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S d i

y The molten metal is poured into the sprue hole, flows
y Sand casting uses ordinary sand as the primary through the runners,
runners and enters the mold cavity
mould material. through an opening called a gate.
y The sand grains are mixed with small amounts of y G i
Gravity fl
flow i the
is h most common means off
other materials, such as clay and water, to improve introducing the metal into the mold.

M t lC ti
MetalCasting mouldability and cohesive strength,
strength and are then
packed around a pattern that has the shape of the
desired casting.
y After solidification, the mold is broken and the
finished casting is removed.
y The casting is then fettled by cutting off the ingate
y The pattern must be removed before pouring, the
and the feeder head.
ld is
i usually
ll made
d in
i two
t or more pieces.
y Because the mold is destroyed, a new mold must be
y An opening called a sprue hole is cut from the top of
made for each casting.
B SKM d l
BySKMondal the mold through the sand and connected to a
system of channels called runners. Contd. Contd

i l i ki d i y The mold is opened, the pattern board is drawn
y Apatternboardisplacedbetweenthebottom(drag) (removed),
(removed) and the runner and gate are cut into the
andtop(cope)halvesofaflask,withthebottomsideup. surface of the sand.

y Sandisthenpackedintothedraghalfofthemold. y The mold is reassembled with the pattern board

d and
d molten
l metall is poured
d through
h h the
y Abottomboardispositionedontopofthepackedsand,
ofpatternwithsprue andriserpinsinplace. y The contents are shaken from the flask and the metal
segment is separated from the sand, ready for further
y Thecopehalfofthemoldisthenpackedwithsand.
Th h lf fth ldi th k d ith d

y Flask: A moulding flask is one which holds the sand
ld intact.
i t t It is
i made
d up off wood
d for
f temporary
pp or metal for longterm
g use.

y Drag: Lower moulding flask.

y Cope: Upper moulding flask.

y Cheek: Intermediate moulding flask used in three

i moulding.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 1 of 240 Rev.0
y Moulding sand: The freshly prepared refractory
y Pattern: Pattern is a replica
p j
of the final object to be
material used for making the mould cavity. It is a
made with some modifications.
mixture of silica,
silica clay and moisture in appropriate
y Parting line: This is the dividing line between the two
ld fl k that
flasks h makes
k up the
h sand
d mould.
y Backing sand: This is made up of used and burnt
y Bottom board: This is a board normally made of wood,
which is used at the start of the mould making.
y Core:
C U d for
Used f making
ki hollow
h ll cavities
i i ini castings.

y Pouring
g basin: A small funnelshaped
p cavityy at the top
p y Chaplet: Chaplets are used to support cores inside the y Tapering
T i off thinner
thi section
ti towards
t d thicker
thi k section
of the mould into which the molten metal is poured. mould cavity. is known as 'padding'.
y Sprue: The passage through which the molten metal y This will require extra material.
y Chill: Chills are metallic objects, which are placed in
from the pouring basin reaches the mould cavity.
cavity y If p
paddingg is not p
provided, centre line shrinkage
g or
h mould
ld to increase
i the
h cooling
li rate off castings.
i porosity will result in the thinner section.
y Runner: The passage ways in the parting plane through y Riser: It is a reservoir of molten metal provided in the
which molten metal flow is regulated before they reach casting so that hot metal can flow back into the mould
h mould
ld cavity. cavity when there is a reduction in volume of metal due
y Gate: The actual entry point through which molten to solidification
metal enters the mould cavity in a controlled rate. Contd Contd

IES2001 IES1996 IES2007

Which of the following methods are used for Which one of the following is the correct
The main purpose of chaplets is
bt i i directional
di ti l solidification
lidifi ti forf riser
i design
d i statement?
t t t?
(a) To ensure directional solidification Gate is provided in moulds to
1. Suitable placement of chills
(b) To provide efficient venting (a) Feed the casting at a constant rate
2. Suitable placement of chaplets ((b)) Give p
g to g
(c) For aligning the mold boxes (c) Compensate for shrinkage
3. Employing padding
(d) To
T support the
h cores (d) Avoid cavities
Select the correct answer.
( ) 1 and
(a) d 2 (b) 1 and
d 3 (c)
( ) 2 and
d 3 (d) 1, 2 and
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 2 of 240 Rev.0
GATE2009 GATE1992 GATE2011
Inagreensandmouldingprocess,uniform Green sand mould indicates that
rammingleadsto (a) polymeric mould has been cured
(a) Lesschanceofgasporosity (b) mould has been totally dried
P MetallicChills1 Supportforthecore
P.MetallicChills1.Supportforthecore (b) Uniformflowofmoltenmetalintothemould ((c)) mould is g
green in colour
Q.MetallicChaplets2.Reservoirofthemoltenmetal cavity (d) mould contains moisture
R Riser3 Controlcoolingofcritical
R.Riser3.Controlcoolingofcritical (c) Greaterdimensionalstabilityofthecasting
sections (d) Lesssandexpansiontypeofcastingdefect
S ExothermicPadding4 Progressivesolidification
(a) P1,Q3,R2,S4 (b) P1,Q4,R2,S3
(c) P3,Q4,R2,S1
P 3 Q 4 R 2 S 1 (d) P 4 Q 1 R 2 S 3

Pattern PatternAllowances Sh i k
A pattern is a replica of the object to be made by the 1. Shrinkageorcontractionallowance y All metals shrink when cooling except perhaps
casting process,, with some modifications. bismuth.
The main modifications are 2. Draftortaperallowance
y The addition of pattern allowances,
allowances y This is because of the interatomic vibrations which
3. Machiningorfinishallowance
M hi i fi i h ll
y The provision of core prints, and are amplified by an increase in temperature.
4 Distortionorcamberallowance
y Elimination of fine details, which cannot be obtained
y The shrinkage allowance is always to be added to the
by casting and hence are to be obtained by further 55. Rappingallowance
pp g
processing linear dimensions. Even in case of internal dimensions.


Liquidshrinkageandsolidshrinkage y Gray CI with a carbon equivalent of 4.3% has y Pattern Allowances

y Liquid
Li id shrinkage
h i k refers
f to the
h reduction
d i in
i volume
l Cast Iron 10 mm/m
negative shrinkage, that is, it actually expands
when the metal changes temperature from pouring to Brass, Copper, Aluminium 15 mm/m
solidus temperature in liquid state.
state To account for this,
this upto 2.5%
2 5% because of graphite precipitation.
precipitation So,
risers are provided in the moulds. Steell 20 mm/m
y Solidification shrinkage g refers to the reduction in for this, no riser is needed. Zinc, Lead 25 mm/m
volume when metal changes from liquid to solid state
at the solidus temperature. To account for this, risers
are provided
id d in
i the
h moulds.
y Solid shrinkage is the reduction in volume caused,
when a metal loses temperature in the solid state.
state The
shrinkage allowance is provided to take care of this
educt o .
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 3 of 240 Rev.0
IES1995 GATE1999 IES1999
Which one of the following materials will require In
I solidification
lidifi ti off metal
t l during
d i casting,
Which of the following materials requires the
the largest size of riser for the same size of casting? compensation
p for solid contraction is
t shrinkage
hi k allowance,
ll while
hil making
ki a
pattern for casting? (a) Provided by the oversize pattern
((a)) Aluminium
( ) Aluminium
(a) l
(b) Cast iron (b) Achieved by properly placed risers
(b) Brass
(c) Steel (c) Cast Iron (c) Obtained by promoting directional
(d) Plain Carbon Steel solidification
lidifi i
(d) Copper.
(d) Made by providing chills

GATE2001 GATE2004
Shrinkage allowance on pattern is provided to
Shrinkage allowance is made by Gray cast iron blocks 200 x 100 x 10 mm are to be
compensate for shrinkage
g when
( ) Adding
(a) dd to externall and
d internall dimensions
d castt in
i sand d moulds.ld Shrinkage
Sh i k allowance
ll f
(a) The temperature of liquid metal drops from pattern making is 1%. The ratio of the volume of
(b) Subtracting from external and internal pouring to freezing temperature
dimensions pattern
tt t that
to th t off the
th casting
ti will
ill be
(b) The metal changes from liquid to solid state at
((c)) Subtracting
g from external dimensions and freezing temperature
adding to internal dimensions (a) 0.97 (b) 0.99 (c) 1.01 (d) 1.03
(c) The temperature of solid phase drops from
(d) Adding to external dimensions and subtracting f
i to room temperature
from internal dimensions
(d) The temperature of metal drops from pouring
to room temperature

GATE2008 GATE2011 IAS1995

A cubic casting of 50 mm side undergoes volumetric Assertion
A i (A):
(A) A pattern is i made
d exactly
l similar
i il to
solidification shrinkage and volumetric solid the part to be cast.
While cooling, a cubical casting of side 40 mm
contraction of 4% and 6% respectively.
respectively No riser is R
Reason (R) Pattern
(R): P i used
is d to make
k the
h mould ld
undergoes 3%, 4% and 5% volume shrinkage used. Assume uniform cooling in all directions. The cavity for pouring in molten for casting.
side of the cube after solidification and contraction is ( ) Both
(a) B h A and d R are individually
i di id ll true and
d R is
i the
during the liquid state, phase transition and solid
(a) 48.32 mm correct explanation of A
state, respectively
respectively. The volume of metal (b) 49.90 mm (b) Both
B h A and d R are individually
i di id ll true but
b R isi not the
compensated from the riser is correct explanation of A
(c) 49
94 mm
( ) A is
(c) i true but
b R is i false
f l
(a) 2% (b) 7% (c) 8% (d) 9% (d) 49.96 mm
(d) A is false but R is true

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 4 of 240 Rev.0

IAS2003 D ft
M h ListLi I (Material
(M i l to be b cast)) with
i h List
Li II y To
T reduce
d the
th chances
h off the
th damage
d off the
th mould
(Shrinkage Allowance in mm/m) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists: cavityy at the time of p
pattern removal,, the vertical faces
ListI ListII of the pattern are always tapered from the parting line.
(A) Greycastiron 1. 7 10 This provision is called draft allowance.
(B) Brass 2
2. 15
y Inner surfaces
f off the
h pattern require higher
h h draft
d f than
(C) Steel 3. 20
(D) Zinc 4
4. 24 outer surfaces.
Codes:A B C D A B C D
y Draft is always provided as an extra metal.
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 3 4 1 2
(c) 1 4 3 2 (d) 3 2 1 4 DRAFTALLOWANCE

Sh k ll
ShakeAllowance ll
DistortionAllowance P M i l
y Wood
W d patterns
tt are relatively
l ti l easy to
t make.
k Wood
W d is
i nott
y At the time of pattern removal, the pattern is rapped y A metal when it has just solidified is very weak and very dimensionally stable. Commonly used teak, white
therefore is likelyy to be distortion p
prone. pine and mahogany wood.
all around the vertical faces to enlarge the mould
y Metal patterns are more expensive but are more
cavity slightly to facilitates its removal.
removal y This is particularly so for weaker sections such as long dimensionally stable and more durable.
durable Commonly used
flat portions, V, U sections or in a complicated casting CI, Brass, aluminium and white metal.
y Itt iss a negative
egat ve a
owa ce aand
d iss to be app
ed o
onlyy to which may have thin and long sections which are y Hard plastics,
plastics such as urethanes,
urethanes and are often preferred
those dimensions, which are parallel to the parting connected to thick sections. with processes that use strong, organically bonded sands
that tend to stick to other pattern materials.
plane. y In the fullmold process, expanded polystyrene (EPS) is
y The foundry practice should be to make extra
material provision for reducing the distortion.
y Investment casting uses wax patterns.

Thepatternmaterialshouldbe IES1994 GATE2000

y Easilyworked,shapedandjoined Which of the following materials can be used for
y Lightinweight making patterns?
y Strong,hardanddurable (a) Wood
1. Aluminium 2. Wax 33. Mercuryy 4
4. Lead
y Resistanttowearandabrasion (b) Rubber
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
y Resistanttocorrosion,andtochemicalreactions (c) Metal
y Dimensionallystableandunaffectedbyvariationsin (d) P l
(a) 1,3 and 4 (b) 2,3 and 4 (c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 3
y Availableatlowcost.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 5 of 240 Rev.0
T f P tt
TypesofPattern T f P tt
TypesofPattern TypesofPattern
Si l Piece
Pi Pattern
P tt Split Pattern or Two Piece Pattern
y Cope and Drag Pattern
These are inexpensive and the simplest type of This is the most widely used type of pattern for intricate
castings When the contour of the casting makes its
castings. These
ese aaree ssimilar
a to sp
splitt patte
s. In add
t o to
tt A the
As th name indicates,
i di t theyth are made
d off a
single piece. withdrawal from the mould difficult, or when the depth splitting the pattern, the cope and drag halves of
of the casting is too high,
high then the pattern is split into two the p
pattern along g with the ggatingg and riser systems
parts so that one part is in the drag and the other in the are attached separately to the metal or wooden
Gated Pattern cope.
p plates along
p g with the alignment
g pins. Theyy are
Gating and runner system are integral with the called the cope and drag patterns.
pattern. This would eliminate the hand cutting of
the runners and gates and help in improving the
productivity of a moulding.

TypesofPattern TypesofPattern T f P tt
y Follow Board Pattern
y Match Plate Pattern y Loose Piece Pattern This type of pattern is adopted for those
h cope and d drag
d patterns along
l with
h the
h This type of pattern is also used when the castings where there are some portions,
portions which
gating and the risering are mounted on a single contour of the part is such that withdrawing the are structurally weak and if not supported
pattern from the mould is not possible.
possible properly are likely to break under the force of
matching metal or wooden plate on either side.

IES2008 T f P tt
TypesofPattern T fP
y Sweep Pattern y Skeleton Pattern
The pattern adopted for those castings where there It is used to sweep the complete casting by means A skeleton of the pattern made of strips of wood
are some portions
ti which
hi h are structurally
t t ll weak k andd of a plane sweep.
s eep These are used for generating is used for building the final pattern by packing
are likely to break by the force of ramming are large shapes, which are axisymmetrical or sand around the skeleton. After packing the
ll d prismatic in nature such as bellshaped
bell shaped or sand the desired form is obtained with the help
(a) Loose piece pattern cylindrical. of a strickle. This type of pattern is useful
generally for very large castings,
castings required in
(b) Follow board pattern
small quantities where large expense on
((c)) Skelton p
pattern complete wooden pattern is not justified.
(d) Single piece pattern

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 6 of 240 Rev.0

CoolingCurve Fluidity
( )
The ability of a metal to flow and fill a mold is known
as fluidity. In sand casting, fluidity of the molten metal
Pouring Temperature i
increases with
y The most important controlling factor of fluidity is the
p g temperature
p or the amount of superheat.
p (A) increase in degree of superheat
y Higher the pouring temperature, the higher the fluidity. (B) decrease in pouring rate
y Excessive temperatures should be avoided, however. At ((C)) increase in thermal conductivityy of the mould
high pouring temperatures, metalmold reactions are (D) increase in sand grain size
accelerated and the fluidity may be so great as to permit
y Penetration is a defect where the metal not only fills the
mold cavity
ca it but also fills the small voids
oids between
bet een the sand
particles in a sand mold.

ISRO2011 Core Desiredcharacteristicsofacore

Fluidity in casting (CI) operation is greatly y Used for making cavities and hollow projections.
y Green Strength: A core made of green sand should
i fl
d by
b b strong
be t enough
h to
t retain
t i the
th shape
h till it goes for
y All sides of core are surrounded by the molten metal baking.
a) Melting temperature of molten metal and are therefore subjected to much more severe y Dry Strength:h It should
h ld have
h adequate
d d strength
dry h
thermal and mechanical conditions and as a result the so that when the core is placed in the mould, it
b) Pouring temperature of molten metal core sand should be of higher strength than the should
h ld beb able
bl to resist the
h metall pressure acting on
moulding sand. it.
c)) Finish of the mould
y Refractoriness: Since in most cases, the core is
d) Carbon content of molten metal surrounded all around it is desirable that the core
material should have higher refractoriness.

y Then,, the p
permeabilityy number,, R is obtained byy
VH y Calculatethepermeabilitynumberofsandifittakes1min
y Permeability: Gases evolving from the molten metal R= 25stopass2000cm3 ofairatapressureof5g/cm2 through
and generated from the mould may have to go pAT
through the core to escape out of the mould. Hence WhereV=volumeofair=2000cm3
cores are required to have higher permeability.
permeability H=heightofthesandspecimen=5.08cm p = 5.0 g / cm 2
y Permeability Number: The rate of flow of air passing
p , g/ 2
p T = 1 min 25 s = 1.417
1 417 min
th h a standard
t d d specimen
i under
d a standard
t d d pressure is
termed as permeability number. A=crosssectionalareaofsandspecimen=20.268cm2 501.28
R= = 70.75
y The
Th standard
d d permeability
bili test is
i to measure time
i T timeinminutesforthecompleteairtopassthrough
T=timeinminutesforthecompleteairtopassthrough 5 1.417
1 417
taken by a 2000 cu cm of air at a pressure typically of
8 PaP (10 / 2),
( g/cm ) to pass through
h h a standard
d d sand d
specimen confined in a specimen tube. The standard 501.28
i size
i isi 50.8
8 mm in
i diameter
di and
d a length
l h off R=
50.8 mm. For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 7 of Rev.0
IES2007 y Friability: The ability to crumble should be a very
important consideration at the time of removal.
Whatispermeability?Permeabilityismoreimportant y Collapsibility:
p y At the time of cooling,
g, casting
g shrinks,, and
inthebasicprocessofsandcastingthanporosity.Give y Smoothness: Surface of the core should be smooth
unless the core has good collapsibility (ability to decrease
i t t f thi f t f good
for d finish
fi i h to
t the
th casting.
in size) it is likely to provide resistance against shrinkage
[2marks] y Low Gas Emission
and thus can cause hot tears.

C S d
CoreSands C b Di id M ldi
y The compressive strength of the bond increases with
y Sodium silicate (water glass, SiO2:Na2O) is used as a binder.
y Used
d clay
l free
f silica
l sand.
d This is essentially a quick process of core or mould standing time due to dehydration.
p p
y Binders used are linseed oil,
oil core oil,
oil resins,
resins dextrin,
dextrin y Because of the high strength of the bond, the core need not
y The mould is prepared with a mixture of sodium silicate and
molasses, etc. sand and then treated with carbon dioxide for two to three be p
provided with anyy other reinforcements.
minutes such that a dry compressive strength of over 1.4
y Core oils are mixtures of linseed, soy, fish and MPa is arrived. y It does not involve any distortions due to baking and also
petroleum oils and coal tar. y The carbon dioxide is expected to form a weak acid, which better dimensional accuracies are achieved.
hydrolyses the sodium silicate resulting in amorphous silica,
y The general composition of a core sand mixture could which forms the bond. y The
Th sand
d mixture
i d
does not have
h good
d shelf
h lf life
lif and

be core oil (1%) and water (2.5

(2 5 to 6%).
6%) y The introduction of CO2 g gas starts the reaction byy forming
g therefore should be used immediatelyy after p
hydrated sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 + H2O).

IES2002 GATE 2008(PI)

GATE 2008 (PI) GATE2014
Assertion (A): In CO2 casting process,
process the mould or g of a hollow p
In sand casting part of lead,, a cylindrical
y core
A aluminium
l i i alloy
ll (density
(d i 2600 ) casting
i is
i to be
core attains maximum strength. of diameter 120 mm and height 180 mm is placed inside
Reason (R): The optimum gassing time of CO2 produced. A cylindrical
p y hole of 100 mm diameter and
through the mould or core forms Silica Gel which the mould cavity. The densities of core material and lead
100 mm length is made in the casting using sand core
imparts sufficient strength to the mould or core.
core are 1600 kg/m3 and 11,300
11 300 kg/m3 respectively.
respecti el The net (density 1600 ). The net buoyancy force (in Newton)
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A force ((in N)) that tends to lift the core during
g of acting on the core is ..
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the molten metal will be
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false (a) 19.7 (b) 64.5 (c) 193.7 (d) 257.6
(d) A is
i false
f l but
b t R is
i true
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 8 of 240 Rev.0
M ldi S d C
iti Oth Additi
OtherAdditives M ldi S d P
y Sand:
S d Ordinary
O di silica
ili Sand
S d (SiO2),
) zircon,
i or olivine
li i y Porosity or Permeability: Permeability or porosity of
y Cereal binder up to 2% increases the strength.
the moulding sand is the measure of its ability to
sands. permit air to flow through it.
y Pitch
Pit h if used
d up to
t 3%
% would
ld improve
i th hot
the h t
y Clay: Acts as binding agents mixed to the moulding y Strength: It is defined as the property of holding
t th off sand
together d grains.
i A moulding
ldi sand
d should
h ld have
sands ample strength so that the mould does not collapse or
y Saw dust up to 2% may improve the collapsibility by
Kaolinite or fire clay (Al2O3 2SiO2 2H2O), and gett partially
ti ll destroyed
d t d during
d i conveying,
i t
i over
slowly burning, and increase the permeability. or closing.
i (Al2O3 4SiO
SiO2 H2O nH
O) y Other materials: sea coal, asphalt, fuel oil, graphite, y Refractoriness: It is the ability of the moulding sand
mixture to withstand the heat of melt without showing
y Water: Clay is activated by water.
water molasses iron oxide,
molasses, oxide etc.
etc any signs of softening or fusion.

y Plasticity: Itisthemeasureofthemouldingsandtoflow Oth S d

OtherSands IES2008
aroundandoverapatternduringrammingandtouniformly y Facing
g sand: The small amount of carbonaceous
filltheflask. material sprinkled on the inner surface of the mold
y Collapsibility:Thisistheabilityofthemouldingsandto cavityy to g
give a better surface finish to the castings.
g Small amount of carbonaceous material sprinkled
decreaseinvolumetosomeextentunderthecompressive y Backing sand: It is what constitutes most of the on the inner surface of mould cavity is called
p y g g g refractory material found in the mould.mould This is made
andsubsequentcooling. up of used and burnt sand. (a) Backing sand
y Adhesiveness:Thisisthepropertyofsandmixtureto
p p y y Green Sand: The molding sand that contains
adheretoanotherbody(here,themouldingflasks).The ( ) Facing sand
moisture is termed as green sand. The green sand
g g g
should have enough strength so that the constructed (c) Green sand
mould retains its shape.
(d) Dry sand
amountofbinderusedinthesandmix. y Dry
D sand: d When
Wh the th moisture
i t i the
in th moulding
ldi sand d is
completely expelled, it is called dry sand.

Grainsizenumber IES2002
y ASTM (American
( Society for Testing and Materials)) In the grain size determination using standard
grain size number, defined as
charts, the relation between the given size
N 2
number n and the average number of grains 'N'
y Where N is the number of grains per square inch
visible in a prepared specimen at 100X and n is the per square inch at a magnification of 100 X is
S Mg grainsize
a s e number.
u be .
( ) N = 2n
y Low ASTM numbers mean a few massive grains; high
numbers refer to many small grains.
grains (b) N = 2nl

(c) N = 2n + 1
S dSli
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) (d) N = 2n + 1 Page 9 of 240 Rev.0
CastingYield Gating System
g , , p

Casting yield = 100


Gating System
GatingSystem y Runner: A runner is commonly a horizontal channel
y Ingate: Achannelthroughwhichthemoltenmetal
y Pouring basin: A small funnel shaped cavity at the
which connects the sprue with gates, thus allowing the entersthemouldcavity.
top of the mould into which the molten metal is
poured. molten metal to enter the mould cavity.
cavity The runners y Vent: Smallopeninginthemouldtofacilitateescape
p g p
are of larger crosssection and often streamlined to
y Sprue:
S Th passage through
The th h which
hi h the
th molten
lt metal,
t l
from the pouring basin, reaches the mould cavity. In slow down and smooth out the flow, and are designed
many cases it controls
t l the
th flow
fl off metal
t l into
i t the
th to provide approximately uniform flow rates to the
various parts of the mould cavity.
cavity Runners are
commonly made trapezoidal in crosssection.

Contd Contd

TypesofGateorIngate IES2011 G
GATE 20 0 ( )
T gate: Causes
C turbulence
b l in
i the
h mould
ld cavity,
i it i is
i prone In light metal casting,
casting runner should be so designed During
D i the
h filling
filli process off a given
i sand
d mould
ld cavity
i byb
to form dross,, favourable temperature
p gradient towards the
g molten metal through a horizontal runner of circular cross
1. It avoids
id aspiration
i ti
gate, only for ferrous alloys. section the frictional head loss of the molten metal in the
2. It avoids turbulence
runner will increase with the
Bottom gate: No mould erosion, used for very deep moulds, 3. The path of runner is reduced in area so that
higher pouring time,
time Causes unfavourable temperature
unequal volume of flow throughg each g
gate (a) increase in runner diameter
takes place (b) decrease in internal surface roughness of runner
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 and 3 only
Parting Gate: most widely used gate, easiest and most (c) decrease in length of runner
economical in preparation. (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
(d) increase in average velocity of molten metal
Step Gate: Used for heavy and large castings, size of ingates
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 10 of 240 Rev.0
are normally increased from top to bottom.
IES 2011
IES2011 IES1998 GATE2002
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using
the code given below the lists : A sand casting mould
assembly is shown in The primary purpose of a sprue in a casting
ListI ListII
the above figure. The mould
ou d iss to
A.Topgate 1.Heavyandlargecastings elements marked A (a)Feed the casting at a rate consistent with the rate
g 2.Mostwidelyusedandeconomical
y and B are respectively of solidification
C.Partinggate 3.Turbulence (a) Sprue and riser (b)Act as a reservoir for molten metal
(b) Ingate
I t andd riser
i ( ) d molten
(c)Feed l metall from
f the
h pouring
i basin
b i to theh
D.Stepgate 4.Unfavourable temperaturegradient
(c) Drag and runner gate
C d
(d) Riser and runner (d)Help feed the casting until all solidification takes
A B C D A B C D place
( ) 3
(a) 4 2 1 (b) 1 4 2 3
(c) 3 2 4 1 (d) 1 2 4 3

l f th ti t IES 1998
IES1998 IES2009
y To
T minimize
i i i turbulence
t b l to
t avoid
id trapping
t i gasses into
i t Whichofthefollowingaretherequirementsofanideal Considerthefollowingstatements:
C id th f ll i t t t
the mold gatingsystem?
1 Themoltenmetalshouldenterthemouldcavitywithas
y To get enough metal into the mold cavity before the metalentersthemouldcavityiscalledingate.
metal starts to solidify 2.Bottomgateincaseofamouldcreatesunfavourable
2 Itshouldfacilitatecompletefillingofthemouldcavity.
2. Itshouldfacilitatecompletefillingofthemouldcavity
y To avoid shrinkage temperaturegradient.
3. Itshouldbeabletopreventtheabsorptionofairorgases
y Establish the best possible temperature gradient in the fromthesurroundingsonthemoltenmetalwhile 3.Sprueincaseofamouldismadetaperedtoavoidair
solidifying casting so that the shrinkage if occurs must flowingthroughit. inclusion.
be in the gating system not in the required cast part. Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelow: Whichoftheabovestatementsis/arecorrect?
y Incorporates a system for trapping the nonmetallic (a)1,2and3 (b)1and2 (c)2and3 (d)1and3 (a)1only (b)1and2 (c)2and3 (d)1and3

f G ti S t P
i d G ti S t U P i d G ti S t
y The total cross sectional area decreases towards the y The total cross sectional area increases towards the
Thegatingsystemsareoftwotypes: mold cavity
mold cavity
y Back pressure is maintained by the restrictions in the
y Pressurizedgatingsystem metal flow y Restriction only
y at the bottom of sprue
y Flow of liquid (volume) is almost equal from all gates
y Flow of liquid (volume) is different from all gates
y Unpressurizedgatingsystem
U i d i y Back pressure helps in reducing the aspiration as the
sprue always runs full y Aspiration in the gating system as the system never
y Because
B off the
h restrictions
i i the
h metall flows
fl at high
hi h runs full
velocity leading to more turbulence and chances of
ld erosion.
i y Less
L turbulence.
b l
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 11 of 240 Rev.0
Sprue Design Sincethevelocitiesareproportionaltothesquareof
y Sprue: Sprue is the channel through which the molten p ,
metal is brought into the parting plane where it enters the Bernoulli'sequation,
runners and ggates to ultimatelyy reach the mould cavity.
y The molten metal when moving from the top of the cope to At = Ac
the p
partinggpplane g
gains in velocityy and some lowpressure
area would be created around the metal in the sprue.
y Since the sand mould is permeable, atmospheric air would Theexacttaperingcanbeobtainedbytheequationof
be breathed into this lowpressure area which would then continuity.DenotingthetopandchokesectionsofThesprue by
be carried to the mould cavity.
y thesubscriptstand'c'respectively,weget
h l
y To eliminate this problem of air aspiration, the sprue is
sprue height
p to g
graduallyy reduce the cross section as it moves Vc
A t Vt = A c Vc At = Ac andht=h+H
away from the top of the cope as shown in Figure below (b). Vt
Contd Contd

GATE 2007
GATE2001 A 200 mm long g down sprue p has an area of cross
section of 650 mm2 where the pouring basin meets the
The height of the downsprue is 175 mm and its
down sprue ((i.e. at the beginning
g g of the down sprue).
p )
ti l area att the
th base
b i 200 mm2. The
is Th
A constant head of molten metal is maintained by the
crosssectional area of the horizontal runner is
p g basin. The Molten metal flow rate is 6.55 105
l 200 mm2. Assuming
also A i no losses,
l i di t the
indicate th 3
mm /s. Considering the end of down sprue to be open
correct choice for the time (in seconds) required to
to atmosphere and an acceleration due to g gravityy of
fill a mould cavity
ca it of volume
olume 1006 mm3. (Use g = 100
2 104mm/s2, the area of the down sprue in mm2 at its end
m/s ).
((avoidingg aspiration
p effect)) should be
( )
(a)2.67 (b)
(b)8.45 ( )
(c)26.72 (d)
(a)650.0 (b)350.0 (c)290.7 (d)190.0


G ti
ti IES2003 IES2005
A gating
ti ratio
ti off 1: 2: 4 is
i used
d to
t design
d i the
th gating
y Gatingratioisdefinedas:Sprue area:Runnerarea:
system for magnesium alloy casting. This gating ratio The gating ratio 2: 8: 1 for copper in gating system
Ingate area.
area refers to the cross section areas of the various gating d i refers
design f tot the
th ratio
ti off areas of:
elements as given below:
y Forhighqualitysteelcastings,agatingratioof1:2:2or (a) Sprue: Runner: Ingate
1. Down sprue 2. 2 Runner bar 3.
3 Ingates
1:2:1.5willproducecastingsnearlyfreefromerosion, (b) Runner: Ingate: Sprue
The correct sequence of the above elements in the
ratio 1: 2: 4 is ((c)) Runner: Sprue:
p Ingate
ill i i i id i d ill d if
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (d) Ingate: Runner: Sprue
(b) 1,3 and d2
y Agatingratioof1:4:4mightfavour theformationof (c) 2, 3 and 1
oxidationdefects. (d) 3, 1 an 2
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 12 of 240 Rev.0
GATE2010 IAS1999 Ri
d Ri D i
A i (A):
(A) The
Th rate off flow
fl off metall through
h h sprue y Risers are added reservoirs designed to feed liquid
is NOT a function of the crosssectional areas of metal to the solidifying casting as a means of
Inagatingsystem,theratio1:2:4represents sprue runner and gate.
sprue, gate compensating for solidification shrinkage.
(a) Sprue basearea:runnerarea:ingate area Reason (R): If respective crosssectional areas of y To perform this function, the risers must solidify after
sprue,, runner and g gate are in the ratio of 1: 2: 2,, the the casting.
(b) Pouringbasinarea:ingate area:runnerarea system is known as unpressurised gating system.
(a) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct y According to Chvorinov's rule, a good shape for a riser
(c) Sprue basearea:ingate area:castingarea explanation of A would
ld be
b one that
th t has
h a long
l f
i time
ti (i
(i.e., a small
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the surface area per unit volume).
(d) Runnerarea:ingate
R i area:castingarea
i correct explanation
l i off A y Live risers (also known as hot risers) receive the last
(c) A is true but R is false hot metal that enters the mold and generally do so at a
(d) A is false
f l but
b R is true time when the metal in the mold cavity has already
begun to cool and solidify.

IES 1994
IES1994 Ch i
Assertion (A): In a mould, a riser is designed and placed y Totalsolidificationtime(ts)=B(V/A) n
so that the riser will solidify after the casting has solidified.
Reason (R): A riser is a reservoir of molten metal which
B ld di f i f( ld
will supply molten metal where a shrinkage cavity would
have occurred. material,castingmaterial,andconditionofcasting]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct n=2 andtriser =1.25tcasting
p of A 2 2
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the or A = 1.25
riser A casting
correct explanation
p of A
(c) A is true but R is false
Forcylinder V = D2H / 4

( )
(d) A is false but R is true ofdiameterD
fdi D 2
A = DH + 2 D
andheightH 4

IES2011 IES 1998

IES1998 GATE 2013 SameQuestion(PI)
The relationship between total freezing time t,
t A spherical drop of molten metal of radius 2 mm A cube
b shaped
h d casting
ti solidifies
lidifi in
i 5 min.
i The
volume of the casting V and its surface area A,
g to Chvorinovs rule is :
according was found to solidify in 10 seconds. A similar drop of solidification time in min for a cube of the same
radius 4 mm would solidify in material, which is 8 times heavier than the original
(a ) t = k
(a) 14.14 seconds casting, will be
(b ) t = k
V (b) 20 seconds
( ) 10
(a) (b) 20 ( ) 24
(c) (d) 40
(c ) t = k
V (c) 28.30
28 30 seconds
(d ) t = k (d) 4
40 seconds
Where K is a constant
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 13 of 240 Rev.0
GATE2014(PI) GATE2003
A cylindrical riser of 6 cm diameter and 6 cm height has
For a given volume of a riser, if the solidification
to be designed for a sand casting mould for producing a
With a solidification factor of 0.97 x 106 s/m2, the
time of the molten metal in riser needs to be
steel rectangular plate casting of 7 cm 10 cm 2 cm
solidification time (in seconds) for a spherical
quadrupled, the surface area of the riser should be
dimensions having the total solidification time of 1.36
1 36
casting of 200 mm diameter is
minute. The total solidification time (in minute) of the
( ) 539
(a) (b) 1078
8 ( ) 4311
(c) (d) 3233
(a) onefourth (b) half riser is ..
(c) double (d) four times

IES2006 GATE 2010(PI) GATE2007

S lidifi ti time
ti off a metallic
t lli alloy
ll casting
ti isi
According to Chvorinov's equation, the
Volume of a cube of side 'l' and volume of a sphere of
lidifi ti time
ti off a casting
ti isi proportional
ti l to:
t (a) Directly proportional to its surface area
radius r are equal. Both the cube and the sphere are solid
(a) v2 (b) Directlyy p
p to the specific
p heat of the
d off same material.
t i l They
Th are being
b i cast.
t The
Th ratio
ti off the
cast material
(b) v p
solidification time of the cube to the same of the sphere is:
(c) Directly proportional to the thermal diffusivity of 3 6 2 2 3 2 4
4 r 4 r 4 r 4 r
(c) 1/v (a ) 6 l ( b ) ( c ) ( d )
h molten
l metall 6 l 6 l 6 l
(d) 1/v2
(d)Inversely proportional to the pouring
Where, v = volume of casting

GATE 2011 (PI)

GATE2011(PI) GATE2009(PI)
In a sand casting process,
process a sphere and a cylinder of A solid
l d cylinder
l d off diameter
d D and
d height
h h equall to D, and
d a solid
equal volumes are separately cast from the same molten cube of side L are being sand cast by using the same material.
Assuming there is no superheat in both the cases, the ratio of
metal under identical conditions. The height and
solidification time of the cylinder to the solidification time of the
diameter of the cylinder are equal. The ratio of the cube is
solidification time of the sphere to that of the cylinder is (a) (L/D)2
(b) (2L/D)2
((a)) 1.14
4 ((b)) 0.877
(c) (2D/L)2
(c) 1.31 (d) 0.76
(d) (D/L)2
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 14 of 240 Rev.0
IES 2012
IES IES 2011 Conventional
y A round casting is 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in ConventionalQuestionESE2003
Th ti f f f l f it l f
length. Another casting of the same metal is elliptical in
riserisminimumincaseof Compare the solidification time of two optimum side
cross section,
i with
i h a major
j to minor
i axis
i ratio
i off 2, and
(a)Cylindricalriser has the same length and cross
sectional area as the risers of the same volume with one has cylindrical shape
(b)Sphericalriser round casting. Both pieces are cast under the same and other is parallopiped. [30 Marks]

(c)Hemisphericalriser conditions. What is the difference in the solidification

(d)Cuboidsriser times
i off the
h two castings
i ? [ Marks]
[10 M k ]
Area of ellipse = ab
f = 3 ( a + b ) ( 3a + b )( a + 3b )

= 2 (a 2
+ b2 ) / 2 (approx.)

GATE2014 M d l M th d
A cylindrical
li d i l blind
bli d riser
i with
ith diameter
di t d and d height
h i ht h,
h is
i y It has
h been
b empirically
i i ll established
t bli h d that
th t if the
th modulus
d l
placed on the top of the mold cavity of a closed type of the riser exceeds the modulus of the casting
g byy a
sandd moldld as shown
h i the
in th figure.
fi If the
th riser
i i off
factor of 1.2, the feeding during solidification would be D2
constant volume, then the rate of solidification in the + D2
i is i the
th least
l t when
h theth ratio
ti h : d is
i 4
Sprue basin
d MR = 1.2
1 2 Mc

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 y Modulus = volume/Surface area

Riser h
(c) 1 : 4 (d) 4 : 1 y In steel castings, it is generally preferable to choose a
Mold cavity riser with a heighttodiameter ratio of 1.

C i Method
Caines M th d
ConventionalQuestionIES2008 Freezingratio=ratio ofcoolingcharacteristicsofcastingto
y Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and diameter
theriser. A ( V)
X= Casting

equal) necessary to feed a steel slab casting of dimensions ( AV ) Riser

30 x 30 x 6 cm with a side riser,
riser casting poured horizontally Th i h ld lidif l
into the mould.
AccordingtoCaine X= +c
[Use Modulus Method] Yb
[ 0 Marks]
[10 V riser

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 15 of 240 Rev.0

Table:ConstantsinCaines Method Chills
Conventional QuestionIES2007 y External chills are masses of highheatcapacity,
g p y, highthermal
y Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and conductivity material that are placed in the mould (adjacent to
the casting) to accelerate the cooling of various regions.
diameter equal)) necessary to feed a steel slab Chills can effectively promote directional solidification or
increase the effective feeding distance of a riser. They can often
casting of dimensions 25 x 25 x 5 cm with a side b used
be d to reduce
d the
h number
b off risers
i required
i d for
f a casting.
riser, casting poured horizontally into the mould. y Internal chills are pieces of metal that are placed within the
mould cavity to absorb heat and promote more rapid
[Use Caines Method] solidification. Since some of this metal will melt during the
ope at o , itt w
will abso
b not
ot o
onlyy tthee heatcapacity
eat capac ty eenergy,
e gy, but
[ For steel a = 0.10, b = 0.03 and c = 1.00 ] also some heat of fusion. Since they ultimately become part of
the final casting, internal chills must be made from the same
alloy as that being cast.

IES1995 GATE1998,2007,2014(PI) IAS1994

Directional solidification in castings can be Chills are used in moulds to (a) Achievedirectionalsolidification
improved by using (b) Reducepossibilityofblowholes
(a) Achieve directional solidification
(c) Reducethefreezingtime
(a) Chills and chaplets (b) Reduce the possibility of blowholes (d) Increasethesmoothnessofcastsurface
( ) Chills and padding
(b) (c) Reduce freezing time
(c) Chaplets and padding (d) Smoothen
S h metall flow
fl for
f reducing
d i splatter.
(d) Chills, chaplets and padding.

Cupola IES 2012

y Cupola has been the most widely used furnace for IES1997
melting cast iron.
iron Statement ((I):) Cupola
C p p y
furnace is not employed for
Assertion (A):
( ) Steell can be
b melted
l d in hot
h blast
bl cupola.
l melting steel in foundry
y In hot blast cupola, the flue gases are used to preheat the Reason (R): In hot blast cupola, the flue gases are used to
air blast to the cupola so that the temperature in the Statement ((II):) The temperatures
p generated within a
preheat the air blast to the cupola so that the temperature in cupola are not adequate for melting Steel
furnace is considerably higher than that in a the furnace is considerably higher than that in a
conventional cupola.
cupola Coke is fuel and Lime stone ((a)) Both Statement ((I)) and Statement ((II)) are
i l cupola.
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
(CaCO3) is mostly used flux. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of Statement (I)
y Cost
C off melting
l i low.
l explanation
l i off A (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
y Main disadvantages of cupola is that it is not possible to (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
produce iron below 2.8% carbon. correct explanation
l i off A explanation of Statement (I)
y Steel can be also p prepared
p in cupola
p byy employing
p y g (c) A is true but R is false (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
duplexing and triplexing operations. (d) A is false but R is true (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 16 of 240 Rev.0
Crucible Furnace or Pot Furnace Induction Furnace
Electric Arc Furnace
ElectricArcFurnace y Smaller foundries generally prefer the crucible furnace. y The induction furnaces are used for all types of
y The crucible is g
generallyy heated byy electric resistance materials, the chief advantage being that the heat
y For heavy steel castings,
castings the
or gas flame. source is isolated from the charge and the slag and flux
openhearth type of furnaces get the necessary heat directly from the charge instead
with electric arc or oil fired of the heat source.
would be generally suitable in
view of the large heat required
for melting.
y Electric arc furnaces are more
suitable for ferrous materials and
are larger in capacity.

g g( g)
Ladles Impuritiesinthemoltenmetalarepreventedfromreaching GATE1996
y yp g
y Twotypesofladlesusedinthepouringofcastings. (i) Strainer
Light impurities in the molten metal are prevented
(ii) Bottomwell f
from reaching
hi theth mouldld cavity
it by
b providing
idi a
(iii) Skimbob
(a) Strainer
(b) Button well
((c)) Skim bob
(d) All of the above

Pouring time
Pouringtime GATE2005 GATE 2006
In a sand casting operation, the total liquid head is
Timetakentofillthemouldwithtopgate maintained
i i d constant such h that
h it i is
i equall to the
h mouldld
Where A=Areaofmould A mould has a downsprue whose length is 20 cm height. The time taken to fill the mould with a top gate
tA = H H i ht f
ld andd the
th cross sectional
ti l area att the
th base
b off the
th i tA. If the
is h same mould ld is
i filled
fill d with
i h a bottom
b gate,
A g 2gh m
Ag =AreaofGate downsprue is 1cm2. The downsprue feeds a then the time taken is tB. Ignore the time required to
Hm =Gateheight h i
t l runner leading
l di into
i t the
th mould ld cavity
it off fill the
h runner and d frictional
fi i l effects.
ff A
volume 1000 cm3. The time required to fill the atmospheric pressure at the top molten metal surfaces.
mould cavity
ca it will
ill be Th relation
The l i between
b tA andd tB is
(a)4.05 s (b)5.05 s (c)6.05 s (d)7.25 s (A) tB = 2 t A

( )
2A (B) tB = 2 t A
tB = hm hm H tA
Ag 2g ((C)) tB =
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 17 of 240 Rev.0
(D) tB = 2 2 t A
GATE 2007(PI)LinkedS1
GATE 2007 (PI) Li k d S 1 GATE 2007(PI)LinkedS2
GATE 2007 (PI) Li k d S 2 Expressionforchokearea
In a sand casting process, a sprue of 10 mm base In a sand casting process, a sprue of 10 mm base m
diameter and 250 mm height leads to a runner diameter and 250 mm height leads to a runner CA = mm2
ct 2gH
which fills a cubical mould cavity of 100 mm size which fills a cubical mould cavity of 100 mm size
The volume flow rate (in mm3/s) is The mould filling time (in seconds) is Wherem=massofthecasting,kg
(a) 0.8 x 105 (b) 1.1 x 105 (a) 2.8 (b) 5.78 =Densityofmetal,kg/m3
p g
1 7 x 105
(c) 1.7 2 3 x 105
(d) 2.3 (c) 7.54
7 54 (d) 8.41
8 41


H h
f b tt t
IES2009 IAS2011Main
2 y 2marks
Sketch a mould for two hollow components to be
=h c forpartinglinegate
2hm cast. On the diagram, indicate runner, gate, riser,
core, cope, sprue, pouring basin, sprue well, drag,
parting line.
hm hm

P i li
t t ti li t b tt t

C ti D f t
CastingDefects G D f t
IES2013 Thefollowingarethemajordefects,whicharelikelyto
Th f ll i th j d f t hi h lik l t y A condition existing in a casting caused by the
When an alloy solidifies over a range of occurinsandcastings:
g trapping of gas in the molten metal or by mold gases
evolved during the pouring of the casting.
temperature, the resulting casting structure is: y Gasdefects y The defects in this category
g y can be classified into
(a) Wholly equiaxed blowholes and pinhole porosity.
y Shrinkagecavities
y Blowholes
ow o es aaree sp
e ca oor eelongated
o gated cav
t es p
ese t
( ) Wholly columnar
(b) y Moldingmaterialdefects in the casting on the surface or inside the casting.
(c) Partially columnar partially equiaxed
equi axed y Pinhole porosity occurs due to the dissolution of
y Pouringmetaldefects
hydrogen gas, which gets entrapped during heating of
(d) Dendritic y Moldshift.
M ld hift molten metal.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 18 of 240 Rev.0
Shrinkage Cavities
ShrinkageCavities Cutandwashes
d h
y These are caused by liquid shrinkage occurring during the
solidification of the casting. y These
Th appear as rough
h spots
t and
d areas off excess metal,
t l and
y Cutsandwashes, are caused by erosion of molding sand by the flowing
y To compensate for this, proper feeding of liquid metal is
required. For this reason risers are placed at the
appropriate places in the mold. y Scab y This is caused by the molding sand not having enough
strength and the molten metal flowing at high velocity.
y Sprues may be too thin, too long or not attached in the y Metalpenetration,
proper location, causing shrinkage cavities. y The former can be taken care of by the proper choice of
molding sand and the latter can be overcome by the
y It is recommended to use thick sprues to avoid shrinkage y Fusion,and
proper design of the gating system.
y Swell
S ll

Scab M t l
t ti
y This defect occurs when a portion of the face of a mould
y When molten metal enters into the gaps between sand
lifts or breaks down and the recess thus made is filled by y This is caused by the fusion of the sand grains with
grains, the result is a rough casting surface.
y This occurs because the sand is coarse or no mold wash was th molten
the lt metal,
t l giving
i i a brittle,
b ittl glassy
l appearance
y When the metal is poured into the cavity, gas may be
applied on the surface of the mold. The coarser the sand
disengaged with such violence as to break up the sand,
grains more the metal p
g penetration. on the casting
g surface.
hi h is
i then
h washed
h d away and
d the
h resulting
l i cavity
i filled
fill d
with metal. y The main reason for this is that the clay or the sand
y The
Th reasons can be:b too fine
fi sand,d low
l permeability
bili off
sand, high moisture content of sand and uneven mould particles are of lower refractoriness or that the
i pouring temperature is too high.

P i M t lD f t
PouringMetalDefects y The misrun and cold shut defects are caused either by
Under the influence of metallostatic forces, the mold The likely defects in this category are a lower fluidity of the mold or when the section
wall may move back causing a swell in the dimension y Misruns and thickness of the casting is very small. Fluidity can be
off the
th casting.
ti A proper ramming
i off the
th moldld will
ill y Cold shuts improved by changing the composition of the metal
correct this defect. and by increasing the pouring temperature of the
y A misrun is caused when the metal is unable to fill
Inclusions the mold cavity completely and thus leaves unfilled
Particles of slag, refractory materials sand or cavities.
deoxidation products are trapped in the casting during
pouring solidification.
ldf The
h provision off choke
h k in the
h y A cold shut is caused when two streams while meeting
gating system and the pouring basin at the top of the in the mold cavity, do not fuse together properly thus
ld can preventt this
thi defect
d f t forming a discontinuity in the casting.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 19 of 240 Rev.0
GATE 2014
GATE2014 GATE2004 GATE2009
Match the casting defects (Group A) with the probable
causes (Group B): Two streams of liquid metal which are not hot
GroupA GroupB Misrun is a casting defect which occurs due to
P: Hot tears 1: Improper fusion of two streams of liquid enough
h to
t fuse
f properly
l result
lt into
i t a casting
ti defect
d f t
metal (a) Very high pouring temperature of the metal
known as
Q: Shrinkage 2: Low permeability of the sand mould (b) Insufficient fluidity of the molten metal
R: Blow holes 33: Volumetric contraction both in liquid
q and (a) Cold shut
solid stage (c) Absorption of gases by the liquid metal
(b) Swell
S: Cold Shut 4: Differential cooling rate
(d) Improper
I alignment
li off the
h mould
ld flasks
fl k
P Q R S P Q R S (c) Sand wash
(a) 1 3 2 4 (b) 4 3 2 1
(d) Scab
(c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 1 2 4 3

ld h f Metallurgical defects
y Hot tears or hot cracking, cause of this defect is that
The mold shift defect occurs when cope and drag stresses and strains built up during solidification are too
high compared to the actual strength of the semisolid The hot tearing in a metal casting is due to
or molding
ldi boxes
b h
have nott been
b properly
l aligned.
li d material. This type of defects occurs in the lower part of
the solidification range, close to the solidus, when the (a) high fluidity
alloy has a wide solidification temperature range and a
(b) high melt temperature
small amount of liquid, when the solid fraction is more
than 0.9, the hot tearing is easy to occur. Proper mould (c) wide range of solidification temperature
design prevents this type of defect.
y Hot spots are areas on the surface of casting that (d) low
l coefficient
ffi i off thermal
h l expansion
become veryy hard because theyy cooled more q quicklyy
than the surrounding material.

IES2001 IAS2004 GATE2003

MatchList I(CastingDefects)withList II(Explanation)andselectthecorrect
answerusingthecodesgivenbelowthelists: Hardnessofgreensandmouldincreaseswith
ListI ListII
Scabisa (CastingDefects) (Explanation) (a) Increaseinmoisturecontentbeyond6percent
y p
A.Metallicprojections 1.Consistofroundedorroughinternalorexposedcavities
includingblowholesandpinholes (b) Increaseinpermeability
(a) Sandcastingdefect B.Cavities 2.Formedduringmelting,solidificationandmoulding.
C.Inclusions 3.Includessinglefolds,laps,scarsadheringsandlayersand (c) Decreaseinpermeability
(b) Machiningdefect oxidescale
(d) Increaseinbothmoisturecontentand
D.Discontinuities 4.Includecracks,coldorhottearingandcoldshuts
Consistoffins flashormassi eprojectionsandrough permeability
(c) Weldingdefect surfaces
Codes:A B C D A B C D
(a) 1 5 3 2 (b) 1 5 2 4
(d) Forgingdefect
F i d f (c) 5 1 2 4 (d) 5 1 3 2

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 20 of 240 Rev.0

IES1998 IES2005 IES1997
A i (A) S iff i b h b In gating system design, which one of the If the melting ratio of a cupola is 10: 1, then the
andribs,usedonacastingshouldbeliberally following is the correct sequence in which choke coke requirement for one ton melt will be
provided. area, pouring time, pouring basin and sprue sizes (a) 0.1 ton
Reason(R):Theywillprovideadditionalstrength are calculated?
toacastmember (b) 10 tons
(a) Chokearea Pouringtime Pouringbasin Sprue (c) 1 ton
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
correctexplanationofA (b) Pouringbasin
ou g bas Sprue
Sp ue C
o e a ea Pouringtime
ou g t e (d) 11 tons
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the (c) Chokearea Sprue Pouringbasin Pouringtime
correctexplanationofA (d) Pouringbasin
P i b i Pouringtime
P i ti Chokearea
Ch k Sprue
(c) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue
Ai f l b tRi t

IES2009 IAS2001 IAS2004

In which one of the following furnaces most of the Whichofthefollowingpatternmaterialsareused Whichoneofthefollowinggatingsystemsisbest
nonferrous alloys are melted? inPrecisionCasting? suitedtoobtaindirectionalsolidification?
(a) Reverberatory furnace 1. PlasterofParis (a) Topgrating
(b) Induction furnace 2. Plastics (b) Part
(c) Crucible furnace 3. AnodizedAluminium Alloy (c) Bottomgrating
(d) Pot
P t furnace
f 4. FrozenMercury
F M (d) Steppedgrating
St d ti
(a)1and2(b) 2and4(c)3and4(d)1and3

Cast Aluminium Code

CastAluminiumCode C l i i C d
y Fourdigitidentificationsystem
y Second two digits identify the aluminium alloy or In the designation of Aluminium casting A514.0
A514 0
y Firstdigitindicatesalloygroup indicate the aluminium purity. indicates :
1 Aluminium,99%ormore
, 99 y The last digit is separating from the other three by a ( ) Aluminium
(a) Al i i purity
2 copper decimal point and indicates the product form; that is, (b) Aluminium content
3 Silicon,withcopperand/ormagnesium
3 Silicon withcopperand/ormagnesium castings or ingots
(c) Percentage of alloy element
4 silicon y A modification of the original alloy is indicated by a
(d) Magnesium Content
5 magnesium serial
i l letter
l tt before
b f th numerical
the i l designation.
d i ti
6 notused y Alloy A514.0 indicates an aluminium alloy casting with
magnesium as the principal alloy. One modification to A
Ans. (d)
7 zinc
the original alloy has made, as indicated by the letter A.
8 tin
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
9 otherelements Page 21 of 240 Rev.0
y Can produce complex parts.
y The sand is mixed with a thermosetting resin is
allowed to come in contact with a heated metal pattern y A good
d surface
f fi i h and
finish d good
d size
i t l

SpecialCasting (2000C).
y A skin
ki (shell)
( h ll) off about
b 3.5 mm off sand
mixture adhere to the pattern.
d and
d plastic
l i
reduce the need for machining.

y Materials can be cast: CI, Al and Cu alloys.

y Then the shell is removed from the pattern.
y The cope
p and drag g shells are kept
p in a flask with
necessary backup material and the molten metal is
poured into the mold.

MoldingSandinShellMolding y Hot coating: the mixture is heated to 150oC 180oC prior

y The molding sand is a mixture of fine grained quartz sand to loading the sand. In the course of sand mixing, the

d powdered
d d bakelite.
b k li soluble phenol formaldehyde resin is added.
added The mixer is
allowed to cool up to 80 90o C. Hot coting gives better
y Cold coating and Hot coating methods are used for
properties to the mixtures than cold method.
coating the sand grains with bakelite.

y Cold coating: quartz sand is poured into the mixer and

th the
then th solution
l ti off powdered
d d bakelite
b k lit in
i acetone
t and
ethyl aldehyde are added. (mixture is 92% quartz sand,
h ll ldi
5% bakelite, 3% ethylaldehyde )

Ad t
Advantages Li it ti
y Expensive pattern
y Dimensional
Di i l accuracy.

y Smoother surface finish.

finish (Due to finer size grain used) y Small size casting
g only.
y y Cylinders and cylinder heads for air cooled IC

y Highly complicated shapes cannot be obtained.

y Very
y thin sections can be cast.
y Automobile transmission parts.
y Very small amount of sand is needed. y More sophisticated equipment is needed for handling
the shell moldings. y Piston rings

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 22 of 240 Rev.0

IES 2010
IES2010 IES1996
Consider the following ingredients used in Inshellmoulding,howcantheshellthickness
I h ll ldi h th h llthi k
mouldcasting: moulding: beaccuratelymaintained?
Cl di i lt l 1. Dry silica sand ( )
2.Goodsurfacefinish. 2.Clay isincontactwithmould
3.Lowcost. 3.Phenol formaldehyde
E i 4.Sodium
S di silicate
ili t
Whichofthesearecorrect? Those used for shell mould casting include
C 380oC
(a) 1, 2 and 4 (b) 2, 3 and 4
(a)1,2and3only (b)2,3and4only (d)Bythetypeofbinderused
((c)) 1and 3 ((d)) 1,, 2,, 3 and 4
( )
(c)1,2and4only ( )

IES2006 IES2007 IAS2007

Shellmouldingcanbeusedfor: The mould in shell moulding process is made up
(a) Producingmillingcutters
g g Which of the following are employed in shell
ldi ? off which
hi h off the
th following?
f ll i ?
(b) Makinggoldornaments
1. Resin binder 2. Metal pattern 3. Heating coils
(c) Producingheavyandthickwalledcasting (a) Gypsum + setting agents
Select the correct answer using the code given
(d) Producingthincasting below: (b) Green sand + clayy
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 and 3 only
(c) Sodium silicate + dried sand
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1,
1 2 and 3
(d) Dried silica + phenolic resin

IAS1999 I t t C ti
M t h List
Li t I (Moulding
(M ldi Process)
P ) with
ith List
Li t II (Binding
(Bi di Investment casting process or lost wax process
Agent) and select the correct answer using the codes Basic steps:
given below the lists:
g 1 Produce expendable wax,
1. wax plastic,
plastic or polystyrene patterns.
List I List II
2. Assemble these patterns onto a gating system
A. Green sand 1. Silicate
3 Investing or covering the pattern assembly with refractory
B. Core sand 2. Organic
C. Shell moulding 3. Clay
4 Melting the pattern assembly to remove the pattern material
D. CO process 4. Plaster
Pl off Paris
P i
5. Plastic 5. Firing the mould to remove the last traces of the pattern
Codes:A B C D A B C D material
(a) 3 2 5 1 (b) 3 2 4 1 6. Pouring molten metal
(c) 2 3 5 4 (d) 2 3 4 5 7. Knockout, cutoff and finishing.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 23 of 240 Rev.0
y In ceramic shell investment casting a ceramic shell is y 2marks
built around a tree assembly by repeatedly dipping a
pattern into a slurry (refractory material such as
zircon with binder).

y After each dipping and stuccoing is completed, the

assembly is allowed to thoroughly dry before the next
coating is applied.

Advantages Limitations Applications

y Tight dimensional tolerances
y Costly patterns and moulds y Aerospace and rocket components.
y Excellent surface finish (1.2 3 0 m )
(1 2 to 3.0
y Labour costs can be high y Vanes and blades for gas turbines.
y Machining
g can be reduced or completely
p y
eliminated y Limited size y Surgical instruments

y High melting point alloy can be cast, almost any

metal can be cast
y Almost unlimited intricacy

IES2011 GATE2006 GATE2011(PI)

The proper sequence of investment casting steps is :
(a) Slurry coating pattern melt outShakeout Stucco An expendable pattern is used in Which of the following casting processes uses
ti ( ) Slush
(a) l h casting
(b) Stucco coating Slurry coating Shakeout Pattern expendable pattern and expendable mould?
(b) Squeeze casting
melt out (c) Centrifugal casting (a) Shell mould casting
(c) Slurryy coating
g Stucco coating
g Pattern melt out (d) Investment casting
Shakeout ( ) Investment casting
(d) Stucco coating Shakeout Slurry coating Pattern (c) Pressure die casting
melt out
(d) Centrifugal casting
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 24 of 240 Rev.0
IES1992 20 0
ISRO2010 Themostpreferredprocessforcastinggasturbine
Investment casting is used for bladesis:
2 Wood
(a) Shapes which are made by difficulty using complex (a) Diemoulding
tt i sand
in d casting
ti (b) Shellmoulding
(c) Investmentmoulding
(b) Mass production
p investmentcastingprocess?
(d) Sandcasting
S d ti
(a)1,2and3 (b)1and2only
(c) Shapes which are very complex and intricate and
(c)2and3only (d)1and3only
can't be cast by any other method
(d) There is nothing like investment casting

IES 2010
IES2010 IES 2007
IES2007 IES2006
( ) The investment casting
Assertion (A): g is used for Consider the following statements in respect of
precision parts such as turbine plates, sewing investment castings: Which of the following materials are used for
machines etc. 1. The pattern or patterns is/are not joined to a stalk or making patterns in investment casting method?
sprue also of wax to form a tree of patterns. 1. Wax 2. Rubber 3. Wood 4. Plastic
Reason (R): The investment castings have a good
surface finish and are exact reproductions of the 2.The prepared moulds are placed in an oven and heated Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
gently to dry off the invest and melt out the bulk of wax.
master pattern. (a) Only 1 and 3 (b) Only 2 and 3
3.The moulds are usually poured by placing the moulds in
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the ( ) Only
(c) O l 1, 2 andd4 (d) Only
O l 2, 3 and d4
a vacuum chamber. Which of the statements given above
correct explanation of A are correct?
(b) Both
B th A and d R are individually
i di id ll true
t b t R is
but i NOT the
th (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 and 3 only
correct explanation of A (c)2 and 3 onlyy (d) 1, 2 and 3
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IAS1996 PermanentMouldCasting Advantages

Light and intricate parts with close dimensional
y The process in which we use a die to make the y Good surface finish and dimensional accuracy
tolerances of the order of 0.005 mm are
castings is called permanent mold casting or gravity y Metal
M l mold
ld gives
i rapid
id cooling
li and
d finegrain
fi i
produced by
die casting, since the metal enters the mold under structure
(a) Investment castingg gravity.
(b) Die casting y Multipleuse molds.
y Some time in diecasting we inject the molten metal
(c) Centrifugal casting with a high pressure.
pressure When we apply pressure in
(d) Shell mould casting injecting the metal it is called pressure die casting
y Grey cast iron is used for mould material.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 25 of 240 Rev.0

IES 2013
Disadvantages Applications Statement (I): Mould walls of a permanent mould are
kept thick.
y High initial mold cost Statement (II): The thicker mould walls retain
y Pistons/cylinders/rods
y Shape,
Shape size
size, and complexity are limited maximum
i h
heat i
i flow
fl off molten
l metal.
y Mold life is very limited with highmeltingpoint y Gears
metals such as steel.
steel (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
y Low melting point metals can be cast y Kitchenware true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of
Statement (I)
Zinc (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
Magnesium alloys true but Statement ((II)) is not the correct explanation
p of
Brass Statement (I)
Cast iron (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

DieCasting Hotchambermachinesare
y Molten metal is injected into closed metal dies under
Die casting machines can be
y Good for low temperature (approx. 400C)
pressures ranging from 100 to 150 MPa. y Faster than
h cold
ld chamber
h b machines

y Pressure is maintained during solidification y Hotchamber y Cycle times must be short to minimize metal
y After which the dies separate and the casting is ejected y Coldchamber y Metal starts in a heated cylinder
along with its attached sprues and runners. y A piston forces metal into the die
y The piston retracts,
retracts and draws metal in
y Cores must be simple and retractable and take the y Metal: Lead, Tin, Zinc
form of moving metal segments

y Castshighmeltingpointmetals(>600C)

y Highpressuresused

y Metalisheatedinaseparatecrucible
l h d bl
y Metalisladledintoacoldchamber

y Themetalisrapidlyforcedintothemoldbeforeit
y Copper
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
HotChamber Page 26 of 240 Rev.0
y Extremelysmoothsurfaces(1m) Limitations Applications
y Carburettors
y Excellentdimensionalaccuracy y Highinitialdiecost
y Automotive
A t ti parts
y Rapidproductionrate y Limitedtohighfluiditynonferrousmetals
y Bathroom fixtures

y Bettermechanicalpropertiescomparedtosand y Partsizeislimited y Toys

casting y Porositymaybeaproblem
P it b bl
Common metals
y Somescrapinsprues,runners,andflash,butthiscan
p p , , ,
y Intricatepartspossible y Alloys
All off aluminum,
l i zinc,
i magnesium,
i and
d lead
l d
bedirectlyrecycled y Also possible with alloys of copper and tin
y Minimumfinishingoperations

y Thinsectionspossible

IES2011 IES2009 20 0
Consider the following advantages of die casting over Assertion (A) ( ) : In die casting g method,, small
Which of the following are the most suitable thickness can be filled with liquid metal.
sand casting :
materials for die casting?
1 Rapidity of the process
1. Reason (R) : The air in die cavity trapped inside the
(a) Zinc and its alloys casting causes problems.
2. Smooth surface
3 Strong dense metal structure
3. (b) Copper and its alloys (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
Which of these advantages are correct ? (c) Aluminium and its alloys correctexplanationofA
( ) 1, 2 and
(a) d3 (d) Lead
L d andd its
it alloys
ll (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot
B hA dR i di id ll b Ri the
(b) 1 and 2 only correctexplanationofA
(c) 2 and 3 only (c) AistruebutRisfalse
(d) 1 and 3 onlyy ((d)) AisfalsebutRistrue

IES2005 IES2006 IES1995

Which one of the following processes produces a In which of the following are metal moulds used? Assertion
A i (A):
(A) An
A aluminium
l i i alloy
ll with
i h 11 % silicon
ili is
casting when pressure forces the molten metal used for making engine pistons by die casting
(a) Greensand mould technique.
into the mould cavity? (b) Dry sand mould Reason (R): Aluminium has low density and addition
(a) Shell moulding
g (b) Investment casting
g (c) Die casting process of silicon improves
p its fluidity
y and therefore its
(c) Die casting (d) Continuous casting castability.
(d) Loam moulding
(a) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct
explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation
l i off A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false
f l but
b R is true
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 27 of 240 Rev.0
IES1995 IAS2007 IAS1996
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswertakingthehelp Assertion
A i (A):
(A) Die
Di casting i yields
i ld a product
d off goodd
ofcodesgivenbelowthelists: Considerthefollowingstatements:
ListI ListII 1. Zincdiecastingshavelowstrength.
g g accuracy and finish.
(Products) (Processofmanufacture) R
Reason (R) Low
(R): L melting
li alloys
ll used
d ini diedi
A. Automobilepistoninaluminium alloy 1.Pressurediecasting 2. Inthediecastingprocess,verythinsectionsor casting.
B. Enginecrankshaftinspheroidal
hi i 2.Gravitydiecasting
G i di i ( ) Both
(a) B h A and d R are individually
i di id ll true and d R isi the
C. Carburettor housinginaluminium alloy 3.Sandcasting Whichofthestatementsgivenaboveis/arecorrect? correct explanation of A
D. Casttitaniumblades 4.Precisioninvestment
i ( ) 1only
(a) l (b) Both
B h A and d R are individually
i di id ll true butb R is
i not theh
5.Shellmoulding correct explanation of A
Code: A B C D A B C D (b) 2only
(a) 2 3 1 5 (b) 3 2 1 5 (c) Both1and2 ( ) A is
(c) i true but
b R is i false
f l
(c) 2 1 3 4 (d) 4 1 2 3
((d)) Neither1nor2 (d) A is false but R is true

IES2011 GATE2007 IES1995

Consider the following statements : Assertion
A i (A):
(A) Aluminium
Al i i alloys
ll are cast ini hot
1. Hot chamber machine is used for casting zinc, tin and Which of the following engineering materials is chamber die casting machine.
th lowl melting
lti alloys.
ll th mostt suitable
the it bl candidate
did t for
f hot
h t chamber
h b die di Reason (R): Aluminium alloys require high melting
casting? when compared to zinc alloys.
2. Cold chamber machine is used for die casting of
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
ferrous alloys ( ) Low carbon
(a) b steell explanation of A
33. Rapid
p cooling
g rate in die casting g p
produces high
g (b) Titanium (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
strength and quality in many alloys. (c) Copper correct explanation of A
Which of these statements are correct? (d) Tin ((c)) A is true but R is false
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only
(d) A is false but R is true
( ) 2 and
(c) d 3 only
l (d) 1 andd 3 only

Centrifugal Casting
( )
GATE2009(PI) y Process: Molten metal is introduced into a rotating
g sand,
metal, or graphite mould, and held against the mould
Hot chamber die casting process is NOT suited for
wall by centrifugal force until it is solidified
(a) Lead and its alloy
y A mold is set up and rotated along a vertical (rpm is
(b) Zinc and its alloy
reasonable), or horizontal (2001000 rpm is reasonable)
( ) Tin
(c) Ti and
d its
it alloy
((d)) Aluminum and its alloyy
y The
Th mold
ld is
i coated
d with
i h a refractory
f coating.

y During cooling lower density impurities will tend to rise

Fi T
if l i
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) towards the center ofPage 28 of 240
rotation. Rev.0
ti Advantages Li it ti
y The mechanical properties of centrifugally cast jobs are y Fine
Fi grained
i d structure
t t att the
th outer
t surface
f off the
th y More segregation of alloy component during pouring under
better compared to other processes, because the inclusions casting free of gas and shrinkage cavities and the forces of rotation
such as slag and oxides get segregated towards the centre porosity
and can be easily removed by machining. Also, the y Contamination of internal surface of castings with non
pressure acting
p g on the metal throughout
g the solidification y Formation of hollow interiors in cylinders without
causes the porosity to be eliminated giving rise to dense cores metallic
lli inclusions
i l i
metal. y Can p produce a wide range g of cylindrical
y parts,
p y Inaccurate internal diameter
y No cores are required for making concentric holes in the including ones of large size.
case of true centrifugal casting. y Good dimensional accuracy, soundness, and y Shape is limited.
cleanliness y Spinning equipment can be expensive
y There is no need for gates and runners,
runners which
y Poor machinability
increases the casting yield, reaching almost 100 %.

Commonmetals GATE2002 GATE1993
y Iron
Centrifugally cast products have
y steel In centrifugal casting, the impurities are (a) Large
g g
grain structure with high
g pporosityy
y stainlesssteel
t i l t l ( ) Uniformly
(a) f l distributed
d b d (b) Fine grain structure with high density
y alloysofaluminium,copper,andnickel (b) Forced towards the outer surface (c) Fine grain structure with low density
(c) Trapped near the mean radius of the casting (d) Segregation of slug towards the outer skin of the
(d) Collected at the centre of the casting casting

IES2008 IES2009
( )
GATE2008(PI) Which of the following casting processes does not
In hollow cylindrical parts, made by centrifugal casting, /do not require central core for producing pipe? Which one of the following casting processes is
1 Sand casting process
1. b t
best suited
it d t
to make
k bi
bigger size
i h ll
the density of the part is
2. Die casting process
3 Centrifugal casting process
3. symmetrical
y pipes?
p p
( ) maximum
(a) i at the
h outer region
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) Die casting
(b) maximum at the inner region ( ) 1 and
(a) d2
(b) 2 only (b) Investment casting
((c)) maximum at the midpoint
p between outer and inner
(c) 2 and 3 (c) Shell moulding
(d) 3 onlyy
(d) uniform throughout (d) Centrifugal casting
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 29 of 240 Rev.0
IES2007 IES1998 IES2009
Which one of the following is the correct Poormachinability ofcentrifugallycastironpipe Which of the following are the most likely
statement? isdueto characteristics in centrifugal casting?
In a centrifugal casting method (a) Chilling (a) Fine grain size and high porosity
(a) No core is used (b) Segregation (b) Coarse grain size and high porosity
(b) Core may be made of any metal (c) Densestructure (c) Fine grain size and high density
( ) Core
(c) C i made
is d off sand
d (d) Highmouldrotationspeed
Hi h ld t ti d (d) Coarse
C grain
i size
i andd high
hi h density
d it
(d) Core is made of ferrous metal

IES2007 IES2000 IAS2004

M t hLi tI(P ) ithLi tII(P d t / t i l )
ListI ListII andselectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgiven MatchListI(NameoftheProcess)withListII(Advantage)andselectthecorrect
(CastingProcess) (Principle) belowtheLists: List I
ListI List II
A. Diecasting 1.Themetalsolidifiesinarotatingmould ListI ListII (NameoftheProcess) (Advantage)
B. Investmentcasting 2.Thepatternclusterisrepeatedlydipped
intoaceramicslurryanddustedwith A. Diecasting 1.Phenolformaldehyde A. SandCasting 1.Largecylindricalpartswithgoodquality
f B
B. C
i ld ti 2.Excellentdimensionalaccuracyandsurface
E ll tdi i l d f
C. Shellmoulding 3.Moltenmetalisforcedbypressureinto
B. Shellmolding 2.C.I.pipes finish
ametallicmould C. CO2 molding 3.Nonferrousalloys C. Diecasting 3.Intricateshapesandclosetoleranceparts
D. Centrifugalcasting 4 Aftercooling theinvestisremoved
fromthe Castingbypressurejettingor D Centrifugalcasting
D. C if l i 4.Sodiumsilicate
S di ili D
D. C
if l i 4.Almostanymetaliscastandthereifnolimitto
Al li d h if li i
vibratorycleaning size,shapeandweight
Code: A B C D A B C D
Codes:A B C D A B C D 5.Gooddimensionalaccuracy,finishandlow
(a) 2 1 3 4 (b) 3 4 2 1 (a) 1 3 4 2 (b) 3 1 4 2 porosity
(c) 2 4 3 1 (c) 3 1 2 4 (c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 1 3 2 4 Codes:A B C D A B C D
(a) 2 3 5 1 (b) 4 1 2 3

(c) 2 1 5 3 (d) 4 3 2 1

SemicentrifugalCasting IAS2003
A i (A):
(A) S Semicentrifugal
i if l casting
i process isi
y Centrifugal force assists the flow of metal from a similar to true centrifugal casting except that the
t l reservoir
i to
t the
th extremities
t iti off a rotating
t ti central core is used in it to form inner surface.
Reason (R): In semicentrifugal casting process the
y mold,, which mayy be either expendable
p or p is always
axis of spin y vertical
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
multipleuse p
explanation of A
y Rotational speeds are lower than for true centrifugal (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
casting (c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
y Cores can be used to increase the complexity of the
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 30 of 240 Rev.0
product. Fig. Semicentrifugalcasting
Statement (I): In semi centrifugal casting a particular Centrifuging
p of the casting
shape g is p
produced byy mould, core and the
centrifugal force of molten metal. y Uses centrifuging action to force the metal from a central
Statement (II): The centrifugal force aids to proper pouring reservoir into separate mold cavities that are
feeding to produce the casting free from porosity.
offset from the axis of rotation.
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of y Low speed
Statement (I) y May used to assist in the pouring of investment casting
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
true b t Statement
but St t t (II) is
i nott the
th correctt explanation
l ti off
Statement (I)
( ) Statement (I)
(c) ( ) is true but
b Statement (II)
( ) is false
f l
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true Fig.Methodofcastingbythecentrifugingprocess

IES2000 DrySandMolding SlushCasting

M t hLi tI(T f ti ) ithLi tII(W ki i i l )
andselectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelowthe y To reduce gas forming materials air dried mould used. y Slush casting is a variation of the permanent mold process
Lists: in which the metal is permitted to remain in the mold only
Li tI
ListI Li tII
ListII Types: until a shell of the desired thickness has formed.
A. Diecasting 1.Moltenmetalisforcedintothedie
underpressure y The mold is then inverted and the remaining liquid is
B. Centrifugalcasting 2.Axisofrotationdoesnotcoincidewith 1 Skin drying and
1.Skin poured out.
C. Centrifuging
g g 33.Metalsolidifieswhenmouldisrotating
g 2.Complete mold drying y When the mold halves are separated, the resulting casting
D. Continuouscasting 4.Continuouslypouringmoltenmetal is a hollow shape with good surface detail but variable wall
intomould thickness.
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 1 3 2 4 (b) 4 3 2 1 y Frequently used to cast lowmeltingtemperature metals
(c) 1 2 3 4 (d) 4 2 3 1 into ornamental objects such as candlesticks, lamp bases,
andd statuary.

IAS2004 IES2011 IES 2012

The method of casting for producing ornamental pieces The process of making hollow castings of non circular
Which of the following are produced by slush
are: shape and desired thickness by permanent mould
( ) Slush
(a) Sl h and d gravity
it casting
ti without the use of cores is known as
(a) Hollow castings with thick walls
(b) Pressed and slush casting (a) Die casting (b) Slush casting
(b) Hollow castings with thin walls
(c) Gravity and semi permanent mould casting ( ) Pressed
(c) P d casting
ti (d) Centrifugal
C t if l casting
(c) Thin castings
(d) Thick
Thi k castings
ti (d) Semi permanent mould and pressed casting

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 31 of 240 Rev.0

SqueezeCasting IAS2002 Si l C
lC i
M t hLi tI(C ti P ) ithLi tII The process is effectively:
(Applications)andselectthecorrectanswerusingthe 1. Prepare a mold so that one end is a heated oven, and
1. Molten metal is ppoured into an open
p face die. codesgivenbelowtheLists:
the other end chilled.
chilled The part should be oriented so
2. A punch is advanced into the die, and to the metal. ListI ListII
that the cooling happens over the longest distance.
(CastingProcess) (Applications)
3 Pressure (less than forging) is applied to the punch
3.Pressure 2. Cast
C t metalt l into
i t the
th mold ld
A. Centrifugalcasting 1. Carburetor
and die while the part solidifies. B. Squeezecasting 2. Pipes 3. Solidification will begin at the chill plate. These
Th punch h is
i retracted,
t t d and d the
th partt is
i knocked
k k d outt C DieCasting
C. Di C i 3. Wh l f
Wheelsfor dendrites will grow towards the heated end of the
with an ejector pin. automobiles
part as long dendritic crystals. The part is slowly
4. Gearhousings
y Overcomes problemsbl withh feeding
f d the
h die,
d and
d pulled out of the oven, past the chill plate.
Codes:A B C A B C
produces near net, highly detailed parts. 4. Remove the solidified p
4 part.
(a) 2 3 1 (b) 4 1 3
(c) 2 1 3 (d) 4 3 1

l i
y Process: A slurry of plaster,
plaster water,
water and various additives is
y Creepandthermalshockresistanceproperties. additives is pouted over a pattern and allowed to set. The
pattern is removed and the mould is baked to remove
excess water. After pouring and solidification, the mould is
broken and the castingg is removed.
y Advantage: High dimensional accuracy and smooth
surface finish,, thin sections and intricate detail can
y Limitations: Lowertemperature
p nonferrous metals only:y
y Common metals: Primarily aluminium and copper

PitMoulding IES1996 LoamMoulding

y This method is used for very large castings and is done on Whichofthefollowingpairsarecorrectlymatched?
the foundry floor. 1. Pitmouldingg ..................Forlargejobs.
g j y Moulding
g loam is g
generallyy artificiallyy composed
p of
2. Investmentmoulding ...Lostwaxprocess. common brickclay, and sharp sand.
3 PlastermouldingMouldpreparedin
3. Plastermoulding Mouldpreparedin
gypsum. y Loam means mud.
( ) 1,2and3
(a) d (b) 1and2
d y Loam Moulding is restricted to forms which cannot be
(c) 1and3 (d) 2and3
cast conveniently in any other process.

y It is costly.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 32 of 240 Rev.0
IES1997 GATE1998 GATE1992
Which one of the following pairs is not correctly ListI
Li tI ListII
Li tII Matchthefollowingmoulding/castingprocesseswith
M h h f ll i ldi / i i h
matched? (A) Sandcasting (1) Symmetricaland theproduct:
circularshapesonly Moulding/Castingprocesses Product
(a) Aluminium alloy piston Pressure die casting (B) Plastermouldcasting (2) Partshavehardened (A) Slushcasting (P)Turbineblade
(b) Jewellery.. Lost wax process skinsandsoftinterior
(C) Shellmouldcasting (3) Minimumpost (B) Shellmoulding (Q)Machinetoolbed
(c) Large pipes ..Centrifugal casting castingprocessing (C) Drysandmoulding (R)Cylinderblock
(d) Large
L b ll Loam
bells L moulding
ldi (D) Investmentcasting (4) Partshaveatendency (D) Centrifugalcasting
C t if l ti (S)H ll ti
towarp likelampshades
(5) Partshavesoftskin (T)Rainwaterpipe
(6) Suitableonlyfornon
t l brake

GATE1996 IES2003 IES1993

ListI ListII MatchListI(Products)withListII(CastingProcess)andselect
M t hLi tI(P d t ) ithLi tII(C ti P ) d l t MatchtheitemsofListI(Equipment)withtheitems
M h h i fLi I(E i ) i h h i
(A) Rivetsforaircraftbody
y 1. Forging
g g ListI ListII
(Products) (CastingProcess)
(B) Carburettor body 2. Coldheading A. Hollowstatues 1. CentrifugalCasting ListI(Equipment) ListII(Process)
(C) Crankshafts 3
3. Aluminiumbased B
B. Dentures 2
2. InvestmentCasting P HotChamberMachine 1. 1 Cleaning
C. Aluminium alloypistons 3. SlushCasting
alloy Q Muller 2. Coremaking
D. Rockerarms 4. ShellMoulding
(D) Nails
N il 4. P
di ti 5. G i Di C i
GravityDieCasting R DielectricBaker 3
3. Diecasting
5. Investmentcasting Codes: A B C D A B C D S SandBlaster 4. Annealing
) 33 2 4
4 5 ((b)
) 1 33 4
4 5 5
5. Sandmixing
(c) 1 2 3 4 (d) 3 2 5 4
(a) P2,Q1,R4,S5 (b) P4,Q2,R3,S5
(c) P4,Q5,R1,S2
P 4 Q 5 R 1 S 2 (d) P3,Q5,R2,S1
P 3 Q 5 R 2 S 1

IAS2004 GATE 2007(PI)

GATE 2007 (PI)
M hLi I(N f h C i P ) i hLi II(P D fi i i ) d l
Match the lists
ListI ListII Group1 Group2
(NameoftheCastin Process)
(NameoftheCastingProcess) (ProcessDefinition)
A. Diecasting 1.Thisprocessinvolvesuseofamouldmadeof P.SandCasting 1.Turbineblades
Driedsilicasandandphenolic resinmixture
B. El t l casting
Electroslag ti 2.Inthisprocess,moltenmetalisforcedby
I thi lt t li f db Q CentrifugalCasting
Q.CentrifugalCasting 2 ICEnginePistons
C. Centrifugalcasting 3.Thisprocessemploysaconsumableelectrode R.InvestmentCasting 3.Largebells
D. P i i
i 4.Thisprocessinvolvesrotatingamouldwhilethe
Thi i l i ld hil h
metalsolidifies S.DieCasting 4.Pulleys
(a) P 4, Q 1, R 3, S 2 (b) P 2, Q 4, R 3, S 1
(a) 5
2 (b)
((c)) P 3, Q 4, R 1,, S 2 ( ) P 3, Q 2,, R 1,, S 4
(d) BySKMondal
(c) 5 For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
3 4 2 (d) 2 4 1 5 Page 33 of 240 Rev.0
WeldingDefinition Requirementforahighqualitywelding Cl ifi ti
f ldi
Oxy fuel gas welding (OFW)
y Welding is a process by which two materials, usually Arc
A welding
ldi (Aw)
(A )
1. A source of satisfactory heat and/or pressure,
metals, are permanently joined together by Resistance welding
coalescence, which is induced by a combination of 2. A means of protecting or cleaning the metal, and Solid
l d state welding
ld (f
(friction welding,
ld ultrasonic
l welding,
temperature, pressure, and metallurgical conditions. forge welding etc.)
3 Caution to avoid,
3. avoid or compensate for,
for harmful
y The particular combination of these variables can y Unique process
g from high
range g temperature with no pressure to highg metallurgical
g effects. Thermit welding
pressure with no increase in temperature. Laser beam welding
y Welding (positive process) Electroslag
g welding
Flash welding
y Machining (negative process)
Induction welding
y Forming, casting (zero process) Electron beam welding

IES 2012
IES Weldability /FabricationProcesses CaseofAluminium
The advantage of the welding process is y The
Th weldability
ld bilit off a material
t i l will
ill depend
d d on the
th y The
Th oxide
id coating
ti on aluminum
l i alloys
ll causes some
(a) It relieves the joint from residual stresses specific welding or joining process being considered. difficulty in relation to its weldability.
(b) It helps
h l in i checking
h ki off distortion
di t ti off work k piece
i y For resistance welding of consistent quality, it is y It also
l has
h high
hi h thermal
th l conductivity
d ti it and
d a very short
h t
(c) Large number of metals and alloys, both similar and/or usually necessary to remove the oxide immediately temperature range between liquidus and solidus and when
before welding. liquid its viscosity is very low.
dissimilar can be joined.
y Aluminium is poor absorber of laser light.
((d)) Heat pproduced during g the welding g does not pproduce y Fabrication weldability y test is used to determine
mechanical properties required for satisfactory y D i
During f i
fusion welding,
ldi the
h aluminum
l i would
ld oxidize
idi so
metallurgical changes.
readily that special fluxes or protective inertgas
performance of welded jjoint.
atmospheres must be employed.
y The correct sequence of the given materials in
y Friction welding and TIG welding is good for aluminium.
ascending order of their weldability is
y For aluminium
l AC current plusl high
h h frequency
f is must.
Aluminum < copper < cast iron < MS Contd

CaseofCastIron CaseofStainlessSteel CaseofStainlessSteel

y Cast iron is more difficult to weld because of its high y Stainless steel is a difficult metal to weld because it y The ferritic stainless steels are generally less weldable
carbon content and brittleness (poor ductility) contains both nickel and chromium. than the austenitic stainless steel and require both
y Massive carbon deposits have a tendency to form in y The best method for welding stainless steel is TIG preheating and postweld heat treatments.
the areas adjacent to the weld, and highcarbon welding. y Welds of ferritic stainless steel can be by
martensite tends to form in the heat
affected zones.
zones y The electric arc is also preferred for welding stainless (i) autogenously (i.e.
(i e without the addition of filler
These microstructures are very brittle and may crack steels. A heavily coated welding rod, which produce a metal)
spontaneouslyy while welding g is in pprogress
g or later shielded arc,
arc is employed.
employed (ii) with an austenitic stainless steel
when load is applied to the workpiece. y You must do a better job of precleaning. (iii) using a high nickel filler alloy.
y Cast iron can be jjoined byy the oxyacetylene
y y brazingg (iv) Type 405 filler (low 11% Cr, Cr low carbon and small
y Using a low arc current setting with faster travel
process and shielded metalarc welding (stick) speeds is important when welding stainless steel, 0.2% Al)
process. because some stainless steels are subject to carbide y Welding process: TIG, MIG, Shielded
metal arc
y Some cases preheating and/or post heating is required. precipitation. welding and Plasma arc welding
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 34 of 240 Contd..
IES 2010
IES2010 IES2006 GATE2014
Assertion (A): ( ) It is generally
g y difficult to weld
Aluminum parts by normal arc welding process. Assertion(A):Aluminium
( ) haspoorweldability. The major difficulty during welding of aluminium is
Reason(R):Aluminium hashighthermal
g due to its
Reason (R): Hard and brittle AluminumAluminumoxide
oxide film
is formed at the welded joints. conductivityandhighaffinitytooxygen. (a) high tendency of oxidation
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe (b) high thermal conductivity
correct explanation of A correctexplanationofA (c) low melting point
(b) Both
B h A and d R are individually
i di id ll true but
b R is i NOT the
h (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the (d) low
l density
d it
correct explanation of A correctexplanationofA
(c) A is true but R is false ( ) AistruebutRisfalse
(c) Ai t b tRi f l
((d)) A is false but R is true (d) AisfalsebutRistrue

IES2011 IES2011 IES2006

During plasma arc welding of aluminium,
aluminium improved Considerthefollowingstatements.
Fabricationweldability testisusedtodetermine
removal of the surface oxide from the base metal is Castironisdifficulttoweld,becauseof
obtained with typical polarity of : (a) Mechanicalpropertiesrequiredforsatisfactory
ec a ca p ope t es equ ed o sat s acto y
L d tilit
(a) DC Straight 2.Poorfusion
(b) Susceptibilityofweldedjointforcracking
(b) DC reverse 3.Tendencytocrackoncooling
(c) Suitabilityforjointdesign
(c) AC potential
p Whichofthesestatementsarecorrect?
(a)1,2and3 (d) Appropriatemachiningprocess
A i hi i
(d) Reverse polarity of phase of AC potential

IES1999 IES 2010

IES2010 IES 2010
Weldability of ferritic stainless steel used in Consider the following g statements regarding
g g
Thecorrectsequenceofthegivenmaterialsin automotive exhaust system is improved by welded joints:
ascendingorderoftheirweldability is 1 It is a permanent type of joint.
1. joint
selecting stainless steel electrode having low
(a) MS,copper,castiron,aluminium 2. It is reliable and economical for pressure vessel
content of
(b) Castiron,MS,aluminium
Castiron MS aluminium copper construction.
(a) Carbon (b) Nitrogen
(c) Copper,castiron,MS,aluminium 3. It is free from fabricational residual stresses.
(d) Aluminium,copper,castiron,MS
Al i i i S (c) Chromium (d) Carbon and Nitrogen
4. Such joints are suitable for static loading only.
55. Welding g is a versatile and flexible metal jjoining
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1,
1 2 and 3 only (b) 2,
2 3 and 4 only
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 35 of 240 (c) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Rev.0
(d) 1, 2 and 5 only
IES 2012
IES IES 2013
IES2013 GasFlameProcesses:
Whichofthefollowingfactorsimproveweldabilityof Weldability dependson Welding Cutting and Straightening
y Oxyfuel gas Welding (OFW): Heat source is the
1 Lowcarboncontent
1.Lowcarboncontent 1.Thermalconductivityy
flame produced
fl d d byb the
h combustion
b i off a fuel
f l gas and
2.Highcarboncontent 2.Surfacecondition oxygen.
y yg y OFW has largely
g y been replaced
p byy other p
processes but
(a)1and3 (b)2and3 (a)1and2only (b)1and3only it is still popular because of its portability and the low
(c)1and4 (d)2and4 p
capital investment.
(c)2and3only (d)1,2and3
y Acetylene is the principal fuel gas employed.

y Combustionofoxygenandacetylene(C2H2)ina Three types of flames can be obtained by varying

weldingtorchproducesatemp.inatwostagereaction. the oxygen/acetylene (or oxygen/fuel gas) ratio.
y Inthefirststage y If the ratio is about 1 : 1 to 1.15 : 1, all reactions are
C2 H2 + O2 2CO + H2 +Heat
H t carried to completion and a neutral flame is produced.
Thisreactionoccursnearthetipofthetorch. y Most welding is done with a neutral flame. It is
y InthesecondstagecombustionoftheCOandH2 and
h i ll neutral t l and
d neither
ith oxidizes
idi or carburizes
b i
occursjustbeyondthefirstcombustionzone. the metal being welded.
2CO+O2 2CO2+Heat
2 2 H2O+Heat
H2 +O

y Excess fuel, on the other hand, produces a carburizing

y A higher ratio, such as 1.5 : 1, produces an oxidizing
flame. Carburizing flame can carburize metal also.
flame hotter than the neutral flame (about 3300oC)
but similar in appearance. y The excess fuel decomposes to carbon and hydrogen, Metal Flame
and the flame temperature is not as g
great ((about MS N
y Used when
hen welding
elding copper and copper alloys
allo s but
3000oC). High carbon steel R
harmful when welding steel because the excess oxygen Grey cast iron N, slightly oxidizing
reacts with the carbon,
carbon decarburizing the region y Flames of this type are used in welding Monel (a
Alloy steel N
around the weld. nickelcopper alloy), highcarbon steels, and some Aluminium Slightly carburizing
alloy steels, and for applying some types of hard
facing Brass Slightly oxidizing
material. Copper, Bronze N, slightly oxidizing
Nickel alloys
y Slightly
g y carburizing g
Lead N

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

OxyacetylenegasweldingOxidisingflame Page 36 of 240 Rev.0
Ad t d Li it ti
y Exposer of the heated and molten metal to the various
y OFW is fusion welding.
gases in the flame and atmosphere makes it difficult to
y No pressure is involved.
y Filler
Fill metal
t l can be
b added
dd d in
i the
th form
f off a wire
i or rod.
d prevent contamination.

Diagram y Fluxes may be used to clean the surfaces and remove

contaminating oxide. The gaseous shield produced by
y Heat source is not concentrated, a large area of the
metal is heated and distortion is likely to occur.
vaporizing flux can prevent oxidation during welding,
and the slag produced by solidifying flux can protect
y Flame welding is still quite common in field work, in
the weld pool. Flux can be added as a powder, the
welding rod can be dipped in a flux paste, or the rods maintenance and repairs, and in fabricating small
can be precoated.
quantities of specialized products.

Oxyacetyleneweldingequipment IES 2010

y Oxygen is stored in a cylinder at a pressure ranging
PressureGasWeldingg The ratio between Oxygen and Acetylene
from 13.8 MPa to 18.2 MPa . y Pressure gas welding (PGW) or Oxyacetylene gases for neutral flame in gas welding is
Pressure Welding is a process used to make butt ( )2:1
(a) (b) 1 : 2
y Due to high explosiveness of free acetylene it is stored joints between the ends of objects such as pipe
in a cylinder with 8085% pporous calcium silicate and aandrailroad
d a oad rail.
a . ((c)) 1 : 1 ((d)) 4 : 1
then filled with acetone which absorb upto 420 times y The ends are heated with a gas flame to a
by its volume at a pressure 1.75 MPa . p
temperature below the melting gp
point,, and the soft
y At the time of acetylene release if acetone comes with metal is then forced together under considerable
ace y e e thee flame
a e would
ou d g
givee a pu
p e co
ou . pressure.
y Another option is acetylene generator. y This process, therefore, is actually a 'form of solid
state welding.
CaC2 + 2 H 2O C2 H 2 + Ca (OH ) 2

GATE1994 GATE2003 IES 2010

Assertion ((A): ) Oxidizing g flame is used in gasg
InOxyacetylenegaswelding,temperatureatthe welding to join medium carbon steels having high
The ratio of acetylene to oxygen is innerconeoftheflameisaround melting gppoint.
approximately. for a neutral flames used in
(a) 3500C Reason (R): In gas welding, oxidizing flame
gas welding.
(b) 3200
C produces the maximum temperature compared to
( ) 1:1
(c) 2900C neutral and reducing flame.
(b) 1 : 2
(d) 2550C
C (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
(c) 1 : 3 correct explanation of A
(d) 1.5
15:1 (b) Both
B th A and d R are individually
i di id ll true
t b t R is
but i NOT the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 37 of 240 Rev.0
(d) A is false but R is true
GATE2002 IES2009 IES1998
The temperature of a carburising flame in gas By which one of the following methods gray cast In oxyacetylene gas welding, for complete
welding is that of a neutral or an oxidising flame. iron is usually welded? combustion, the volume of oxygen
g required per
(a) Lowerthan (a) TIGwelding (b) MIGwelding unit of acetylene is
(b) Higherthan (c) Gaswelding (d) Arcwelding ((a)) 1
(c) Equalto (b) 1.5
(d) Unrelatedto
U l t dt (c) 2
(d) 2.5

IAS1994 IAS1995 IES 2012

Statement ((I):
) In g
gas welding g the metal to be jjoined g
In gas welding of mild steel using an oxy Assertion (A):
( ) If neutral flame is used in oxy oxidized or carburized
acetylene welding, both oxygen and acetylene
acetylene flame. the total amount of acetylene cylinders of same capacity will be emptied at the same Statement ((II):
) The neutral flame affects no chemical
consumed was 10 litre. The oxygen consumption time. change on the molten metal.
from the cylinder is Reason (R): Neutral flame uses equal amounts of ((a)) Both Statement ((I)) and Statement ((II)) are
oxygen and d acetylene.
(a) 5litre individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthecorrect explanation of Statement (I)
(b) 10litre explanationofA
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
(c) 15litre individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
(d) 20litre
li (c) AistruebutRisfalse explanation of Statement (I)
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

OxygenTorchCutting(GasCutting) y For thicker plates with specified contour, shearing y Larger size orifice produces kerf width wider and larger
cannot be used and oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC) is oxygen consumed.
y Iron and steel oxidize (burn)
( ) when heated to a
useful. y At kindling temperature (about 870oC), iron form iron
temperature between 8000C to 10000C.
y Gascutting
Gas cutting is similar to gas welding
elding except
e cept torch tip.
tip oxide.
y Highpressure oxygen jet (300 KPa) is directed against
y Reaction:
a heated steel p
plate, the oxygen
yg jjet burns the metal and
3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 +6.67
+6 67 MJ/kg of iron
blows it away causing the cut (kerf).
The other reactions:
y For
o cutt
cuttingg metallic
eta c p plates
ates sshears
ea s aaree used. These
ese aaree
2Fe + O2 2FeO + 3.18 MJ/kgk off iron
useful for straightline cuts and also for cuts up to 40
c ess.
mm thickness. 4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3 + 4.9 MJ/kg of iron
y All exothermic reactions preheat the steel.
Fig differencesintorchtipsforgasweldingandgascutting

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 38 of 240 Rev.0 Contd

Contd Contd
y The drag lines shows the characteristics of the movement y If torch moved too rapidly, the bottom does not get
y For complete oxidation 0.287 m3 oxygen/kg of iron is
of the oxygen stream. sufficient heat and produces large drag so very rough
i d
and irregularshapedcut edges.
y Due to unoxidized metal blown away the actual
y If torch moved slowly a large amount of slag is
requirement is much less.
generated and produces irregular cut.
y Torch tipp held verticallyy or slightly
g y inclined in the
direction of travel.
y Torch position is about 1.5
1 5 to 3 mm vertical from plate.
Fig positioningofcuttingtorchinoxy fuelgascutting
y Drag
g is the amount byy which the lower edge
g of the drag
line trails from the top edge.
y Good cut means negligible
g g drag.

Contd Contd Contd

y Gas cutting is more useful with thick plates. Application

y Useful only for materials which readily get oxidized
y For thin sheets (less than 3 mm thick) tip size should Draw a self explanatory sketch of oxyacetylene gas
be small. If small tips are not available then the tip is and
d the
th oxides
id have
h l
lower melting
lti points
i t than
th th
cutting torch. Briefly explain how cutting is
inclined at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees. metals.
y Widely used for ferrous materials.
[ M k ]
y Cannot be used for aluminum, bronze, stainless steel
and like metals since they resist oxidation.


Difficulties y For high carbon steel material around the cut should IES1992
y Metal temperature goes beyond lower critical be preheated (about 250 to 300oC) and may post heat The edge of a steel plate cut by oxygen cutting will
temperature and structural transformations occur. get hardened when the carbon content is
also necessary.
(a) Less than 0.1 percent
y Final microstructure depends on cooling rate. y Cutting CI is difficult, since its melting temp. is lower (b) Less than 0.3
0 3 percent
than iron oxide. (c) More than 0.3 percent
y Steels
St l with
ith less
l th 0.3 % carbon
than b cause no problem.
bl (d) Anywhere
A h b
between 0.1 to 1.0 percent
y If chromium and nickel etc are present in ferrous
alloys oxidation and cutting is difficult.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 39 of 240 Rev.0

IES2007 IES2001 IES1992
Considerthefollowingstatementsinrespectofoxy Oxyacetylenereducingflameisusedwhile Thick steel plate cut with oxygen normally shows
g g
carryingouttheweldingon g of cracking.
signs g This tendency for cracking
g can
1. Thejointisnotheatedtoastateoffusion
2. Nopressureisused. (a) Mildsteel (b) Highcarbonsteel be minimised by
3 Oxygenisstoredinsteelcylinderatapressureof14
3. (c) Greycastiron (d) Alloysteels ((a)) Slow speed
p cutting
MPa. (b) Cutting in two or more stages
4. Whenthereisanexcessofacetyleneused,thereisa
d id d h
i h (c) Preheating the plate
offlame. (d) Using oxyacetylene flame
(a)1,2and3 (b) 2,3and4
(c) 1,3and4
1 3and4 (d) 1,2and4
1 2and4

IES2005 d C i
y Cast iron,, stainless steel,, and others high
g alloyy steels are ( )
Considerthefollowingstatements: difficult to cut by oxyfuel cutting and we can use powder
1. Ingaswelding,thetorchshouldbeheldatanangleof g
cutting. Which of the following powders should be fed for
30 to45 fromthehorizontalplane.
f h h l l
y By injecting a finely divided 200mesh iron powder into effective oxyfuel cutting of stainless steel?
2. Ingaswelding,theSizeofthetorchdependsuponthe
thi k
f t lt b f d the flame, a lower melting point eutectic oxide is formed
at the cutting interface, where additional ironoxygen (a) Steel
3. Dragingascuttingisthetimedifferencebetween
heatingoftheplateandstartingtheoxygengasfor reaction is generated and cutting proceeds in a similar
( ) Aluminum
cutting. way of oxyfuel cutting.
Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect? y The heat and the fluxing action of the burning iron (c) Copper
(a) 1,2and3 (b) 1and2 powder enable the cutting oxygen stream to oxidize the
(c) 2and3 (d) 1and3 base metal continuously,
continuously just as in cutting carbon steel.
steel (d) Ceramic

Pl C tti
PlasmaCutting El t i A W ldi
y Uses ionized g
gas jjet (plasma)
p to cut materials resistant to
oxyfuel cutting,
y High
g velocityy electrons g generated byy the arc impact
p gas
molecules, and ionize them.
y The ionized g gas is forced through
g nozzle ((upto
p 5500 m/s),
/ ), and
the jet heats the metal, and blasts the molten metal away.
y More economical,, more versatile and much faster (5 to 8
times) than oxyfuel cutting, produces narrow kerfs and
smooth surfaces.
y HAZ is 1/3 to th than oxyfuel cutting. Fi B i i
i f ldi
y Maximum plate thickness = 200 mm
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 40 of 240 Rev.0
PrincipleofArc y Work is negative and electrode is positive is reverse ISRO2011
y An arc is generated between cathode and anode when polarity (RPDC).
g p
th are touched
they t h d to
t establish
t bli h the
th flow
fl off currentt and
d y SPDC conditions are preferred.
then separated
p byy a small distance. (a)DCSP
y DC arcwelding
ldi maintain
i t i a stable
t bl arc and
d preferred
f d for
y 65% to 75% heat is generated at the anode. (b)DCRP
difficult tasks such as overhead welding.
y If DC is used and the work is positive (the anode of the y For a stable arc, the gap should be maintained. (c)AC
circuit), the condition is known as straight polarity (d)DCEN
Contd Contd

y Manual arc welding is done with shielded (covered)

Threemodesofmetaltransferduringarcwelding MajorForcestakepartinMetalTransfer
electrodes (i)gravityforce
(i) it f
y Baremetal wire used in automatic or semiautomatic
machines. (ii)Surfacetension
y Non consumable electrodes (e.g tungsten) is not (iii)electromagneticinteraction
consumed d by
b the
h arc andd a separate metall wire is used
as filler. (iv)hydrodynamicactionofplasma
y There are three modes of metal transfer (globular,
spray and shortcircuit).

20 0
JWM2010 GATE1993 Arcweldingequipments
A ti (A) : Bead
B d is i the
th metal
t l added
dd d during
d i Ind.c.welding,thestraightpolarity(electrode
( 1. Droopers: Constant current welding machines
single pass of welding. negative)resultsin Good for manual welding
Reason (R)( ) : Bead material is same as base metal. (a) Lowerpenetration 2. Constant voltage machines
(a) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the (b) Lowerdepositionrate Good for automatic welding
correct explanation of A (c) Lessheatingofworkpiece
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the (d) Smallerweldpool
S ll ld l
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 41 of 240 Rev.0

Formula y Requires
q g current ((150
a large 5 to 1000 A),
), voltage
g is
between 30 and 40 V, actual voltage across the arc
varying from 12 to 30 V.
Fig.Machinewithdifferentsettings y To initiate a weld,
ld the
h operator strike
k the
h electrode
l d and
start arc.

+ =1

IES 2010
IES2010 IES2005 IES2001
In arc welding, the arc length should be equal to Considerthefollowingstatements:
(a) 4.5 times the rod diameter 1. Inarcwelding,65%to75%heatisgeneratedatthe Inmanualarcwelding,theequipmentshould
(b) 3 times
ti th rod
the d diameter
di t havedroopingcharacteristicsinordertomaintain
2. Dutycycleincaseofarcweldingisthecycleof
(c) 1.5 times the rod diameter
completeweldingofworkpiecefromthe (a) Voltageconstantwhenarclengthchanges
(d) Rod diameter beginning.
3 ArcblowismorecommonwithDCwelding.
3. ArcblowismorecommonwithDCwelding (b) Currentconstantwhenarclengthchanges
Whichofthestatementsgivenaboveare (c) Temperatureintheareconstant
(d) Weldpoolredhot
(a) 1,2and3 (b) 1and2
(c) 2and3 (d) 1and3

IES2001 IES1998 IAS1999

Inarcwelding,d.c.reversepolarityisusedtobear The voltagecurrent characteristics of a dc Opencircuit voltage of 60 V and current of 160A
g generator for arc welding
g g is a straight
g line were the welding g conditions for arc welding
g of a
(a) Overheadwelding between an opencircuit voltage of 80 V and short certain class of steel strip of thickness 10 mm. For
(b) Flatweldingoflapjoints circuit current of 300 A. The generator settings for arc welding of 5mm thick strip of the same steel,
maximum arc power will be the welding voltage and current would be
(c) Edgewelding
((a)) 0 V and 150
5 A ((b)) 4
40 V and 3300 A ((a)) 60 V and 80 A
(d) Flatweldingofbuttjoints
l ldi fb j i
(c) 40 V and 150 A (d) 80 V and 300 A (b) 120 V and 160 A
(c) 60 V and 40 A
(d) 120 V and 40 A

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 42 of 240 Rev.0

IAS1998 GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI) GATE 2007(PI)
GATE 2007 (PI)
I a DC arc welding ldi operation,
ti the
th voltagearc
The DC power source for arc welding has the
AssumingastraightlineVIcharacteristicsfora characteristic 3V + I = 240, where V = Voltage and
dcweldinggenerator,shortcircuitcurrentas400A length characteristic was obtained as Varc = 20 + 5L
h th arc length
the l th L was varied i d between
b t 5 mm I = Current in amp.
amp For maximum arc power at
followingisthecorrectvoltageandcurrentsetting and 7 mm. Here Varc denotes the arc voltage in Volts. the electrode, voltage should be set at
formaximumarcpower? Th arc currentt was varied
The i d from
f 400 A to t 500 A. A (a) 20 V (b) 40 V (c) 60 V (d) 80 V
Assuming linear power source characteristic, the
((a)) 4
400Aand100V ((b)) 200Aand200V
open circuit
i it voltage
lt and
d the
th short
h t circuit
i it currentt for
(c) 400Aand50V (d) 200Aand50V the welding operation are
( ) 45 V, 450 A
(a) (b) 75 V, 750 A
(c) 95 V, 950 A (d) 150 V, 1500 A

GATE1992 GATE 2014 (PI)

GATE2014(PI) DutyCycle
In an arc welding operation, carried out with a
A low carbon steel plate is to be welded by the manual y The percentage of time in a 5 min period that a
power source maintained at 40 volts and 400
metal arc welding process using a linear V I welding machine can be used at its rated output
characteristic DC Power source. The following data are amperes, the
h consumable
bl electrode
l d melts
l and
d just
j without overloading.
available : fills the gap between the metal plates to be butt
butt y Time is spent
p in setting
g up,
p metal chipping,
pp g cleaning g
OCV of Power source = 62 V and inspection.
welded. The heat transfer efficiency for the process
S o t ccircuit
cu t cu
e t = 130
30 A y For
o manual
a ua we
d g a 60% duty cyc
cyclee iss suggested aand
Arc length, L = 4 mm is 0.8, melting efficiency is 0.3 and the heat required for automatic welding 100% duty cycle.
Traverse speedd off welding
ldi = 15 cm/s
/ to melt
l the
h electrode
l d is
i 20 J/mm
J/ 3. If the
h travell speed
Efficiency of heat input = 85% of tthe
o eeelectrode
ect ode iss 4 mm/s,
/s, tthe
e ccrosssectional
oss sect o a aarea,
Voltage is given as V = 20 + 1.5 L
in mm2, of the weld joint is _______ Contd
Calculate the heat input into the workprice

IFS2011 1. NonconsumableElectrodes
What is the maximum output current that can be
2. ConsumableElectrodes
2 drawn at 100% duty cycle from a welding power source
Requireddutycycle,Ta = T rated at 600A at 60% duty cycle.
Ia [3 Marks]
[3Marks] NonconsumableElectrodes
Where,T=rateddutycycle Madeofcarbon,GraphiteorTungsten.

I=ratedcurrentattherateddutycycle CarbonandGraphiteareusedforD.C.
b d h df
Io =Maximumcurrentattherateddutycycle Electrodeisnotconsumed,thearclengthremains

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 43 of 240 Rev.0

ConsumableElectrodes Consumable electrodes are three kinds: Electrodecoatingcharacteristic
P id filler
fill materials.
t i l (a)
( ) Bare 1. Provide a protective atmosphere.
Same composition. (b) Fluxed or lightly coated 2. Stabilize the arc.
This requires that the electrode be moved toward or (c) Coated or extruded / shielded 3. Provide a protective slag coating to accumulate
away from the work to maintain the arc and y For automatic welding,
welding bare electrode is in the form of impurities, prevent oxidation, and slow the cooling of
satisfactory welding conditions. the weld metal.
continuous wire (coil).
4. Reduce spatter.
5. Add alloying elements.
6. Affect
ff arc penetration
7. Influence the shape of the weld bead.
8. Add additional filler metal.

GATE1994 Electrodecoatings 3.DeoxidizingIngredients. Cellulose,Calcium

carbonate,dolo mite,starch,dextrin,woodflour,
Theelectrodesusedinarcweldingarecoated. l. Slag Forming Ingredients. asbestos, mica, silica, graphite,aluminium,ferromanganese.
Thiscoatingisnotexpectedto fluorspar, titanium dioxide, Iron oxide, magnesium
(a) Provideprotectiveatmospheretoweld carbonate, Calcium carbonate and aluminium oxide. 4.BindingMaterials Sodiumsilicate,potassiumsilicate,
(b) Stabilizetheare asbestos.
(c) Addalloyingelements 2. Arc Stabilizing Ingredients. or ionizing agents:
potass u ssilicate,
cate, TiO
O2 + ZrO
O2 (Rut
e), M
ca, 5.AlloyingConstituentstoImproveStrengthofWeld
(d) Preventselectrodefromcontamination
P t l t d f t i ti
Calcium oxide, sodium oxide, magnesium oxide,
e dspa ((KAI Si3 O8)
feldspar 6.TiO2 andpotassiumcompoundsincreasethemelting
p p g

Contd Contd

y The slag is then easily chipped. i d

y AC arc welding
ld used
d potassium silicate
l binders.
b d
y Coatings are designed to melt more slowly than the
f ll wire.
filler y DC arc welding used sodium silicate binders.

y Potassium
otass u has
as a lower
o e ionization
o at o pote
t a as co
pa ed
with sodium.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 44 of 240 Rev.0

IES2007 IES1997 IES2002
The coating material of an arc welding electrode Assertion (A):
( ) The electrodes of ac arc welding are MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer:
coated with sodium silicate, whereas electrodes used ListI(Ingredients) ListII(Welding
contains which of the following?g for dc arc welding are coated with potassium silicate
binders. f
i )
1. Deoxidising agent
Reason (R): Potassium has a lower ionization A. Silica 1. Arc stabilizer
2 Arc stabilizing agent
2. potential
i l than
h sodium.
di B. Potassium
i oxalate
l 2. Deoxidizer
3. Slag forming agent (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct C. Ferrosilicon 3. Fluxingagent
explanation of A
S l
Select the
h correct answer using
i the
h code
d given
i b l
below: D. Cellulose 4. Gasformingmaterial
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only correct explanation of A Codes:A B C D A B C D
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only (c) A is true but R is false (a) 3 4 2 1 (b) 2 1 3 4
(d) A is false but R is true (c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 2 4 3 1

y g
LowHydrogenElectrode IFS2011
y The basic coatings contain large amount of Whatismeantbylowhydrogenelectrode?
y Granular calcium
l i carbonate
b t (limestone)
(li t ) and d calcium
l i [
k ]
y Electrodewirecoating fluoride (fluorspar) and produce low hydrogen.
y Electrodecore y But it can absorb
b b moisture therefore
h f coated
d low
hydrogen electrodes are backed before use to a
temperature off 200oC to 3000C and d stored
d in an
oven at 110oC to 150oC
y Other types of electrode release large amount of
hydrogen, which can dissolve in the weld metal
and lead to embrittlement or cracking.

Welding Positions
WeldingPositions W ldi C
t WeldingVoltage
y Weldingcurrentdependsupon:thethicknessofthe y Thearcvoltagedependsonlyuponthearclength
theweld,thethicknessandtypeofthecoatingonthe V=k1 +k2l Volts
Fig.Thepositionofelectrodeforhorizontalwelding y Weldingcurrent,I=k.d,amperes;disdia.(mm)
Wherelisthearclengthinmmandk1 andk2 are
t t
k1 =10to12;andk2 =2to3

g g y
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 45 of 240 Vmin =(20+0.04l)Volt Rev.0
ArcLength A long arc results in
y For good welds, a short arc length is necessary, y Large heat
h loss
l into
i atmosphere.
because: y Unstable arc.
1. Heat is concentrated. y Weld pool is not protected.
2. More stable y Weld has low strength,
strength less ductility,
ductility poor fusion and
3. More protective atmosphere. excessive spatter.

Contd Fig.ArcPowerVsArcLength

Arclengthshouldbeequaltothediameteroftheelectrodesize G 2002 C i l
GATE2002,Conventional ( )
Duringg a steadyy g gas metal arc welding g with direct
h arc lengthvoltage
l h l characteristic
h off a DC arc is given current electrode positive polarity, the welding current,
by the equation: V = 24 + 4L,
4L where V is voltage in volts voltage and weld speed are 150 A, 30 V and 6 m/min,
respectively. A metallic wire electrode of diameter 1.2
and L is arc length in mm. The static voltampere mm is being fed at a constant rate of 12 m/min. The
d it specific
density, ifi heat
h t and d melting
lti t
t off the
characteristic of the power source is approximated by a wire electrode are 7000 kg/m3, 500 J/kgoC and 1530oC,
Beadwidthshouldbeequaltothreediameteroftheelectrodesize straight
h line
l with
h a no load
l d voltage
l off 80 V and
d a short
h respectively Assume the ambient temperature to be 30oC
and neglect the latent heat of melting. Further, consider
circuit current of 600A. Determine the optimum arc that two
third of the total electrical power is available for
melting of the wire electrode. The melting efficiency (in
length for maximum power. percentage)
p g of the wire electrode is
(a) 39.58 (b) 45.25 (c) 49.38 (d) 54.98

GATE2008 GATE2006
In arc welding of a butt joint, the welding speed is In an arc welding process, the voltage and current
( )
to be selected such that highest cooling rate is are 25 V and 300 A respectively. The arc heat Autogenous gas tungsten arc welding of a steel
achieved. Melting efficiency and heat transfer transfer efficiency is 0.85 and welding speed is 8
efficiency are 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The area of mm/sec. The net heat input (in J/mm) is plate is carried out with welding current of 500 A,
h weld ld cross section is 5 mm2 and d the
h unit (a) 64 voltage of 20 V, and weld speed of 20 mm/sec.
energy required to melt the metal is 10 J/mm3. If (b) 797
h welding
ld power is 2 kW,
k the
h welding
ld speedd in Consider the heat transfer efficiency from the arc
mm/s is closest to (c) 1103
to the weld pool as 90%. The heat input per unit
(a) 4 (b) 14 (c) 24 (d) 34 (d) 79700
length (in KJ/mm) is

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 46 of 240 (a) 0.25 (b) 0.35 (c) 0.45 (d) 0.55
Example ArcblowinDCarcwelding
y Arc blow occurs during
g the welding
g of magnetic
Calculate the melting efficiency in the case of materials with DC.
arcweldingg of steel with a p
potential of 20 V and y The effect of arc blow is maximum when welding
a current of 200 A. The travel speed is 5 mm/s corners where magnetic field concentration is
and .the
the cross
sectional area of the joint is 20 maximum.
2 y The effect is particularly noticeable when welding with
mm . Heat required to melt steel may be taken
bare electrodes or when using currents below or above
as 10 J/mm3 and the heat transfer efficiency as y Again the problem of arc blow gets magnified when
0.85. welding highly magnetic materials such as Ni alloys,
because of the strong magnetic fields set up by these
y Cause: Unbalanced magnetic forces.
Contd Contd

Effectofarcblow The effects of arc blow can be minimized with D.C. IES2001
welding by
y Low heat penetration. Arcblowismorecommonin
y Shortening the arc.
y Excessive weld spatter.
p (a) A.C.welding
.C. e d g
y Reduce
R d currentt
y Pinch effect in welding is the result of electromagnetic (b) D.C.weldingwithstraightpolarity
y Reducing weld speed.
forces (c) D.C.weldingwithbareelectrodes
D C elding ithbareelectrodes
y Balance magnetic field by placing one ground lead at
y Weld spatter occurs due to (d) A.C.weldingwithbareelectrodes
each end of the work piece.
Hi h welding
ldi currentt
y Wrapping the electrode cable a few turns around the
Too small an electrode arc
work piece.


IES 2013
Statement (I): The deflection of Arc from its intended IES2001 ISRO2006
path is called Arc
Arc blow.
blow Too
T high
hi h welding
ldi currentt ini arc welding
ldi would ld result
lt in
Statement (II): The chances of Arc blow is common in (a) Excessive spatter, under cutting along edges, irregular
(a) Expansionofgasesinthearc
pa s o o gases t e a c
A C Arc
A.C. A welding.
ldi deposits, wasted electrodes
(b) Electromagneticforces
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually (b) Excessive ppiling
g up
p of weld metal, ppoor p
true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of (c) Electricforce
wasted electrodes
Statement (I) (d) Surfacetensionofthemoltenmetal
(c) Too small bead, weak weld and wasted electrodes
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually (d) Excessive piling up of weld metal, overlapping
true but Statement ((II)) is not the correct explanation
p of without penetration of edges,
edges wasted electrodes
Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement For-2015
(I) is false(IES, GATE & PSUs)
but Statement (II) is true Page 47 of 240 Rev.0
Gasshields y Helium, most expensive, has a better thermal CarbonArcwelding
y An inert gas is blown into the weld zone to drive away conductivity, is useful for thicker sheets, copper and y Arc is produced between a carbon electrode and the
th atmospheric
t h i gases. aluminium welding,
welding higher deposition rate.
rate work.

y Gases are argon,

argon helium,
helium nitrogen,
nitrogen carbon dioxide and y The arc in carbon dioxide shielding
g g
gas is unstable, y Shielding is not used.
a mixture of the above gases. least expensive, deoxidizers needed.
y No pressure
y Argon ionizes easily requiring smaller arc voltages.It is y It is a heavy gas and therefore covers the weld zone
y With or without filler metal
good for welding thin sheets. very well.
y May be used in "twin arc method", that is, between
two carbon (graphite) electrodes.

IES 2010
IES2010 TungstenInertGaswelding(TIG) y Very clean welds.
Assertion ((A): ) g
Straight p y is always
polarity y
y Arc is established between a nonconsumable y All metals and alloys can be welded.
welded (Al,
(Al Mg also)
recommended for Carbonelectrode welding.
tungsten electrode and the workpiece.
Reason (R): Carbon arc is stable in straight polarity. y Straight polarity is used.
y Tungsten is alloyed with thorium or zirconium for
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
better currentcarrying y g and electronemission y Weld voltage 20 to 40 V and weld current 125 A for
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the RPDC to 1000 A for SPDC.
y Arcc length
e gt iss coconstant,
sta t, aarcc iss stab
stablee aand
d easy to
correct explanation
l i off A
maintain. y Shielded Gas: Argon
(c) A is true but R is false
y With or without filler.
(d) A is false but R is true y Torch
h is water or air cooled.
l d


GATE2011 IES 2010

Whichoneamongthefollowingweldingprocesses In an inert g gp
gas welding process,, the commonly
y used
usednon consumableelectrode? gas is
( )G t l ldi
(a)Gasmetalarcwelding (a) Hydrogen
(b)Submergedarcwelding (b) Oxygen
(c)Gastungstenarcwelding ( ) Helium
(c) H li or Argon
(d)Fluxcoatedarcwelding (d) Krypton

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

Fig.TIG Page 48 of 240 Rev.0
GATE2002 IES1994
ISRO2009 Whichofthefollowingarcweldingprocessesdoes Whichoneofthefollowingweldingprocesses
Following gases are used in tungsten inert notuseconsumableelectrodes? usesnon consumableelectrodes?
gas welding
ldi (a) GMAW (a) TIGwelding
(a) CO2 and H2 (b) GTAW (b) MIGwelding
(b) Argon and neon (c) SubmergedArcWelding (c) Manualarcwelding
(c) Argon and helium (d) Noneofthese
N fth (d) Submergedarcwelding.
S b d ldi
(d) Helium and neon

Statement ((I):
) Non consumable electrodes,, used in arc
IES2000 welding are made of high melting point temperature GasMetalArcWelding(GMAW)orMIG
materials,, even then the length g of electrode g goes on
Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsiscorrect? decreasing with passage of time. y A consumable electrode in a gas shield.
(a) Nofluxisusedingasweldingofmildsteel
o u s used gas e d g o d stee Statement (II): The electrode material gets oxidized y Arc is between workpiece
p and an automaticallyy fed
(b) Boraxisthecommonlyusedfluxcoatingon and melts on the weld material to form a strong flux. barewire electrode.
weldingelectrodes (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually y Argon, helium, and mixtures of the two can be used.
(c) Laserbeamweldingemploysavacuumchamber true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of y Any metal can be welded but are used primarily with
andthusavoidsuseofashieldingmethod Statement (I) the nonferrous metals.
(d) ACcanbeusedforGTAWprocess (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually y When welding steel, some O2 or CO2 is usually added
true but
b Statement
S (II) is
i not the
h correct explanation
l i off t improve
to i th arc stability
the t bilit and
d reduce
d weld
ld spatter.
Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true Contd

y Fast and economical. g
y A reversepolarity
l d arc is generally
dc ll used
d because
b (a) Afinesprayofmetal
of its deep penetration, spray transfer, and ability
to produce
d smoothh welds
ld withh good
d profile.
fl (b) Moltendrops
(c) Weldpool
(d) Molecules
l l

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 49 of 240 Rev.0

IES1997 IES 2013
IES2013 IES 2010
g statements:
Consider the following ( ) g
Considerthefollowingstatements: offluxcoatedelectrodeisusedinthecaseof
In metal are welding
gp gp
1.Consumableelectrode2. nonconsumableelectrode 1. Utilizes a consumable electrode
3.D.C.powersupply 4.A.C.powersupply 2. A welding torch used is connected to acetylene gas ofinertgasthanthecovercreatedbytheflux.
Ofthesestatements supply (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
(a) 2and4arecorrect 3. The
Th electrode
l t d and d workpiece
k i are connected
t d to
t the
th correct explanation of A
(b) 2and3arecorrect welding power supply (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the
( ) 1and4arecorrect
(c) d Which of these statements are correct? correctt explanation
l ti off A
(d) 1and3arecorrect (c) A is true but R is false
(a) 1,
1 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only
(d) A is false but R is true
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 2 and 3 only

IES 2012
IES SubmergedArcwelding(SAW)
() C p y
welding y A thick layer of granular flux is deposited just ahead of y Most suitable
bl for
f flat
fl butt
b or fillet
f ll welds
ld in low
( ) p y
Statement(II):UseofDCwithreversepolarityenables carbon steel (< 0.3% carbon).
a bare
b wire
i consumable
bl electrode,
l t d and d an arc is
((a)) Both Statement ((I)) and Statement ((II)) are maintained beneath the blanket of flux with onlyy a few y The process is not recommended for highcarbon
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
small flames being visible. steels, tool steels, aluminum, magnesium,
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are y A portion of the flux melts. Molten flux and flux titanium, lead, or zinc.
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
explanation of Statement (I) provides thermal insulation, slows cooling rate and
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false produce soft,
soft ductile welds.
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

Characteristicofsubmergedarcwelding Advantages
y Highspeeds, y Wireelectrodesareinexpensive.

y Highdepositionrates, y Noweldspatter.

y Deeppenetration,
Deeppenetration y Nearly100%depositionefficiency.

y Highcleanliness(duetothefluxaction). y Lesserelectrodeconsumption.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 50 of 240 Rev.0

Limitations IES2011 IES2006
The welding process in which bare wire is used as
y Extensive flux handling, Inwhichofthefollowingweldingprocesses,flux
electrode, granular flux is used and the process is
y Contamination of the flux by moisture.
characterized by its high speed welding,
welding is known as:
(a) ACarcwelding
(a) Shielded arc welding
y Largegrainsize
Large grain size structures.
structures (b) Submergedarcwelding
(b) Plasma arc welding
(c) Argonarcwelding
y Welding is restricted to the horizontal position. (c) Submerged
g arc welding g
(d) DCarcwelding
C ldi
(d) Gas metal arc welding
y Chemical control is important

IES2005 IES2008 GATE1999

Whichofthefollowingarethemajor Assertion (A):( ) Submerged arc welding is not For butt welding 40 mm thick steel plates, when
characteristicsofsubmergedarcwelding? recommended for high carbon steels, tool steels, the expected quantity of such jobs is 5000 per
aluminium, magnesium etc.
1. Highweldingspeeds. Reason (R): This is because of unavailability of month over a period of 10 year, choose the best
2. Highdepositionrates. suitable fluxes, reactivity at high temperatures and suitable welding process out of the following
low sublimation
bli i temperatures. available
l bl alternatives.
3. Lowpenetration.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation
4. Lowcleanliness.
4 of A (a) Submerged
g arc welding
Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow: (b) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct (b) Oxyacetylene welding
(a) 2and3 (b) 1,2and3
1 2and3 explanation of A
(c) Electron beam welding
(c) A is true but R is false
(c) 3and4 (d) 1and2 (d) A is false but R is true (d) MIG welding

AtomicHydrogenwelding(AHW) IES2005
y Temperature
p 3700oC.
of about 37
y An
A a.c. arc is
i formed
f d between
b two tungsten electrodes
l d Inatomichydrogenwelding,hydrogenactsas
along which streams of hydrogen are fed to the y Hydrogen acts as shielding also.
welding zone.
zone The molecules of hydrogen are (a) Aheatingagent
eat g age t
dissociated by the high heat of the arc in the gap y Used for very thin sheets or small diameter wires. (b) Oneofthegasestogeneratetheflame
between the electrodes.
electrodes The formation of atomic (c) Aneffectiveshieldinggasprotectingtheweld
Aneffecti eshieldinggasprotectingthe eld
hydrogen proceeds with the absorption of heat: y Lower thermal efficiency than Arc welding.
(d) Alubricanttoincreasetheflowcharacteristicsof
H2 = 2H 421.2
421 2 k J / mol
y Ceramics may be arc welded. weldmetal
ld l
y This atomic hydrogen recombines to form molecular
hydrogen outside the arc, particularly on the relatively y AC used.
cold surface of the work being welded, releasing the
heat g
gained ppreviously:
H2 + 421.2
2H =For-2015 k J GATE
(IES, / mol. & PSUs) Page 51 of 240 Rev.0
y They are not officially classified as solidstate welding
y Both heat and pressure are used. by the American Welding Society.
ResistanceWelding y Heat is generated by the electrical resistance of the y Very rapid and economical.
work pieces and the interface between them.
y Pressure is supplied externally and is varied y Extremely
l well
ll suited
d to automated
d manufacturing.
throughout the weld cycle.
y No filler metal,
metal no flux,
flux no shielding gases.
y Due to pressure, a lower temperature needed than
oxy fuel or arc welding.

BySKMondal Contd Contd

y Overall resistance very low.

y Very highcurrent (up to 100,000 A)

y Very lowvoltage
l l (
(0.5 to 10 V)) is
i used.

Fig. The desired temperature Fig.

g Typical
yp current and
distribution across the pressure cycle for resistance
electrodes and the work welding. The cycle includes
pieces in lap resistance forging and post heating
welding. operations. Fig. The arrangement of the electrodes and the work in spot
FIG.Thefundamentalresistanceweldingcircuit welding, showing design for replaceable electrode tips.

Advantages Limitations
1. Very rapid. 1. High initial cost.
What is the principle of resistance welding?
2. Fully automation possible. 2. Limitations to the type of joints (mostly lap joints).
Indicate where the resistance is maximum in spot
welding operation. 3 Conserve material; no filler metal,
3. metal shielding gases,
gases or 3 Skilled maintenance personne1 are required:
flux is required.
q 4. special surface treatment needed.
k ]
4. Skilled operators are not required.

5.Dissimilar metals can be easily joined.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) 6. High reliability and High

Page 52reproducibility.
of 240 Rev.0
Application Differenttypes Resistancespotwelding
y The process description given so far is called resistance
y The resistance welding processes are among the 1. Resistance spot welding
spot welding (RSW) or simply spot welding.
most common technique for high volume 2. Resistance seam welding y This is essentially done to join two sheetmetal jobs in
joining. p jjoint, forming
a lap g a small nugget
gg at the interface of
3 Projection welding
the two plates.
4. Upset welding

5. Flash welding

6. Percussion welding

HeatinputandEfficiencyCalculations Electric Resistance Welding

JJoules law applicable
pp resistancebetween
Q = I2 Rt, Joules (a) Electrodeandworkpiece
(b) Asperitiesbetweentouchingplates
(c) Twodissimilarmetalsbeingincontact
(d) Interatomicforces
i f


IES2001 GATE2007 GATE2009(PI)LinkedS1

Two metallic sheets,, each of 2.0 mm thickness,, are welded in a lap
p jjoint Resistance spot welding of two steel sheets is carried out in
configuration by resistance spot welding at a welding current of 10 kA
Themaximumheatinresistanceweldingisatthe and welding time of 10 millisecond. A spherical fusion zone extending lap joint configuration by using a welding current of 3 kA and
up to the full thickness of each sheet is formed. The properties of the gg of volume 20 mm3
a weld time of 0.2 S. A molten weld nugget
(a) Tipofthepositiveelectrode
p o t e pos t e e ect ode metallic sheets are given as:
(b) Tipofthenegativeelectrode ambient temperature = 293 K is obtained. The effective contact resistance is 200
melting temperature = 1793 K (microohms). The material properties of steel are given as:
(c) Topsurfaceoftheplateatthetimeofelectric l t t heat
latent h t off fusion
f i = 300 kJ/kgkJ/k
(i) latent heat of melting: 1400 kJ/kg, (ii) density: 8000
density = 7000 kg/m3
contactwiththeelectrode specific heat = 800 J/kg K kg/m3, (iii) melting temperature: 1520oC, (iv) specific heat:
(d) InterfacebetweenthetwoplatesbeingJoined
f b h l b i i d Assume: kJ/k oC.
0.5 kJ/kg C The
Th ambient
bi i 20oC.
temperature is C
(i) Contact resistance along sheetsheet interface is 500 microohm and
along electrodesheet interface is zero; Heat (in Joules) used for producing weld nugget will be
( ) No conductive heat loss through the bulk sheet materials; and
(ii) (
(assuming 100%
% heat
h transfer
f efficiency)
ff )
(iii) The complete weld fusion zone is at the melting temperature.
The meltingg efficiencyy (in %) of the p
process is (a) 324 (b) 334 (c) 344 (d) 354
(a) 50.37 (b) 60.37 (c) 70.37 (d) 80.37
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 53 of 240 Rev.0
GATE2009(PI)LinkedS2 GATE2005 GATE2001
Resistance spot welding of two steel sheets is carried out in
lap joint configuration by using a welding current of 3 kA and Spot welding of two 1 mm thick sheets of steel Resistance spot welding is performed on two
gg of volume 20 mm3
a weld time of 0.2 S. A molten weld nugget (density = 8000 kg/m3) is carried out successfully plates of 1.5 mm thickness with 6 mm diameter
is obtained. The effective contact resistance is 200 by passing a certain amount of current for 0.1 electrode, using 15000 A current for a time
(microohms). The material properties of steel are given as: second through the electrodes. The resultant weld duration of 0.25 seconds. Assuming the interface
(i) latent heat of melting: 1400 kJ/kg, (ii) density: 8000 nugget formed
f d is 5 mm in diameter
d andd 1.5 mm resistance to be
b 0.0001 , the
h heat
h generated
d to
kg/m3, (iii) melting temperature: 1520oC, (iv) specific heat: thick. If the latent heat of fusion of steel is 1400 form the weld is
kJ/k oC.
0.5 kJ/kg C The
Th ambient
bi i 20oC.
temperature is C k k and
kJ/kg d the
h effective
ff resistance in the
h welding
ld (a) 5625 Wsec (b) 8437 Wsec
Heat (in Joules) dissipated to the base metal will be operation in 200 , the current passing through (c) 22500
5 Wsecsec (d) 3375
33750 Wsec
l all
ll other
h heat
h l
) the
h electrodes
l d is approximately l
(a) 10 (b) 16 (c) 22 (d) 32 (a) 1480A (b) 3300 A
(c) 4060 A (d) 9400 A

GATE2004 GATE1992 GATE2010

Two 1 mm thick steel sheets are to be spot welded For resistance spot welding of 1.5 mm thick steel Two pipes of inner diameter 100 mm and outer
at a current of 5000 A. Assuming effective sheets, the current required is of the order of diameter 110 mm each joined by flash butt
resistance to be 200 microohms and current flow (a) 10 A welding using 30 V power supply. At the interface,
time of 0.2 second, heat generated during the (b) 100 A 1 mm of material melts from each pipe which has
process willll be
b a resistance off 42.4 . Iff the
h unit melt
l energy is
(c) 1000 A 64.4 MJm3, then time required for welding in
(a) 0.2 Joule (b) 1 Joule
(d) 10,000 A seconds
d is
(c) 5 Joule (d) 1000 Joules
(a) 1 (b) 5 (c) 10 (d) 20

GATE2014 IES 2007 C ti l

IES2007Conventional GATE 2008(PI)
Two steel sheets of thickness one mm are welded
F spott welding
ldi off two
t steel
t l sheets
h t (base
(b metal)
t l) each
h off by resistance projection welding technique. A Aluminum strips of 2 mm thickness are joined together
3 mm thickness,, welding
g current of 10000 A is applied
pp current of 30,000 A for 0005 second is made to by resistance spot welding process by applying an
flow. The effective resistance of joint can be taken electric current of 6000 A for 0.15 sec. The heat required
for 0.2 s. The heat dissipated to the base metal is 1000 J. as 100 micro ohms. The joint can be considered as for meltingg aluminum is 2.9 J/mm3. The diameter and
9 J/
Assuming that the heat required for melting 1 mm3 a cylinder of diameter 5 mm and height 15 mm.
the thickness of weld nugget are found to be 5 mm and
The density of steel is 000786 gm/mm3. The heat
l off steel
t l is
i 20 J and
d interfacial
i t f i l contact
t t resistance
i t needed for welding steel is 10 J/mm3. Calculate the 2 5 mm,
2.5 mm respectively.
respectively Assuming the electrical resistance
between sheets is 0.0002,, the volume ((in mm3) of weld efficiency of welding. [20] to be 75 (micro ohms), the percentage of total
energy utilized in forming the weld nugget is
nugget is .
(a) 28 (b) 35 (c) 65 (d) 72
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 54 of 240 Rev.0
IAS2003 Resistanceseamwelding y Welding current is a bit higher than spot welding, to
compensate short circuit of the adjacent weld.
Assertion (A):
( ) Spot welding is adopted to weld two
overlapped metal pieces between two electrode y Weld is made between overlapping sheets of metal. y In other process a continuous seam is produced by
points. passing a continuous current through the rotating
Th seam is
The i a series
i off overlapping
l i spott welds.
Reason (R): In this process when current is switched electrodes with a speed of 1.5 m/min for thin sheet.
on, the lapped pieces of metal are heated in a
i d area. y The basic equipment is the same as for spot welding.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct except that the electrodes are now in the form of
explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the rotating disks.
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false y Timed pulses of current pass to form the overlapping
(d) A is false but R is true
Contd Contd

( )
GATE 2012(PI) y Limitations of spot welding.
In resistance seam welding, the electrode is in the 1. Electrode condition must be maintained
form off a continually, and only one spot weld at a time.
(a) cylinder 2. For additional strength multiple welds needed.
(b) flat plate y Projection welding (RPW) overcomes above
((c)) coil of wire limitations.
(d) circular disc


y Dimples are embossed on work pieces at the weld

y Projections are pressformed in any shape.
locations and then p g
placed between largearea
electrodes, and pressure and current applied like spot y Multiple welds at a time. y Made butt joint compared to lap joint.
y Current flows through the dimples and heats them y No indentation mark on the surface. y Pieces are held tightly and current is applied.
and pressure causes the dimples to flatten and form a y Due to pressure joints get slightly upset and hence its
y Bolts and nuts can be attached to other metal parts.

Fig.Principleof y Useful for joining rods or similar pieces.

j ti ldi
( )
For-2015 (IES, GATE &welds
PSUs) Page 55 of 240 Rev.0
Contd Contd
y This is the process used for making electric resistance FlashWelding
welded (ERW) pipes starting from a metal plate of suitable
thickness. y It is similar to upset welding except the arc rather than
y The plate is first formed into the shape of the pipe with the resistance
i t h ti
help of the three roll set as shown in Fig. above. The ends
of the p
plate would then be forming g the butt jjoint. y One pieces is clamped with cam controlled movable
y The two rotating copper disc electrodes are made to
contact the two ends of the p plate through g which the platen and other with is fixed platen.
current is passed. The ends get heated and then forge
welded under the p pressure of the rolls.
y The ends of the pieces to be upset welded must be perfectly
parallel. Anyy high
p g spots
p if p
present on the ends would g get
melted first before the two ends are completely joined.
Contd Contd

y Two pieces are brought together and the power supply is PercussionWelding
switched on. Momentarilyy the two p p
pieces are separated
to create the arc to melt the ends of the two pieces. y Similar to flash welding except arc power by a rapid
Then again the p
pieces are brought
g together
g and the
discharge of stored electrical energy.
power switched off while the two ends are fused under
force. Most of the metal melted would flash out y The arc duration is only
y 1 to 10 ms, heat is intense and
through the joint and forms like a fin around the joint. highly concentrated.
y Faster than upset welding.
y Small weld metal is produced, little or no upsetting, and
low HAZ.

y Application: Butt welding of bar or tube where heat

damage is a major concern.

Thermit Welding y Temp. 2750C produced in 30 seconds, superheating

y Heating and coalescence is by superheated molten the molten iron which provide both heat and filler

OtherWelding metal
t l obtained
bt i d from
f a chemical
h i l reaction
metal oxide and a metallic reducing
b t
g agent.
a metal.

y Runners and risers are provided like casting.

h i y Used mixture one part aluminum and three parts iron y Copper, brass, and bronze can be welded using a
oxide and ignited by a magnesium fuse. (1150C). different starting mixture.
8Al+3Fe3O4 9Fe+4Al2O3 +heat y Used to joint thick sections, in remote locations.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 56 of 240 Rev.0

IES2000 ElectroSlagWelding y A 65mm deep layer of molten slag, protect and
Considerthefollowingprocesses: y Very effective for welding thick sections. cleanse the molten metal.
1. Gaswelding
2. Thermit welding y Heat is derived from the passage of electrical current y Watercooled
W l d copper molding
ldi plates
l confined
fi d the
33. Arcwelding g through a liquid slag and temp.
temp 1760
C liquid and moved upward.
4. Resistancewelding
y Multiple electrodes are used to provide an adequate
orderoftheirweldingtemperaturesis supply of filler.
(a) 1,3,4,2
1 3 4 2 (b) 1,2,3,4
1 2 3 4
(c) 4,3,1,2 (d)4,1,3,2

Contd Contd

y Applications: Shipbuilding, machine manufacture, IAS2003

heavy pressure vessels, and the joining of large Whichoneofthefollowingisnotanelectric
castings and forgings.
forgings g
(a) Electroslagwelding
y Slow cooling
gpproduces a coarse g
grain structure. (b) Percussionwelding
y Large HAZ. (c) Seamwelding
(d) Flashwelding
l h ldi


IAS2000 ElectronBeamWelding
Considerthefollowingweldingprocesses: y A beam of electrons is magnetically focused on the
1.. TIGwelding
G ed g 2.. Sub
e ged a c e d g
k piece
i i a vacuum chamber.
in h b
3. Electroslagwelding4. Thermit welding
Whichofthese eldingprocessesareusedfor elding
Whichoftheseweldingprocessesareusedforwelding y Heat of fusion is produced by electrons decelerate.
y Allows precise
p beam control and deep
p weld
( ) 1,2and3
(a) d (b) 1,2and4
(c) 1,3and4 (d) 2,3and4
y No shield gas (vacuum chamber used)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 57 of 240 Rev.0

IES2004 IES2002 IES1993
Assertion (A): In electron beam welding process, Inwhichoneofthefollowingweldingtechniques Electronbeamweldingcanbecarriedoutin
vacuum is an essential process parameter isvacuumenvironmentrequired? (a) Ope
Reason (R): Vacuum provides a highly efficient (a) Ultrasonicwelding
shield on weld zone (b) Ashieldinggasenvironment
(b) Laserbeamwelding (c) Apressurizedinertgaschamber
Apressuri edinertgaschamber
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A (c) Plasmaarcwelding (d) Vacuum
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the (d) Electronbeamwelding
l b ldi
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IAS2004 LaserBeamWelding y Very thin HAZ and little thermal distortion.

Whichoneofthefollowingweldingprocesses y Used a focused laser beam provides power intensities y Filler metal and inert gas shield may or may not used.
in kW/ 2
i excess off 10kW/cm y Deep penetration.
(a) Arcwelding (b) Electronbeamwelding
(c) MIGwelding (d) Thermit welding y The high
intensity beam produces a very thin column y No
N vacuum needed.
d d
of vaporized metal with a surrounding liquid pool.
y No direct contact needed.
y Depthtowidth ratio greater than 4: 1.

Contd Contd

y Heat input is very low, often in the range 0.1 to 10 J. IES2007 IES2006
Considerthefollowingstatementsinrespectofthe Whichoneofthefollowingweldingprocesses
y Adopted by the electronics industry.
laserbeamwelding: consistsofminimumheataffectedzone(HAZ)?
y Possible to weld wires without removing the 1. Itcanbeusedforweldinganymetalortheir
I b df ldi l h i
combinationsbecauseofveryhightemperatureofthe (a) ShieldedMetalArcWelding(SMAW)
polyurethane insulation.
insulation focalpoints.
focalpoints (b) LaserBeamWelding(LBW)
2. Heataffectedzoneisverylargebecauseofquick (c) UltrasonicWelding(USW)
(d) MetalInertGasWelding(MIG)
l G ldi ( G)
3. Highvacuumisrequiredtocarrytheprocess.
(a) 1and2only (b) 2and3only
(c) 1only (d) 1,2and3
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 58 of 240 Rev.0
GATE2012(PI) IAS2007 IAS1999
Which of the following welding processes results in Consider the following welding processes: Match List I (Shielding
( method)) with List II (Welding
process) and select the correct answer using the codes
the smallest heat affected zone? 1.. Arcc welding
ed g 2.. MIG
G welding
ed g given below the lists:
(a) Shielded metal arc welding List I List II
3. Laser beam welding 4. Submerged arc
A. Flux coating 1. Gas metal arc welding
(b) Gas welding welding B
B. Fl granules
Flux l 2. S b
Submerged d arc welding
(c) Laser beam welding Select the correct sequence in increasing order of Heat C. CO2 3. Shielded metal arc welding
affected zone (HAZ) using the code D Vacuum
D. 4
4. Laser beam welding
(d) Thermit
h i welding
5. Electron beam welding
given below: Codes:A B C D A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 1 4 2 3 (a) 1 2 5 3 (b) 1 4 2 5
(c) 3 5 1 4 (d) 3 2 1 5
((c)) 3 2 4 1 ((d)) 4 3 2 1

ForgeWelding FrictionWelding
y Machine is similar to a centre lathe.
y Blacksmith do this. y Heat is obtained by the friction between the ends of
y Power requirements 25 kVA to 175 kVA.
y Borax is used as a flux. th two
the t parts
t to
t be
b joined.
j i d
y The axial pressure depends on the strength and
y The ends to be joined were then overlapped on the y One part is rotated at a high speed and other part is
h d
hardness off the
h metals
l being
b joined.
anvil and hammered to the degree
g necessaryy to axially aligned and pressed tightly against it.
y Pressure 40 MPa for lowcarbon
low carbon steels to as high as 450
produce an acceptable weld. y Friction raises the temperature of both the ends. Then
MPa for alloy steels.
y Quality depends on the skill of the worker and not rotation is stopped abruptly and the pressure is

d by
b industry.
i d increased to join.
Contd Contd

y Very efficient.
y Wide variety of metals or combinations of metals can Whichoneofthefollowingisasolidstatejoining
be jjoined such as aluminium to steel.
y Grain size is refined
y Strength is same as base metal.
metal (a) Gastungstenarcwelding
y Only round bars or tubes of the same size, or (b) Resistancespotwelding
p g
i bars
b or tubes b to flat
fl surfaces
f can join.
j i
y One of the components must be ductile. (c) Frictionwelding
y Friction welding is a solid state welding. (d) submergedarcwelding
y A low contact pressure may be applied initially to
permit cleaning of the
For-2015 surfaces
(IES, GATEby& aPSUs)
burnishing action. Page
Fig 59 of 240
frictionweldingprocess Rev.0
Match the CORRECT pairs.
GATE2014 G 20 0 ( )
Processes Characteristics/Applications
In solidstate welding, the contamination layers P.FrictionWelding 1.Nonconsumableelectrode Two steell bars,
b each
h off diameter
d 10 mm, are coaxially

b t
between th surfaces
the f t be
to b welded
ld d are removed
d by
b Q.GasMetalArc
Q GasMetalArc 2 Joiningofthickplates
2.Joiningofthickplates friction welded,
welded end to end,
end at an axial pressure of 200
Welding MPa and at a rotational speed of 4000 rpm. The
(a) alcohol R T
t I tG 3.Consumableelectrodewire
C bl l t d i
Welding coefficient of friction between the mating faces of the
(b) p
plastic deformation
S.Electroslag Welding 4.Joiningofcylindrical rotating bars
b is 0.50. The
h torque is assumed
d to act at the
(c) water jet dissimilarmaterials 3/4th radius of the rotating bar. The power (in KW)
(d) sand blasting consumed at the interface for welding is
( ) 4 Q3
(a)P4,Q3,R1,S2 ( ) 4 Q
(c)P2,Q3,R4,S1 (d)P2,Q4,R1,S3 (a) 12.33 (b) 16.44 (c) 18.50 (d) 24.66

UltrasonicWelding(USW) Restricted to the lap joint

IFS2011 USW is a solidstate welding.
Weld thin materials sheet, foil, and wire
materialssheet, or the
attaching thin sheets to heavier structural members.
Discusswithfigurethevariousstepsrequiredfor Highfrequency
g q y (10 to 200, KHz) is applied.
pp Maximum thickness 2.5 2 5 mm for aluminum and 1.0 10
frictionwelding,mentioningatleasttwomethods Surfaces are held together under light normal mm for harder metals.
pressure. N b off metals
Number t l andd dissimilar
di i il metal t l combinations
bi ti
Temp. do not exceed onehalf of the melting point. and non metals can be joined such as aluminum to
k ] The
Th ultrasonic
lt i transducer
t d i same as ultrasonic
is lt i ceramics
i or glass.
machining. Equipment is simple and reliable.
Less surface preparation and less energy is needed.

Contd Contd

Applications Important factors are,
y Done at room temperature in air, water or vacuum.
y Joiningthedissimilarmetalsinbimetallics y Critical velocity
y Makingmicrocircuitelectricalcontacts.
y Surface contaminants tend to be blown off the surface. y Critical angle

y Weldingrefractoryorreactivemetals
W ldi f i l y Typical impact pressures are millions of psi.
psi y The cladding plate can be supported with tack welded
supports at the edges, or the metal inserts.
y Bondingultrathinmetal.
g y Well suited to metals that is prone to brittle joints
when heat welded, such as,
y Aluminum on steel

y Titanium on steel
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 60 of 240 Rev.0
Contd Contd
y Typically the detonation velocity should not exceed High velocity explosives, 45727620 m/s.
120% of the sonic velocity in the metal. y TNT g ,
y Can bond many dissimilar, normally unweldable
y Composition
C iti B metals
y Composition C4 y The lack of heating preserves metal treatment
y Datasheet
y The
Th process isi compact, portable,
bl andd easy to contain
y Primacord
Medium velocity explosives, 15244572 m/s y Inexpensive
y Ammonium nitrate y No need for surface preparation
y Ammonium perchlorate
y Amatol
y Nitroguonidine
y Dynamites
y diluted PETN
Contd Contd Contd

Disadvantages, yp pp
y The metals must have high enough impact resistance,
and ductilityy ((at least 55%)) y Verylargeplatescanbecladded.
y The cladding plate cannot be too large. y Joinsdissimilarmetals.
y Noise and blast can require worker protection,
protection vacuum
chambers, buried in sand/water. (titaniumtosteel,Altosteel,AltoCuetc.)

y Jointubetotubesheetsoflargeheatexchangers.

Contd Contd

GATE1992 usingthecodegivenbelowthelists:
Inanexplosiveweldingprocess,the.. Codes:
ListI ListII
(maximum/minimum)velocityofimpactisfixed A.Laserbeam 1.Canbeappliedforweldingorrefractorymetals A B C D A B C D
bythevelocityofsoundinthe welding likeniobium,tantalum,molybdenumandtungsten. (a) 4 3 1 2 (b) 2 3 1 4
(flyer/target)platematerial B.Electron 2.Asoundandcleanweldedjointiscreateddueto ((c)) 4 1 3 4 ( )
(d) 2 1 3 4
(a) Maximum;target beamwelding rubbingoftwopartsagainsteachotherwith
(b) M
u ; ta get raisingtemperatureabovemeltingpoint.
(c) Maximum;flyer C.Ultrasonic 3.Cleanheatsourcecreatedmuchawayfromjob,a
(d) Minimum;flyer
Mi i fl welding narrowspotisheated workchamberoperatesina
D Friction 4.Cleanheatsourceveryquickheating,verysmall
4 Cleanheatsourceveryquickheating,verysmall
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) welding focalspot,novacuumchamberisrequired.
Page 61 of 240 Rev.0
IES2009 IAS2002
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegiven MatchListI,(Welding)withListII(Application)andselectthecorrect
( ) ( )
IFS 2009
belowtheLists: answerusingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists:
ListI ListII ListI ListII Two plates of aluminium and stainless steel are to
(WeldingProcess) (Application) (
(Welding) ) (
(Application) )
A. Laserwelding 1. Unitinglargeareasheets
B. Frictionwelding 2. Repairinglargeparts
A. Explosive 1. Joiningthicksheets be welded back to back to create a single plate of
C Ultrasonicwelding
C. 3
3. Weldingarodtoaflatsurface B. Ultrasonic 2. Manufactureofheatexchanges g
D. Explosivewelding 4. Fabricationofnuclearreactor C. Thermit 3. Joiningthinsheetsorwiresof
similar/dissimilar metals
thickness equal to the sum of the thicknesses of
55. Weldingverythinmaterials
g y D. Projection 4. Joininghydraulicpistonrodsfor
Code: agricultural
l l machinery
h the two plates.
plates Suggest the suitable process and
(a) A B C D (b) A B C D 5. Joiningrails,pipesandthicksteel
5 4 3 2 1 4 2 5 sections explain it in brief.
d B C D A B C D
(c) A B C D (d) A B C D (a) 2 5 1 3 (b) 4 5 1 3 [10 marks]
1 3 4 2 5 3 4 1 (c) 2 3 5 1 (d) 4 3 5 1

Autogeneous Welding MicroPlasmaArcWeld(PAW) DiffusionWelding

y It is a solid state welding
g p
process which p
y Autogeneous welding or fusion of the parent y Similar to GTAW except the plasma caused by the arc coalescence of the faying surfaces by the application of
material in an inert g
gas shield without the use pressure and elevated temperatures (about 50 to 80%
i constricted
is t i t d by
b a watercooled
t l d orifice
ifi of absolute melting point of the parent materials) for a
of filler metals.
time ranging from a couple of minutes to a few hours.
y Capable of high welding speeds where size permits
y Produces high quality bonds with good strength with
y Argon
g is used as the shielding
gggas. little or no distortion.
y Can join very dissimilar materials.
y A solid filler metal may or may not be inserted.
y Materials welded for aircraft and rocket industry:
Boron, Titanium, Aluminium, Ceramic, Composite,
Graphite, Magnesium etc.

M hLi I i hLi II d l h
GATE 2008(PI) IAS2001 usingthecodegivenbelowthelists:
h h pair among the
h following
f ll solid
l d state welding
ld MatchListI(Weldingprocesses)withListII(Features)and
( ) ( ) ListI ListII
A.Atomic 1.Twopiecesarebroughttogetherand
processes uses heat from an external source? h d
ldi powersupplyisswitchedon
l i i h d
ListI ListII
A. Ultrasonicwelding 1. Gasheatedtoionizedcondition
P Diffusion welding; Q Friction welding forconductionofelectriccurrent B.Plasmaarc
B Plasma arc 22.Nuggetisformedattheinterfaceof
B. Electronbeamwelding2. Highfrequencyandhigh
intensityvibrations welding twoplates
R Ultrasonic welding S Forge welding
C. Plasmaarcwelding 3
3. Concentratedstreamofhigh
Concentratedstreamofhigh C Spotwelding
C.Spotwelding 3 Gasisionized
(a) P and R (b) R and S 4. Exothermalchemicalreaction D.Flashwelding 4.Inertgasshieldedarcwelding
C d A B C A B C
(c) Q and S (d) P and S (a) 1 2 4 (b) 4 3 1 Code:A B C D A B C D
(c) 2 1 4 (d) 2 3 1
(a) 4 3 2 1 (b) 1 3 2 4
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 62 of 240 (c) 4 2 3 1 (d) 1 Rev.0
2 3 4
IES 2011 Conventional
IES2011Conventional BrazingandSoldering
Discuss the process capabilities and applications of Gas y Brazing
B i is
i the
th joining
j i i off metals
t l through
th h the
th use off heat
h t
and a filler metal whose melting temperature is above
Metal Arc Welding, Gas tungsten Arc Welding, and 450C; but below the melting
45 g p
point of the metals being g
Diffusion Bonding processes. BrazingandSoldering
g g Comparison with welding and the brazing process
1. The
Th compositionii off the
h brazing
b i alloy
ll isi significantly
i ifi l
[15Marks] different from that of the base metal.
2 The strength of the brazing alloy is substantially lower
than that of the base metal.
3. The melting point of the brazing alloy is lower than that
off the
h base
b metal,
l so the
h base
b metall is not melted.
l d
4. Capillary action or capillary attraction draws the
molten filler metal into the joint,
joint even against the flow of

Brazing process has several distinct
1. All metals can be joined. y Brazingbrass(60%Cu,40%Zn)
2. Suited for dissimilar metals. y Manganesebronze
y Nickelsilver
3. Quick and economical.
y Coppersilicon
4. Less defects.
d f y Silveralloys(with/withoutphosphorous)
l ll ( h h h h )
y Copperphosphorous
5 Corrosion prone

Contd Contd

y Extremely clean surface needed. y A popular composition is 75% borax and 25% boric
y Fluxes used are combinations of borax, boric acid, acid.
chlorides fluorides,
chlorides, fluorides tetraborates
tetra borates and other wetting y Sodium
S di cyanide
id is
i used
d in
i brazing
b i tungsten to copper.
g y Base materials not melted.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 63 of 240 Rev.0

GATE2005 IES2006 S O 20 0
Which is not correct statement about the function of
Thestrengthofabrazedjoint Whichoneofthefollowingisnotafusionwelding flux in brazing
(a) Decreaseswithincreaseingapbetweenthetwo
g p process? (a) To avoid thermal distortion and cracking
joiningsurfaces (a) Gaswelding (b) To dissolve surface oxide coatings which have formed
(b) Increaseswithincreaseingapbetweenthetwo (b) Arcwelding prior to brazing
joiningsurfaces (c) Brazing (c) To prevent oxides from forming during the brazing
(c) Decreasesuptocertaingapbetweenthetwo (d) Resistancewelding
i ldi operation
i on both
b h the
h base
b metall and
d the
h brazing
b i
joiningsurfacesbeyondwhichitincreases material
(d) Increasesuptocertaingapbetweenthetwo
I t t i b t th t (d) To facilitate the wetting process by reducing the
joiningsurfacesbeyondwhichitdecreases viscosity of the melt

BrazeWelding y Done with an oxyacetylene torch. Soldering

y Capillary action is not required. y By definition, soldering is a brazing type of operation

y Edge preparation needed. where

h th filler
the fill metal
t l has
h a melting
lti t

y Can join cast iron.

iron below 450C.

y Strength of the filler metal is low.

y Soldering is used for a neat leakproof joint or a low

resistance electrical joint.

y Not
N suitable
i bl for
f hightemp.
hi h application.
li i
Contd Contd

Effective soldering generally involves six important

S ld M t l
SolderMetals S ld l
steps: y Ammonium
A i chloride
hl id or rosin
i for
f soldering
ld i tinti
y Most solders are alloys of lead and tin.
(1) Design of an acceptable solder joint,
y Hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride for soldering
( ) Selection
(2) l off the
h correct solder
ld for
f the
h job,
b y Three commonly used alloys contain 60, 50, and 40%
(3) Selection of the proper type of flux, galvanized iron
tin and all melt below 240
(4) Cleaning the surfaces to be joined, y Some fluxes are corrosive and should be removed after
(5) Application of flux,
flux solder,
solder and sufficient heat to
allow the molten solder to fill the joint by capillary use
action and solidify,
solidify and
(6) Removal of the flux residue, if necessary.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 64 of 240 Rev.0

y Silver solders uses for highertemperature
g p service,,
d ld
Electrical and Electronic purpose.
Soldering and brazing are difficult of grey cast Iron due
to surface contamination with graphite having a very low
(b) o oge eous jo
g et ods
surface energy.
(c)autogenous joiningmethods


IES1994 IAS1996 W ldi d i

dd f
MatchList IwithList IIandselectthecorrect MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswerusing Welding
W ldi Problem
P bl Causes
answerusingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists: thecodesgivenbelowthelists Cracking of weld metal High joint rigidity
List I(Filler)
List List II(Joiningprocess)
List ListII
List ListII
List II Cracking of base metal Excessive stresses
A. Cu,Zn,Agalloy 1. Brazewelding. (Fillerrodmaterial) (Joiningprocess) Spatter Arc blow
B Cu,Sn,alloy
B. Cu Sn alloy 2
2. Brazing A. Mildsteel 1. MIGwelding Distortion Poor joint selection
B. Bronze 2. Soldering
C. Pb,Sb,alloy 3. Soldering Slag inclusion Improper cleaning in multi-
C. Brass 3. Brazing
D.Iron oxideandaluminium p powder4.
4 TIGweldingof
g pass welding
aluminium D Leadandtinalloy
D. L d dti ll 4. Th
Thermitit welding
5. Brazewelding Porosity Excessive H2, O2, N2, in the
Codes:A B C D A B C D Codes:A B C D A B C D welding atmosphere or Damp
( ) 2
(a) 1 3 (b) 1 2 4 (a) 1 5 3 2 (b) 4 3 2 5 electrodes
(c) 2 1 3 4 (d) 2 3 4 (c) 4 3 5 2 (d) 1 3 5 4 LamellarTearing inclusionssuchasMn FeandS
h b l d

IES2004 IES2003,ISRO2011 C k
y Cracks may be of micro or macro size and may appear in
( ) ( ) MatchListI(WeldingDefects)withListII(Causes)and
( ) ( ) the weld metal or base metal or base metal and weld
thecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists: selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelowthe
ListI ListII Lists: metal boundary.
A. Crackingofweldmetal 1. Excessivestresses ListI ListII y Different categories of cracks are longitudinal cracks,
B. Crackingofbasemetal 2. Highjointrigidity (WeldingDefects) (Causes)
C. Porosity 3
3. Failuretoremoveslag
transverse cracks or radiating/star cracks and cracks in
A Spatter
A. S 1. D
l d
B. Distortion 2. Arcblow
the weld crater.
D. Inclusions 4. Oxidation
5. E
i H2,O
i C Slaginclusion
C. 3
3. Impropercleaningin y Cracks occur when localized stresses exceed the ultimate
theweldingatmosphere multipasswelding tensile strength of material.
Codes:A B C D A B C D D. Porosity 4. Poorjointselection
(a) 2 1 5 3 (b) 3 4 2 1 Codes:A B C D A B C D y These stresses are developed due to shrinkage during
(c) 2 4 5 3 (d) 3 1 4 2 (a) 4 2 3 1 (b) 4 2 1 3 solidification of weld metal.
(c) 2 4 1 3 (d) 2 4 3 1
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 65 of 240 Rev.0
HAZ Cracking
HAZCracking Hydrogen Induced Cracking
Cracks may be developed due to poor ductility of base y Duetothepresenceofmoisture,grease,rustetc.,
metal high sulphur and carbon contents,
contents high arc travel y Crackinginheataffectedzonemaybecausedby:
g y y
h d h ld l d di l di
speeds i.e. fast cooling rates, too concave or convex weld (i)Hydrogeninweldingatmosphere theweldmetal.
bead and high hydrogen contents in the weld metal.
y DuringcoolinghydrogendiffusestotheHAZ.
y Crackingmaydevelopduetoresidualstressesassistedby
g y p y
(iii)lowductility hydrogencoalesence.
y Thefactorsthatdeterminetheprobabilityofhydrogen
(v)brittlephaseinthemicrostructure (a)Hydrogencontent
f k ld (c)stresstowhichthejointisexposedasaresultof

Residualstress Porosity
y The residual stresses result from the restrained expansion y Porosity results when the gases are entrapped in the
and contraction that occur during localized heating and solidifying weld metal.
cooling in the region of weld deposit. y These gases are generated from the flux or coating
y The magnitude of residual stresses depends on the weldment constituents of the electrode or shielding gases used
design support and clamping of the components being
design, during welding or from absorbed moisture in the
welded, their materials, welding process used, part coating.
dimensions,, welding g sequence,
q ,p
post weld treatment,, size of
y Porosity
P it can alsol b controlled
be t ll d if excessively
i l high
hi h
the deposited weld beads, etc.
welding currents, faster welding speeds and long arc
y Residual stresses should not have a harmful effect on the
th are avoidedid d flux
fl and
d coated
t d electrodes
l t d are
strength performance of weldments, reduces fatigue
g Mayy cause distortion. This residual stress mayy properly baked.
result in the cracking of a brittle material and is not
important as far as a ductile material.

Solid Inclusion
y Solid inclusions may be in the form of slag or any other
nonmetallic material entrapped in the weld metal as
these may not able to float on the surface of the
solidifying weld metal.
y During arc welding flux either in the form of granules or
coating after melting,
melting reacts with the molten weld metal
removing oxides and other impurities in the form of slag
and it floats on the surface of weld metal due to its low
y Slag
Sl i l i
inclusion can be
b prevented d if proper groove isi
selected, all the slag from the previously deposited bead
Fig DifferentFormsofPorosities
Fig.DifferentFormsofPorosities i removed,
is d too high
hi h or too low
l welding
ldi currents and
d Fig SlagInclusioninWeldments
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) long arcs are avoided.Page 66 of 240 Rev.0
Lack of Fusion
LackofFusion ImperfectShape,Distortions
p p
I l t P t ti
IncompletePenetration y Imperfect shape means the variation from the desired shape and
y Lack of fusion is the failure to fuse together either the size of the weld bead.
y Incomplete penetration means that the weld depth is not
b metall and
d weld
ld metall or subsequent
b beads
b d ini y During undercutting a notch is formed either on one side of the
upto the desired level or root faces have not reached to weld bead or both sides in which stresses tend to concentrate and
multipass welding because of failure to raise the
melting point in a groove joint. it can result in the early failure of the joint. Main reasons for
temperature off base
b metall or previously
i l deposited
d i d weld
ld undercutting are the excessive welding currents, long arc lengths
layer to melting point during welding. y If either low currents or larger arc lengths or large root and fast travel speeds.
face or small root gap or too narrow groove angles are y Underfilling may be due to low currents, fast travel speeds and
y Lack of fusion can be avoided by properly cleaning of
used then it results into poor penetration. small size of electrodes. Overlap may occur due to low currents,
surfaces to be welded, selecting proper current, proper longer arc lengths and slower welding speeds.
welding technique and correct size of electrode. y Excessive reinforcement is formed if high currents, low voltages,
slow travel speeds and large size electrodes are used. Excessive
root penetration and sag occur if excessive high currents and slow
travel speeds are used for relatively thinner members.
y Distortion is caused because of shrinkage occurring due to large
heat input during welding.

IES 2011 C ti l
y Enumeratefourdefectscausedduetoresidualstressesin

1 Distortion

2. Crackinginthebasemetal

3. LamellarTearing

4. Reductionoffatiguestrength

IES2004 GATE2003 IES2004

Consider the following statements: Matchthefollowing
M h h f ll i
Workmaterial Typeofjoining
The magnitude of residual stresses in welding Thesizeoftheheataffectedzone(HAZ)willincreasewith
P Aluminium
P.Aluminium 1
1. SubmergedArcWelding
dependsd upon
Q.DieSteel 2. Soldering 1. Increasedstartingtemperature
1. Designofweldment R.CopperWire 3. Thermit Welding 2. Increasedweldingspeed
2. Supportandclampingofcomponents
S d l i f S.Titaniumsheet 4. AtomicHydrogenWelding
3. weldingprocessused 5. GasTungstenArcWelding
3. Increasedthermalconductivityofthebasemetal
4. Amountofmetalmelted/deposited 6
6. L
B W ldi 4 Increaseinbasemetalthickness
7. Brazing Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect?
(a)P 2
(a)P Q 5
Q R 1
R S 3
(a) 1,2and4 (b)1,2and3 ( ) 1,2and3
(a) d (b) 1and3
(b)P 6 Q 3 R 4 S 4
(c) 1and3 (d)2and3 (c)P 4 Q 1 R 6 S 2 (c) 1and4 (d) 2and3
(d)P 5 Q 4 R 2 S 6
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 67 of 240 Rev.0
IES1992 20 0
JWM2010 IES1998
Assertion ((A)) : Spatter
p g defects.
is one of the welding
Weld spatter occurs due to any of the following Reason (R) : In submerged arc welding process, An arc welded joint is shown in the above figure.
except there is no spatter of molten metal. The part labelled 'B' in the figure
g is known as
(a) High welding current (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the (a) Weld preparation
(b) Too small an electrode correct explanation of A (b) Penetration
(c) Arc (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the (c) Reinforcement
(d) Wrong polarity
l i correct explanation
l i off A (d) Slag
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES2004 IAS2003 GATE1996

Assertion (A): A sound welded joint should not only Toolmaterialnotsuitedtoresistanceweldingis Preheatingbeforeweldingisdoneto
be strong enough but should also exhibits a good (a) Makethesteelsofter
amount of ductility
Reason (R): Welding process is used for fabricating (a) Aluminium oxide (b) Stellite (b) Bumawayoil,grease,etc,fromtheplatesurface
mild steel components only (c) Highspeedsteel (d) Masonite (c) Preventcoldcracks
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct (d) Preventplatedistortion
explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
((d)) A is false but R is true

IES2011 GATE2001 IES 2012

Cold crackinginsteelweldments dependson Brittle welds are mainly obtained due to
Two plates of the same metal having equal
1.Carbonequivalent thickness are to be butt welded with electric arc. (a) Wrong electrode, faulty preheating and metal
2.Heatinput When the plate thickness changes, welding is hardened by air
3.Effectivethickness achieved by (b) Faulty welds, faulty sequence and rigid joints
3.Hydrogencontentinweldpool (a) Adjusting the current (c) Wrong speed, current improperly adjusted and faulty
(b) Adjusting
djust g tthee du
at o oof cu
e t preparation
(a)1 2and3only
(c) Changing the electrode size (d) Uneven heat, improper sequence and deposited
metal shrinks
( )
(c)2,3and4only (d) Changing
Ch i the
th electrode
l t d coating
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 68 of 240 Rev.0
IES 2012
GATE2014 IES 2012
Which of the following are associated with Heat Within the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) in a fusion Statement ((I):) Hydrogen
y g induced cracking g occurs in the
Affected Zone? welding process, the work material undergoes heat effected zone adjacent to fusion zone and
classified as solid state cracking
1 Coldcracking
1.Coldcracking (a) microstructural changes but does not melt Statement (II):Hydrogen from burning of flux coating
2.Notchtoughness (b) neither melting nor microstructural changes penetrates martensitic micro cracks preventing healing
3.Hydrogenembrittlement (c) both melting and microstructural changes after as well as enlarging them.
solidification (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
g true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of
(a)1,2and3only (d) melting and retains the original microstructure after Statement (I)
(b)1 3and4only
(b)1,3and4only solidification ((b)) Both Statement ((I)) and Statement ((II)) are individuallyy
true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of
(c)2,3and4only Statement (I)
(d)1,2,3and4 (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 69 of 240 Rev.0

B SKM d l

L th
Lathe L th
Lathe Generalclassificationsusedwhendescribinglathes
y A lathe is a large
g machine that rotates the work,, and y Bed this is a bottom pan on the lathe that catches chips,
chips y Swing the largest diameter of work that can be rotated.
cutting is done with a nonrotating cutting tool. The cutting fluids, etc. y Distance Between Centres the longest length of
shapes cut are generally round, or helical. The tool is
typically moved parallel to the axis of rotation during y carriage this part of the lathe carries the cutting tool and workpiece
cutting. moves based on the rotation of the lead screw or rod. y Length of Bed Related to the Distance Between
y headstock thisendofthelathecontainsthedriving y Lead
L d screw A large
l screw with
ith a few
f threads
th d per inch
i h used
d C t
motorandgears.Powertorotatethepartisdelivered for cutting threads. It has ACME threads with included angle y Power The range of speeds and feeds, and the
h Thi t i ll h l th tl tth d of 29o for easy engagement and disengagement of half nut.
horsepower available
andfeedsbeset. y Lead rod a rod with a shaft down the side used for driving
y ways thesearehardenedrailsthatthecarriagerides
th h d d il th tth i id normal cutting feeds.
on. y The critical parameters on the lathe are speed of rotation
y tailstock
t il t k thiscanbeusedtoholdtheotherendofthe
thi b dt h ldth th d fth (speed in RPM) and how far the tool moves across the work
part. for each rotation (feed in IPR)

NumberofSpindleSpeed IES 2001

IES IES 1992
y Number of spindle speed is in a geometric progression.
progression Thespindlespeedrangeinageneralpurposelathe Feedgearboxforascrewcuttinglatheisdesigned
y If n number of spindle speed is required with N1 is the isdividedintostepswhichapproximatelyfollow onthebasisof
minimum speed then (a) Arithmeticprogression (a) Geometricprogression
N1 , N1r, N1r 2 , N1r 3 ,.............N1r n1 (b) Geometricprogression (b) Arithmeticprogression
N1 = N min and N1r n1 = N max (c) Harmonicprogression (c) Harmonicprogression
1 ((d)) Logarithmicprogression
g p g ((d)) None.
N n1
Therefore, Step Ratio ( r ) = max
N min
y The values of step ratios are 1.06, 1.12, 1.26, 1.41, 1.58 and 2

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 70 of 240 Rev.0

T i
Turning Threading
y Turning
Turning producesasmoothandstraightoutsideradius y Threading
Threading Thecuttingtoolismovedquicklycutting
onapart. threads.

h di
Threading IES 1998
IES IES 1993,ISRO2009
IES 1993 ISRO 2009
y Inonerevolutionofthespindle,carriagemusttravel A single start thread of pitch 2 mm is to be produced It is required to cut screw threads of 2 mm pitch on
thepitchofthescrewthreadtobecut. on a lathe having a lead screw with a double start a lathe. The lead screw has a pitch of 6 mm. If the
N s Pz s = N L Lz L thread of pitch 4 mm. The ratio of speeds between spindle speed is 60 rpm, then the speed of the lead
the spindle and lead screw for this operation is screw will be
P = Pitch of the screw thread to be cut
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2: 1 (a) 10 rpm (b) 20 rpm
L = Pitch of the lead screw
(c) 1: 4 (d) 4: 1 (c) 120 rpm (d) 180 rpm
z s = Number of start of the screw thread to be cut
z L = Number of start of the lead screw
icg = gear ratio i dl ( N s ) to
ti off spindle i ( N L ) gear train
t carriage t i

Facing Tapering P ti /Sl tti /G i

y Facing The end of the part is turned to be square.
square y Tapering
Tapering thetoolismovessoastocutataper(cone y A tool is moved in/out of the work.
work shallow cut will leave
shape). a formed cut, a deep cut will cut off the unsupported

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 71 of 240 Rev.0

D illi /B i
Drilling/Boring K li
Knurling S i i
y Drilling/Boring a cutter or drill bit is pushed into the y Knurling is a manufacturing process whereby a y Metal Spinning is a process by which circles of metal are
end to create an internal feature. visuallyattractive diamondshaped (crisscross) shaped over mandrels (also called forms) while mounted
pattern is cut or rolled into metal. on a spinning lathe by the application of levered force
y This pattern allows human hands or fingers to get a with various tools.
better grip on the knurled object than would be
provided by the originallysmooth metal surface.

ISRO2007 Reaming Tapping

y A tap enters the workpiece axially through the end and
y A reamer enters the workpiece axially through the end cuts internal threads into an existing hole. The
Spinning operation is carried out on
and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap
(a) Hydraulic press tool. Reaming removes a minimal amount of material drill size that will accommodate the desired tap.
and is often performed after drilling to obtain both a
(b) Mechanical press more accurate diameter and a smoother internal
(c) Lathe

(d) Milling
Milli machine

W k h ldi D i f L th
WorkholdingDevicesforLathes L th h k
y Held between centers y Lathe chucks are used to support
pp a wider varietyy of
y 3 jaw self centering chuck (Disc type jobs being held
workpiece shapes and to permit more operations to be
performed than can be accomplished when the work is
in chucks ) held between centers.
y 4 jaw independently adjusted chuck y Threejaw, selfcentering chucks are used for work that
y Held in a collet (Slender rod like jobs being held in has a round or hexagonal cross section. 3JawChuck 4JawChuck
collets ) y Each jaw in a fourjaw independent chuck can be moved
y Mounted on a face plate (Odd shape jobs, being held inward and outward independent of the others by means
in face plate)
p ) of a chuck wrench. Thus they can be used to support a
id variety
i t off work
k shapes.
y Mounted on the carriage
y Combination fourjaw chucks are available in which each
y Mandrels j
jaw can beb moved d independently
i d d tl or can be
b moved d
y MagneticFor-2015 (IES,
chuck for GATE
thin job & PSUs) Page of
simultaneously by means 72 aofspiral
240 cam. Rev.0
T i
Turning F l f T i
D1 D2
cut d = DOC =
y Depth of cut, mm
y Average diameter of workpiece D1 + D2
Davgg = mm
Collets Magnetic Chuck
MagneticChuck 2

Time CT = L + A + O
y Cutting Time,

y Metal Removal Rate

M RR =
(D 2
1 D 22 )= D a v g d fN
4 / fN
Face Plate
FacePlate y Cutting Speed, V = ,m / min

Example IES 2010

IES2010 IES 2003
How much
h machining
h time will
ll be
b required
d to reduce
In turning a solid round bar, if the travel The time taken to face a workpiece of 72 mm
of the cutting tool in the direction of diameter, if the spindle speed is 80 r.p.m. and cross
the diameter of a cast iron rod from 120 mm to 116 mm feed is 0.3 mm/rev, is
f d motion
feed i i 1000 mm, rotational
is i l
over a length of 100 mm by turning using a carbide (a) 1.5 minutes (b) 3.0 minutes
p of the workpiece
p is 5500 rpm,
p , and ( ) 5.4 minutes
(c) i t (d) 8.58 minutes
i t
insert. Cutting velocity is 100 m/min and feed rate = 0.2 rate of feed is 0.2 mm/revolution, then
mm/rev. th machining
the hi i time
ti will
ill be
(a) 10 seconds (b) 100 seconds
(c) 5 minutes (d) 10 minutes

GATE 2013 (PI) C D

GATE2013(PI)CommonData IAS 2002
IAS IES 2004
A disc of 200 mm outer and 80 mm inner diameter is A 150 mm long, 12 mm diameter 304 stainless steel A medium carbon steel workpiece is turned on a
faced of 0.1 mm/rev with a depth of cut of 1 mm. The rod is being reduced in diameter to 115 mm by lathe at 50 m/min. cutting speed 0.8 mm/rev feed
facing operation is undertaken at a constant cutting turning on a lathe. The spindle rotates at N = 400 and 1.5 mm depth of cut. What is the rate of metal
speed of 90 m/min in a CNC lathe. The main rpm and the tool is travelling at an axial speed of removal?
(tangential) cutting force is 200 N. 200 mm/min. The time taken for cutting is given by (a) 1000 mm3/min
Assuming approach and overtravel of the cutting (a) 30 s (b) 36 s (b) 60,000 mm3/min
tool to be zero,
zero the machining time in min is ( ) 1 minute
(c) i t (d) 45 s (c) 20,000 mm3/min
(a) 2.93 (b) 5.86 (c) 6.66 (d) 13.33 ((d)) Can not be calculated with the g
given data

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 73 of 240 Rev.0

T i T L th
TurningTapersonLathes Using a Compound Slide
UsingaCompoundSlide UsingaCompoundSlidecontd..
y Limited movement of the compound slide
y The angle is determined by
y Usingacompoundslide,
d ld y Feeding is by hand and is nonuniform. This is
responsible for lowproductivity and poor surface tan =
y Usingformtools, finish. 2l
= Half taper angle
y Can be employed
p y for turning g short internal and
D = Diameter of stock
y Offsettingthetailstock,and external tapers with a large angle of (steep) taper.
d = smaller diameter
l = length of the taper
y Usingtaperturningattachment.

IES 2006
Example Off tti th t il t k
For taper turning on centre lathes, the method of Find the angle at which the compound rest should y It is necessary to measure the tailstock offset when using
swiveling the compound rest is preferred for: be set up to turn taper on the workpiece having a this method.
(a) Long jobs with small taper angles length of 200 mm, larger diameter 45 mm and the y This method is limited to small tapers (Not exceeding 8o
(b) Long jobs with steep taper angles smaller 30 mm. ) over long lengths.
(c) Short jobs with small taper angles y By
B offsetting
ff tti the
th tailstock,
t il t k the
th axisi off rotation
t ti off the
th job
j b
((d)) Short jjobs with steep
p taper
p angles
g is inclined by the half angle of taper.

Off tti th t il t k Contd..

Offsettingthetailstock IES 1992
IES IAS 2002
y Tailstock offset (h) can be determined by Tailstocksetovermethodoftaperturningis The amount of offset of tail stock for turning taper
L(D d ) preferredfor on full length of a job 300 mm long which is to have
h= or h = L tan (a) Internaltapers its two diameters at 50 mm and 38 mm respectively
2l is
(b) Smalltapers
(c) Longslendertapers (a) 6 mm (b) 12 mm
((d)) Steeptapers
p p (c) 25 mm (d) 44 mm

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 74 of 240 Rev.0

IES 1998
IES F t l
Formtool Taper Turning Attachment
A 400 mm long shaft has a 100 mm tapered step at y Special form tool for generating the tapers is used.
used The y Additional equipment is attached at the rear of the lathe.
the middle with 4 included angle. The tailstock feed is given by plunging the tool directly into the work. y The cross slide is disconnected from the cross feed nut.
offset required to produce this taper on a lathe This method is useful for short external tapers, where y The
Th cross slide
lid is
i then
th connected
t d to
t the
th attachment.
tt h t
would be the steepness is of no consequence, such as for
y As the carriage is engaged, and travels along the bed, the
(a) 400 sin 4
4 (b) 400 sin 22 chamfering.
attachment will cause the cutter to move in/out to cut
(c) 100 sin 4 (d) 100 sin 2 the taper.
y For turning tapers over a comprehensive range is the use
p turning
of taper g attachment.

E i t l tti
Errorsintoolsettings IES 2010
The effect of centering error
when the tool is set above the
center line as shown in the figure
lt effectively
ff ti l ini
1. Increase in rake angle.
2. Reduction
R d ti in i rake
k angle.
3. Increase in clearance angle.
y Setting the tool below the centre decrease actual rake angle, 4. Reduction
R d i in i clearance
l angle.
while clearance angle increases by the same amount. Thus Which of these statements is/are
cutting force
f increased.
d correct?
y Setting the tool above the centre causes the rake angle to (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 4 only
increase, while clearance angle reduces. More rubbing with ( ) 2 and
(c) d 4 only
l (d) 1, 2, 3 and

TurretLathe CapstanLathe
T t L th
A turret lathe, a number of tools can be set up on the
machine and then quickly be brought successively into
working position so that a complete part can be
machined without the necessity for further adjusting,
changing tools, or making measurements.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 75 of 240 Rev.0

Capstan lathe Turret lathe
slide since the saddle is Saddle moves along the bed,
Short slide, bed
clamped on the bed in position. thus allowing the turret to be of IES 2012
IES i d i h i
g size.
large Lathe machine with turret can turn a work piece of
y The
h hexagonal
h l turret is rotated
d (for
(f indexing)
d ) by
b a
Light duty machine, generally for Heavy duty machine, generally limited length only because,
p whose diameter is for components
p with large
g (a) Cross slide motion is obstructed by turret Geneva mechanism where a Geneva disc having six
less than 50 mm. diameters, such as 200 mm.
(b) Turret cannot work on a long job radial slots is driven by a revolving pin. Before starting
Too much overhang of the turret Since the turret slides on the
when it is nearing cut. bed, there is no such difference. (c) Chuck cannot be replaced by a face plate
rotation, the locking pin is withdrawn by a cam lever
Ram type turret lathe,
Ramtype lathe the ram and Saddle type lathes,
Saddletype lathes the main ((d)) Turret replaces
p the loose centre
the turret are moved up to the turret is mounted directly on the
h The
h single
l rotation off the
h disc
d holding
h ld the
cutting position by means of the saddle, and the entire saddle indexing pin is derived from the auxiliary shaft with the
capstan Wheel. As the ram is and turret assembly
moved toward the headstock, the reciprocates. help of another single revolution clutch as indicated.
t is
i automatically
t ti ll locked
l k d into
i t
position. y For automatic lathe: Ratchet and Pawl mechanism

A t ti L th
AutomaticLathe Swiss type Automatic Lathe Or Sliding Headstock Automatics

y The term automatic is somewhat loosely applied, but is y Headstock travels enabling axial feed of the bar stock
normally restricted to those machine tools capable of against the cutting tools.
producing identical pieces without the attention of an y There is no tailstock or turret
operator, after each piece is completed. Thus, after y High spindle speed (2000 10,000 rpm) for small job
setting up and providing an initial supply of material, diameter
further attention beyond replenishing the material y The cutting tools (upto five in number including two on
supply is not required until the dimensions of the work the rocker arm) are fed radially
pieces change owing to tool wear.
y Used for lot or mass production of thin slender rod or
y A number of types of automatic lathes are developed tubular
b l jobs,
j b like
lik components off small
ll clocks
l k and d wrist
that can be used for large volume manufacture watches, by precision machining.
application such as single spindle automatics,
application, automatics Swiss type
automatics, and multispindle automatics.

Norton type Tumbler gear quick change Gear box

NortontypeTumblergearquickchangeGearbox N t t T bl i k h G b
l i S i dl i h
y For increase in rate of production of jobs usually of y It comprises
p a cone of g
gears 1 to 8 mounted on shaft S2.

smaller size and simpler geometry. y The tumbler gear can slide on shaft S1. It can mesh with any
gear on shaft S2 through an intermediate gear which is
y Having four to eight parallel spindles are preferably used.
ocated o
on a sswinging
g g aand
d ssliding
d g lever
e e so tthat
at itt ca
can eengage
y Multiple spindle automats also may be parallel action or gears 1 to 8 of different diameters, on shaft S2.
progressively working type. y The lever can be fixed in any desired ratio position with the
help of a stop pin.
y The drive is usually from the driving shaft S1 to the driven
shaft S2.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 76 of 240 Rev.0
GATE 2002
GATE 2008 GATE 2008

A leadscrew
l d with
ith half
h lf nuts
t in
i a lathe,
l th free
f to
t rotate
t t The figure shows an incomplete schematic of a
conventional lathe to be used for cutting threads
in both directions has with different pitches. The speed gear box Uv, is
shown and the feed gear box Us, is to be placed. P, Q.
(a) Vthreads
R and S denote locations and have no other
(b) Whitworth threads significance. Changes in Uv, should NOT affect the
pitch of the thread being cut and changes in Us, ThecorrectconnectionsandthecorrectplacementofUsare
(c) Buttress threads should NOT affect the cutting speed. givenby
((a)) QQandEareconnected. Us,,isplacedbetweenPandQ.
p Q
(d) ACME threads (b) SandEareconnected.Us isplacedbetweenRandS.
((c)) Q
p Q
Contd.. (d) SandEareconnected.Us,isplacedbetweenSandE.

IES 2004
IES G 99
GATE1994 IES 1996
Match List I (Cutting tools) with List II (Features) To get good surface finish on a turned job,
job Inturningofslenderrods,itisnecessarytokeep
and select the correct answer using the codes given one should use a sharp tool with a ..feed thetransverseforceminimummainlyto
below the Lists: and
d speed
d off rotation
t ti off the
th job.
j b (a) Improvethesurfacefinish
List I List II (b) Increaseproductivity
((a)) Minimum, minimum
A Turning
A. T i toolt l 1. Chi l edge
Chisel d (c) Improvecuttingefficiency
B. Reamer 2. Flutes
(b) Minimum, maximum
((d)) Reducevibrationsandchatter.
C. Milling cutter 3. Axial relief ( ) Maximum,
(c) M i maximum
4. Side relief ((d)) Maximum,, minimum
Codes: A B C A B C
( ) 1
(a) 2 3 (b) 4 3 2
(c) 4 2 3 (d) 1 3 2

IES 2009
IES IES 1999
IES IES 2009
Whatisthenumberofjawsinself centred chuck?
Whatisthenumberofjawsinselfcentred Which one of the following sets of forces are Whichoneofthefollowingmethodsshouldbeused
(a) Eight encountered by a lathe parting tool while groove forturninginternaltaperonly?
(b) Six
Si cutting? (a) Tailstockoffset
(c) Four (a) Tangential, radial and axial (b) Taperattachment
(d) Three (b) Tangential
T ti l and
d radial
di l (c) Formtool
(c) Tangential and axial ((d)) Compoundrest
(d) Radial and axial

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 77 of 240 Rev.0

IES 1992
IES IES 2006
IES IES 1997
Whichofthefollowingstatementisincorrectwith It is required to cut screw threads with double start Consider the following operations:
referenceoflathecuttingtools? and 2 mm pitch on a lathe having lead screw pitch 1. Under cutting 2. Plain turning
(a) Theflankofthetoolisthesurfacebelowand of 6 mm. What is the speed ratio between lathe 3. Taper
T t
i 4. Th d cutting
Thread tti
adjacenttothecuttingedges spindle and lead screw?
The correct sequence of these operations in machining a
(b) Thenoseisthecorner,orchamferjoiningtheside
Th i th h f j i i th id (a) 1 : 3 (b) 3: 1 product is
cuttingandtheendcuttingedges (c) 2 : 3 (d) 3: 2 ((a)) 2, 33, 4
4, 1 ((b)) 33, 2, 4
4, 1
(c) Theheelisthatpartofthewhichisshapedto (c) 2, 3, 1, 4 (d) 3, 2, 1, 4
(d) Thebaseisthatsurfaceoftheshankwhichagainst
pp g

IES 2009
IES IES 2007
A capstan lathe is used to mass produce, in batches
massproduce, Assertion (A): In a multi spindle automatic lathe, the
of 200, a particular component. The direct material turret tool holder is indexed to engage the cutting tools
cost is Rs 4 per piece, the direct labour cost is Rs 3 one by y one for successive machining g operations.
per piece and the overhead costs are 400% of the Reason (R): Turret is a multiple tool holder so that for
labour costs. What is the production cost per piece? successive machining g operation,
p , the tools need not be
(a) Rs 19 (b) Rs 23
((a)) Both A and R are individuallyy true and R is the correct
( ) Rs
(c) R 166 (d) RsR 15 explanation of A
((b)) Both A and R are individuallyy true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES 1995
IES IES 1996
IES IES 2003
Consider the following g characteristics: Assertion (A): Special purpose machine tools and Which one of the following mechanisms is
1. Multiple operations can be performed automatic machine tools are quite useful for job employed for indexing of turret in an automatic
2 Operator
2. Operator'ss fatigue is greatly reduced.
reduced shops lathe?
3. Ideally suited for batch production Reason (R): Special purpose machine tools can do (a) Whitworth (b) Rack and pinion
4 A breakdown
4. break down in one machine does not affect the special types of machining work automatically ( ) Ratchet
(c) R t h t and
d pawll (d) Geneva
G wheel
h l
flow of products. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
5 Can accommodate modifications in design of
5. correctt explanation
l ti off A
components, within certain limits. (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
The characteristics which can be attributed to special correct explanation of A
purpose machines would include
(c) A is true but R is false
(a) 1,
1 3 and 4 (b) 1, 1 2 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and For-2015
5 (d) (IES, GATE
1, 2 and 5 & PSUs) (d) A is false but R isPage
true78 of 240 Rev.0
IES 2009
IES IES 2001
IES IES 1995
For the manufacture of screw fasteners on a mass The indexing of the turret in a single spindle
singlespindle Assertion ((A):) In a Swiss type
yp automatic lathe,, the
scale, which is the most suitable machine tool? automatic lathe is done using turret is given longitudinal feed for each tool in a
specific order with suitable indexing.
(a) Capstan lathe (a) Geneva mechanism
Reason (R): A turret is a multiple tool holder to
(b) Singlespindle automatic lathe (b) Ratchet and Pawl mechanism facilitate machining with each tool by indexing
(c) CNC turning centre (lathe) (c) Rack and pinion mechanism without the need to change the tools.
((d)) CNC machiningg centre ((d)) Whitworth mechanism (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES 1992
IES IAS 2007
IAS IAS 2002
Maximum production of small and slender parts is Which one of the following is the characteristic for Consider the following statements related to Turret
done by capstan lathe? lathe:
(a) Watch maker
maker'ss lathe (a) Rate of production is low 1 Turret is mounted directly on the saddle.
1. saddle
(b) Sliding head stock automatic lathe (b) Labour cost is high 2. Turret is mounted on an auxiliary slide.
(c) Multispindle automatic lathe (c) Used for handling jobs of varying shapes and sizes 3. Much heavier and larger jobs than Capstan lathe can
((d)) Capstan
p lathe ((d)) Capstan
p head is mounted on a slide be produced.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 only (d) 2 only

IAS 1996
IAS IAS 2004
IAS IAS 2001
Apart from hexagonal turret, the elements (s) in a Swiss type screw machines have Consider the following operations and time
turret lathe include (s) (a) Turrets (b) Radial slides required on a multi spindle automatic machine to
(a) Crossslide
Cross slide tool post ( ) Spindle
(c) S i dl carriers
i (d) Tool
T l postst produce a particular job
(b) Crossslide tool post and rear tool post 1. Turning 1.2 minutes
(c) Crossslide tool post and tail stock 2. Drilling
D illi 1.6
6 minutes
i t
((d)) Teal tool p
post and tail stock 3. Forming 0.2 minute
4. Parting 0.6 minute
The time required to make one piece (cycle time) will be
(a) 0.6 minutes (b) 1.6 minutes
( ) 3.6
(c) 6 minutes
i t (d) 0.9 minute
i t
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 79 of 240 Rev.0
IAS 1995
IAS IAS 1994
IAS IAS 1998
Assertion ((A):) In a multispindle
p automat,, the turret A multi spindle automat performs four operations
multispindle Assertion (A): For thread cutting, the spindle speed
is indexed to engage each of the cutting tool with times 50, 60, 65 and 75 seconds at each of its selected on a lathe, is very low.
mounted on it. work centers. The cycle time (time required to Reason (R): The required feed rate is low in
Reason(R): Turret is a multiple tool holder so that manufacture one work piece) in seconds will be threading operation.
the machining can be continued with each tool
without the need to change the tool. (a) 50 + 60 + 65 + 75 ( ) Both
(a) B th A and d R are individually
i di id ll true
t and
d R is
i the
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the (b) (50 + 60 + 65 + 75) /4 correct explanation of A
correct explanation of A (c) 75/4 (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ((d)) 75 correct explanation of A
correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false
(c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true
(d) A is false but R is true

IAS 1998
Consider the following statements associated with In Norton type feed gearbox for cutting Whitworth
the lathe accessories: standard threads with a standard TPI Leadscrew, power
1 Steady rest is used for supporting a long job in
1. flows from:
between head stock and tail stock. (a) Spindle to Tumbler gear to Norton cone to Meander
drive to Leadscrew
2. Mandrel
M d l is i usedd for
f turning
t i small ll cylindrical
li d i l job.
j b
(b) Spindle to Norton cone to Tumbler geat to Meander
3. Collects are used for turning discshaped job. drive to Leadscrew
Of these statements: (c) Spindle t o Tumbler gear to Meander drive to Norton
(a) 1 and 2 are correct (b) 2 and 3 are correct cone to Leadscrew
(c) 3 alone is correct (d) 1 alone is correct (d) Spindle to Norton cone to Meander drive to Tumbler
gear to Leadscrew

IAS 2000
IAS Drilling D illi
Consider the following features: y Drilling is a operation that cuts cylindrical holes.
1. All spindles operate simultaneously,
2. One
O piece
i i completed
is l t d each
h time
ti th tools
the t l are
withdrawn and the spindles are indexed
3. The tool slide indexes or revolves with the spindle
Which of these features are characteristics of a multi
spindle automatic machine used for bar work?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 BySKMondal
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 80 of 240 Rev.0
DrillingOperations Chip formation
of a drill
y Verticalorpillartype
V ti l ill t

y RadialArmtype

y Gangdrill

y MultiSpindledrill

y NumericalControldrill

Drill D ill
Drill IES 2004
y The twist drill does most of the cutting with the tip of
the bit. Consider the following statements:
There are flutes The helical flute in a twist drill provides the necessary
to carry the chips 1. Clearance
Cl angle
l for
f the
th cutting
tti edge
up from the
2. Rake angle for the cutting edge
cutting edges to
the top of the 3. Space for the chip to come out during drilling
hole where they 4. Guidance for the drill to enter into the workpiece
are cast off. Which of the statements given above are correct?
( ) 1 and
(a) d2 (b) 2 and d3
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 4

IES 2003
IES D ill
Drill D ill
The purpose of helical grooves in a twist drill is to y Axial rake angle is the angle between the face and the line y Drill sizes
si es are typically
t picall measured across the drill points with
1. Improve the stiffness parallel to the drill axis. At the periphery of the drill, it is a micrometer
2. Save
S a tool
t l material
t i l equivalent to the helix angle.
3. Provide space for chip removal y Most widely used material is High Speed Steel
y The lip clearance angle is the angle formed by the portion of
4. Provide rake angle for the cutting edge y The drill blanks are made by forging and then are twisted to
the flank adjacent to the land and a plane at right angles to
Select the correct answer using the codes given below: provide the torsional rigidity.
rigidity Then the flutes are machined
Codes: the drill axis measured at the periphery of the drill.
and hardened before the final grinding of the geometry.
( ) 1 and
(a) d2 (b) 2 and d3 y Lead
L d off the
th helix
h li is
i the
th distance
di t measured
d parallel
ll l to
t the
th drill
d ill
y Deep hole drilling requires special precautions to take care of
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 4 axis, between corresponding point on the leading edge of the
the removal of large volume of chips.
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) land in one complete revolution.
Page 81 of 240 Rev.0
GATE 1996
IES P i t A l (2)
y The point angle is selected to suit the hardness and brittleness of
The rake angle in a drill The rake angle in a twist drill the material being drilled.
(a) Increases from centre to periphery (a) Varies from minimum near the dead centre to a y Harder materials have higher point angles, soft materials have
maximum value at the periphery lower point angles.
(b) decreases
d f
from centre
t tot periphery
i h
y An increase in the drill point angle leads to an increase in the
(c) Remains constant (b) Is maximum at the dead centre and zero at the thrust force and a decrease in the torque due to increase of the
(d) Is irrelevant to the drilling operation periphery
i h orthogonal
h l rake
k angle.
(c) Is constant at every point of the cutting edge y This angle (half) refers to side cutting edge angle of a single point
(d) Is a function of the size of the chisel edge. y Standard Point Angle is 118
y It is 116 to 118 for medium hard steel and cast iron
y It is 125 for hardened steel
y It is 130
3 to 1404 for brass and bronze
y It is only 60 for wood and plastics

H li A l ()
HelixAngle() IES 1992
y Helix angle is the angle between the leading edge of the A drill for drilling deep holes in aluminum should Helix angle of fast helix drill is normally
land and the axis of the drill. Sometimes it is also called have (a) 35o
as spiral angle.
(a) High helix angle (b) Taper shank 6 o
(b) 60
y The helix results in a positive cutting rake
(c) Small point angle (d) No lip (c) 90o
y This angle is equivalent to back rake angle of a single
point cutting tool. (d) 5o
y Usual 20
20 to 35
35 most common
y Large helix : 45 to 60 suitable for deep holes and softer
workk materials
i l
y Small helix : for harder / stronger materials
y Zero helix : spade drills for high production drilling
microdrilling and hard work materials

IES 1992
IES Cutting Speed in Drilling
Low helix angle drills are preferred for drilling IFS2011 y Thecuttingspeedindrillingisthesurfacespeedofthe
holes in twistdrill.
Discuss deephole drilling keeping in mind speed and DN
(a) Plastics (b) Copper
feed, mentioning the technique of applying coolant.
V= m / min
(c) Cast steel (d) Carbon steel 1000

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 82 of 240 Rev.0

D illi Ti
DrillingTime MRR i D illi
MRRinDrilling E l
y Time for drilling the hole A hole
h l with
ith 40mm diameter
di t and
d 50mm depth
d th is
i to
L MRR = 3
fN , mm / min be drilled in mild steel component.
p The cutting
T= , min
i 4
fN speed can be taken as 65 m/min and the feed rate as
0.25 mm/rev. Calculate the machining time and the
t i l removall rate.

Some Formulae for Drilling

SomeFormulaeforDrilling GATE 2002
Cone height (h) = The time taken to drill a hole through a 25 mm thick Through holes of 10 mm diameter are to be drilled
2 tan plate with the drill rotating at 300 r.p.m. and in a steel plate of 20 mm thickness. Drill spindle
f moving at a feed rate of 0.25 mm/revolution is speed is 300 rpm, feed 0.2 mm/ rev and drill point
U t chip
Uncut hi thickness
thi k (t ) = i
2 (a) 10 sec (b) 20 sec angle is 120. Assuming drill over travel of 2 mm, the
D time for producing a hole will be
Width of cut (b) = ( ) 60
(c) 6 sec (d) 100 sec
2sin (a) 4 seconds (b) 25 seconds
( 2r / D ) tan
t ( ) 100 seconds
(c) d (d) 110 secondsd
Orthogonal rake angle ( ) = tan 1

GATE 2012
IES IES 1994
I a single
i l pass drilling
d illi operation,
ti a through
th h hole
h l off The arm of a radial drilling machine is being raised The ratio between two consecutive spindle speeds
at a speed of 3.9 m/min by single start square for a sixspeed drilling machine using drills of
155 mm diameter is to be drilled in a steel p
plate of 550 threads of 6 mm pitch and 30 mm diameter. The diameter 6.25 to 25 mm size and at a cutting velocity
mm thickness. Drill spindle speed is 500 rpm, feed speed of the screw of 18 m/min is
(a) Is 650 rpm (a) 1.02
1 02 (b) 1.32
1 32
is 0.2 mm/rev and drill point angle is 118. Assuming
(b) Is 180 rpm (c) 1.62 (d) 1.82
2 mm clearance
l att approach
h and
d exit,
it the
th total
t t l drill
d ill (c) Is 130 rpm
time ((in seconds)) is ((d)) Cannot be determined as the data is insufficient

(a) 35.1 (b) 32.4

(c) 31.2 For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

(d) 30.1 Page 83 of 240 Rev.0
IES 2009
IES IES 2002
What is the drilling time for producing a hole in an A 31.8 mm H.S.S. drill is used to drill a hole in a cast A hole
h l off 20 mm diameter
di t isi to
t be
b drilled
d ill d in
i a steel
t l block
bl k
MS sheet of 25 mm thickness using an HSS drill of iron block 100 mm thick at a cutting speed 20
20 mm diameter? The cutting speed and feed for m/min and feed 0.3 mm/rev. If the over travel of of 4
40 mm thickness. The drilling
g is p
performed at
drill are 20 m/min and 0.25 mm/revolution drill is 4 mm and approach 9 mm, the time required rotational speed of 400 rpm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev.
respectively, Neglect time taken for setting up, to drill the hole is
approaching and travelling of tools. (a) 1 min 40 s (b) 1 min 44 s The required approach and over run of the drill together
(a) 0.314
0 314 min (b) 0.236
0 236 min ( ) 1 min
(c) i 49 s (d) 1 mini 53 s i equall to
is t the
th radius
di off drill.
d ill The
Th drilling
d illi ti
time (i
(c) 0.438 min (d) 0.443 min
minute)) is

(a) 1.00 (b) 1.25 (c) 1.50 (d) 1.75

GATE2014(PI) IAS 1999

IAS GATE 2007(PI)LinkedS1
GATE 2007 (PI) Li k d S 1
To drill a 10 mm diameter hole through a 20 mm Blind holes 10 mm diameter, 50 mm deep are
An HSS drill of 20 mm diameter with 5 mm cone thick M.S. plate with a drill bit running at 300 rpm being drilled in steel block. Drilling spindle
height is used to drill a through hole in a steel work
work and a feed of 0.25 mm per revolution, time taken speed is 600 rpm,
rpm feed 0.2
0 2 mm/rev,
mm/rev point angle of
will be drill is 120o.
piece of 50 mm thickness. Cutting speed of 10
(a) 8 s (b) 16 s
m/min and feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev are used. The
Machining time (in minutes) per hole will be
(c) 24 s (d) 32 s
(a) 0.08
0 08 (b) 0.31
0 31 (c) 0.44
0 44 (d) 0.86
0 86
drilling time, in seconds, neglecting the approach
and over travel,
travel is _______

GATE 2007(PI)LinkedS2
GATE 2007 (PI) Li k d S 2 IAS 1994
IAS IES 1999
Blind holes 10 mm diameter, 50 mm deep are The time (in minutes) for drilling a hole is given by pp
Match ListI (Drill bits) with ListII (Applications) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below the Lists:
being drilled in steel block. Drilling spindle
Depth of the hole + h ListI ListII
speed is 600 rpm,
rpm feed 0.2
0 2 mm/rev,
mm/rev point angle of t= A Core
A. C d ill
drill 1. T enlarge
To l a hole
h l to t a certain
t i depth
d th so as to
Feed RPM
drill is 120o. where 'h' is the
accommodate the bolt head of a screw
B. Reamer 2. To drill and enlargeg an alreadyy existing
g hole in a
During the above operation, the drill wears out (a) Length of the drill casting
after p producingg 200 holes. Taylors
y tool life (b) Drill diameter C. Counter bore drill 3. To drill a hole before making internal
h d
equation is of the form VT0.3 = C, where V = (c) Flute length of the drill D. Tap drill 4. To improve the surface finish and dimensional
cutting speed in m/minute and T = tool life in (d) Cone
C h i ht off the
height th drill.
d ill accuracy of the already drilled hole
Code:A B C D A B C D
minutes. Taylors constant C will be (a) 1 3 2 4 (b) 2 3 1 4
( ) 15
(a) ( ) 72
(b) ( ) 93
(c) ( ) 490
(d) (c) 2 4 1 3 (d) 3 2 4 1
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 84 of 240 Rev.0
R i
Reaming Reamer
y Reaming
g removes a small amount of material from the
surface of holes.
y It is done for two purposes: to bring holes to a more exact
size and to improve the finish of an existing hole.
Reaming,Boring,Broaching y Multiage cutting tools that has many flutes, which may be
i h or in
i a helix
h li are used.
y No special machines are built for reaming. The same
machine that was employed for drilling the hole can be used
for reaming by changing the cutting tool.
y Only a minimum amount of materials should be left for
removal by reaming. As little as 0.1 mm is desirable, and in
no case should the amount exceed 0.4 mm.
B SKM d l
BySKMondal y A properly reamed hole will be within 0.025 mm of the
correct size and have a fine finish.

Reamer Flutes
ReamerFlutes T fR
y The reamer flutes are either straight or helical.
y The helical flutes promote smoother cutting and should be Theprincipaltypesofreamersare:
used specifically for holes that are not continuous, such as 1. Handreamers
y y p
those with keyways parallel to the axis of the hole.
a. St i ht
y The cutting action of the helical flutes is smoother and helps
in preventing chatter. b. Taper
y The reamers are termed as left hand or right hand, 2. Machineorchuckingreamers
depending upon the direction in which they are moved,
l ki from
looking f th shank
the h k to
t the
th cutting
tti portion.
ti a. Rose
y The righthand reamer with righthand helix is used for b. Fluted
roughing cuts,
cuts since the tool tends to go into the workpiece 3. Shellreamers
Sh ll
more efficiently and thereby promotes the material removal.
4. Expansionreamers
y A right
hand reamer with left lefthand
hand flutes is used for
finishing cuts. 5. Adjustablereamers

R i
Reaming R i
y To meet quality requirements, including both finish and y Reamers,, like drills,, should not be allowed to become dull. RoseReamer
accuracy (tolerances on diameter, roundness, The chamfer must be reground long before it exhibits
excessive wear. Sharpening is usually restricted to the Rose chucking reamers
straightness, and absence of bell bellmouth
mouth at ends of starting
t ti taper
t or chamfer.
h f Each E h flute
fl t mustt be
b groundd exactly
tl are ground d cylindrical
li d i l
holes). Reamers must have adequate support for the evenly or the tool will cut oversize. and have no relief
cutting edges, and reamer deflection must be minimal. y Reamers tend to chatter when not held securely,
securely when the b hi d the
behind th outer
t edges
y Reaming speed is usually twothirds the speed for work or work holder is loose, or when the reamer is not of the teeth. All cutting
drilling the same materials.
materials However,
However for close tolerances properly
p p yg ground.
is done on the beveled
be eled
and fine finish, speeds should be slower. y Irregularly spaced teeth may help reduce chatter. Other cures
ends of the teeth
for chatter in reaming are to reduce the speed, vary the feed
y Feeds
F d are usually ll much h higher
hi h than
th th
those f drilling
for d illi rate, chamfer the hole opening, use a piloted reamer, reduce
and depend upon material. the relief angle on the chamfer, or change the cutting fluid.
y Recommended cutting fluids are the same as those for y Any
A misalignment
i li b
between the
h work k piece
i and
d the
h reamer
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) will cause chatter and Page 85 ofreaming.
improper 240 Rev.0
ChuckingReamer ShellReamer IFS2011
Fluted chucking Shell reamers often are What is the main difference between rose reamer
reamers have h relief
li f usedd for
f sizes
i over 20
behind the edges of the mm to save cuttingtool and chucking reamer ? Write in short about shell
t th as well
teeth ll as beveled
b l d material.
t i l Th
The shell,
h ll reamer.
ends. They can cut on made of HSS for smaller
all portions of the teeth.
teeth si es and with
sizes ith carbide [
k ]
Their flutes are edges for larger sizes or
relatively short and they for mass production
are intended for light work.
finishing cuts.

y Trepanning is a annular groove producing operation IES 1999
IES IES 1999
which leaves a solid cylindrical core in the centre. In
Which one of the following processes results in the Consider the following statements regarding
trepanning a cutter consisting of one or more cutting
best accuracy of the hole made? reaming process:
edges placed along the circumference of a circle is used
to produce the annular groove. (a) Drilling (b) Reaming 1 Reaming generally produces a hole larger than its
(c) Broaching (d) Boring own diameter
2. Generally
G ll rake
k angles
l are nott provided
id d on reamers.
3. Even numbers of teeth are preferred in reamer
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1,
1 2 and 3

IES 1998
IES 1998 IES 1994
GATE 2007 (PI)
Match List
ListII with List II and select the correct answer
ListII In reaming process Reaming is primarily used for achieving
using the codes given below the lists: (a) Metal removal rate is high (a) Higher MRR
List ListII
List II
(b) High
Hi h surface
f fi i h is
finish i obtained.
bt i d (b) Improved
I d dimensional
di i l tolerance
t l
A. Reaming 1. Smoothing and squaring surface
(c) High form accuracy is obtained (c) Fine surface finish
around the hole for proper seating
B. Counterboring 2.Sizing and finishing the hole (d) High dimensional accuracy is obtained. (d) Improved positional tolerance
C Countersinking
C. Counter sinking 3.3 Enlarging the end of the hole
D. Spot facing 4. Making a conical enlargement at the
end of the hole
Code:A B C D A B C D
( ) 3
(a) 2 4 1 ( ) 2
(b) 3 1 4
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 86 of 240 Rev.0
(c) 3 2 1 4 (d) 2 3 4 1
GATE 2014(PI)
GATE 2014 (PI) IES 1993
IES IES 1998
A hole of 30 mm diameter is to be produced by reaming. A component requires a hole which must be within
R i i df
The minimum diameter permissible is 30.00 mm while the two limits of 25.03 and 25.04 mm diameter.
(a)creatingacircularholeinmetals the maximum diameter p permissible is 330.055 mm. In this Which of the following statements about the
regard, consider the following statements about the reamer size are correct?
g g reamer size:
1 Reamer size cannot be below 25.03
1. 25 03 mm.
1. The minimum diameter of the reamer can be less than 30 mm.
(c)finishinganexistingholesurface 2. The minimum diameter of the reamer cannot be less than 30 mm. 2. Reamer size cannot be above 25.04 mm.
3. The maximum diameter of the reamer can be more than 30.05 mm. 3. Reamer size can be 25.04 mm.
(d)makingnoncircularholesinmetals 4.The maximum diameter of the reamer must be less than 30.05 mm.
4. Reamer size can be 25.03
4 5 3 mm.
Of these statements
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 4 are correct (b) 1 and 3 are correct
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 2 and 4 are correct
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 2 and 4

IAS 1999
IAS IAS 2003
IAS IES 1992
For reaming operation of blind hole, the type of Match List I ((Operation)
p ) with List II ((Application)
pp ) and select Shell reamers are mounted on
the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
reamer required is (a) Tool holders (b) Amour plates
ListI ListII
(a) Straight flute reamer (
(Operation) ) (
(Application) ) ( ) Arbor
(c) Ab (d) Shanks
Sh k
(b) Right hand spiral fluted reamer (A) Reaming 1. Used for enlarging the end of a hole to give it a
(c) Left hand spiral fluted reamer conical
i l shape
h f a short
for h distance
(B) Boring 2. Used for enlarging only a limited portion of the
((d)) None of the above
(C) Counter boring 3. Used for finishing a hole
(D) Counter sinking 4
4. Used for enlarging a hole
Codes:A B C D A B C D
(a) 3 2 4 1 (b) 1 4 2 3
(c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 1 2 4 3

y Boring always involves the enlarging of an existing hole,
which may have been made by a drill or may be the result of a
core in a casting.
y An equally important and concurrent purpose of boring may
be to make the hole concentric with the axis of rotation of
the workpiece and thus correct any eccentricity that may
have resulted from the drill drifting off the centerline.
Concentricity is an important attribute of bored holes.
y When boring is done in a lathe, the work usually is held in a
chuck or on a faceplate. Holes may be bored straight,
tapered, or to irregular contours.
y Boring is essentially internal turning while feeding the tool
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 87 of 240 Rev.0
parallel to the rotation axis of the workpiece.
B i
Boring B i
y The same principles are used for boring as for turning.
turning y Because the tool overhang will be greater, feeds and IES2009
y The tool should be set exactly at the same height as the depths of cut may be somewhat less than for turning to
axis of rotation.
rotation Slightly larger end clearance angles prevent tool vibration and chatter.
sometimes have to be used to prevent the heel of the tool y In some cases, the boring bar may be made of tungsten
from rubbing on the inner surface of the hole.
hole carbide because of this material
material'ss greater stiffness.
y The boring tool is a singlepoint cutting tool.
y Hole quality, finish boring can typically achieve holes
within tolerances of IT9.
y Surface finishes better than Ra 1 micron can be achieved.

F l f B i
FormulaforBoring IES 1993
IES IES 1994,ISRO2008
IES 1994 ISRO 2008
The main purpose of boring operation, as compared Enlarging an existing circular hole with a rotating
D1 + D2 to drilling is to: single point tool is called
y Average diameter of workpiece Davg = mm
2 (a) Drill a hole (a) Boring (b) Drilling
(b) Finish the drilled hole (c) Reaming (d) Internal turning.
Time CT = L + A + O
y Cutting Time, (c) Correct the hole
((d)) Enlarge
g the existing
g hole
y Metal Removal Rate

M RR =
(D 2
1 D 22 )= D a v g d fN
4 / fN

IES 1992,ISRO2010
IES 1992 ISRO 2010 IES 2000
IES IES 1996
Which of the machine tools can be used for boring Which one of the following sets of tools or tools and Which of the following statements are correct?
1. Lathe processes are normally employed for making large 1. A boring machine is suitable for a job shop.
2. Drilling
D illi machine
hi diameter holes? 2. A jig ji boring
b i machine
hi isi designed
d i d specially
i ll for
f doing
d i
3. Vertical milling machine (a) Boring tool more accurate work when compared to a vertical
4. Horizontal milling machine (b) BTA tools
t l (Boring
(B i and d trepanning
t i association)
i ti ) and
d milling
illi machine.
gun drill 3. A vertical precision boring machine is suitable for
(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 1, 3, 4
(c) Gun drill and boring tool boring holes in cylinder blocks and liners.
(c) 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3, 4
((d)) Boringg tools and trepanning
p g ((a)) 1, 2 and 3 ((b)) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 88 of 240 Rev.0

IES 1995
The effects of setting a boring tool above centre Considerthefollowingoperationsregardingboring
height leads to a/an. machines:
(a) Increase in the effective rake angle and a decrease in 1.Counterboring
C t b i
the effective clearance angle. 2.Countersinking
(b) Increase
I i both
in b th effective
ff ti rakek anglel andd effective
ff ti 3.Trepanning
clearance angle.
(c) Decrease in the effective rake angle and an increase
(a)1,2and3 (b)1and2only
in the effective clearance angle.
( ) d l (d)1only
(c)2and3only (d) l
(d) Decrease in both effective rank angle and effective
clearance angle.

Broaching B hi
Broaching B h C t ti
y Broaching
g is a multipletooth
p g operation
cutting p with the y The material removal using the broach teeth is shown
tool reciprocating. schematically in Fig. shown in below. The dotted line in
y Since in broaching g the machining g operation
p is the figure indicates the amount of material being
completed in a singlestroke as the teeth on the cutting removed by successive individual teeth.
tool, called broach, are at gradually increasing height
corresponding to the feed per tooth of a milling cutter.
y The shape of the broach determines the shape of the
machined part.
y Broaching was originally developed for machining
internal keyways, but looking at the advantages, it has
been extensively used in the mass production of
t bil componentt manufacture
f t f various
for i other
surfaces as well.

B h C t ti
BroachConstruction B h C t ti
BroachConstruction B h C t ti
y The broach is composed of a series of teeth, each tooth y The last set of teeth is called the finishing or sizing teeth.
teeth y The rear pilot helps to keep the broach to remain square
standing slightly higher than the previous one. This rise Very little material will be removed by these teeth. with the workpiece as it leaves the workpiece after
per tooth is the feed per tooth and determines the y The necessary size will be achieved by these teeth and broaching.
material removed by the tooth. hence all the teeth will be of the same size as that y Broaching speeds are relatively low, of the order of 6 to 15
y There are basically three sets of teeth present in a broach required finally.
finally With the progress of time,
time when the m/min However,
m/min. However the production rate is high with the
as shown in Fig. shown above. first set of teeth wear out, the next set of teeth will be cycle times being about 5 to 30 seconds, including the
y The
Th roughing
hi teeth
t th that
th t have
h th highest
the hi h t rise
i per tooth
t th able to provide the sizing function.
function workpiece and tool handling times.
times The low cutting
remove bulk of the material. y The pull end of the broach (Fig. shown in above) is speeds are conducive to very high tool life with very
y The semifinishing teeth, whose rise per tooth is smaller, attached
tt h d tot the
th pulling
lli mechanism
h i off the
th broaching
b hi small tool wear rates.
remove relatively smaller amounts of material compared machine with the front pilot aligning the broach
to the roughing teeth. properlyl with
ith respectt to
t the
th workpiece
k i axis
i before
b f th
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) actual cutting starts.Page 89 of 240 Rev.0
B h C t ti
BroachConstruction B h C t ti
BroachConstruction Ad t fb hi
y Broaches are generally made of high speed steel in view y For smooth operation, it is essential that at least two or 1. It is the fastest wayy of finishingg an operation
p g
with a single
of its high impact strength. Sometimes, the titanium three teeth be simultaneously engaged.
2. Since all the machining parameters are built into the
nitride coating helps to improve the tool life further. spacing s =1.75
y The thumb rule for tooth spacing, 1 75 l , mm broach very little skill is required from the operator.
broach, operator
Also, the carbide inserttype broaches are used more for y The cut per tooth f is kept in the range 0.05 mm 0.09 3. Broaching machine is simple since only a single
surface broaching of cast iron for very large volume reciprocating
p g motion is required
q for cutting.
mm. 4. Final cost of the machining operation is one of the lowest
production to reduce the frequent resharpening of the
y In the normal speed BUE may be a problem. To avoid for mass production.
broach, which is a very difficult operation.
this a copious supply of the cutting fluid is provided. 5. Any
A type off surface,
f i
internall or external,
l can be
b generated d
y Standard broaches are available for common and more with broaching.
often used forms,
forms such as round and square holes,holes 6 Many surfaces,
6. surfaces which are very difficult or impossible by
keyways, etc. other means, can be done by broaching. For example, square
hole and internal splines.
7. Good surface finish and fine dimensional tolerances can be
achieved by broaching, often better than boring or reaming

Li it ti fb hi
Limitationsofbroaching IES 2007
IES IES 1993
1. C
Custom made broaches are veryy expensive
p and can Among the following machining processes, which Assertion (A): Soluble oils are employed with
therefore be justified only for very large volume can be used for machining flat surfaces? broaching machine.
1 Shaping
1. 2
2. Milling 3
3. Broaching Reason (R): Soluble oils have excellent cooling
2. A broach has to be designed for a specific application effect.
and can be used only for that application. Hence, the Select the correct answer using the code given below:
lead time for manufacture is more for custom designed (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 and 3 only ( ) Both
(a) B th A and d R are individually
i di id ll true
t and
d R is
i the
broaches. ((c)) 2 and 3 onlyy ((d)) 1, 2 and 3 correct explanation of A
3. Broaching, being a very heavy metal removal (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
operation, requires that the workpiece is rigid and correct explanation of A
bl off withstanding
ith t di theth large
l f
forces. (c) A is true but R is false
4. Broaching can only be carried out on the workpiece
h geometryt is
i such
h that
th t there
th i no interference
is i t f f
for (d) A is false but R is true
the broach movement for the cutting.

IES 1993,2001
IES 1993 2001 IES 2001
IES IAS 2004
Assertion (A): No separate feed motion is required The screw and nut in a broaching machine are Which one of the following is true for the last few
during broaching. changed from square thread to ACME thread. The teeth of a broach which are meant for fine
Reason (R): The broaching machines are generally power requirement of the machine at the same finishing?
hydraulically operated. r.p.m. will (a) They have equal diameter
( ) Both
(a) B th A and d R are individually
i di id ll true
t and
d R is
i the
th (a) Remain same (b) They
Th have
h i
i diameter
di t
correct explanation of A (b) Decrease (c) They have decreasing diameter
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the (c) Increase (d) They have alternately increasing and decreasing
correct explanation of A ((d)) Depend
p on the operator
p diameter.
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 90 of 240 Rev.0
IES 2005
IES 2005 IES 2002
IES Milling
Match List I (Tool) ) with List II (Element
( of Tool)) and Match List I with List II and select the correct answer:
select the correct answer using the code given below the List I (Machine tool) List II (Features)
List I List II A Lathe
A. 1
1. Push or pull tool
A Broach 1. Tang B. Drilling machine 2. Rachet and pawl
B. Reamer 2. Pilot mechanism
C. Drill 3. Front taper C. Shaper 3. Dividing head
D. Carbide insert face mill 4. Bond D Broaching
D. B hi machine
hi 4. H ll tapered
Hollow d spindle
i dl
5. Sweeper tooth 5. Face plate
Codes:A B C D A B C D Codes:A B C D A B C D B SKM d l
(a) 2 5 1 3 (b) 1 3 4 5 (a) 2 4 5 1 (b) 5 3 2 4
(c) 2 3 1 5 (d) 1 5 4 3 (c) 2 3 5 4 (d) 5 4 2 1

Milling Milli
Milling U illi dd illi
Milling machines of various types are widely used y 2D
D contouring
t i likelik cam profiles,
fil clutches
l t h etc
t and
d 3D
for the following purposes using proper cutting
tools called milling cutters: contouring
g like die or mould cavities
y Flat surface in vertical, horizontal and inclined planes y Cutting teeth in piece or batch production of spur gears,
y Making
M ki slotsl t or ribs
ib off various
i sections
straight toothed bevel gears, worm wheels, sprockets,
y Slitting or parting
y Often producing surfaces of revolution clutches
l h etc.
y Making helical grooves like flutes of the drills y Producing some salient features like grooves,
grooves flutes,
y Long thread milling on large lead screws, power screws,
gushing and profiles in various cutting tools, e.g., drills,
worms etc and short thread milling for small size
fastening screws, bolts etc. taps, reamers, hobs, gear shaping cutters etc.

U illi dd illi
Upmillinganddownmilling Ad t fD Milli
AdvantagesofDownMilling Di d t fD Milli
y In down milling, though the cut starts with a full chip 1.