anaerobic respiration
E) Lactic acid fermentation

I II III IV

0 6 12 18 24 Time

10. Which of the following is not a feature of glycolysis?


EEE In which time period does the plant take O2 from the
A) Enzymes are used environment?
B) ATP is used CCC
A) I and II B) II and III C) I and IV
C) ATP is produced
D) It is seen in all types of cells D) II and IV E) III and IV
E) NAD+H and FADH+H are formed

14. Which of the following combinations correctly


describes the structures involved in heredity, in
11. In an experiment, the following molecules are placed into descending order by size?
a test tube: DDD
- Enzymes A) nucleotide - codon - gene - chromosome.
- Protein B) codon - nucleotide - gene - chromosome.
- Starch C) codon - gene - nucleotide - chromosome.
- Lipid D) chromosome - gene - codon - nucleotide.
Then the test tube is put into a hot water bath. E) chromosome - codon - gene - nucleotide

Which of the following is not present at the end of the


experiment?
CCC
A) Enzyme B) Glycerol C) Fructose
D) Amino acid E) Glucose 15. Organic molecules, such as vitamin C and vitamin
B12, are required for specific enzymes to function.
Such organic molecules are called ___________.
BBB
A) substrates
B) co-enzymes
12. In a protein synthesis reaction, if 453 amino acids are C) allosteric modulators
used, how many water molecule must be formed?
AAA D) active sites
A) 452 B) 453 C) 451 D) 454 E) 455 E) competitive inhibitors
81
General R eview
1. In an experiment, enzymes of carbohydrates, of lipids and 3. Chemical bond types in eukaryotic cells:
of protein (which can digest nutrients into their I. Glycosidic bond
monomers) are added to an unknown nutrient mixture in
II. Hydrogen bond
a test tube.
III. Ester bond
Then phenol red solution is added to the test tube.
IV. Peptide bond
(Phenol red solution is an indicator that turns yellow in an
acidic environment.) Formation of which of the above bond types does not
change the acidity of the medium?
AAA
A) I and II B) I, II and III C) III and IV
Phenol red solution Protein, carbohydrate and lipid
digestive enzymes D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV

Unknown nutrient
mixture
4. What kind of chemical bonds are found between the
nucleotides of a DNA strand?
Some results related to the experiment are given below. EEE
I. Carbohydrates are digested. A) Hydrogen B) Ionic C) Covalent
II. Lipids are digested. D) Glycosidic E) Phosphodiester
III. Proteins are digested.
Which of the results above are true for the experiment?
EEE
A) I only B) I and II C) I and II
D) I and III E) II and III 5. In which of the following reactions is ATP, produced by
cellular respiration, not used?
CCC
A) Fermentation
B) Active transport
C) Photosynthesis
D) Biological reaction
E) Cell division
2. Some features of ETS, which plays a role in aerobic
respiration and photosynthesis:
I. ATP synthesis
II. Oxidation and reduction reactions are seen
III. Formation of water 6. Which of the following does not take place in
IV. Formed by the same type of materials mitochondria?
V. Electrons come from organic molecules EEE
A) Oxygen consumption
Which of the above are common to both aerobic
B) Carbon dioxide formation
respiration and photosynthesis?
AAA C) Water formation
A) I and II B) I, II and III C) II, III and IV D) Energy production
D) II, IV and V E) III, IV and V E) Glucose production

82
CHECKPOINT TEST 2
7. The change in reaction rate of three enzymes, according 9. What are the primary sites of protein production in a
to pH, are shown in the graph below. living cell?
BBB
Reaction rate
A) Golgi B) Ribosome C) Mitochondria

Amylase
D) Microtubules E) Lysosome
80

70
Pepsin Lipase
60
50
40
30 10. Some events in the cell are given below.
20
I. Photosynthesis
10
II. Aerobic respiration
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH
III. Fermentation
Neutral
Acidity Alkalinity IV. Chemosynthesis

Some definitions are given below. Which of the above are anabolic reactions?
DDD
I. For all enzymes the optimum pH is 7.
A) I only B) II only C) II and III
II. Maximum reaction rate of pepsin is at pH 3.
D) I and IV E) II and IV
III. Amylase has the maximum reaction rate in the neutral
medium.
IV. Lipase is effective at every pH value.
Which of the above definitions are not true for the
enzymes that are given in the graph?
DDD
11. Which of the following organelles and components are
A) I only B) II only C) III only incorrectly paired?
BBB
D) I and IV E) II and IV A) Ribosome - RNA
B) Mitochondrion - DNA
C) Lysosome - Digestive enzymes
8. An experiment is set up to D) Chloroplast - Chlorophyll
observe elodea plant E) Nucleus - Nucleolus
growth.
Which of the following
does not have any effect
on photosynthesis in
elodea? 12. Three types of RNA involved in forming the structural
DDD
and functional core for protein synthesis, serving as a
template for translation, and transporting amino acid,
respectively, are:_________
EEE
A) Direction of the light
A) mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
B) Intensity of the light
B) rRNA, tRNA, mRNA
C) CO2 concentration
C) tRNA, mRNA, rRNA
D) O2 concentration D) tRNA, rRNA, mRNA
E) Temperature of the water E) rRNA, mRNA ,tRNA
83
General R eview
1. Some molecules found in different types of cells are as 4. There are some molecules in animals and humans, as
follows: follows:
- Starch I. Proteins
- Glycogen II. Minerals
- Vitamin III. Vitamins
- Amino acid Absence of which molecules above can cause
Which of the following is the common property of all metabolic disorders?
of them? EEE
DDD A) I only B) II only C) I and III
A) They are used as energy producers. D) II and III E) I, II and III
B) They are used as structural essentials.
C) They are used as regulatory substances.
D) They are synthesized in the cell.
E) There is nitrogen in their structure. 5. Which of the following is the common characteristic of
ribosomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts?
CCC
A) ATP production
B) C2O and H2O production
C) protein synthesis
2. Which structure and its function listed below are D) non-membranous organelle
incorrectly paired? E) photosynthesis
BBB
A) Ribosome - Protein synthesis
B) Mitochondrion - Fermentation
C) Chloroplast - Photosynthesis 6. Which of the following are present in nucleic acids?
D) Plasma membrane - Osmosis DDD
E) Nucleus - Mitosis A) Fe-Mg B) P-Ca C) I-Na
D) P-N E) Na-K

7. Some general properties of enzymes are given below:


3. Some aerobic respiration reactions are given below: I. Each enzyme is unique to a particular reaction.
I II III II. Each complex enzyme is unique to a particular
Glucose Pyruvate Acetyl Co-A CO2, H2O Energy coenzyme or co-factor, but coenzymes or co-factors
Which of the following is not true about the given can react with more than one type of complex
reactions? enzyme.
EEE III. Enzymes are active only inside the cell.
A) I takes place in the cytoplasm Which of the above properties are common to all
B) I is seen in all types of cells types of enzymes?
C) II is seen in mitochondria DDD
D) ETS plays a role in III A) III only B) I and II C) I, II and IV
E) ATP synthesis takes place in II D) I, III and IV E) I, II and III
84
CHECKPOINT TEST 3
8. In an experiment, a cylindrical tube is filled with water. 10. Which of the following leaf characteristics does not
Blue-green algae and aerobic bacteria are put in it. From have any effect on the rate of photosynthesis?
a prism, three phases of light are directed at the AAA
suspension of algae and aerobic bacteria. A) Phloem is found in the outer part of the leaf.
B) Thickness of the cuticle
C) Number and distribution of stomata
D) Number of parenchyma cells
E) Thickness of the epidermal layer

11. Which of the following is not true about mitochondria?


EEE
At the end of the experiment, bacteria are congregated in A) They are found only in eukaryotic cells.
certain regions (I and II), as shown in the figure. B) They contain ETS enzymes.
In which of the following are the three phases of light C) Oxygen and nutrients are consumed in them.
given correctly? D) ATP is synthesized by them.
DDD E) The ATP produced is consumed only in mitochondria.
I
_______ II
_______ III
_______
A) Green Red Violet
B) Green Violet Yellow
C) Yellow Green Red 12. A plant cell is put in a solution which contains a higher
water concentration than that of the plant cell.
D) Violet Yellow Red
E) Violet Red Green Which of the following events occurs first?
AAA
A) deplasmolysis of the cell
B) metabolic reactions in the cell stop
C) plasmolysis of the cell
D) the cell loses water
E) passing of materials through cell pores stops
9. Some factors which affect enzyme activity are given
below.
- High temperature
- Activator 13. A cell with 2n = 20 chromosomes undergoes three
successive mitotic cell divisions and then a meiotic cell
- Inhibitors
division.
- H2O
Which of the following shows the number of daughter
Degradation in the structure of a protein molecule is cells and their chromosomes ?
called denaturation. EEE
A) 16 cells with 40 chromosomes
Which of the above factors that affect enzyme
activities can cause denaturation of the protein? B) 16 cells with 10 chromosomes.
AAA C) 32 cells with 20 chromosomes
A) I only B) III only C) I and III D) 64 cells with 20 chromosomes
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV E) 32 cells with 10 chromosomes

85
General R eview
1. Which of the following is a correct difference between 5. Human beings obtain some molecules from their food.
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? I. Vitamin
DDD
II. Glucose
A) Prokaryotes have a cell wall; eukaryotes do not.
III. Protein
B) Prokaryotes are larger than eukaryotes.
IV. Mineral
C) Prokaryotes have larger ribosomes than eukaryotes.
D) Prokaryotes have no membrane-bound organelles. Excess amounts of which molecules above can be
converted and stored in the body as fat?
E) Prokaryotes have membranes, but eukaryotes do not.
BBB
A) I and Il B) II and III C) I and IV
D) II and IV E) I, III and IV

2. A mouse sperm contains 20 chromosomes.


How many sister chromatids would be present in a
mouse cell during metaphase of the first meiotic 6. Which of the following phases is the same in both
division? aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
DDD CCC
A) 10 B) 20 C) 40 D) 80 E) 160 A) Formation of acetyl coenzyme
B) E.T.S.
C) Glycolysis
D) Citric acid cycle
E) Krebs cycle
3. Which of the following cell organelles is present in
both animal and plant cells?
EEE
A) Large vacuole B) Chlorophyll C) Plastid
D) Cell wall E) Plasma membrane 7. Which of the following molecules does not function as
a regulator in the body ?
EEE
A) Hormones B) Vitamins C) Enzymes
D) Water E) Glucose
4. Some molecules are given below.
- Vitamin
- Hormone
- Mineral 8. Some organelles are given below.
- Enzyme I. Ribosome
Which of the following properties is common to the II. Cytoplasm
molecules above? III. Endoplasmic reticulum
CCC IV. Mitochondria
A) There are used as an energy source.
Which are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic
B) They can pass directly to the blood without digestion. cells?
C) They are formed of the same types of atoms. DDD
D) They are all regulators. A) I only B) II only C) III only
E) They can be synthesized by all living things. D) I and II E) III and IV
86
CHECKPOINT TEST 4
9. If there were no enzymes in the body, 13. One factor affecting the rate of photosynthesis is
I. all reactions would halt. temperature. It affects the dark phase of photosynthesis
most since its reactions are catalyzed by enzymes
II. reactions would take place more slowly.
III. metabolic reactions would be slower. Which of the following graphs shows the effect of
temperature on the rate of photosynthesis?
Which of above would not take place? EEE
AAA
A) Rate of photosynthesis B) Rate of photosynthesis
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and II E) II and III

10. Some factors affect the rate of photosynthesis: 0 20 40 60 C


Temperature
0 20 40 60 C
Temperature
I. CO2 concentration C) Rate of photosynthesis D) Rate of photosynthesis
II. Temperature
III. Light intensity
IV. Amount of chlorophyll
Which of the above has a direct effect on the dark
phase?
BBB 0 20 40 60 C 0 20 40 60 C
Temperature Temperature
A) I only B) I and II C) I, II and III
D) I, III and IV E) II, III and IV E) Rate of photosynthesis

11. Which of the following is false for a diploid cell?


DDD 0 20 40 60 C
A) It has the same chromosome number as the zygote. Temperature

B) It is produced by mitosis.
C) It has the same chromosome number as the mother.
D) It is produced by meiosis.
14. The structure formed by the fusion of the apoenzyme and
the coenzyme is known as the holoenzyme.
E) It has the same chromosome structure as the zygote.
Some definitions related to the holoenzyme are given below:
I. The protein part of it is unique to a particular
substrate and has the ability to recognize it.
II. In order to become functional, the apoenzyme must
12. What is the main purpose of respiration? bind with the coenzyme.
CCC
III. Enzymes are called simple enzymes when they are
A) Getting O2
without a prosthetic group.
B) Getting nutrients
Which of the above definitions are true?
C) Getting energy EEE
D) Getting CO2 A) I only B) III only C) I and II
E) Getting lactic acid D) II and III E) I, II and III

87
General R eview
1. Minerals are used as 4. Living things exist in a combination of inorganic and
I. structural essentials. organic compounds.
II. regulatory substances. Which of the following statements is not true for
III. sources of energy. inorganic substances?
EEE
Which of the properties of minerals given above are A) Atoms are combined to form molecules by chemical
correct? bonds.
DDD
B) Acidity or alkalinity of a solution is determined by its
A) I only B) II only C) III only
pH value.
D) I and II E) II and III C) Inorganic molecules are categorized as acidic, basic
or salt according to the ion concentration of the
solution
D) pH is determined by H+ and OH ion concentration in
the solution.
2. What is the ultimate function of the contractile E) Salts are acidic solutions.
vacuole in unicellular organisms living in fresh water?
CCC
A) Excretion of CO2
B) Movement of the organism in the water 5. NADPH2 is synthesized in photophosphorylation and
C) Excretion of excess water is used in the dark phase.
D) Excretion of minerals Some statements about NADPH2:
E) Excretion of digestive wastes I. It carries energized electrons.
II. Hydrogen comes from ionized water.
III. It plays a role only in photosynthesis.
IV. It takes electrons from chlorophyll.

3. Complex enzymes are composed of a protein part Which of the above are correct?
(apoenzyme) and a prosthetic group. EEE
A) I only B) I and IV C) I, II and III
Some prosthetic group molecules are given below.
D) I, II and IV E) I, II, III and IV
I. Calcium
II. Vitamin B
III. Vitamin K
IV. NAD 6. ATP is the energy molecule in all living cells. The structure
V. Sodium of ATP is given below.
Which of the molecules above has a role as a co-factor
Adenine base + Ribose sugar + P + P + P
or coenzyme?
BBB
Co-factor
__________ Coenzyme
__________ I II III
A) I, II and III IV and V
Which numbered chemical bonds are broken down by
B) I and V II, III and IV cells to obtain energy from ATP?
C) II, IV and V I and III CCC
D) I, III and V II and IV A) I only B) II only C) III only
E) I and III II, IV and V D) I and II E) I, II and III
88
CHECKPOINT TEST 5
7. In which living thing do photosynthetic reactions take 11. Which of the following statements concerning
place in a different structure of the cell from the glycolysis is false?
others? DDD
AAA A) It proceeds in a step-by-step series of chemical reac-
A) Blue-green algae tions.
B) Euglena B) Phosphorylation occurs during the process.
C) Fern C) Oxygen is not required for the process to occur.
D) Moss D) The end products are carbon dioxide and water.
E) Coniferous plant E) Pyruvic acid is formed.

8. Which of the following does not play a role in the 12. Which of the following is not produced in anaerobic
differentiation of the molecular structure of protein? respiration?
DDD AAA
A) Location of amino acid A) O2 B) ATP C) CO2
B) Amount of amino acid in protein
D) Ethyl alcohol E) Lactic acid
C) Variety of amino acid
D) Type of bond between amino acids
E) Order of amino acids in protein

13. Glycosidic bonds are found in ___________ .


EEE
A) Vitamin B) Lipid C) Protein
9. Which of the following pairs is not correct?
D) Glucose E) Starch
EEE
A) Fats: Lipids that are important energy storage
molecules
B) Peptide bond: Link formed between amino acids
C) Sucrose: Commonly called table sugar 14. Cytokinesis is_____________ .
D) Phospholipids: Important components of the cell CCC
membrane A) division of the nucleus
E) Starch: Storage form of glucose molecules that is B) division of the cell membrane
found in animal cells C) division of the cytoplasm
D) division of chromosomes
E) division of the cell

10. Which of the following is the name of the exchange of


parts between homologous chromosomes ?
AAA
A) Crossing-over 15. Which of the following cell organelles causes a
decrease in the concentration of organic material in
B) Translation
the cytoplasm?
C) Transcription DDD
D) Linked-genes A) Golgi body B) Vacuole C) Lysosome
E) Mitosis D) Mitochondria E) Endoplasmic reticulum
89
General R eview
1. The equation for photosynthesis is: 3. Some organic molecules are given below:
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 I. Carbohydrates
(Glucose) II. Lipids
III. Proteins
Some statements about photosynthesis:
I. The source of the oxygen in the atmosphere is water. Give the correct descending order of energy production
if 1 gr. of the molecules above is broken down?
II. The source of the oxygen in the glucose molecule is
BBB
carbon dioxide.
A) II, III, I B) II, I,III C) I, III, II
III. Glucose is a product of photosynthesis. It is also the
source of organic food. D) I, II, III E) III, II, I

Which of the above are correct?


EEE
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) I and III E) I, II and III
4. A molecule of ATP is structurally most similar to a
molecule of
AAA
A) RNA nucleotide
B) DNA nucleotide
C) amino acid
D) fatty acid
2. The effect of temperature on the respiration rate of a E) glycerol
fruitful and fruitless apple tree is given in the graph below.

Amount of respiration

5. An mRNA is 336 nucleotides long, including the initiator


Fruitful apple tree and termination codons. The number of amino acids in
the protein translated from this mRNA is:_______ .
Fruitless apple tree
DDD
0 30
Air temperature(C) A) 337 B) 336 C) 335
D) 111 E) 112
According to the graph,
which of the following conclusions can be made?
CCC
A) Respiration rate of the plant is lower in summer but
higher in autumn and winter.
B) As temperature increases from 0, respiration rate 6. In which of the following organelles does fermentation
increases continuously. occur?
DDD
C) Increase in the amount of fruit causes an increase in
A) Mitochondria
the respiration rate without any effect of temperature.
B) Chloroplast
D) The energy required for forming fruit is more than for
keeping fruit. C) Lysosome
E) ATP production is greater in fruitful apple trees than D) Cytoplasm
fruitless apple trees at the same temperature. E) Nucleus

90
CHECKPOINT TEST 6
7. Some molecules found during photosynthetic reactions: 11. In salivary glands, much protein is synthesized for making
I. ATP enzymes.
II. Oxygen Which organelle would be expected in salivary glands?
III. Glucose CCC
A) Vacuole
IV. NADPH2
B) Mitochondria
Which of the above are also used in the chloroplast? C) Ribosome
CCC
A) I and IV B) I, II and III C) I, III and IV D) Peroxisomes
E) Centriole
D) I, II and IV E) II, III and IV

12. In the figure, you can see the amount of O2 after


photosynthesis. This photosynthesis occurred under
8. When yeast is producing wine which of the following different wavelengths, but the same conditions.
is not formed?
BBB Amount of O2
A) CO2 B) Acetaldehyde C) ATP

D) Ethanol E) Pyruvate

I II III IV Time

9. Which of the following vitamins are water soluble? Which of the following light colors are found at I - II- III- IV
BBB
BBB
A) violet - green - orange - red
A) Vitamin A and B
B) violet - red - orange - green
B) Vitamin B and C
C) violet - green - red - orange
C) Vitamin A, D, E and K
D) red - orange - violet - green
D) Vitamin C and E
E) orange - violet - green - red
E) Vitamin B and E

13. The nucleotide sequence of mRNA is AUACGA.


10. In osmosis, water moves from a _______________. Which of the following are the nucleotide sequences of
AAA DNA and tRNA according to the above mRNA
A) hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution sequence?
AAA
B) hypertonic solution to a hypotonic solution A) TATGCT B) AGCTAT C) TATGCT
C) isotonic solution to isotonic solution UAUGCU UGAACA AUACGA
D) isotonic solution to a hypotonic solution D) AGCGTT E) GCTATC
E) isotonic solution to a hypertonic solution UCGCAA CGUAUG
91
General R eview
1. Peptide bonds are found in ___________. 5. A major difference in the structure of proteins, fats
BBB and carbohydrates is that only proteins always contain
A) Vitamin B) Protein C) Glucose _________.
EEE
D) Lipid E) Starch
A) Carbon B) Sodium C) Hydrogen
D) Oxygen E) Nitrogen

2. ATP synthesis reaction is shown below.


ADP + P ATP + H2O
6. The total number of hydrogen bonds in a DNA chain is
Some definitions are given related to ATP synthesis, as 9000. The number of adenine in this chain is 1500.
follows:
I. It is a phosphorylation reaction. What will be the number of guanine in this chain?
DDD
II. It is a dehydration reaction. A) 500 B) 1000 C) 1500 D) 2000 E) 2500
III. Enzymes play a role.
IV. It is an exothermic reaction.
Which of the above definitions are not true?
BBB
A) II only B) IV only C) I and lII
7. Some reactions in cells are given below.
D) II and III E) I, II and IV
I. Glycolysis
II. Oxidative phosphorylation
III. Chemosynthesis
IV. Photosynthesis
3. Sperm cells are highly motile cells and require a great In which of the following is the frequency of reactions
deal of energy to maintain their activity. in a cell (in descending order) given correctly?
EEE
An organelle that would be found in great abundance A) I, II, III, IV B) I, III, II, IV C) III, IV, II, I
in this cell is the ________.
BBB D) II, IV, I, III E) I, II, IV, III
A) Endoplasmic reticulum
B) Mitochondria
C) Ribosome
D) Lysosome
E) Golgi body 8. Some statements about protein synthesis:
I. Meiosis
II. Mitosis
III. Asexual reproduction

4. How many ATP molecules are produced from 3 Which of the above cause genetic variety in living
things?
molecules of glucose in anaerobic respiration (net
AAA
gained)?
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III
BBB
A) 2 B) 6 C) 38 D) 3 E) 6 D) II and III E) I, II and III
92
CHECKPOINT TEST 7
9. Which of the following could represent the basic 13. In order to observe the effect of CO2 on the rate of
chemical formula of a molecule that would be classified photosynthesis, the following experiment is set up, as in
as a sugar? the figure below.
EEE
A) C6H6O3 B) C4H4O4 C) C2H5O2N

D) C2H4O2NR E) C5H10O5

10. I. Enzymatic activity


II. Chloroplasts
III. Nucleotides
IV. Mitochondria
Which of the above are present in all living things?
EEE
A) I and II B) I and III C) II and III
D) II and IV E) I, III and IV

Some statements about the experiment:


I. The leaves inside the jar can not undergo photosynthesis
11. In different organisms, nutrients are broken down into the because of the KOH that is used to separate and fix
end products by fermentation. CO2.
Which of the following molecules is not a product of II. The leaves outside the jar undergo photosynthesis
fermentation? and are not affected by the leaves that are wilted
CCC inside the jar.
A) Ethanol III. Inside and outside the jar, all the leaves are wilted and
B) Acetaldehyde the plant dies.
C) Oxaloacetate Which of the above are correct?
D) CO2 BBB
A) I only B) II only C) II and III
E) Lactic acid
D) I and II E) II and III

12. One of the important factors that affects the rate of


photosynthesis is light.
Light comes from the sun.
14. Which of the following factors does not affect enzyme
I. It may be reflected.
activity?
II. It may be absorbed. EEE
III. It includes ultraviolet rays and X rays. A) Temperature
Which of the above are used in photosynthesis? B) pH
BBB C) Enzyme concentration
A) I only B) II only C) II and III D) Substrate concentration
D) I and II E) I and III E) Light

93
General R eview
1. Which of the following organic compounds is not a 5. Some processes are given below.
carbohydrate? I. Glycogen synthesis
DDD
II. Starch synthesis
A) Lactose B) Glucose C) Galactose
III. Glucose catabolism
D) Glycerol E) Glycogen
IV. Protein synthesis
Which of the above processes are not performed in an
animal cell?
AAA
A) II only B) III only C) IV only
2. Some molecules are given below.
D) I and III E) III and IV
I. Adenine
II. Ribose
III. Phosphate
IV. Thymine
Which of the above is/are found in the structure of ATP
molecules?
DDD 6. Features of plants differ according to where they live.
A) I only B) I and II C) I and III
Rates of photosynthesis for the plants given below are
D) I, II and III E) I, II, III and IV
measured at the same time of day.
I. Coniferous plant
II. Arid plant
III. Corn

3. Which of the following does not pass from cytoplasm In which of the following is the descending order of
rate of photosynthesis for the plants given correctly?
to mitochondria in aerobic respiration?
AAA
CCC
A) III - I - II B) II - I - III C) I - III - II
A) Oxygen
B) NADH2 D) II - III - I E) I - II - III
C) Pyruvic acid
D) ADP
E) Carbon dioxide

7. Some cells produce energy by breaking down glucose to


ethyl alcohol and lactic acid in the absence of O2.
4. Which of the following is the only correct statement
about enzymes? What is the name of this process?
DDD BBB
A) They are not affected by changes in pH. A) Photosynthesis
B) They generally function in acidic conditions. B) Fermentation
C) They generally function in alkaline conditions. C) Aerobic respiration
D) They have an optimum pH. D) Digestion
E) They are less active in conditions of neutral pH. E) Glycolysis

94
CHECKPOINT TEST 8
8. Photosynthetic reactions and materials used are 12. Change in the rate of photosynthesis over a period of time
matched below. is shown in the figure below.
I. Cyclic phosphorylation - NADPH2 Rate of photosynthesis
II. Noncyclic phosphorylation - CO2
III. Dark phase - ATP
IV. Light phase - H2O

Which of the above are correct?


CCC
A) I and II B) II and III C) III and IV
D) I, II and IV E) I, III and IV
I II III IV Time

Which of the following is not true about the graph?


EEE
9. Which of the following correctly matches an organelle A) Light intensity may be less in I.
with its function? B) Use of CO2 increases in II.
DDD
A) Ribosome - Manufacture of lipids C) Light phase and dark phase can take place at the
same time in III.
B) Mitochondrion - Photosynthesis
D) Environment may be dark in IV.
C) Lysosome - Movement
E) Environmental conditions are the same in all.
D) Central vacuole - Storage
E) Nucleus - Cellular respiration

10. Some items are given below. 13. A diploid cell with 10 chromosomes divides 5 times by
I. Light mitosis.
II. O2 What will be the number of cells formed and their
chromosome number?
III. CO2
DDD
IV. Enzyme A) 20-5 B) 16-10 C) 8-10 D) 32-10 E) 35-5
Which of the above are used in plants to produce
(synthesize) carbohydrates?
DDD
A) I, II and III B) I, II and IV C) I, II, III and IV
D) I, III, and IV E) I and III
14. In which of the following stages does the amount of
DNA increase?
AAA
A) Interphase
11. What is the genetic center of the cell? B) Prophase
BBB C) Metaphase
A) Nucleolus B) Nucleus C) Lysosome D) Anaphase
D) Golgi E) Endoplasmic reticulum E) Telophase
95
General R eview
1. What is the function of chloroplasts? 5. There are mechanisms for the transportation of
DDD materials through the plasma membrane.
A) To digest sugar to provide ATP energy for the cell I. Exocytosis
B) To convert one kind of chemical energy to another II. Diffusion
C) To produce digestive enzymes III. Phagocytosis
D) To convert light energy to chemical energy IV. Pinocytosis
E) To convert light energy to heat energy
Which of the above can be seen in both plant and
animal cells?
BBB
A) I only B) II only C) III only
D) II and III E) III and IV

2. Enzymes are synthesized, packed and stored in which


of the following organelles, respectively?
DDD 6. Photosynthesis consists of two main stages, the light
A) ribosome-lysosome-Golgi phase and the dark phase.
B) Golgi-ribosome-ER Which of the following matches is correct for the phases
C) ER-ribosome-Golgi of photosynthesis and where they take place in the
chloroplast?
D) ribosome-Golgi-lysosome
DDD
E) ER-Golgi-lysosome Light phase Dark phase
______________ ______________
A) Inner membrane Stroma
of chloroplast
B) Stroma Grana
C) Grana Inner membrane
of chloroplast
3. A solution containing equal amounts of sucrose, maltose
D) Grana Stroma
and lactose is prepared.
E) Outer membrane Stroma
Which of the following organic molecules becomes of chloroplast
more concentrated when the molecules above are
hydrolyzed?
AAA
A) Glucose B) Sucrose C) Galactose 7. A piece of fresh liver is mashed (cut) and placed in a test
D) Fructose E) Pentose tube together with 2 ml of H2O2. An intact piece of liver
together with 2 ml of H2O2 is placed into a second test
tube. It is observed that in the second tube the reaction is
slower.
According to the information given above, which of
the following increases the rate of reaction?
BBB
4. In which stage of mitosis do the sister chromatids A) The enzyme concentration changes
separate from each other and move to opposite
poles? B) The substrate surface area changes
DDD C) The pH changes
A) Interphase B) Prophase C) Metaphase D) The temperature changes
D) Anaphase E) Telophase E) Inhibitors slow the reaction down
96
CHECKPOINT TEST 9
8. Breakfast: Tea with sugar, three pieces of bread and jam 12. Some reactions in photosynthesis are given below.
Lunch: Beans, pickle, dessert I. Water is split
II. CO2 is used
Dinner: Pie, potatoes, dessert
III. Reduction in NADP
If a man eats the food above, which of the following
molecules is expected to be present in greater quantity IV. Oxidation in chlorophyll
in his blood? Which of the following matches is correct for the
BBB reactions given above and where they take place?
A) Fatty acid B) Glucose C) Mineral CCC
D) Glycerol E) Amino acid I
_______ II
_______ III
_______ IV
_______
A) Stroma Grana Stroma Grana
B) Grana Stroma Grana Stroma
C) Grana Stroma Grana Grana
D) Stroma Stroma Grana Grana
9. In anaerobic respiration, how many ATP molecules are E) Grana Stroma Stroma Grana
produced?
CCC
A) 1 B) 3 C) 4 D) 38 E) 12

10. If a plant cell is put in a solution which contains


higher water concentration than that of the plant cell,
which of the following events occurs first?
AAA 13. During aerobic respiration, ATP is synthesized by
A) deplasmolysis of the cell
- Substrate level phosphorylation,
B) metabolic reactions in the cell stop
- Oxidative phosphorylation,
C) plasmolysis of the cell
D) the cell loses water Some phosphorylation types are seen in Glycolysis, Krebs
and ETS
E) passing of materials through cell pores stops
Which of the following is the correct match?
DDD
Glycolysis
_____________ Krebs
_____________ ETS
_____________
A) Substrate level Oxidative Oxidative
phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation
11. Which of the following is not associated with nuclear B) Oxidative Substrate level Oxidative
and cell division in animals? phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation
CCC C) Substrate level Oxidative Substrate level
A) Formation of spindles phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation
B) Duplication of chromosomes D) Substrate level Substrate level Oxidative
C) Formation of cell plate phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation
D) Constriction of the dividing cells E) Oxidative Substrate level Substrate level
E) Separation of chromosomes phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation

97
General R eview
1. Some properties of lipids in animals are given below. 4. The transfer of genetic information from a DNA
I. They play a role in the conservation of body temperature. molecule to new strands of messenger RNA is known
as ____________ .
II. They are a part of the plasma membrane.
BBB
III. They are a primary source of energy. A) translation
IV. They enable the fluidity of membranes. B) transcription
Which of the above are correct? C) transpiration
CCC D) transduction
A) I only B) II only C) I,II and IV
E) transformation
D) I, II and III E) I, II, III and IV

2. Some reactions in photosynthesis: 5. What single word describes the sum of all the
I. ATP is used chemical reactions that take place in cells?
II. Synthesis of NADPH2 BBB
A) Anabolism
III. Reduction in phosphoglyceric acid
B) Metabolism
IV. Neutralization of chlorophyll
C) Catabolism
Which of the above take place in the grana and stroma D) Mutualism
of the chloroplast?
E) Commensalism
AAA
Grana
_______ Stroma
_______
A) II, IV I, III
B) I, II III, IV
C) III, IV I, II 6. Which of the following is an example of catabolism?
D) I, IV II, III CCC
E) II, IV I, II, III A) Protein synthesis
B) ATP synthesis
C) Cellular respiration
D) Starch synthesis
3. The origin of molecules produced in the photosynthesis E) Photosynthesis
equation are shown in the figure below.
II

6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2


7. Which of the following is a common property of both
vitamin C and B?
BBB
III A) They are stored in the body.
Which are not correct? B) They are water soluble.
CCC C) Excess amounts are removed from the body.
A) I only B) II only C) III only D) They have the same function.
D) I and II E) II and III E) They are found in the same foods.

98
CHECKPOINT TEST 10
8. Which of the following properties is not correct for 12. Microfilaments and microtubules ______________.
both mitochondria and chloroplasts? CCC
CCC A) contain digestive enzymes
A) both have an electron transport system B) are sites of protein synthesis
B) ATP is synthesized C) function in cell structure and movement
C) both are present in all cells D) are sites of photosynthesis
D) both contain their own DNA E) are sites of ATP synthesis
E) both are structurally similar to bacteria

13. Which is not correct for meiosis?


CCC
9. Some molecules are synthesized in photosynthesis: A) It reduces the chromosome number in half.
I. Glucose B) Four cells form by one meiotic division.
II. Oxygen C) Occurs only in plant cell
III. ATP D) Occurs in reproductive cells
Which of the following matches is correct for the given E) Involves two divisions
molecules and where they are synthesized?
BBB
Light phase
___________ Dark phase
___________
14. Two amino acids are linked by a peptide bond and
A) I, III II
form a ______________.
B) II, III I DDD
C) II I, III A) polypeptide.
D) III I, II B) protein.
E) I II, III C) polynucleotide.
D) dipeptide.
E) dinucleotide.

10. Which of the following materials is not produced in


the Krebs cycle? 15. Which kind of energy is used by all living things?
EEE AAA
A) CO2 B) NADPH2 C) ATP A) Chemical energy
D) FADPH2 E) Pyruvic acid B) Nuclear energy
C) Light energy
D) Electrical energy
E) Kinetic energy
11. Which of the following is not true for glycolysis?
CCC
A) ATP is formed.
16. n=8 in a diploid cell of an organism.
B) ATP is used.
C) The end products are CO2 and water. How many chromatids are there in the mitosis of this
cell?
D) It occurs in the cytoplasm. DDD
E) It starts with glucose. A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 32 E) 64
99
CHAPTER 01 : Chemistry of Life

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
CHECKPOINT TEST 01 A B D A B E D E B E D D E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 02 E A A B D D A E D B D C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 03 C E A E E E C A B E D D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 04 A E B A C C E A B D C E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
CHECKPOINT TEST 05 E A B A E B B B E C E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 06 D C C D D C E E A E E D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 07 C B B E A C E E E E C A

CHAPTER 02 : Microuniverse

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
CHECKPOINT TEST 01 C E B D A E A A D D A D B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 02 C B A C C D D A E D A A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHECKPOINT TEST 03 A D D B A E D A C D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHECKPOINT TEST 04 C E E A B A C B A D

100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHECKPOINT TEST 05 B D D B A B E C D D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
CHECKPOINT TEST 06 B A D E E A B D D D E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
CHECKPOINT TEST 07 E A D D E D E E B E E

CHAPTER 03 : Metabolism

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
CHECKPOINT TEST 01 A B E C B C B D B C B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHECKPOINT TEST 02 C A B D C A B A E E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 03 D E A E B E B C C A C C

CHAPTER 04 : Photosynthesis

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
CHECKPOINT TEST 01 C E C E D B E A A D A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 02 D D D E D C B E D B E D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 03 E D D D E D E B E D A C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 04 A B D D C B E E E D D C

101
CHAPTER 05 : Cellular Respiration

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHECKPOINT TEST 01 D A E D B D D E B D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 02 E E A B E E E C A D D B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
CHECKPOINT TEST 03 E B E A C E A A B D C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 04 A C D C C D A E E E A D

CHAPTER 06 : Master Molecules

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
CHECKPOINT TEST 01 A D E E D E B D D C D D D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
CHECKPOINT TEST 02 D C B C A E C E E D C B C C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
CHECKPOINT TEST 03 C C C E A B C E A A B E B D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
CHECKPOINT TEST 04 D D D B D E D A B A A C E C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 05 C C B E C C D C B E B C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
CHECKPOINT TEST 06 E C C B D C E B D D D B D

102
CHAPTER 07 : General Review

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
CHECKPOINT TEST 01 C B E B C C D A D E C A C D B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CHECKPOINT TEST 02 E A A E C E D D B D B E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
CHECKPOINT TEST 03 D B E E C D D D A A E A E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
CHECKPOINT TEST 04 D D E C B C E D A B D C E E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
CHECKPOINT TEST 05 D C B E E C A D E A D A E C D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
CHECKPOINT TEST 06 E C B A D D C B B A C B A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
CHECKPOINT TEST 07 B B B B E D E A E E C B B E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
CHECKPOINT TEST 08 D D C D A A B C D D B E D A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
CHECKPOINT TEST 09 D D A D B D B B C A C C D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
CHECKPOINT TEST 10 C A C B B C B C B E C C C D A D

103