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VoL. XII, No. 6 WASHINGTON J u NE, rgo r

CHINA: HER HISTORY AND DEVELOP-


MENT

B v j o H N B A RR ETT , F o RM E RLY MI N I ST ER T o S I A M

M
YTHOL OGY plays a n impor- it cooked the raw food of the soil for
tant part in the ancient histor y the better support of their proteges who
of China, as it does in that of the were populating the valleys and plains
older E uropean nations. Going back to and mountains they bad created. There
the fabulous times of soo,ooo to 1 ,ooo.ooo are no more interesting myths in the
years, it first begins to tell a story of poetry and son g of the ancient Greeks
some truth abo ut thirty-three centu- and Rom ans than can be fo tmd in the
ries before Christ . Fuh-hi, who reig ned fanciful narratives of the Chinese ro-
2900 B. C. , is commonly regarded as the mancers; and, if we investigate care-
fi rst real man whose name stands out in fully the relations of China in the re-
the long dim line of ancient k ings. Be- mote past to western Asia , we may be
fore him as a human monarch were even conYinced that the legendary lore
ages of s upernatural g iants. There was of the for mer antedates the latter in its
P wan-ku, who formed cosmos from inspiration and first rehearsal to charmed
chaos. F or 18,ooo years h e labored and credulous ears.
chiseling into definite form the rude,
shapeless eart h . H e was followed by E IGHT GREAT E MPER ORS
t hree sovereigns who, during another
period of one hundred and eighty cen - Fuh-hi, the first landmark of history,
turies, prepar ed the earth for ordinary and his seven s uccessors held sway for
life. Under the suggestiYe and appro- nearly eight hundred years, an aver age
priate names of the Celestia I , T er rest rial, of a century each. The a tmosphere of
and HUillan, their deeds a re sung in myth still remains here, unless in the
Chinese legends. In these tales we are repeated songs of their achievements
told how they evolved the relations of some lesser lights of their d ynasty are
the sexes, government, and o rder , and forgotten. From the number stands out
ta ught men to eat , drink, an d sleep. H wangti , " the founder of China," as
They enticed fire from heaven, and with he is often portrayed , altho ug h the sam e
210 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

honor is given to many others and is overshadowed by the renown of that


claimed by more. Hwangti's capital galaxy of Chinese heroes, the Emperors
was in Honan, and he is described as Yao, Shun, and Yu, whom Confucius
extending the empire from Pechili to and Menci us, China's two greatest sages,
the Yangtze, while his son even extended have made immortal. Yao and Shun
the boundaries into Manchuria on the reigned approximately B. C. 235o-2200,
north and Tonkin on the south. and their names and deeds are known
He is given the credit of originating to every Chinese boy and girl. The
the famous '' Cycle of Cathay,'' the ar- child of mandarin or coolie will glibly
bitrary period of sixty years, in honor describe their greatness, as the son of
of the sixty-first year of his reign ; and millionaire or pauper in America will
he established a regular calendar. But tell you about Washington or Lincoln.
a greater deed was the regulation of It is well to note in this connection
weights and measures according to the that the ch aracters which are admired
decimal system. He carried the same and remembered in China today as in
principle into the government of his the past are generally men of highest
kingdom, making ten towns one dis- attainments and lofty motives. The
trict, ten districts one department, ten sterner records of history tell of evil as
departments one province, and ten prov- well as good men, but the popular nar-
inces one empire. He built highways ratives, songs, and poems, together with
upon land, and boats to navigate the the deep philosophic works of China's
rivers, and generally was a wise and wise men, give little consideration to
progressive monarch. other than the great and good. Thus
He was following in the footsteps of has there been a continuous and notable
Fuh-hi, who instituted the laws of mar- influence for the development and bet-
riage and methods of agriculture and terment of the Chinese peoples from the
fishing. earliest times, which has had a marked
The lyre and lute were invented by effect upon the life of the empire
him to make his people cheerful and through its ups and downs of the past
content. Chinese characters were de- centuries. It elevates the Chinese far
vised and family names were then first above and beyond any position as bar-
known. barians. It demonstrates the existence
While all these stories of providing of a powerful civilization more years
the necessities and of adapting the real- before the birth of Jesus of N azareth
ities of life suggest a degree of truth, than have elapsed since that chief event
there is woven in with them a large in all history startled and amazed the
measure of romance that colors their pagan world.
historical value. Fuh-hi attributed all After Yao and Shun came the mighty
his successes and glorious achievements Yu, during whose reign were two events
to the dragon-horse that came out of that will never allow it to sink into en-
the Yellow River bearing a scroll on its tire oblivion. The first was the terrible
back, and possibly in this fable we have inundation of the greater part of the
the crystallization in legendary history then inhabited empire by China's sor-
of the dragon conception, which plays row, the Yellow River. The second
so important a part in contemporary was the discovery of the manufacture of
Chinese romance and reality- which wine. Which has been the worst for
adorns their flags and clothing, is the mankind might be difficult to determine!
central figure of their art, and is remem- Yu, after he had enjoyed his first ex-
bered in their prayers. perience with the beverage, sagely re-
But the glory of Fuh-hi and Hwangti marked, " The days will come when
CHINA: HER HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 211

some of my successors, through drink- The mighty Ria dynasty was doomed
ing this, will cause infulite sorrow to to end through the very means that Yu
the nation." Yu was the founder of predicted. It went out in debauchery
the Ria or Hai dynasty, which controlled and unbridled voluptuousness, under the
China from 2200 to x8x8 B. C. lead of vain Kieh-Kwei, and of his
The records of Chinese historians are beautiful but wanton consort, Meihi.
not definite in naming the year when The dynasty of Shang then assumed
the Chinese settlers first arrived in their power, and 28 sovereigns occupied the
new home, but it was in these early throne through 644 years. These kings
semi-legendary years. By some the time were good and bad, strong and weak,
is placed before the days of Fuh-hi or and the empire prospered aud suffered,
as contemporaneous with his reign. extended and contracted, according to
Others contend that they came about the character and power of these men .
.2500 B. C., antedating the reign of Yu; If we will pause and think what a
but nearly all agree that the Chinese period of 644 years and 28 monarchs
were not natives. They came, if we means, and yet what little impression
are to take the word of Confucius, from they made on history beyond a passing
the valley of the Euphrates or from the record of the usual wars, cabals, and
regions of the Caspian Sea. Journeying strifes, we are in a mood to appreciate
for a new land and home, they persisted how trifling a portion of history' s long
in their eastern pilgrimage by a north- story the present exciting times may
ern route and entered China through occupy in the minds of the future
the valley of the Roangho or Yellow historians.
River, until finally they were stopped by RECUPERATIVE CHARACTER OF CHI-
the boundless waters of the Pacific. NESE
The fact that the Chinese were not
indigenous adds vastly to interest in the Let us remember, however, one con-
study of the growth of the empire. It sideration that augurs well for China in
establishes a degree of sympathy on our the future, as it has figured conspicu-
part with their history that we might ously to her advantage and in her growth
not otherwise feel. The present domi- during both the clear and the misty cen-
nant American race were not aborigines; turies of time that is gone : the end of
we drove the latter unmercifully before the majority of the dynasties has come
us and ruthlessly took possession of this under the reign of evil or weak minded
continent. So the Chinese, entering men and women, when it deserved to end
their new field of effort, gradually drove and when it was best for the people and
before them the natives until now there kingdom that a change should be inau-
are left only small numbers of the ab- gurated, and with few exceptions the
origines, who have their home and ren- succeeding monarchs have been men of
dezvous in the fastnesses of the south- eminent ability and leadership. This
ern mountains. The Chinese seem to recuperative feature of China-of her
have begun their empire with isolated dynasties, kings, and people-which has
bands of colonists in the northern, cen- been illustrated repeatedly through fifty
tral, and western provinces of Shensi, centuries or seventy-five cycles, may
Shansi, Honan, and Rupeh, just as the prove her salvation in the present cri-
first Europeans established themselves sis. No other nation in the history of
in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Florida. the world has successfully mastered the
Now they reach over an area larger than events of centuries like China. If the
that which is under the sovereignty of principle of the survival of the fittest is
the American people. demonstrated as logical and true in the
212 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

unlimited past competition of peoples Wu Wang, were alive tcday he would


and governments, and has kept China be the man of power, ability, and leader-
in the front as an independent power, ship to save China. He found the em-
will not its application in the future be pire in a more deplorable state than
attested by a newer and greater China Kwangsu, the present ruler, when he
rising out of the trials and confusion of ascended the throne. He made it re-
the hour ? With such an evolution of spected throughout Asia. Embassies
events, the policy of our Government of came with tribute from Korea on the
friendly assistance to China would seem north, Cambodia and Siam on the south,
all the more wise, and fraught with and Tatary and Tibet on the north and
favorable results alike to Cathay and west. But in his power he made one
America. cardinal error : he established the sys-
tem of feudal states and feudal lords.
THE GOLDEN AGE IN CHINA'S AN- Their struggles and wars were the in-
CIENT HISTORY fluences which eventually wrought the
downfall of his dynasty.
Out of the darkness shall come light. Singular enough, great national pro-
From the haze of the Shang dynasty gress was made during these times of
was born the incomparable Chow dy- strife, and the boundaries of the empire
nasty,which boasted of thirty-five rulers were enlarged in proportion to the in-
and lasted through nine eventful centu- ternal wars. The foundation was laid
ries, from B. C. I I 22 to 255. This pe- for the greater China that was to follow.
riod was a golden age in China's ancient If nothing stood to the credit of the
history. It was the bridge between the Chow dynasty other than the life of
doubtful past and the actual present. Confucius, it would have honor enough,
But its crowning glory was the appear- w1thout even including Mencius and
ance of Confucius and Mencius upon Laotze.
the stage of the world's history; nor
should Laotze, the founder of Taoism, be CONFUCIUS AND HIS PRECEPTS
omitted. He figured in the same dy-
nasty, but his work was not so much Confucius was born 55I years, or
for the bettering of his fellow-men as nearly six centuries, before Christ. Be-
were the teachings and example of yond a few myths and legends con-
Confucius. nected with his birth, there is nothing
When we discuss at the dinner table, fabulous about his life. He stands out
in lecture-rooms, and in social and lit- clearly as one of the greatest men that
erary intercourse the golden ages of the world has ever produced. He was
Greece and Rome we are prone to for- a man, not a saint ; a man who went
get entirely that in China there was a through the average experiences of a
corresponding age, when real civiliza- scholar and statesman in public life, and
tion in its broad ;;enst: reached a mark as who in an unpretentious but sincere way
high even as it did in southern Europe. endeavored to better his fellow-men .
It began in strength, blazed into unpar- He gradually rose from low estate to
alleled brilliancy, and then sank into be a magistrate, and finally became the
decadence, to be followed by a period prime Ininister of Duke Ting. He was
when the dregs of Inisfortune were an eminent lawyer, not unlike Moses
drunk by the people ; and snch was the or Solon, and was a practical philoso-
record also of European and western pher like Benjamin Franklin. He was
Asiatic powers. a man of the people and knew their im-
If the founder of the Chow dynasty, pulses, hopes, and wishes like Abraham
CHINA: HER HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 213

I,.incoln. It was because he understood and that is a principal element in mak-


man's nature that he was able to make ing them strong.
such a lasting impression. The masses Love, respect, and worship of ances-
of China study his precepts today as tors, which have played so important a
they did twenty centuries ago and will part in China's political, material, and
twenty centuries hence. moral development, are fostered by the
Confucianism has its failings and weak precepts of Confucius. His portrayal
poims when regarded as a religion and of the lives of the mighty Yao and Shun
must in the evolution of time give way of the mythical days, and later of Wan
as a religion to Christianity ; but as Wang, Wu Wang, and Chau King, of
the teachings of a great philosopher his the Chow dynasty, tended to develop a
works will never be forgotten. In fact deep sense of ancestral homage. In the
they will have in some respects a wider growth of China this infi uence has, on
hearing and following when the Euro- the one hand, protected the family and
pean and American world studies more the state, and, on the other hand, re-
the interesting and instructive history tarded material progress. Worship of
of Cathay. ancestors, with its virtues and faults,
Confncianism became a religion not has been a synonym for conservatism in
through any intent or purpose of its China. What was sufficient and satis-
founder. He never endeavored to start factory to their ancestors should be suf-
a religion, to be considered as a god, or ficient and satisfactory for the present
as a prophet of a god. The doctrines, generation ! The fear, for instance, of
precepts, and philosophy of Confucius disturbing the rest and peace of ances-
became a religion because they were tors and of doing unpardonable slight
purer and higher than the conceptions to their memory has in a measure pre-
of any other religion that in those days vented the opening of the earth for its
was offered to the people ; they were be- mineral and metals, has retarded inven-
y ond and above the teachings of Laotze tion, and in these later days checked
or Buddha in the mind of the average such far-reaching enterprises as railway
Chinese ruler or vassal. By natural construction and fnrther modern devel-
evolution in the imagination of the peo- opment of China's material resources.
ple he became in a measure a god, but If Confucianism is a religion, it is lite
it is well to be remembered that he did religion of China; but Buddhism is also
not believe in any existing God, and in a sense the religion of China, with
there is no hint in his philosophy of a Taoism, founded by Laotze, in a pro-
future life. When asked what was his nounced secondary position. Every
opinion of death he replied : '' How can Buddhist and every Taoist, however, is
one know death when one does not a disciple of Confucius to a certain de-
know life ' ' ? gree, while a great number of the fol-
To those who have firm belief in a lowers of Confucius are not Buddhists
living God and in the immortality of or Taoists. Every Chinese child is a
the soul, it would not seem that Confu- student of Confucius. All of my Chi-
cianism could stand as a religion against nese servants could recite his principal
the expanding influence of Christianity. precepts. They seemed to understand
No matter how much we admire the them also; but oftentimes they were in
character and teachings of Confucius, doubt about their real respect for
there are lacking in his philosophy the Buddha and Laotze.
two great essentials of faith and hope It is not within the scope or purpose
which are so dear to the Christian world. of this paper to compare the teachings
Charity there is in Confucius' teachings, of Christ and Confucius ; but in dis-
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

missing reference to such comparison it writings as we have of his colleagues,


is interesting to remember the words of Confucius and Mencius. His religion,
one distinguished savant , Dr. Legge. Taoism, has at all times exerted a pro-
He says: ''The teaching of Confucian- found influence on China's history, but
ism on human duty is wonderful and has never stood with the continuous
admirable. In the last three of the four strength of Confucianism. Some mon-
things which Confucius delighted to archs were entirely under its sway, while
teach-letters, ethics, devotion of soul, others decreed death to all who followed
and truthfulness-his utterances are in it. The original Taoism was perverted
harmony with both the law and the and changed, it was even assimilated by
gospel. '' the Buddhism of China, for this variety
Possibly the remarkable honesty of the is a corrupted branch of the old Indian
Chinese as business men and merchants stock. There was much in the early
in dealing with foreigners, which has Taoism that suggested thoughts and
been a marked national trait in their ideas akin to Christianity. The immor-
commercial relations during the last tality of the soul was partially pictured,
sixty years, should be attributed to Con- though in a material, rather than in a
fucius. Possibly it is due to native spiritual, sense. In later days Taoism
shrewdness; but it is so surprising to became the superstitions theory of ma-
the average foreigner that it is worth gicians and of kings who would seek
recording here. perpetual life through extraordinary
Mr. Thomas Whitehead, the distin- elixirs and decoctions. Today it has
guished manager of the great chartered many astute and devoted followers, but
bank of India, Australia, and China, it is decadent as a religion and has passed
which is the second largest banking long ago the day of its influence and
house in Asia, says that his institution power among the great religions of the
has never directly lost a penny through world.
Chinese dishonesty in transactions rep-
resenting many millions of sterling. THE IMPORTATION OF BUDDHISM
The famous Asiatic foreign house or FROM INDIA
hong of Jardine, Matheson & Co. de-
clare that they have lost more money to Buddhism in China is a transplanted
8 per cent of foreigners than to 92 per product. It was brought from India as
cent of Chinese, in a total trade of roo a sprig of one fruit might be grafted
per cent, covering a period of nearly on the tree of another Buddhism was
sixty years and representing one hun- grafted, in a measure, on Confucianism.
dred millions sterling I It would never have thrived in China if
Mencius was a scholar, thinker, and Confucianism had been an actual reli-
philosopher second only to Confucius. gion like Christianity or if Confucius
His time is placed about 300 B. C. His had been an inspired being like Christ.
teachings, moral deductions and pre- Sixty years after the crucifixion of
cepts, epigrams, and wise sayings are J esus Christ the Emperor Ming-ti, of
studied and committed today by every the Han dynasty, dreaming of a gigantic
native in China, and, next to Confucius, image of gold, dispatched an embassy
he has exerted a mighty influence on to India to find a new religion. They
Chinese development. returned with Buddhism. The doctrine
Of the personal Laotze we know but of the transmigration of souls delighted
little. He was a man of profound learn- the mighty Ming-ti. The rewards and
ing, but there has been handed down no punishments it outlined seemed reason-
such historical record or collection of his able, and the possibilities it pictured of
CHINA: HER HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 215

a future life supplied to him and his during the middle ages of China, be-
people what was lacking in Confucian- tween 6oo and 8oo A. D. The Nesto-
ism. Ming-ti was a practical, business- rians, who taught the new religion to
like monarch and went about the prop- China, thrived for nearly two centuries,
agation of Buddhism as he did the pro- or until 781 A. D. About 1625 A . D.
mulgation of new laws and the collection the famous N estorian monument was
of additional taxes. In that way it was unearthed in the province of Shensi.
given an impetus that enabled it to Williams, in his '' Middle Kingdom, ' '
spread throughout all China. It un- holds that the Nestorians came as early
doubtedly tended to raise the moral as 500 A. D. He says that the monu-
standard of the people and nation, and ment is '' the only record yet found in
hence was a direct influence on the China itself of the labors of the Nesto-
growth of the kingdom. The Buddhism rians," and yet it is one of the most
of today in China bears little resemblance perfect of the ancient monuments of
to the purer Buddhism of Ceylon or China. The inscription tells us that a
Siam. priest named Olopun came from the
The King of Siam, who is the ex officio distant west , guided by the " azure
head of the Buddhist church of the clouds'' of China, bringing with hint
world and one of the ablest and most the '' True Scriptures. '' The em peror,
progressive statesmen in Asia, often told one of the most powerful of the Tang
me while I was the American Minister dynasty, gave him a cordial reception
at his court, that the Buddhism of China and ordered the Scriptures translated
was such only in name and was inex- and promulgated. In an official edict he
tricably mixed with Taoism and Confu- said : '' Let it have free course through
cianism. The Chinese emigrant to Siam the empire."
is at home in its Buddhist temples, but Unfortunately for its lasting influence
the Siamese who goes to China is not at it came under the ban which the Taoists,
home in Chinese temples. about A. D. 85o, proclaimed against
There is a passing thought in this con- Buddhism through the agency of an
nection that almost staggers us. Sup- hostile emperor. The effort to crush
posing Emperor Ming-ti's embassy in the Buddhists included the Nestorians,
search of a religion had journeyed to and only the monument remains. If
Palestine instead of to India and brought sufficient time had passed for Chris-
back Christianity? It taxes the imagina- tianity to have spread itself as had
tion to picture the effect on China, on Buddhism, this one attack would not
Asia, and on the world at large, if it have ended its life in Cathay until
h ad come in its purity. On the other again revived by American and Euro-
hand, we are forced to ask with equal pean missionaries. It is an interesting
astonishment at the possibilities: What coincident that the Nestorians were ap-
would have been the effect on Chris- parently most severely persecuted in
tianity if it had been taken in those the same section of China where many
early days by the Chinese as their offi- American and European missionaries
cial religion ? were recently massacred.
Before leaving the subject of religions
THE COMING AND EXPULSION OF
I would add, in response to the general
CHRISTIANITY
inquiry about missionary work, that I
But Chistianity did come to China honestly believe, after six years' expe-
long before the day of modem mission- rience in Asia in both official and private
aries. Christianity was taught and fos- capacities, and after spending much time
tered for one hundred and fifty years in China, not only along the coast, but
216 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

in the distant interior, that the mission- THE GREAT WALL


aries are doing far more good than harm,
and that they should have the moral During the Tsin dynasty, which suc-
support of the American people in the ceeded the Chows, the major portion of
continuance of their labors. the great wall of China was constructed.
There are incompetent missionaries This was approximately 240 B. C., but
as there are incompetent business men. some 250 or 300 miles of the wall were
They have faults. These should and added nearly r8 centuries later, in 1547
will be corrected and the work will go A. D., by an emperor of the celebrated
on. Missionaries will be a help and not Ming dynasty. Let us rem~mber what
a hindrance in the regeneration of China. this means. A wall begun at one time
The commercial spirit leading to ruthless two centuries before Christ was com-
territorial aggrandizement, manifested pleted nearly sixteen centuries after
by the European powers, must bear the Christ. Can anything better illustrate
responsibility for the Boxer outbreak as the great age and astonishing conserYa-
much as the zeal of missionary evan- tism of China than this simple record?
gelization. \Vhat are the sixty years of China' s
Such men as Li Hung Chang, Sheng present modern foreign relations- one
Liu Kin Yi, and Chang Chi Tung have cycle of Cathay-in comparison with
told me unofficially that they had no these eighteen centuries which history
objection to Christian missionary work tosses up and off for our study as if
where it was carried on by worthy men, only eighteen days !
but complained that too often indiscreet The builder of the wall was, however,
and incompetent men were in charge who a great man. Some call him the Na-
excited hostilities and caused trouble for poleon of Asia. Chung was his name,
the majority of the missionaries who or Hwang-ti, as he called himself. He
were qualified and successful. built magnificent palaces, constructed
This discussion of religions, into which roads, dug canals, and did all in his
I have gone to some length, although power to make his kingdom mighty and
cursorily, began with a consideration of prosperous, but was guilty of one un -
the character of the teachings of Con- pardonable offense. Wishing to go down
fucius, who lhed in the illustrious Chow t o posterity as the first king of China,
Dynasty period. From the date of its he ordered the destruction of all the old
ending, in 255 B. C. , we pass on rap- records and libraries, and decapitated
idly down through the long historical hundreds of scholars. For this he was
corridor of succeeding and changing never forgiven by the Chinese people,
Chinese dynasties. Some we admire ; and few praises are now sung in his
some we abhor. Some we praise; some h onor. Fortunately for China sufficient
we decry, but it is the same old story of records were preserved, and literary men
ups and downs, great and little men, survived to replace later the destroyed
good and bad men, until we grow almost rec-ords, legends , and histories. He was
weary of the tale, and are constantly succeeded by the Han dynasty, which
reminded that in the dim future these held sway from 206 B. C. to 225 A. D.
present days of c ritical negotiations at
Pekin may seem of little importance. RELATIONS WITH THE ROMAKS
Let us h ope that their conclusion and
results may warrant a higher measure The Han dynasty, that started before
of praise than we can bestow on many the Christian era and reigned into it over
of the crises of the limitless butfasciuaf- two centuries, saw the first commercial
in!{ past. relations established with the Roman
CHINA: HER HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 217

Empire. The latter even sent an em- consider that such an eventful period is
bassy to China, and presents were ex- included in the records of Chinese his-
changed. Ptolemy and Pliny wrote of tory, we wonder that we have not given
the Seres, a name which described the it more attention in our study of former
Chinese ; and China was distinguished civilizations. In those days we are told
at times far apart by Sin, Chin, and that temples and palaces were erected
Sinae. '' The reign of the Seres was a larger and grander than those of con-
vas ~. populous country, touching on the temporaneous Rome and Greece; canals
east the ocean and the limits of the hab- were dug of sufficient depth to float pon-
itable world, and extending west nearly derous junks; walls were built that
to Imaus and the confines of Bactria," reached over high mountain tops; roads
says Yule, adding, ' ' It seems probable were opened that connected capitals and
that relations existed from the earliest trade centers ; wars were waged that
times between China and India, and pos- killed millions of men, and peace and
sibly, too, between China and Chaldea. strife alternated from decade to decade.
The ' Sinim ' of the prophet Isaiah is by There was bloody civil contention among
many taken to mean China, and the the feudal chieftains at one time, and
Ptolemys 'Sinae' are generally under- then again a war of the entire united
stood to have been the Chinese. ' ' empire against a foreign enemy. The
In the forty-ninth chapter, twelfth present Boxer uprising would have been
verse, the great prophet says, '' Behold, treated in those martial days as an amus-
they shall come from far: and, lo, these ing incident, and no foreigner would
from the north and from the west ; and have been spared to tell the tale and
these from the land of Sinim. ' write lurid accounts for the magazines.
I referred to the honesty of the Chi- The contemplation of China's won-
nese; that same story was told in Europe derful past suggests at once the ques-
twenty centuries ago. Therefore the tion, Why, if such great deeds were
reputation of the Chinese for integrity, done and such splendid buildings, pal-
in spite of all that is said against them, aces, and roads were constructed, are
has some good foundation. Justinian there not more tangible evidences re-
was the next great western writer who maining of these and later glorious
discussed the Chinese ; and then Marco periods? The answer is simple and
Polo, returning from the magnificent conclusive. First, every new emperor,
court and mighty empire of the imperial or the founder of each new dynasty,
conqueror Kublai Khan in the thirteenth who was not friendly to his predecessor
century, awoke the world to its first seemed prompted by an immediate and
actual appreciation of the extent and overwhelming desire to destroy all the
power of Cathay. signs of his predecessor's work and
The Roman Empire was often de- power, and proceeded to raze not only
scribed by early Chinese historians as a to the ground but obliterate all monu-
nation with which China enjoyed trade ments of former glory. Secondly, there
exchange. The land of Tatsin-Kwoh are remaining, even against such ad-
was the name of this European kingdom verse conditions, more monuments of
in Chinese terminology. the past than are generally remembered
While Rome was in the height of her in a discussion of this subject, such as
glory and preparing the way for her the great wall, the Ming tombs, the
downfall the Han dynasty was sailing Temple of Heaven, the Grand Canal,
on the flood tide of prosperity, great paved roads, great arched bridges, por-
wars, territorial aggrandizement, and celain pagodas, and numerous lesser
splendid material progress. When we signs, like the Nestorian Monument.
218 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

Students of China will await, more- were occupied peacefully and happily
over, the new life in the empire and the with agricultural pursuits for unusually
opening of the interior in the hope that long periods. The Hanlin Library and
excavations in interior cities and the College was fow1ded in 755 , the writings
bringing to-light of old records may tell of Confucius were newly annotated and
us more than we now know and better revised, and poets, essayists, and histo-
explain and illustrate the conditions of rians thronged the courts of the em-
the dazzling past. perors in place of eunuchs and concu-
China' s famo us competitive examina- bines. But if preceding dynasties had
tions were begun under the Hans ; a been disgraced with beautiful and dis-
penal code, the model of all subsequent solute but powerful women, who con-
ones, was drawn up, and, as before re- trolled the empire by controlling their
corded, Buddhi!~m was first introduced emperors and ministers, the Tangs had
from India. The limits of the empire likewise the cruel and immoral but brill-
were extended until under the Western iant and able Empress Wu. She ruled
and Eastern Han dynasties they in- China with a rod of iron and to the
cluded Szechuan, Yunnan, and Fukien. benefit of the people for fifty-four years.
Romance tells its story of these times Arab travelers who visited China in
in the great Chinese historical novel those days returned with stories of cop-
entitled "The History of the Three per money, rice wine, and the use of tea
States," which immortalizes in a halo as a beverage. Envoys of the Pope at
of glory that period, which was at its this period sought to know more of
height about three centuries after the China, and Mohammedanism also then
birth of Christ. Every Chinese delights first gained extensive entrance into
in this graphic story of valorous deeds. China and became a factor in its devel-
We now pause at the threshold of the opment.
i11ustrious Tang dynasty, that shaped Looking to Europe, we find that Eng-
Chinese destinies for three hundred land was then divided among the Saxon
years, A. D. 618-907. To reach this princes, and France and Germany were
period we pass the Tsin .and Eastern in that chaotic state which preceded the
Tsin dynasties, that succeeded the Hans reign of Charlemagne. The discovery
and ruled for one hundred and fifty years of printing is ascribed to this period, or
with another group of fifteen monarchs. about A. D. 581, nine centuries before
A few lesser dynasties followed, and Caxton introduced printing into Eng-
then the first Tang began his beneficent land. In the siege of Tai-yuen, in the
sway. During this dynasty Korea be- eighth century, gunpowder was used in
came an acknowledged dependency of cannon that threw 1 2-pound stone shot
China, Siam sent tribute-bearers, and some 300 paces. After twenty emperors
Persia sought aid from the Chinese Em- had reigned and China began to see the
peror in a war with other lands. It approach of a modern period of history,
was one of the Tangs that welcomed the Tang dynasty ended with a desolate
the N estorians. The canal system of land, ruined towns, and the capital razed
China was extended, libraries were to th~ ground by fire and vandal con-
built, schools opened, and the people querors.

( To be concluded in the july number)


THE DIKES OF HOLLAND

BY GERARD H. MATTHES, UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL


SuRVEY

o obtain an idea of the important


T
the three rivers. It is natural to sup-
role the dikes have played in pose that after the formation of this
the development of the Nether- haff, sedimentation progressed rapidly.
lands, and of the problems with which Heavy deposits of clay gathered in its
the inhabitants of that country have had quiet waters, and later, as the haff grew
to contend, it is necessary in the first more shallow and aquatic vegetation be-
place to understand how the soil of the
Netherlands was formed , and what the
peculiar conditions are that have ren-
dered the existence of this unique little
country possible. A few words concern-
ing the geology of the region, which
dates back to a time by no means re-
mote, will therefore be of interest.
Geologically speaking, a large portion
of the Netherlands may be said to have
been formed only yesterday. This por-
tion, which comprises the western and
most interesting half of the kingdom,
owes its origin to the alluvial deposits
brought there by three large rivers-the
Rhine, the Meuse, and the Schelde--
the estuaries of which unite to form
what at first glance appears to be a delta.
The large amount of sediment discharged
by these rivers, together with the action
of tides and currents in the North Sea,
were the primary causes of the forma-
tion of extensive series of sandbanks
and bars off the coast, and as these came luxurious, extensive marshes came
banks grew higher and finally became into existence, and the great peat beds
exposed to the action of the wind at which cover so large a part of the area
times of low water, there came into ex- of Holland at the present day were
istence sandhills, commonly known as formed.
dunes. The coast in those days partook Interesting as are the successive steps
much of the nature of a "haff, " such in the formation of the country during
as is found today on the German coast those early days, space will not permit
on the Baltic Sea, or along our own here to treat of them at length. Suffice
coast, notably at Pamlico and Albemarle it to be said that after the general level
Sounds. A. long tongue of land running of the deposits had reached that of th~
parallel with the coast inclosed a body sea, there arose vast forests, which at one
of shallow water into which discharged time covered alm_ost the entire country
220 THE NATIONAL G EOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

of the Netherlands. The rivers found man in Holland. According to Tacitus,


their way to the ocean through numerous the Roman general Germanicus, a son
tortuous channels, but there remained in of Drusus, is said to have transported
the center of the country a small lake, his army down the canal on floats con-
called by the Romans at a later period structed with the timber cut from the
"Lake Flevo." Thus the soil of the forests. Again, history tells us that the
Netherlands, having been formed in part same general Drusus caused a levee t o
by alluvial deposits and in part by the be built along the middle arm of the
formation of peat beds, cannot be called Rhine, in order to protect the province
a delta formation, in the strict sense of then called Bat-Aue (" good land ")
that physiographic term, however much against the inundations caused in spring
its appearance in a general way may re-
semble that of a delta.
The earliest records make mention of
this region as a low, marshy, and heavily
timbered area, protected against the tides
of the North Sea by ridges of sandhills,
and subject to flooding by both fresh and
salt waters.

THE FIRST DIKE-BUILDERS IN HOL-


LAND

The first inhabitants of this inhospita-


ble region were nomadic tribes of Ger-
manic origin, known as the Catts and
the Caninefates, and they must be re-
garded as the pioneers of dike-building.
Though dwelling at first on the higher
eastern lands of older formation, it is
known that they finally settled in the
lowlands, where, exposed to the constant
danger of inundations, they soon learned The Netherlands of Today and the
to protect their lives and property by the State of Ohio compared
building of levees.
Perhaps Holland in those days was_ by ice jams on the rivers. Tlus same
not as undesirable a piece of land as it levee was completed some years later by
might prove in these days. At any rate, general Paulinius Pompeus, and ex-
as early as 400 years before the com- tended to the mouth of the Rhine at
mencement of this era, the Romans had Katwijk, where there existed a gap in
begun its conquest, and were undertak- the dunes through which the Rhine dis-
ing a number of improvements, the mag- charged into the sea.
nitude of which leave no doubt as to the At some distance from its mouth, on
value they put on their new acquisi- the inland side of the dunes, the Romans
tion. About w B. C. the Roman general constructed a large castle, known as
Claudius Drusus, in order to relieve the Castle te Britten, and on an island in the
Rhine of a part of its burden, connected estuary they erected a light-house, which
it with the Ijsel by means of an artificial bore the name of General Caligula. The
canal, which may safely be said to have castle is of interest because from the
been the first canal dug by the hand of present lo<:ation of its ruins important
THE DIKEs oF HoLLAND 22L

conclusions may be drawn as to the shift- from 400 yards to three miles, while the
ing of the dunes. After having been elevations range from 6o to 200 feet
sacked and burned by the Batavians, re- above sea-level. In other places forest
built again and destroyed once more by growth h as been started on the dunes
the Normans at a later date, the ruins lying further inland, and the results
of the castle were during the eighth and have been very gratifying.
ninth centuries gradually covered by the
shifting sands of the dunes, which were r,soo SQUARE MILES OF LAND SUB-
slowly being transplanted landward by MERGED I N THE INTERIOR AND THE
the winds. The ruins disappeared and FORMATION OF ZUIDER ZFE
had been forgotten, when suddenly, after
the severe storm of Christmas, rs2o, The retrogression of the dunes was a
they reappeared once more, but on the source of alarm; yet, on account of its
beach west of the dunes. Since that slowness, the movement had not at first
time they have in the course of centuries made itself manifest. Very serious
repeatedly been denuded and covered up changes had taken place, however, in
again, and at the present day lie sub- the interior within a comparatively
merged in the sea. short period. Furious storms in the
North Sea during the years 693, 782,
RECESSION OF THE COAST LINE 839, and again in I 170, 1230, and 1237
had caused a washing away of large
It has been estimated from these facts sections of peat land situated between
that the dunes near Katwijk have mi- Lake Flevo and the North Sea. This
grated east a distance of two miles in wholesale destruction of land culmi-
about eighteen centuries. At other nated in 1250, 1287, and 1295, when
points along the western coast of Hol- during the spring tides of those years
land this receding movement has Lake Flevo had become an inlet of the
amounted to as much as six and seven North Sea. It is estimated that this
miles during the same period. loss amounted to nearly 1 ,500 square
It was not easy to put a stop to this miles of land, and submerged a number
alarming recession of the coast and con- of flourishing villages. Heavy dikes
sequent loss of land, together with the were then built, inclosing the so-formed
destruction of numerous flourishing vil- Zuider Zee, except at such points where
lages. It has been permanently effected, it communicated with other bodies of
however, by planting on the seaward water, in order to check all further en-
side of the dunes a species of grass croachments on the land. Its form has
( rl rzmdo arenacea), known in Holland since been practically the same as now
as '' Helm.' ' This plant can sustain appears on our maps.
itself very readily in the finest and With the advent of the fourteenth
purest of sands by means of extraordi- century began a period of active dike-
narily long and intricate roots, and is building in Holland. Not only the
therefore well qualified to counteract Zuider Zee had swallowed much rich,
the shifting of sand. The grass is arable land, but many of the interior
planted by hand in tufts not quite two bodies of water, at times of storms, were
feet apart, aligned in rows. That this making similar trouble, and inundations
was a laborious piece of work needs no caused by the large rivers were frequent.
demonstration, when it is borne in mind Obviously, as the country became more
that there extend along the coast of closely settled and land became more
Holland a chain of dunes of a total valuable, every new inundation caused
length of 200 miles, varying in width more loss of life and property than had
222 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

previous inundations. These catastro- and sixteenth centuries were few in


phes, attended with the loss of thou- number. About the middle of the fif-
sands and thousands of lives, fill many teenth century windmills for raising
a sad page in the history of the country. water were coming into use in Holland.
Dike-building became a serious matter These were at first of a primitive char-
and began to receive the attention which acter and of low power, but they were
it had long needed. Flimsy dikes and applied to the pumping out of lakes in
levees were gradually transformed into process of reclamation.
heavier structures, and the physical out-
lines of the Netherlands were thus ren- RECLAIMING THE LAND
dered more permanent and may be said
to have suffered little change since that T.he great period for reclaiming land,
time. however, did not begin until the early
The province of North Holland about part of the seventeenth century, at a
the year r 28M, although extensively pro- time when prosperity returned in Hol-
tected by numerous dikes, was dissected land and great enterprises of divers char-
by bodies of water of all sizes, sueh as the acter were begun. With the revived
Schermer, the Beemster, the Purmer, the interest in agriculture and cattle-raising,
Starnmeer, the lakes west of Alkmaar, the rich soils covered by the lakes be-
and the Langemeer, connecting with came valuable, and every effort was
each other, and also with the Zuider Zee made to drain them or to keep them
at several point&. It was possible in within the smallest limits. This became
those days to navigate from Amsterdam urgent for the further reason that new
westward through the lj , then through lakes were constantly being created by
the lakes mentioned, and return by way the digging away of the peat for fuel.
of the Zuider Zee, without finding an Between the yea rs 1607 and 1643 six-
obstacle in the form of a dike, or as much teen lakes were permanently drained,
as a lock. With the expansion of Lake adding to the territory of the Nether-
F levo into a wide-mouthed inlet of the lands, within the space of 36 years, an
North Sea, the action of the dreaded area of 91 square miles, or nearly 6o,ooo
tides and storn1s of the latter were car- acres.
ried into the very heart of the country, All these lakes were drained with the
thereby raising considerably the levels in aid of windmills. A lake was first in-
the lakes before mentioned and threat- closed by a dike to cut it off from sur-
ening new inundations. To remedy this rounding bodies of water. This work
dangerous situation, the three channels was always of a difficult nature, con-
connecting the lakes with the Z uider Zee suming much time and money, as it
were closed by means of heavy dams frequently happened that during some
during the years 1311-1400. In the storm the dike gave way. The inclos-
m ain, however, the aspect of the coun- ing dike once completed, the windmills,
try changed little between r z88 and constructed in the meantime, commenced
r 57 5 Before the beginning of the sev- draining off the water into adjacent wa-
enteenth century there probably was felt terways. These latter were properly
little need of securing additional arable connected with each other to keep up
land; possibly pecuniary difficulties for- the navigation in that section of the
bade the expenditure of the large s ums country and to carry off the water
required for draining the lakes, and pumped out of the lake. Such a sys-
more likely difficulties of a technical tem of communicating waterways and
nature stood in the way. At any rate, canals is collectively known as a
the lakes drained during the fifteenth ' ' bosom,'' and they in their turn dis-
THE DrK ES oF H oLLAND 223

charge the surplus water into the sea at complish this as a rule covers an area
times of low tide, while at times of high equivalent to one-twelfth of the total
tide they are closed by means of locks. area to be drained. Thus the Holland-
Even after the lake had been drained ers not only keep their polders dry, but
the same system was preserved, only provide at the same time ample means
less windmills being required to keep for navigation, the main canals and
the lake bottom dry. ln general, any ditches being from 25 to 40 feet in
section of land artificially drained, and width.
known in the Dutch language as a Before the invention of the steam-
" polder, " has a " bosom " surrounding engine, windmills were exclusively em-
it, into which is delivered by the wind- ployed in the work of draining the
mills all the water that collects in the polders, but as the power of a windmill
polder. The polder, for this reason, is is rather limited, the lift was as a rule
intersected by a network of ditches, care- inconsiderable. In later years, when
fully spaced and graded in such a man- deeper lakes were drained, either steam-
ner as to drain the surplus moisture from engines or series of windmills placed at
the soil and conduct it to the windmills. successive levels had to be resorted to.
The amount ot ditching required to ac- Thus at the time of the reclamation of

Successive Enlargements of Haarlem Lake


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

the Beemster 49 mills were constructed, land, for with the removal of the peat
disposed as follows : 1 r series of 4 mills by the storms the rich alluvial clay un-
each, 1 series of 3 mills, and I series of derlying the latter had been laid bare.
2 mills. The work was commenced in The government has felt itself amply re-
r6o8, when the dike was constructed, paid for the enormous sum of $s.s68,ooo
and the draining begun in 1612. The which was expended on this work. The
cost of this work amounted to $760,000, sale of land yielded a revenue of $3,142-
the total s urface thus reclaimed being Soo, and indirectly a great many incal-
I 7, 720 acres. culable advantages have been derived
from it. (See map on preceding page. )
THE DRAINING OF HAARLEM LAKE The last of the great works of this
class that have been accomplished is the
Since the invention of the steam- reclamation of the Ij , at one time an inlet
engine works of a greater magnitude of the Zuider Zee, and the construction
'"ere entered upon. Prominent among of the large canal connecting Amsterdam
the latter is the draining of the Haarlem with the North Sea. This work was
Lake. Originally there existed in this completed in 1876 and the canal opened
locality four small lakes, as the old maps to navigation on November I of that
of 1531 show us. In consequence of year. Twenty-two square miles of ex-
successive storms, which caused the de- cellent land were thus added to the
struction of the adjacent peat lands, the kingdom. Space does not permit here
four lakes merged into one, and the new of a description of the technical difficul-
lake thus formed became a source of ties that were overcome in the construc-
much anxiety. With the increased sur- tion of this magnificent canal, through
face exposed to the action of the winds, which the largest sea-going vessels now
the waves on the lake became more pass daily on their way to and from
powerful, and large sections of peat land Amsterdam.
were bodily swept away. The four lakes
in r 531 covered an area of 22 square LAND RECLAIMED FROM THE SEA
miles, but their s urface nearly doubled
in IS9I, when they merged together. Next to their use in reclaiming land
In r647 they covered 56 square miles; covered by fresh water, the dikes have
in I687, 6o square miles, and in 1848 , been of great importance in reclaiming
65 square miles, or three times their land from the sea. The province of
original area. When during a storm in Zeeland, which occupies the southwest-
the fall of 1836 the city of Leiden was ern corner of the Netherlands, is com-
flooded by the waters of the lake, the posed of a number of islands, conspic-
situation became untenable and the gov- uous for their fine agricultural lands
ernment decided to drain the lake. and for the thrifty populations which
Between the years r 840 and r 846 the they support. The larger part of this
lake was inclosed by a dike 37 miles in province has been formed by the hand
length. Three powerful engines were of man out of the numerous shoals, clay -
built of from 380 to 400 horse power banks, and sandbanks that existed here
each, the largest one of which operated centuries ago. The archipelago of Zee-
eleven pumps each 63 inches in diameter land, as well as some of the islands sit-
and with a lift exceeding I 5 feet. With uated to the north of it, lie scattered in
the aid of these engines the lake, which the broad estuaries of the principal
averaged 14 feet in depth, was pumped rivers, and are consequently entirely
dry during the years r847 to 1852, ex- alluvial formations. The fine silt car
posing 42,000 acres of excellent arable ried in suspension by the rivers was de-
THE D IKES oF HoLLAND 22 5

ZEELAND ABOUT THE YEAR 1200.

posited, building up the claybanks little The growth of these is lands is an ad-
by little, until they became exposed at mirable illustration of the untiring and
lO\Y water in the sh ape of mudflats. steadfast persistency so characteristic of
A s early as the year IOoo enterpris- the Dutch people ; for t he work of re-
ing individuals had begun to build small claiming land fro m th e capricious North
levees a long the edges of these flats, in Sea was fraught with much danger and
order to prevent the tides from washing tribulation. Again a nd again during
over them , and g radu ally there a rose sever e stonns the sea broke throug h the
from out of this sh allow body of water dikes and invaded the land acquired
a number of islands, the nuclei of the \Yith so much painstaking labor, a nd in
present a rchipelago. As th e banks be- se,eral instances a reas were irrevocabl y
came larger, built u p by the riYer de- lost. It must be remembered that t h is
posits, aided by artificial de,ices fo r land was obtained by draining the water
catching silt, new dikes were built fur- from an exceedingly humid, clay-like
ther out into th e sea, a nd the islands soil. This drying-out process, for such
grew slowly as piece after piece was it r eally was, entailed as a natural res ult
added to them . (See diagrams, p. 226. ) a shrinkage of the solid materials, which
WESTVOORNE:

A.D.J200.

GOEREE
AND

OVERFLAKKEE
A .D . 17.50.

GOEREE
AND

OVERFLAKKEE
A.D . 1880 .

These three Diagrams show the Enlargement of one small Mud Flat
to ten times its original size
THE DIKEs oF HoLLAND 227

in many places has been very consider- It is not within the scope of this paper
able. Lands that were at first at a level to describe the many different kinds of
with tidewater have shrunk in the course dikes in use: their forms vary as circum-
of years from four to seven feet, until stances require, and a lengthy discus-
their level has sunk below that of mean sion of them would lead into endless
low water. When the sea therefore suc- technical details. In brief, the princi-
ceeded in flooding such low areas, the pal features may be described as fol-
possibility of their being reclaimed was lows:
practically forever ended. The shrink- Compared with similar structures else-
age of the soil has manifested itself where, the Holland dikes are noteworthy
throughout Holland wherever clay and for their great width; the river dikes
peat are encountered. It is therefore are built with a crown, usually of from
evident that the level of the land of the r 5 to 20 feet wide, while the common
Holland of today is many feet lower type of the Mississippi levees has only a
than it was at the time of the Romans, crown width of 8 feet, the height being
when the first dike was built. The about the same. The slopes are gentle,
level of the provinces of Zeeland and a common grade on the water side being
Holland ranges between two and six three and a half to one, and on the land
feet below mean high water, while that of side two to one. A characteristic fea-
the drained areas is much lower, reach- ture of the Dutch river dikes is what is
ing a depth in some cases of 20 feet be- technically known as the "banquette,"
low mean high tide. Reclaiming land a sudden widening of the dike near its
from flats in shallow waters has also been base, which serves to reinforce the dike,
practiced in the northern provinces of and is specially designed to insure im-
Friesland and Grouiugen, though not as perviousness where the hydrostatic pres-
extensively as in Zeeland. sure is greatest. The banquettes are
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DUTCH
built on either side of the dike, and vary
DIKES
in width from 10 to 30 feet. The larger
river dikes range in height between 10
The problem of building dikes in a and 16 feet above the adjacent land,
country possessing a soil which offers while the level of their banquettes is 8
so little choice in the way of building feet below the top of the dike.
material as does Holland is to any one The materials used in thelr construc-
but a Dutchman very perplexing. .The tion are sand and clay, and in the case
country has not a single quarry, nor is of the ordinary dikes the water side is
loose rock available; the few woods that rendered impervious by means of a heavy
exist are being preserved with great layer of stiff clay. As a rule, no special
care, and no timber can be cut from preparations are made for the founda-
them for lumbering purposes. All that tions, except where the soil is of a very
the soil of Holland offers is in the form of treacherous character, when fasciue
sand, gravel, and clay, for peat is worse mattresses laid in tiers are used, in very
than useless in construction works ; much the same manner as along the
and not only are the available materials Mississippi. Wherever riprap or stone
poor, but suitable foundations upon revetments are required, as, for instance,
which to erect dikes or, for that matter, on the sea dikes, where the erosive ac-
any structures whatever, are totally ab- tion of the surf is considerable, basalt
sent. This is the problem that bas been blocks brought from Germany are laid
solved by the Dutch engineers through on heavy layers of brush. In many
generations and generations of expe- places piles are driven at the base of the
rience. sea dikes in order to break the violence
228 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

of the breaker-s. N early all masonry in Statistics show that in 1896, 2,519
engineering constructions is of Dutch square miles of polder land were being
brick, which is of a very superior qual- maintained with the aid of 444 steam-
ity. In breakwaters or piers, however, engines and 247 windmills; I, 234 square
concrete blocks are used exclusively, as miles were being maintained with the
neither bricks nor basalt would furnish aid of I, 706 windmills, or in all 2 , 397
a bond strong enough to withstand the pumping plants were required to drain
impact of the waves. 3, 7 53 square miles.
What at one time were natural chan-
ENGINEERING PROBLEMS nels and water-courses have been siuce
inclosed between dikes, and the level of
From a hydrographic point of view, their waters is now higher than that of
the Netherlands present a very unusual the adjacent land. The large rivers
spectacle. While the eastern elevated that flow through these low districts are
portion has a natural topography of its therefore here no longer rivers in the
own, and consequently natural lines of strict sense of the word, as the features
drainage, the western lowlands are de- and problems which they present are
void of all drainage whatever, and every very distinct from those characteristic
drop of rain water that falls, as well as of natural streams. The smaller streams
all seepage water, must either evaporate have in reality ceased to exist as such.
or be pumped up and discharged through For instance, the northern branch of
artificial means into the ocean, if accu- the Rhine, along which general Drusus
mulations and inundations are to be caused a levee to be built, is no longer
prevented . a river; its waters no longer flow; it is

Forest Growth on the Dunes


THE DrKEs OF HoLLAND

The Dunes near Domburg, in the Province of Zeeland

nothing but an artificial channel, held plicated system of dikes and waterways
between embankments and divided into has always been a source of interest to
a series of sections closed by means of technical men in other countries. No
locks. No longer does it empty its haphazard guesses are made as to the
waters into the sea at Katwijk, where amount of water permissible in any par-
the light-house of Caligula once stood ticular waterway, nor as to the height
on an island iu its estuary; but when or size of dikes required. Matters of
the lock-tender at that point has orders this nature are determined with great
to do so, some of its waters are allowed uicety through the accmnulations of
to escape at low tide when it is consid- past experience. As one waterway is
ered perfectly safe. The same condi- frequently made to relieve another and
tion is trtte of the smaller streams of the the number of combinations must be
polder lands. Protected on the sea side varied as circumstances require, a knowl-
by the dunes and dikes and partitioned edge of. the fluctuations in the levels of
off in the interior by an endless array of all bodies of water becon1es paramount.
dikes which skirt the water-courses and In order to supply this information, no
canals, surround polders, and also serve less than I 7 2 gage rods are maintained
as embank1nents to railroads and high- throughout the kingdom along the
ways, Holland partakes much of the coasts, at estuaries, on large rivers, on
nature of a huge ship with water-tight canals, bosoms, and small streams, and.
compartments. a few even are located in foreign coun-
The immense amount of engineering tries, as, for instance, the gage on the
which is required to keep up this com- Rhine River at Cologne, Germany, whi< h
230 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPH IC MAGAZINE

h as been maintained there by the Dutch the Netherlands is about the same as
Government since 1772 . In order to that of the Great Plains region . The
derive the greatest possible use from normal precipitation for the Nether-
the data so obtained, all the gage rods lands, as derived from observations ex-
in the kingdom are referred to the same tending over more than a century, is
baselevel, mean high water , generally about 26 inches per annum, or only 5
denoted by the symbol AP, and the inches more than half of the amount of
heights of water thus indicated by them rain that falls annually in Washington,
give directly the elevation of the water- D. C. ; and , in spite of the reputed
levels with respect to that of mean high moist atmosphere of the Netherlands,
water of the sea. the evaporation during the early sum-
The present k ingdom has an area very mer months exceeds the precipitation.
nearly equal to the combined areas of the
States of Connecticut and New Jersey. Table nf Evaporation and Precipitatio11 .J1om
Observations M ade at Zwaue11burg, ?tear
Connecticut..... 4,990 square miles.
A m sterdam, Duri11.1[ INJ- I 81J. *
New Jersey.. . . . 7,815 square miles.
Netherlands .... 12,738 square miles. Excess-
,._
-. -0
,.-
About 59 per cent of t his area con- Months. E~ ~f i: .:.
o::>. l>g_ "ii,; g_g
zu z., -o
.,.-
"0...
sists of alluvial formation, and is in-
" ~-= ,.-
closed by dikes and provided with arti- <I

ficial drainage. There are, therefore, "" - - - -


- - -----1------ - -
f11clt cs. Inches.
"'
about 7,515 square miles of lowlands, Jauuary .......... . 1.49 0.33 1.16
very nearly equivalent to the area of the Febm ary .. ... .... . I.46 0.57 o.89 ..... .
State of New Jersey, while the remain- March ...... . .... . 1.43 !.37 o.o6 .... . .
ing highlands would cover an area about April . ....... . ... . 1.49 2.39 o.go
May .. . .......... . 1.56 3.26 1 .70
equal to that of the State of Connecticut. June............. . 2.09 374 1.65
The discharge of the Rhine at the point July ............. . 2.69 374 1 .05
where it enters the country is similar to August .. ... . ..... . 2.97 325 0.28
that of the T ennessee River, while the September ....... . 2.82 2.16 0.66
October. ......... . 309 1.24 r. Ss . . . . . .
flow of the Meuse may be compared with Novem ber ....... . 2.76 0.70 2.o6 ..... .
that of the Potomac. December. ... .... . 2.03 0.53 I. 50 . . . . . .

SMALL AVERAGE RAINFALL IN THE Total.. . . . . . 25.88 23.28 8. r8 5.58


NETHERLANDS

As a large part of the Netherlands is In other words, there is a decided dry


d rained artificially, a few words concern- season, during which droughts are by
ing the rainfall will be of interest. The no means uncommon. In order to keep
country enjoys the unenviable reputa- the water in the ditches at the proper
tion of possessing a wet soil and a still level, to prevent plant-growth from s uf-
wetter atmosphere. Both of these attri- fering during such droughts, an efficient
butes are popular exaggerations. The remedy is found in allowing the water
atmosphere of the Netherlands is fre- in surrounding bosoms and canals to r un
quently moist-that is, it contains at back into the polders, and the usual pro-
times a high relative humidity-but the cess of their maintenance is thus actu-
rainfall nevertheless is moderate, not to ally reversed.
say small. As compared with the United The polder lands known as Rijnland,
States, it will be found that the amount *From A. A. Beekman, Nederlmzd ats Pol-
of precipitation that occurs annually in derla11d, p. 1 00.
THE DIKES oF HoLLAND 231

an area of 417 square miles, it is esti- of the rainfall throughout the year.
mated consume annually no less than go The lack of ample precipitation is thus
millions of cubic meters of water from more than offset by the humid condi-
adjacent rivers. tion of the soil, wbich makes aridity
The climate of the Netherlands pre- impossible.
sents therefore an interesting anomaly. After reviewing all the difficulties and
In spite of its small rainfall it does not perils with which the Hollander bas
exhibit any of the characteristic features bad to contend in the building up of his
of a semi-arid country, with the excep- country, it at first sight appears strange
tion of some sandy, barren areas which that he shonld ever give up any portion
are incapable of prodncing anything of his valuable lands to the dangerous
and are actnally to be classed as desert element that be has for centuries fought
so desperately. But as in the course of
Locltfy J r .. .. J J .. s 0 N 0
the history of every nation it sometimes
AWSTEftOAII
p.,.,od :
y.ars
.
5

j
becomes necessary that the welfare of
one or more individuals should be sacri-
Norm I :
Z&.G lncMs .
I I
I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I
.II II~ '
1
o
ficed for the good of the country or of
the world at large, so there are times
when the people of the Netherlands do
OMAHA
~rtod :
27 rrs
.
J
not hesitate to cause large areas of land
to be inundated in order to save what
I I I is dearer and more valuable. Recourse
Normal ,
I I I
is bad to such practice during the season
31A Inches
I
I I I I I I I I I ' of high waters on the rivers and also
SACRAMNTO
Pt.rlod.
<47 yNrs
.
5

J
during times of war.

Normol . I I 2 MEANS OF PROTECTION AGAINST


).4.8 u\Chs I I I I I FLOOD DISCHARGES
I I I I I 0

The rivers that flow through the


-
WASHINGTON
Period ~ Netherlands, like most streams of the
41 tts
No,.,nal :
I I I I I northern hemisphere that flow in a
2..9 lnehes I I I I I I , northerly direction, are subject during
I I I II_I_ 0 the early spring months to ice jams and
sudden flood discharges along their
lands. Though an equal annual rain- lower courses-a condition well nigh
fall in the Great Plains region is not inevitable, as their waters flow from a
s ufficient to produce forest growth , the warmer to a colder climate. In the
Netherlands were practically entirely Netherlands the Rhine, owing to the
forest-clad at a period not so very re- many channels into which it divides, can
mote, and probably would be so now be controlled with far greater security
but for the deforestation which has n at - than the Meuse, which, though a much
urally attended its settlement. This smaller river, bas a greater fall, and in
anomaly is easily explained by three fac- its narrow, tortuous bed becomes when
tors : the consistency of the Dutch soil, swollen a source of great danger, threat-
which renders it capable of absor bing ening to overtop its dikes. Sandbags
and holding large quantities of water; and the many other devices employed
the inexhaustible perennial streams and so extensively in similar cases of emer-
other bodies of water that feed it, and gency along the Mississippi levees are
last, but not least, the even distribution then used, but the most efficient relief
232 TH E NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

Pile Dikes for Protection against Marine Erosion

is afforded by allowing the swollen river deprived at some point along its course
to discharge a large part of its burden of a large share of its burden the natural
into the adjacent country. This is ef- consequence is a lessening of the cur-
fected by pr oviding at suitable points rent below such a point and the deposit-
low dikes over which the water will. run ing of a vast amottnt of sediment. Not
on reaching the danger line. These low only is this deposition of sediment at a
dikes or weirs, known in Dutch as time when the river transports a max-
' ' overlaten,'' might well be compared to imum amount a very serious evil, but
safety-valves. Their location is chosen the slackening of the current also offers
in such a manner that the water dis- most favorable conditions for the for-
charged into the open country will do mation of ice jams. During the past
comparatively little harm, and, being years all the overlaten have been abol-
confined by dikes especially designed ished with the exception of one on the
for that purpose, is made to find its way Meuse, known as the Beerse Overlaat,
to some low point farther down the which exceeds two miles in length and
river or near the latter's mouth. has been known to discharge with a
Overlaten existed many years ago on head of three feet during severe :floods,
all the large rivers, and although their the river at such times being relieved of
use has saved the country much damage more than a third of its total :flow. The
and expense, it has proved a serious e..-il policy at present is to increase the ca-
in another way. It is obvious that pacity of the river channels by deepen
whenever a river at the flood stage is ing and widening the mouths, and in-
.PLOCJ.O CHA~I7'.
CONDITION Or HOI-LAJ\TL) W7T//Ol.IT DfKh~")

01/RING MeAN '(1611 TIO


ANO HIGHEST STAGE: OF TH RIVERS
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

creasing their fall by regulating and for flooding, which forms part of the
dredging their beds. The amount of military defenses of the lower provinces.
dredging annually by the government Lands to be flooded are provided with
and by private parties reaches a very special gage rods or bench-marks indi-
considerable figure. Nearly all of the cating the depth of water required in
sand and gravel used in dike-construc- order to be effective. Special gates have
tion is obtained from the river bottoms been constructed in the dikes where
by dredging. water is to be turned onto the land, in
order to avoid the slow and undesirable
THE DIKES A SYSTEM OF NATIONAL process of piercing dikes. The amount
DEFENSE of water that is to be drawn for such
purposes from bosoms and canals, the
In conclusion, a word should be said discharge that is to pass the gates in a
about the practice of inundating lands given time, and the ultimate time re-
for defensive purposes. The efforts of quired to flood a particular area to a
the Dutch to flood their country, as de- certain depth are quantities that have
scribed in Motley' s Rise and Fall if the been determined for each section of land
Dutclt Republic, and later again in 1672, with a nicety which no one can fail to
at the time of the war with France, are appreciate who is familiar with hydrau-
well known to those familiar with the lic computations of the flow of water in
history of the Netherlands. The meth- open channels and through orifices.
ods employed in those days were not as There are at present about r ,ooo miles
successful as they might have been, and of sea dikes in the Netherlands. The
the blunders that were committed would total length of dikes is difficult to esti-
nave led to disastrous results but for the mate, and even if it could be estimated
greater ignorance displayed by the at- would mean but little, for it must be re-
tacking party. Thus, in r672 , the membered that the dikes have for the
French army of invasion could not be most part in the course of time been de-
prevented from draining some of the stroyed and rebuilt repeatedly. It has
inundated lands, although their lack of not been so much a question of building
knowledge of the complicated situation them as it has been of maintaining them
did not permit them to succeed at the and keeping them where they were.
time. When cold weather set in the Besides protecting the country from the
manipulation of the water by the Dutch invasions of both fresh and salt waters,
was so defective that large areas were the dikes have senred to reclaim no less
allowed to freeze over, and the enemy than 210,000 acres, nearly all of which
was actually enabled to execute move- are good, fertile land. It is to be hoped
ments on the ice. that the stupendous project of reclaim-
The enormous strength of defensive ing the Zuider Zee will some day be car-
works of this class was, however, amply ried into effect, whereby there would
proved and the Government at the pres- be added to the kingdom some half
ent day has provided an elaborate system million acres of land.
MEXICO OF TODAY*

BY SENOR DR. DoN JuAN N. NAvARRO, CoNSUL-GENERAL oF

MEXICO I N NEW YoRK CITY

HANKS to intelligence and hon- For a new post-office in the capital

T esty in the administration of our


finances, the continual annual
deficit that formerly afflicted Mexico, as
it afflicts at present other nations, dis-
and for the post-offices of Vera
Cruz and Puebla. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f,r ,ooo,ooo
For a cable between the peninsula
of California and the coast of So-
nora....................... .. .. 300,000
For the Navy Department........ r ,ooo,ooo
appeared in the fiscal year 1894-'95, and
in its stead we have since had a surplus. Total. ................... .. $4,000,000
The surplus in that year was $2,373,-
43442, and in the following year more To prove the financial credit of Mex-
than doubled, rising to $5.451,34729. ico in the world, I will mention the con-
These results are the more surprising version of our public debt from an inter-
when it is remembered that a good part est rate of 6 per cent into another of 5
of our revenue is derived from import per cent. The contract for this opera-
duties, and it might be supposed that tion, executed personally by our intel-
the rapid development and progress of ligent minister of finance, and involving
our industries would diminish that a loan of 22,7oo,ooopounds, wassigned
source of revenue. in Berlin by different banking-houses
The invoice value of our imports from that city, London, New York, and
for 1896-'97 was $42,204,095 in gold . the national bank of Mexico, on July I,
Three years later, in r 899-1900, they r 8gg. The conditions were as favorable
had increased by nearly one-half, reach- as could be offered to any nation of well-
ing $6r,JI8,I75 The invoice value of established credit, and in the short time
ourexports(in silver) amounted to$86,- open for subscriptions the public of Lon-
058,2w in 1892-'93, to $104,741,443 in don, Amsterdam, New York, and Berlin
1896-'97, and to $142,6I5,070 in r8gg- subscribed for nearly twenty millions
I goo. The value of gold exported from of pounds instead of for the IJ,ooo,ooo
Mexico in 1892-'93 was$I.45r,o rr , and offered in the markets of those cities.
during the next seven years increased The advantages for our treasury are not
many fold, reaching $7,441,290 in rSgg- only the reduction of the disbursements
1900. for interest, a reduction amounting an-
At the end of the fiscal year r 898- ' 99 nually to more than $r,8oo,ooo, but the
the federal treasury had a surplus in reentry into the treasury of values mort-
cash of $27,535,602.62. Because of this gaged before as securities.
prosperous condition of the treasury the To give the last proof of the credit of
taxes were reduced, and a part of the Mexico, I will add that the bonds of the
funds were applied to branches of public new loan began to be sold above par only
service: a few months after they were issued.
For building primary schools in the The laws issued by the department on
federal d istrict and for the corre- institutions of credit have produced good
sponding departments .......... $r,ooo,ooo effects and in November last we had r8
To finish the general hospital. . . . . soo,ooo banks 'of emission, with a paid-up capi-
For the building of the medical and
geological institutes . . . . . . . . . . . :zoo,ooo tal of $52,900,000, and with notes in

*Concluded from the May number.


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

circulation to the value of $65,897,100. ing a balance in her left hand and a
Recently, on acco unt of the war in sword in the right, and unfortunately,
China and the Prulippine I slands, many but trul y, she is obliged to use the sword
millions of Mexican dollars have been more than the balance.
exported , producing a certain stringency Armies at the beginning and the mid-
in the Mexican money market. The dle of the last century were in many
evil is not great , and it will disappear cases bodies of men with interests and
totally, owing to the opportune meas- exigencies opposite to those of t he na-
u res taken by the government and the tion's supporting them.
prudent and conservative policy of the In our times good armies must be
banks. bodies of armed men, t aught not only
A few words now about our War and military exercises, but to know that the
Navy Departments. law is superior to everything; that they
I admire the peace congresses, the form a part of the nation of whom they
anti-war speeches and sermons, but my are servants and not masters. Every
opin ion is that those well-intentioned citizen must be a soldier, because every
persons lose their time, as there will citizen bas the ineludible duty of k eep-
always be war , because we cannot change ing peace and order in the interior and
the intimate nature of mankind , and repelling the foreign invader. That, it
uni,ersal and perpetual peace is a mathe- seems to me, is the only way of fonning
matical limit, to which mankind can and keeping an army, especially in a
approach but never touch , as then hu- country ruled by republican institutions.
manity would cease to be what it is. In Mexico experience has conclu-
The barbarism of war, the injustices sively shown that officers and even sol-
and atrocities inseparable from it, are diers cannot be improvised, and the very
truths within the knowledge of ever y first care of General Diaz has been to
civilized man ; but as long as there will establish a good sch ool for instructing
be human passions, as long as there scientific officers. The military school
will be a great difference of strength of Chapultepec in its actual condition is
among nations, there will be war. I the fruit of his efforts. Many foreign
think that there is a practical and effi- officers of different nationalities h ave
cient method, if not to extinguish what visited that establishment and believe
is an impossibility, at least to make in- that it ranks among the first in the
ternationa l wars very rare, and that is to comprehensiveness and perfection of
invent something equalizing as much as military instruction there imparted and
possible the s trength of the different in the severe but just discipline to which
peoples, leveling to the g reatest possible the cadets are s ubjected.
extent the weak with the strong. The From that institution are graduated
invention of dynamite and other explo- all the officers of our army, and new
sives, the g reat improvements in hand rules have been recently issued to pre-
arms and in the artillery, under equality vent the abuse committed by some per-
of circumstances favor more the defense sons who go there to receive a good and
than the attack, and are therefore in gratuitous education without any inten-
favor of the weak, and are producing tion of serving in the national army .
in favor of peace and justice an excell en t In the capital and in many other
and practical effect. I say justice, be- places commodious barracks, affording
cause in the majority of cases justice is comfort and good hygienic conditions
on the weak side. to the soldiers, h ave been constructed
An army is a necessity. Justice is or a re in the course of construction.
represented by the image of a girl hav- The soldiers are armed with weapons
MExico oF ToDAY 2 37
pronounced to be the best by technical is rendering invaluable services. Little
commissions after long, conscientious, by little the number and size of our war
and severe trials, and our artillery in- vessels will be increased, as our govern-
cludes some pieces of a system invented ment never loses sight of that in1portant
by one of its best officers, Colonel branch of national defense.
Mondragon. To conclude, Mexico is a country
The cavalry is composed of excellent endowed with many natural gifts, ruled
riders, very easy to find in Mexico, and by a wise government and republican in-
provided with horses selected expressly stitutions equal to the United States in
for military service. essential points, inhabited by 14,000,ooo
The barracks are not as before:-places intelligent, peaceful, and industrious
for keeping the soldiers-but schools people, remarkable for their natural cour-
where reading, writing, and elementary tesy and hospitality, which is extended
arithmetic and different trades are to all without distinction of nationality.
taught. The troops are subject to the Mexico cultivates friendly relations
striCtest discipline, but at the same time with the whole civilized world, and is in
the inferior has always within his reach the most intimate intercourse with the
the means to redress an injustice or to Government and people of the United
prevent or have punished an ill-treat- States.
ment from his superior. The military The governors of the States, into
code has been one of the works to which which the Republic is divided, cooperate
the government has particularly di- intelligently with the federal authorities
rected its attention, to put it in perfect to establish and maintain all moral and
harmony with justice and the republi- material improvements.
can institutions ruling the count ry. There is a complete and constantly
The ambulance and hospital branch re- improving system of public education,
ceives continual additions to its equip- uniform in the country, which is mak-
ment, and is formed from many of the ing education compulsory and gratui-
best surgeons and physicians. Expe- tous, and the schools, nearly 13,000, are
rience has proved its efficiency. There attended by numerous pupils, and the
are officers selected by the government extension of elementary knowledge to
studying in foreign countries, and their the lowest classes of our people is the
observations are applied to the improve- best proof of the methods employed.
ment of our army. Industry in all its branches is growing
Very recently the government has at a worderful pace, and the number of
issued a decree for the reorganization of manufactories is in constant progress
the army, with the object of keeping in and their products are of a high grade.
active service the same number of troops The means of communication are
we have now, but of supplying the means numerous, there being in actual opera-
to increase that force to the extent of tion more than 9,000 miles of excellent
some hundreds of thousands in time of railroads, and more than 6r ,ooo miles of
necessity, and adding as a reserve the telegraphic and telephonic lines, and
whole nation in the case of a foreign different submarine cables for communi-
invasion. cation with every civilized nation.
Our navy is in its infancy, but the The national and international postal
flotilla we have around Yucatan to pro- system is now very good and growing
vision the land troops and to cooperate continually to a degree of great perfec-
with them and to subdue those of the tion.
Maya Indians who refuse to obey the The national treasury is in a flourish-
laws regulating a civilized community ing condition, and we Mexicans can say
THE NATIONAL GEOGR APHIC MAGAZINE

with pride that it is administered with scientific officers, are preparing for their
consummate ability and perfect honesty. future and unknown invaders some little
Finally, we are in perfect peace, and s urprises probably beyond the expecta-
there is not a single cloud on our po- tion of the attacking party.
litical horizon , and therefore it is the I have lived in your powerful and in-
time to form upon solid foundations our teresting country for more than thirty-
army and military institutions, following :>even years, receiving uninterrupted
the old Roman maxim, as true today as proofs from the authorities and people of
in the times of Cresar, '' In time of peace esteem and consideration , and I avail
prepare for war.'' myself of this occasion to make manifest
The Mexican people have fought for my heartfelt thanks for so much kind-
their independence against great odds, ness.
with poor anns, without a cent, and hav- May your Republic be always pros-
ing scarcely the necessary food to main- perous, guided by the sublime maxims
tain life, and have fought incessantly of its ilnmortal and virtuous founder,
till they have come out victorious. That who condensed all his wise advice to his
same people, well armed, with abundant people in those five words of et ernal
pecuniary resources, and guided by good truth, " Justice is the best policy. "

SIR JOHN MURRAY


IR J OHN MURRAY has recently appointed to prepare the scientific results

S returned from a six months' ex-


pedition to Christmas Island, a
tiny isle 200 miles south of Java, and
has thus added one more to his many
for publication, and in r 882, owing to
the failing health of Sir C. Wyville
Thomson, he was appointed editor of the
''Challenger Reports.'' These ''Official
interesting explorations. Sir John was Reports on the Scientific Res ults of the
born in Coburg, Ontario, Canada, on Voyage of H. M. S. ChaLlenger" filled
March 3, r841. H e received his early fifty large royal quarto volumes, and
education at a public school in London , were published at intervals as ready, the
Ontario, and at the Victoria College, first volume appearing in 1880 and the
Coburg, Ontario ; but when a youth he final ,-olumes in 1895 . Besides editing
removed to Scotland, where his educa- nearly the whole series, Sir John Murray
tion was continued at the High School was joint-author of the "Narrative of
of Stirling and at the University of the Cruise '! and of the ' ' Report on the
Edinburgh. Deep-Sea Deposits,'' and author of a
In 1868 be took a voyage in an Arctic ''Summary of the Scientific Results, '' in
whaler to Spitzbergen and other places t wo volun1es. The British Government
in the Arctic regions. In 1872 he was has presented copies of these reports to
appoil1ted as naturalist on the civilian scientific institutions and learned socie-
scientific staff of the Clzallenger Expedi- ties in all quarters of the globe.
tion, and in that capacity accompanied In addition to superintending the
H. M.S. Challenger during her scientific work of publishmg the '' Challenger
circumnavigating cruise from 1872 to Reports, " he h as during the past thirty
1876. On the return of the expedition years published a large number of
he became first assistant, under Sir C. papers on oceanographical, geograph-
Wyville Thomson, on the commission ical, geological, and other s ubjects,
Sir John Murray
240 THE I' ATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

many of them of great interest and Granton, near Edinburgh, and at Mill-
scientific value, in whic:h he has ex- port, on the island of Cumbrae, in the
pressed some novel and ingenious ideas Firth of Clyde, as well as in the founda-
respecting the past and present condi- tion of the meteorological observatories
tion of our planet. on the summit and at the foot of Ben
In 188o Sir John Murray took part in Nevis, the highest mountain in Scotland.
a scientific exploration of the Faroe Christmas Island was. added by Eng-
Channel, between the north coast of Scot- land to the colony of the Straits Settle-
land and the Faroe Islands, in H. M.S. ments in I889, and is some I 2 miles
Kuig Itt Errant, and again in 1882, in long by seven broad. It has rich phos-
the same region, in H. M. S. Ti ilon. phate deposits, which are worked by an
He was for several years scientific mem- English company. The works give em-
ber of the Fishery Board for Scotland , ployment to about 700 coolies and a
and in 1899 he was appointed a delegate score of whites, but is believed never to
of the British Government at the Inter- have been inhabited prior to the English
national Fisheries Conference at Stock- annexation.
holm. He also acted as president of the In recognition of his scientific work
Geographical Section of the British Sir John Murray bas been awarded the
Association for the Advancement of Cmier prize of the Institute de France,
Science, Dover, I 899. the Humboldt medal of the Gesellschaft
During eight or ten years he was en- fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, the Royal
gaged in a bathymetrical and biolog- medal of the Royal Society, the Found-
ical survey of the coast of Scotland in er's medal of the Royal Geographical
his small steam yacht, the Medusa , in Society, the Keith and the Makdougall-
which work he was assisted by many Brisbane medals of the Royal Society of
scientists. He has also taken an active Edinburgh and the Cullum medal of the
part in the foundation of marine stations National Geographic Society of Wash-
for physical and biological research at ington.

GEOGRAPHIC NOTES
POPULATION OF UNITED KINGDOM only 5 3 per cent, which is little more
than one-half the rate of decrease of the
ORTY-ONE and one-half millions preceding decade. The census figures
F of people are now crowded into
the United Kingdom. A similar den-
are thus very gratifying to Englishmen,
for they show no signs of diminishing
sity of population in the United States national vitality, but rather tend to show
would mean a total population in this increasing national virility. It is yet
country, excluding the dependencies, of too soon to give exact percentages of
about I ,o36,ooo,ooo. the relative growth of the urban and
For the last ten years England and rural districts, but what figures have
Wales show a rate of increase of I :z. r5 been given show a most marked increase
per cent, which slightly exceeds their in city populations.
rate of growth for the preceding decade, The population of England and Wales
11.65 per cent; Scotland, a rate of in- is now 32,52s ,8 r6, of Ireland 4.456,546,
crease of Io.8 per cent, also a greater and of Scotland 4.471,957, making a
increase than during the preceding dec- total population for the United King-
ade, and Ireland a rate of decrease of dom of 41,454,219.
GEOGRAPHIC NOTES

POPULATION OF AUSTRALIA AND Alaska, Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Phil-
NEW ZEALAND ippines. In other words, the center is
beneath the intersection of the 36th

T H E recent census of Australia, ac-


cording to cabled reports, shows
that the population of this great confed-
parallel with the 87th meridian.
In computing this center of popula-
tion it is necessary to regard the earth
eration has increased about 16.9 per cent as a sphere rather than a plane surface,
in the last ten years, or 514,000 in round for Porto Rico and the Philippines are
numbers, which exceeds the rate of nearly half the earth's circumference
growth of England, but falls much be- apart.
hind that of the United States. The But if Alaska and the recent territo-
present population of the island conti- rial acquisitions be disregarded, the
nent is 4,sso,6sr as against 4,0J6,570 in center of population of the United States
r891. Apparently the Alistralians are is six miles southeast of Columbus, in
spreading out more, for all the cities ex- Bartholomew County, Indiana. In the
cept Sydney show a less comparative ten years preceding June r, 1900, the
increase than the country districts. Mel- center of population has thus moved
bourne, for instance, since 1891 has added westward 14 miles and southward two
only 3,000 to her inhabitants and now and one-half Iniles, the smallest move-
numbers 493,956. Sydney ten years ment ever noted by the Census Bureau.
ago had a population of about 38s,ooo, It shows the population of the West-
but the city bas grown very rapidly and ern States has not increased as rapidly
now is only a few thousand behind Mel- as in former decades. The southward
bourne. Victoria has given way to New movement is due largely to the great in-
South Wales as the most populous col- crease in the population of Indian Ter-
ony, though the former is still the most ritory, Oklahoma, and Texas, and the
densely populated. Victoria has a pres- decreased westward movement to the
ent popula tion of about r,196,ooo, and large increase in the population of the
New South Wales of 1,362,232 . North Atlantic States.
New Zealand has added 146,000 white The center of area of the United
persons to her population, so that today States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii
there are 773,000 white people within and other recent accessions, is in north-
her borders. Her rate of growth for the ern Kansas. The center of population,
preceding decade is thus 23 per -cent, therefore, is about three-fourths of a
which would tend to show that her rad- degree south and more than 13 degrees
ical social laws attract immigrants, not- east of the center of area.
withstanding the very high per capita
debt of the government. Including the SERVIA
Maori, the population of New Zealand
is 8r6,ooo. HE little kingdom of Servia, the

THE CENTER OF POPULATION OF


T actions of whose monarch and his
consort have aroused so much comment
THE UNITED STATES during the past year, is about the size
of the S tates of New Hampshire and
POINT in the interior of the earth Vermont combined. Surrounded on all
A 6oo miles beneath the city of
Nashville, Tenn., bas been computed by
sides by foes or wueliable friends-Bul-
garia on the east, Turkey on the south,
Mr. Henry Gannett as approximately Roumania and Austro-Hungary on the
the center of population of the United north and west- its life since it became
States and its dependencies, including a semi-independent nation has been a
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

hard one, especially as it has not known GEOGRAPHIC NAMES


how to protect itself against attacks
which its own deceitful arrogance has
aroused.
_The country is mountainous and hilly,
T HE following decisions were made
by the U. S. Board on Geographic
names May I, 1901:
Without any of the mountains, however, Goose; point, Chincoteague Bay, Wor-
attaining great height. Mt. Midzur, on cester County, Maryland (not
the eastern boundary, with a height of Clam) .
7,106 feet, overtops all others in the Hardship; branch of Pocomoke River
kingdom. The mountains of Servia are Worcester County, Maryland ( not
the ramifications of four systems which Hardshi ft) .
invade the kingdom from different di- Long; point, Chincoteague Bay, Acco-
rections. One branch comes from the mac Conn ty, Virginia ( not Bodkin ) .
east from Bulgaria, a second from the Nofat; mountain between Buncombe
southeast from Macedonia, a third from and Madison counties, North Caro-
the south from Albania, and the fourth . lina (_not No Fat nor No-fat).
from the west from Montenegro. Rivers, Ricks; pomt, Chincoteague Bay. Wor-
streams, and rivulets, all flowing in dif- cester County, Mary land ( not Rich
ferent directions, still further subdivide Rich's, nor Rick's). '
the country, but between the mountains Robin; creek and marsh, Chincoteague
and along the large rivers are rich and Bay, Worcester County, Maryland
fertile sloping valleys and plains. Two (not Robbins, Robins, nor Robin's).
and one-quarter millions of people culti- Rocka~alking ; creek, post-office, and
vate all the available land. Servia is railroad station, Wicomico County,
distinctly an agricultural country ; 83.6 Maryland (not Rock-a-walkin ).
per cent of her people till the soil, and Scarboro ; creek and railroad station
about 85 per cent in value of her exports Worcester County, Maryland ( not
are cattle and agricultural products. Scarborough's) .
The climate is temperate and depend- Seeley; creek, Sauk County, Wisconsin
ent on the winds, which, on the whole, (not Seely ).
are constant from the northwest and *Smoke; creek, south of Buffalo, Erie
northeast during the winter and from County , New York (not Smokes) .
the west and southwest during summer. Tay!orville; village, Worcester Cou 11 ty,
A temperature of about25.2 Fahr. dur- Maryland ( not Taylor nor Taylors-
ing winter and 69.98 o during summer is ville).
the normal. Tilban_ce:. ~eek, Berkeley County, W est
Twenty-five_ years ago, in 1876, Servia VIrguna ( not Tilabanchee, Tilchan-
was clothed with forests, and was aptly cos, Tilebance, Tillehances, etc.).
termed "the land of the forest:" but Whittington; point, Chincoteague Bay,
the Servian-Turco trouble of 1876'-78 Worcester County, Maryland ( not
played havoc with the forests. Thou- Willington's).
sands of acres were stripped of trees in
order to serve for fortifications or to bar PREHISTORIC SURGERY
the advance of the Turkish army or to
N item going the rounds of the
warm the great masses of troops that
camped on the land during two winters. A press relates to theM u.iiiz collection
of trephined crania from Peru, exhibited
The war was followed by a period of
ruthless destruction of the forests, vast at the Pan-American Exposition by W J
tracts being sold at a ridiculous price or *Erroneously given in May number of this
denuded to supply the railroads. Magazine, p. 2or, as in Pennsylvania.
GEOGRAPH.fC NOTES

McGee. The collection comprises 19 in impenetrated blocks of from 25,000 to


crania, of which several were trephined 100,000 square miles-that is, areas as
more than once. The trephined skulls large as the States of Ohio, Kansas, or
were selected from a collection of 1 ,ooo New England are yet a secret to white
made by the late Dr. Manuel A . Muiiiz man.
in pre-Columbian, and probably pre- Beginning at the extreme northwest
lucan, cemeteries in different portions of the Dominion, the first of these areas
of Peru ; and they are of interest as is between the eastern boundary of
showing that this major surgical oper- Alaska, the Porcupine River, and the
ation was more common among the Arctic coast , about 9,5oosquare miles in
aborigines of South America than in extent, or somewhat smaller than Bel-
the most highly advanced nations of gium, and lying entirely within the
today. Arctic Circle. The next is west of the
The ratio of trephined crania is just Lewes and Yukon Rivers.and extends to
below two per cent ; but since one speci- the boundary of Alaska. Until last year
men shows three operations and two 32,000 square miles in this area were
others three each, the ratio of trephin- unexplored, but a part has since been
ing to population indicated by the col- traveled. A third area of 27,000 square
lection is nearly two and one-half per miles-nearly twice as large as Scot-
cent. The technic of the operation was land-lies between the Lewes, Felly, and
critically studied by McGee, and de- Stikine Rivers. Between the Felly and
scribed in a recent report of the Bureau Mackenzie Rivers is another large tract
of American Ethnology. It would ap- of roo,ooo square miles, or about double
pear from his researches that the opera- the size of England. It includes nearly
tion was not therapeutic in the ordinary 6oo Iniles of the main Rocky Mountain
sense of the term, but was thaumaturgic range. An unexplored area of 50,000
and closely allied to the so-called '' medi- square miles is found between Great
cine " of various tribes, in which the Bear Lake and the Arctic coast, being
treatment consists of occult ceremonies nearly all to the north of the Arctic
a nd skillful j ugglery by the shamans. Circle.
Nearly as large as Portugal is another
tract between Great Bear Lake, the
UNEXPLORED CANADA Mackenzie River, and the western part
of Great Slave L ake,in al135,000 square
NE-THIRD of the area of Canada miles. Lying between Stikine and Laird
0 is practically unknown , states the
Director of the Geological Survey of the
Rivers to the north and the Skeena and
Peace Rivers to the south is an area of
Dominion in his last report. 81,000 square miles, which, except for
There are more than 1, 250,000 square a recent visit by a field party, is quite
miles of unexplored lands in Canada. unexplored. Of the 35,000 square miles
The entire area of the Dominion is com- southeast of Athabasca Lake, little is
puted at 3,450,257 square miles ; conse- known, except that it has been crossed
quently one-third of this country has yet by a field party en route to Fort Church-
been untraveled by the explorer. Ex- ill. East of the Coppermine River and
clusive of the inhospitable detached west of Bathurst Inlet lies 7, 500 miles of
Arctic portions, 954,000 square miles is unexplored land , which may be com-
for all practical purposes entirely un- pared to half the size of Switzerland.
known. Eastward from this, lying between th
Most of this unknown area is distrib- Arctic coast and Blacks River, is a
uted in the western half of the Dominion area of 31 ,ooo square miles, or aboL
THE NATIONAL GEoGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

equal to Ireland. Much larger than GEOGRAPHIC PROGRESS IN SOUTH


Great Britain and Ireland, and embrac- AMERICA
ing 178,000 square miles, is the region
bounded by Blacks River, Great S lave
Lake, Athabasca Lake, Hatchet and
Reindeer Lakes, Churchill River, and
T HE governments of the South
American Republics are begin-
ning to make an effort to obtain a better
the west coast of Hudson Bay. This knowledge of their vast territories. One
country includes the banen grounds of hundred years ago South America, next
the continent. Mr. J. B. Tyrell re- to Europe, was the most accurately
cently struck through this country on his known of the continents. Today it is
trip to Fort Churchill, on the Churchill the least known of them all, so rapid
River, but could only make a prelim- has been geographic progress elsewhere
inary exploration. On the south coast and so tardy in South America.
of Hudson Bay, between the Severn and The government of Bolivia has re-
Attawapishkat Rivers, is an area 22,000 cently taken steps to obtain a complete
square miles in extent, or larger than survey of the country. A Paris firm
Nova Scotia, and lying between Trout has engaged to immediately survey and
Lake, Lac Seul, and the Albany River map 40,000 square kilometers and to lay
is another rs,ooo square miles of unex- off a triangulation which will enable a
plored land. South and east of J ames com plete trigonometrical survey of the
Bay and nearer to large centers of pop- country to be made. Bolivia has also
ulation than any other unexplored re- arranged with Paraguay for a joint com-
gion is a tract of 35,000 square miles, mission to trace and mark the boundary
which may be compared in size to between the two nations. A joint com-
Portugal. mission with Brazil several months ago
The most easterly area is the greatest eommenced surveying the Bolivian-Bra-
of all. It comprises almost the entire zilian line. A school of mines has also
interior of the Labrador Peninsula or been established by the Bolivian Gov-
Northwest Territory, in all 289,000 ernment to train and encourage its own
square miles , or more than twice as people to the development of its mineral
much as Great Britain and Ireland. resources.
Two or three years ago Mr. A . P . Lowe
made a line of exploration and survey COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF THE
into the interior of this vast region, and UNITED STATES
the same gentleman also traveled inland
up the Hamilton River, but with these
exceptions the country may be regarded
as practically unex plored.
T HE Bureau of Foreign Commerce
of the Department of State has
issued its report on the commercial rela-
The Arctic islands will add an area of tions of the United States for 1900. The
several hundred thousand square miles introduction, by the chief of the Bureau,
of unexwored land. Frederic Emory, contains several perti-
The government during the past year nent pages on the present ascendency of
has made a great effort in the direction the United States:
of exploring and developing this vast ' 'Lord Rosebery is quoted by cable as
territory. It has recognized the fact having said in a speech before a British
that railroads are essential to the devel- chamber of commerce January r6, 1901 ,
opment of a new country, and liberal that the chief rivals to be feared by
inducements for their construction are Great Britain ' are America and Ger-
made by granting millions of acres of many. The alertness of the Americans, '
land as a bonus. he continued, ' their incalculable natural
GEOGRAPHIC NOTES

resources, their acuteness, their enter- of profit. The question is larger because
prise, their vast population, which will it has a more direct and more general
in all probability within the next twenty bearing upon the economic and social
years reach Ioo,ooo,ooo, make them life of the nation; upon the interests,
very formidable competitors with our- real or imagined, of the whole body
selves. And with the Germans, their politic. We have to do with it here
slow, but sure, persistency, their scien- only because of its relation to and pos-
tific methods, and their conquering sible effect upon our foreign trade, and
spirit, devoted as these qualities are at it is interesting to know that so thought-
tllis moment to preparation for trade ful an observer as Lord Rosebery per-
warfare, make them also, in my judg- ceives in the simplification of the use of
ment, little less redoubtable than the capital in the United States which is go-
Americans. There is one feature of the ing on-it may be said experimentally,
American competition which seems to to a large extent, as yet-a tremendous
me especially formidable, and as I have power in the commercial rivalry of the
not seen it largely noticed, perhaps you world.
will excuse me for calling attention to it. "Germany, as well as Great Britain,
We are daily reminded of the gigantic seems full y sensible of the seriousness of
fortunes which are accumulated in American competition. In a recent issue
America, fortunes to which nothing in the Hamburger Fremdmblatt points out
this country bears any relation what- that the United States, which ten years
ever, and which in themselves constitute ago exported more than 8o per cent of
an enormous commercial force. The agricultural products and less than a
Americans, as it appears, are scarcely fifth of manufactured goods, todaydraws
satisfied with these individual fortunes, nearly a third of its entire export from
but use them, by combination in trusts, the products of its factories. ' In other
to make a capital and a power which, words, the Union is marching with gi-
wielded as 1t is by one or two minds, is gantic strides toward conversion from
almost irresistible, and that, as it seems to an agricultural to an industrial nation.'
me, if concentrated upon Great Britain Does not the rapid increase of the United
as an engine in the trade warfare is a States in the value of industrial ex-
danger which we cannot affore to disre- ports, the Fremdenblatt asks, 'constitute
gard. Suppose a trust of many millions, an imminent danger for all competing
of a few men combined so to compete nations?'
with any trade in this country by un- '' The Fremdenblatt' s conclusion is
derselling all its products, even at a con - that Europe 'must fight Americanism
siderable loss to themselves, and we can with its own methods ; the battle must
see in that what are the possibilities of be fought with their weapons, and
the commercial outcome of the imme- wherever possible their weapons must
diate future.' be bettered and improved by us ; or,
'' It has been evident for some time to speak with other and more practical
that the United States, not content with words, Germany-Europe-must adopt
having solved that part of the problem improved and progressive methods in
of economy of production which relates every department of industry, must use
to processes of manufacture and the util- more and more effective machinery.
ization of labor, has been drifting in- Manufacturers as well as merchants
stinctively toward the larger question of must go to America, send thither their
the concentration of capital as the logical assistants and workingmen, not merely
development of the same general idea of to superficially observe the methods
reducing cost and increasing the margin there employed, but to study them thor-
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZIN

ougbly, to adopt them, and, wherever Kansas: W. S. T angier-Smith.


possible, to improve upon them, just as Kentucky: M. R. Campbell and George
the Americans have done and are still H . Ashley.
doing in Europe." Louisiana: George I. Adams.
The following table shows the imports Maryland: Continuation of coopera-
a nd exports for 1900 of all countries for t ive work as in previous years; William
which statistics h ave been received by B. Clark , E. B. Matthews, and George
the Bureau of Foreign Commerce: B. Shattuck; study of ancient crystal-
line rocks, paleozoic stratigraphy, aud
Tnt ports. Exports. coastal plain deposits.
- - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - -- Massaclmsetls: B. K . Emerson.
United Stales ......... ........... . $82<). 0S2,000 $.478.oso.ooo Midtigan: Frank Leverett, F. B.
United Kin~dom ............... . 2,51S,26o,ooo r. 725, 422,000
~erruauy ... ....................... . I,J88,321l.200 I ,oS4.159, 700 Taylor, C. R . Van Hise, C. K . Leith,
Iranee {tr tnonths) ........... . 773,osS,6oo 719.686.6oo and W. S. Bayley.
Belgiunt. ............................ . 409-w.soo 346.8o8,J 0
Austria- Hungary \9 mos.) .. 2~,SSi,2oo 3'7-954,200 Minnesota: C. R . Van Hise and J.
Sp~in (11 m o nthsl ............. . 1'2J,181, 100
Senia (g months) .............. . 7,68],003
' " ' 868.500
8,?;8,900 Morgan Clements.
Knssia (8 m o uths) .......... . t 19,1 10.200 2 10,8o7, 0 0 !11issouri: W . S. T angier-Smith.
Switzerland ..................... .. 214.8 0,000 r64.ooo.ooo
Jta1y ( 1 t tnonthst ............. . 275 797. 30~ 737-~67-100 !11onfana: Continuation of special
Cree_ce (3 m o nths ) ............ . 5 6<:}o. 7->0 3-894-900
M e xtco (tfl96- r9C)OI ............. . 61.3,4-900 71.39~.6oo studies in the Rocky Mountains ;
Canada (1~- r goo) ............. . 18Z.951.400 t75.6s6.g: o Charles D. \Valcott, director; W. E.
Hr!t!sh ln~ta ( 1899--19001 ..... 29~-345,7'>0 374-16J.900
Unltsh Cutana (t899-t9001 .. . 6,,2<).8oo 9. 254,20> Weed, aud Bailey Willis.
Cuba ( Sw-1900) ................ . 71.681,200 4S.228,3oo
Phili ppines ( rSggt9001 20,59],100 ' 9-75 1, 100 Nevada: G . K . Gilbert.
Porto Ri co (to mouths New jeHf'Y: R . D. Salisbury and
ended April, 1900) ......... . 8.7~o,6oo 4.594-400
Japan ( t o months) ............. . 124 . 261,200 Pt,t46,8oo George B. Shattuck.
E gypt (to m onths) ....... ...... 6>.350-900
French G uiana t6 months).
54 -029,lll0
r ,648,8oo l ,J88,JOO New !11exico: George H. Girty, R. 1'.
Hill, and C. W. Cross.
New York: L . C. Glenn, T . N. Dale,
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY and J . F. Kemp.
JVorth Carolina: Arthur Keith.

T HE U. S. Geological Survey has


assigned the following field par-
ties for work during this season:
Norflt Dakota: N. H. Darton and
C. M. H all.
0/tio: Charles S. Prosser.
Arizona: T. A. Jaggar , Waldemar Oklahoma: J. A. Taff.
Lindgren, J. M. Boutwell, F. L. Ran- Oregon: J. S. Diller.
some, J ohn D. Irving, and R. T. Hill. Pennsylvania: Parts of Butler, Arm-
Arkansas: George I. Adams. strong, India na, Washington, West-
California: George F. Becker, W. moreland , Fayette, and Tioga Counties,
Lindgren, J. C. Branner, J. S. Diller, M. R. Campbell, A. C. Spencer, George
Geo. H . Eldridge, aud H. W. Turner. B. Richardson , and L. Fuller; northeru
Colorado: C. W. Cross, Ernest Howe, P~nnsylvania, George H. Girty; Phila-
J . Morgan Clements, S. F . Emmons, delphia and vicinity, Prof. Florence Bas-
J ohn D. Irving, and G eorge I. Adams. com and C. R. Van Hise; refractory
Connertiwt: William H. Hobbs and clays of Pennsylvania, C. W. Hayes ;
H. E. Gregory. Fulton and Franklin counties, George
Delaware: R. D. Salisbury and George Vl. Stone; coal measures, C. D. White.
B. Shattuck. South Carolina: Arthur Keith.
Georgia: Arthur Keith. South Dakota : N. H . Darton and
fdalw: Bailey Willis. J. E. Todd.
Indiana: George H . Ashley. T ennessee; Arthur Keith.
Indian Territory : J. A. Taff and Texas : R. T. Hill and George I.
George I. Adams. Adams.
GEOGRAPHIC NOTES

Utah: G. K. Gilbert. of these nations will have a special sec-


Vermont: T. N. Dale and J. E. tion assigned to it for study, so that a
Wolff. complete knowledge of the currents,
Washill([!Oll: F. L. Ransome and Geo. sea bottoms. etc , may be soon obtained.
Otis Smith. The Norwegians and Russians have al-
West Vir._t;i1tia: Cooperation with State ready equipped special steamers to carry
survey under Prof. I. C. White; Wayne out their share of the work, and work on
county, M. R . Campbell, survey of the German vessel which is building for
Ceredo quadrangle. the same purpose is well advanced.
Wisconsin: C. R. VanHise and W. C.
Alden. The Bureau of American Republics has
Wyoming: W . C. Knight, N. H. published two handsome maps of Mexico
Darton, George I. Adams, and Arnold on the scale of so miles to the inch. The
Hague. first map, besides being a general map
of the country, by colors shows the ele-
Dr. Gregory,who was to have had charge vation of every part of the Republic.
of the scientific work of the British It also gives the agricultural features,
South Polar Expedition, h as resigned showing what sections are wheat-grow-
his connection with the expedition. ing, what are favorable to the great Mex-
Friction between the naval and scien- ican staple henequen, etc. The second
tific staffs is believed to be the cause of map shows the distribution of minerals
his withdrawal. throughout the country as far as pros-
pecting has revealed their location.
Gen. A . W. Greely, Chief Signal Officer These maps are the result of much re-
U. S. Army, will make a general inspec- search, combining all the results of
tion of the signal service in the Philip- latest survevs. The Bureau announces
pine Islands during the present season. that similar maps of all the Central and
The larger islands of the archipelago are South American Republics are in course
now connected by cable, and each has of preparation. The map of Brazil is
a telegraph system which includes most nearly completed, and work on the maps
of the larger towns. of G uatemala and Costa Rica well ad-
vanced.
The U . S. Biological Survey will this
summer continue the study of the geo- The Royal Geographical Society has
graphic distribution of animals and this year awarded the Fottnders' ruedal
plants in Texas. The Survey has been to the Duke of Abruzzi for his two feats
engaged in the work for several years, of being the first to ascend Mt. St. Elias
and in due time will issue maps showing and of gaining what is now '' farthest
the life zones and faunal areas in the north," 86 33'. The expense of each
State. Mr. Vernon Bailey has charge of these expeditions was borne mainly
of the work and has already begun field by the Duke, though his uncle, the
operations in southwestern Texas. late King Humbert, generously aided
him. The Society has awarded the
Exploration of the Sea.-A meeting of Patrons' medal to Dr. A. Donaldson
representatives of all the countries bor- Smith for his explorations in Central
dering on the Baltic and North Seas, East Africa in 1894-'95 and 1898-rgoo.
excepting France, was recently held in Dr. Smith traversed "the last densely in-
Christiania to confer on the programme habited area remaining unexplored in
for the exploration of the seas between Africa-the country between Lake Ru-
Greenland, Iceland, and Norway. Each dolf and the White Nile. Awards have
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

also been made by the Society to Cap- once formed by the Chief of the U. S.
tain Cagni, of the Duke of Abruzzi's Weather Bureau, aided by Father Joseph
party, and to Mr. L. Bernacchi and Algue, S. J. , to reorganize and extend
Captain Colbeck for aid in Borchgre- the former service, and now that the
vink's South Polar Expedition. King pacification of the islands is nearly se-
Edward VII has succeeded Queen Vic- cured, these plans are rapidly becoming
toria as Patron of the Society. realized. The .Philippine service is in
charge of the Manila Observatory, with
Philippine Weather Service--The Phil- Father Algue as director. It is sup-
ippine weather service has now scattered ported by the funds of the Philippine
throughout the archipelago some 20 tel- Government rather than those of the
egraphic stations from which advance United States, and is independent of
warnings of the approach of typhoons the U.S. Weather Bureau, but receives
can be wired to Manila. Before the the active cooperation and assistance
revolution of 1897 Spain had a number of the latter. As soon as enough of the
of similar stations located at strategic islands have been connected by cables
points, but when Dewey entered Manila the U. S. Government will organize an
Bay not one remained outside of the city. extensive system, and the Philippin(.
After the occupation of the islands by service will be incorporated under F ed
the American Government plans were at eral direction.

GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE
Report of the Chief of the Weather dertaken. The total eclipse of May 28,
Bureau, t899-1900. U. S. Depart- 1900, was obser ved by Professors Bige-
ment of Agriculture. Pp. 436. 1901. low and Abbe, at Newberry, S . C., and
Prof. Willis L. Moore gives a compre- new information ( to be published later)
hensive statement of one year's work of obtained regarding the effect of solar
this great scientific branch of the Gov- action upon the earth 's atmosphere.
ernment. During the year many im- Arrangements for distributing forecasts
portant advances were made. A station and warnings to vessels navigating the
established at Turks I sland completed Great Lakes were so perfected that each
the chain of stations extending from the of the 20,000 vessels that passed Detroit
Lesser Antilles northwestward to Ber- received the latest weather news, and
muda and the southeastern coast of the also vessels leaving Chicago and the
United States. Plans were formed, and Great Lake ports. Forecasts of cold
have since been realized, for special waves, of hurricanes, and of floods saved
storm forecasts for the North Atlantic millions of property.
Ocean, g iving the wind force and wind A valuable feature of th e report are
direction for the first three days of the tables, prepared by Prof. A. J. Henry,
route of all outgoing steamers. Ex- g iving the monthly mean, maximum,
periments were m ade in wireless teleg- and minimum temperature, pressttre,
raphy, and eminently satisfactory pro- and moisture of 170 Weather Bureau
gress made in the investigation. A re- stations. The meteorological observa-
duction to a homogeneous system of the tions of Evelyn B. Baldwin during the
barometric observations taken by the Wellman Arctic Expedition of 1898-'99
service during the past 30 years was un- complete the report.
E. C. BRIDGMAN
Publisher
e..nd Mounter t:U

84 WARREN STREET, NEW YORK


ORAWN, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHED
MAPS ENGRAVED, R.EPROD\ICED, PRINTED
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,,,
(8e.ve ftCiefttly _m.,..... two - - - o n e Map of World, 27s50 feet J OM
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" Wha.oeTer commandtr the ea commands


~he trade ; whCsoeer comiliADdl! the trade ef
the world commands the riches o! the world,
OFFICIAL 1900 CENSUS
and owueequently the world ltaeiL"
-~ Watt.r-~1. Entire Railroad Sytm
Branches and Divisions, Co~
tiea, Cities, Town11, PQ.'It-....
offices, Junctions, Islands,
ST. MICHAEL Lakes, and Riv~rs authenti-
cally loe&ted in
TO MANILLA
RAND, lcN1LLY i CO.'S
H,974 MILES. CLEIRITED liBElED
And &he stars and s~rlp1111 &ft'or4fnA' pro-
~ctlon ~ American Commvca all the way.
POCKET MAPS
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of all the different
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NEW YORK CENTRAL LINES
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A copy of!olo. 21 or t.be "Fo.u r-Traok Serle~."


CATALOfiiJE OF GLOBES AND HAPS
"Round the World In 60 Days," will be een~ EBtimates furnished for
free , postpaid. to any addre88, on reoe!pt of a Engrarln,~~: and Prlntll~B Mapa
postage stamp, by George H. Da.nlels, Gen- of all kinds
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Hudson River Railroad; GriUld Central Sta-
tioQ, New York. RAND. McNALLY & CO.
CHICAGO NEW YOR.K
The Mutual Life Insurance Co.
OF NEW YORK
RICHARD A. McCURDY, President
Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World
The Records of the Insurance Depanment of the State or New York
SHOW THAT The Mutual Life
Has a Larger Premium Income ($3g,~,ooo)
More Insurance in Force ($g18,ooo,ooo)
A Greater Amount of Aasets ($235,ooo,ooo)
A Larger Annual Interest lncoiDe - ($g,ooo,ooo)
Writes More New Business - - ($136,ooo,ooo)
And Pa)'S More to Policy-holders - - (S2s,oao,ooo in 18g6)
THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY
It bas paid to Policy-holders since t
ita organization, in 1843 f
------
ROBERT A. GRANNIS&, Vice-Pruideat
WALTER R. GILLETTE Geoeral l!laaacer FRJ:DERlCit CROMWELL, Tnannr
ISAAC P. LLOYD, Becooa Vice-PrealclaDt &IIORY II~LJNTOCJC, Actaa17
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Carpets taken up, cl~ made mothproof, stored during the sum-
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Furniture reupholstered or reoaUed during the summer mths at w:ry
moderate rates, and stored unUf fall, if necessary.
Mattresses made to order for anv size bed or crib.
Mattresses and Pillows renovated Blld re-covered with new tickin~. .
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