Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49

Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 1:

What is a Clause?
Definition:

A clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a predicate. Every
complete sentence is made up of at least one clause.
Michael bought a new computer. (One sentence, one clause)
Michael bought a new computer, but he still has the old one. (One
sentence, two clauses)
Although he still has his old one, Michael now has a new
computer. (One sentence, two clauses)
Definition:

An independent clause (or main clause) makes sense by itself. It expresses a


complete thought.
Michael bought a new computer. (One independent clause)
Michael bought a new computer, but he still has the old one. [Two
independent clauses (Coordinating conjunctions don't count as part of
the clause.)]
Although he still has his old one, Michael now has a new
computer. (Only the second clause is independent.)
Definition:
A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) does not make sense by itself. It
does not express a complete thought.
Although he still has his old one. (Without the independent clause, a
dependent clause is a sentence fragment.)

A dependent clause usually begins with a subordinating conjunction, a


relative pronoun, or some other word that causes it to become dependent. A
dependent clause will make sense only when attached to an independent
clause.

Although he still has his old one. (Although is a subordinating


conjunction.)
He still has his old one. (Without the conjunction, the clause becomes
independent.)

Michael now has a new computer although he still has his old
one. (Combined with an independent clause, the dependent clause
makes sense.)

Dependent clauses can come after, before, or in the middle of the independent
clause.

Michael now has a new computer although he still has his old
one. (Dependent clause after an independent clause)
Although he still has his old one, Michael now has a new
computer. (Dependent clause before the independent clause)
Michael, although he still has his old one, now has a new
computer. (Dependent clause inside the independent clause)

Practice What You've Learned


Part 1
Directions:
Decide whether each group of words is a clause or not a clause
Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 2:

Adjective Clauses
Definition:

An adjective clause (also called relative clause) is a dependent clause that


modifies a noun or pronoun. It tells which one or what kind. Adjective
clauses almost always come right after the nouns they modify.
There is the mountain that we are going to climb.
My blue tennis shoes, which used to be my mom's, were under the bed.
Daniel, who was late again today, sits next to me in English.

Using dependent clauses is a way of combining sentences.

Daniel was late again today + Daniel sits next to me in English =


Daniel, who was late again today, sits next to me in English.

With relative pronouns - An adjective clause generally begins with a relative


pronoun (that, which, who, whom, whose) that connects the clause to the noun or
pronoun it modifies. The relative pronoun shows the relationship between the clause
and the antecedent.

There is the mountain that we are going to climb. (Antecedent =


mountain. That connects the clause we are going to climb that with the antecedent.)
My blue tennis shoes, which used to be my mom's, were under the bed. (Antecedent
= shoes. Whichis a pronoun replacing shoes in the dependent clause shoes used to
be my mom's and relating it to the subject of the independent clause.)

Daniel, who was late again today, sits next to me in English. (Antecedent = Daniel,
Who = Daniel, so the dependent clause means Daniel was late again today. Who is
replacing Daniel in the second clause and relating it to the subject of the
independent clause.)

The relative pronoun has a grammatical function in the sentence.

There is the mountain that we are going to climb. (That is the direct object of the
infinitive to climb.)
My blue tennis shoes, which used to be my mom's, were under the bed. (Which is the
subject of the verb used.)
Daniel, who was late again today, sits next to me in English. (Who is the subject of
the dependent clause.)
Hint:
When choosing between who and whom, consider how the pronoun is used in
the dependent clause, not the independent clause.

These are the students who are going. (Who is the subject of the dependent clause.)
These are the students. Who are going. (They are going.)

Those are the students for whom I bought the tickets. (Whom is the object of the
preposition for.)
Those are the students. I bought the tickets for whom. (I bought the tickets for them.)

With understood pronouns - Sometimes the relative pronoun is understood and not
written in the sentence.

Have you seen the book I lost?


Have you seen the book [that] I lost?

The teacher I had in fifth grade really inspired me.


The teacher [whom] I had in fifth grade really inspired me.

With prepositions - If the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition and is left
out, the preposition has no choice but to dangle. In informal, spoken English, this is
fine. It is also fine in spoken English to end the clause with the preposition.
However, in formal English it is better to put the preposition before the pronoun.
Note that the preposition is part of the dependent clause.
This movie was the sequel we had been waiting for. (Informal)
This movie was the sequel, which we had been waiting for. (Informal)
This movie was the sequel for which we had been waiting. (Formal)

Do you know the actor Shelly is talking about? (Informal)


Do you know the actor that Shelly is talking about? (Informal)
Do you know the actor about whom Shelly is talking? (Formal) (Note
that that becomes whom or which.)

With relative adverbs - Adjective clauses can also start with the relative
adverbs where, when, and why. They connect the dependent clause to a noun in the
sentence. The relative adverb modifies the verb in the dependent clause.

That is the bench where you and I were supposed to meet.


Six o'clock was the time when we were supposed to be there.
That is the reason why I couldn't meet you.

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Click on all the words in each adjective clause

Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 3:


Restrictive and Nonrestrictive
Adjective Clauses
Definition:

An adjective clause is restrictive (also called essential) if it narrows down the


word it modifies. It tells which one of the noun you are writing about. A
restrictive adjective clause is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. It is
not separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
The players who are wearing the red uniforms are winning the game.
If we take out the clause, we won't know which players are winning the
game. It's a restrictive or essential clause.
Definition:

An adjective clause is nonrestrictive (also called nonessential) if we know


exactly who is being written about without it. A nonrestrictive adjective
clause is simply adding extra information. Nonrestrictive adjective clauses
need commas around them.
Those girls, who have been friends for years, are all going to the same
college.
Without the clause, we still know that those girls are going to the same
college. The clause is nonrestrictive.

A proper noun is usually followed by a nonrestrictive clause.

Amanda, who is my best friend, is on the honor roll again.


Without the clause, we know that it is Amanda who is on the honor roll.

That versus Which

The relative pronoun that always begins a restrictive clause. That can be used to
replace who, whom, or which in restrictive clauses, but many teachers prefer
students to use that only with non-human antecedents.

The oranges that you need for this recipe are on the table.
The workers who built this bridge did a good job.

The relative pronoun which generally begins a nonrestrictive clause. It can begin a
restrictive clause, but most style manuals prefer writers use it only for nonrestrictive
clauses.
The oranges, which have been sitting on the table for a week, are starting to look
brown.

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Decide if the bold-faced adjective clause is restrictive or nonrestrictive.
Commas have been left out on purpose
Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 4:

Adverb Clauses
Definition:

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that describes a verb, an adjective, or


an adverb. An adverb clause tells when, where, how, why, to what extent,
or under what conditions something happened.
We will not have school today because it snowed last night.
Until it stops raining, we will stay inside.
When your father gets here, we will go.

An adverb clause begins with a subordinating conjunction.

Some common (but not all) subordinating conjunctions

after even though that


although how though
as if unless
as if in order that until
as far as once when
as long as provided wheneve
as soon (that) r
as rather than where
as though since wherever
because so long as whether
before so (that) while
even if than why

We will not have school today because it snowed last night.


Until it stops raining, we will stay inside.
When your father gets here, we will go.

Commas with adverb clauses - When an adverb clause is at the beginning of the
sentence, it is an introductory clause and needs a comma separating it from the
independent clause. If the adverb clause comes after the independent clause, the
conjunction is enough to hold the two clauses together.

We will not have school today because it snowed last night.


Because it snowed last night, we will not have school today.
Locating adverb clauses - Adverb clauses modifying verbs can move around the
sentence.

I missed the bus because my alarm didn't go off. Because my alarm didn't go off, I
missed the bus. (The dependent clause because my alarm didn't go off modifies the
verb missed. The dependent clause is adverbial because it tells why you missed the
bus.)
Whenever it rains, my little sister loves to jump in the puddles. My little sister loves
to jump in the puddles whenever it rains. (The dependent clause whenever it
rains modifies the verb loves. The dependent clause is adverbial because it tells
when your little sister jumps in the puddles.)

Adverb clauses modifying adjectives or adverbs must come after the word modified.

Playing football is dangerous if you don't have the right equipment.


We walked to class quickly as if we were going to be late.

Elliptical adverb clauses have missing words that are understood.

When finished this building will be the tallest in the city.


When [it is] finished this building will be the tallest in the city.

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Click on all the words in each adverb clause
Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 5:

Noun Clauses
Definition:

A noun clause is a dependent clause that acts as a noun. It can be used as the
subject, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, subject
complement, or appositive.
Subject: What I had forgotten was that I had a test today.
Direct object: You must choose which flavor of ice cream you want.
Indirect object: I will tell whoever will listen my frightening story.
Object of a preposition: Josie is not interested in whatever Kyle says.
Subject complement: Michael's excuse was that he had forgotten to
set his alarm.
Appositive: It seems to bother the teacher that all the students are
being too quiet.
(That the students are being too quiet seems to bother the teacher. Note
that the appositive renames It, but does not follow immediately like
other appositives.)

It can also be used as an adverbial noun (a.k.a. an adverbial objective or


adjective complement), which is a noun that acts like an adverb modifying a
verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
I'm afraid that we don't carry that ice cream flavor any longer. (The
dependent clause modifies the predicate adjective afraid.)

Noun clauses often begin with pronouns, subordinating conjunctions, or other


words. The introductory word generally has a grammatical function in the sentence.

Relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom, whose, what


Indefinite relative pronouns: whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever, whether, if
Interrogative pronoun: who
Interrogative adjective: what
Interrogative adverb: how
Subordinating conjunctions: how, if, when, whenever, where, whether, why
Hint:
Whoever/Whomever - the correct choice in formal writing is whichever
pronoun is correct in the subordinate sentence. In informal speech, using the
correct pronoun often sounds pretentious.
Whoever is responsible for this mess needs to clean it up. (Whoever is
the subject of the verb is responsible.)
Whomever you hit accidentally deserves an apology. (Whomever is the
direct object of the verb hit.)
Sometimes the introductory word is understood.
Daria told me she was going to be late.
Daria told me (that) she was going to be late.

Some noun clauses, especially those used as subjects, begin with that, which seems
to serve no function. It makes sense if you include the fact or the idea before it.
Some modern English constructions that seem to make no sense are the result of our
dropping words.

That we were late to class really upset the teacher.


The fact that we were late to class really upset the teacher.

Question clauses - In a noun clause, even if the main clause is a question, the
dependent clause is written as a declarative.

Where is your father?


Do you know where your father is?
Not: Do you know where is your father?
When did you assign that?
We all asked when you assigned that.
Not: We all asked when did you assign that. (Unless the noun clause is in quotation
marks.)
Practice What You've Learned
Directions:
Click on all the words in each noun clause

Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 6:

Classifying Dependent Clauses


To classify a dependent clause, you need to determine how the dependent clause
relates to the independent clause. If it is replacing a noun, it is a noun clause. Try
replacing it with the indefinite pronouns something or someone.

I know that you were late yesterday. (I know something.)


I bought these cards for whenever I might need some extras. (I bought these cards
for something.)

If it is modifying a noun, it is an adjective clause. An adjective clause tells which


one or what kind.

The birds that are singing so loudly are monk parakeets.

If it is modifying a verb, adjective, or adverb, it is an adverb clause. An adverb


clause modifying a verb tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under
what conditions. Adverb clauses can be moved around in the sentence.

Before you eat that brownie, you should read the ingredients.
You should read the ingredients before you eat that brownie.
The team was relieved that the referee's call went their way.
In the library, we worked quietly so we wouldn't disturb anyone.

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Identify each bold-faced clause as a noun clause, an adjective clause, or an
adverb clause
Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 7:

Kinds of Sentences / Sentence


Purposes
Definition:

Declarative sentences (also called assertive sentences) give information. They


may state a fact or an opinion. Declarative sentences end with periods.
I like riding my bicycle around the park.
My essay is better than yours.

Declarative sentences can be positive (affirmative) or negative.

The sun is shining. (Positive)


It is not raining. (Negative)
Definition:

Interrogative sentences ask a question. Interrogative sentences end with


question marks.

In English, interrogative questions often begin with interrogative words


like who, when, where, why, what, and how.
Why are you late?
What time is it?
Where is the library?

Interrogative sentences without question words are generally formed by


moving the helping verb before the subject.

Do you have any more cough drops?

A question fragment can be added onto the end of a declarative or imperative


sentence. This fragment is called a tag/tail question.

You have answered all the questions on this test, haven't you? (After a
declarative sentence)
Close the window, will you? (After an imperative sentence)

A question fragment can also be used by itself, either before or after a


sentence.

What? You lost your wallet?


You are late. Why?
Hint:
An indirect question is a declarative sentence that tells that information was
asked. It is not asking the question. Indirect questions end with periods.
The driver asked if we knew which way to turn.
We wondered if it was going to rain.
Definition:

Imperative sentences give a command, a request, advice, a suggestion, a


warning, or a wish. They can be followed by a period, a question mark, or an
exclamation mark.
Be quiet. (a command)
Please have a seat. (a request)
Watch out! (a command)
Enjoy yourselves. (a wish)

The simple subject of an imperative sentence is usually the understood you.

Turn to page 37.


(You) turn to page 37.
Hint:
If a person's name is included in an imperative sentence, it is a direct address,
not the subject.
Wayne, turn to page 37.
Wayne, (you) turn to page 37.

Imperative sentences may be written like a question, but they aren't asking anything.

Will you please mind your manners?


Definition:

Exclamatory sentences exclaim, or show great emotion. Exclamatory


sentences end with exclamation marks. Use exclamation marks only when
necessary. It's easy to overuse them.
Wow!
That magic trick was amazing!

Exclamatory sentences can begin with question words.

What wonderful weather we are having today!


How lovely to see you!
Fun fact:
The is called the interrobang. It truly is a type of punctuation mark. It was
invented by a journalist in 1962. Martin K. Speckter combined the ? and !
since he didn't like using two end marks. It didn't catch on. Most teachers
don't like two end marks either. Sometimes, though, you really need both. It's
okay in informal writing. Only one exclamation mark at a time is enough in
formal writing.

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Identify each sentence as declarative, interrogative, imperative, or
exclamatory
Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 8:

Simple and Compound Sentences


Definition:

A simple sentence has one independent clause.


The radio is blaring.
Your sneaker is under the couch.
A simple sentence may have a compound subject or a compound predicate.

The walrus and the sea lion live both on land and in the water.
The trains pass our street and stop at the station a mile away.
Definition:

A compound sentence is made up of two independent clauses joined by a


coordinating or correlative conjunction. The conjunction is not included when
deciding if the clauses are independent.

The sunbathers relaxed on the sand, and the surfers paddled out to sea.
The sunbathers relaxed on the sand. (independent)
+ The surfers paddled out to sea. (independent)
= compound sentence

I ate breakfast, but my brother did not.


I ate breakfast. (independent)
+ My brother did not. (independent)
= compound sentence

The clauses in a compound sentence are joined together in three different


ways: a comma with a coordinating conjunction; a semicolon; or a semicolon
followed by a conjunctive adverb, which is followed by a comma.

The teacher gave the assignments, and the students wrote them down.
The teacher gave the assignments; the students wrote them down.

The accident had been cleared, but the traffic was still stopped.
The accident had been cleared; however, the traffic was still stopped.

Note:

As writers become more proficient, they are allowed to omit the comma
between two short independent clauses in a compound sentence. You will
sometimes notice that in books you read.
The hero saved the princess and then he went home.

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Use the toolbar to identify the subjects and verbs in each sentence. Then
identify each sentence as simple or compound. Commas have been left out on
purpose

Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 9:

Complex and Compound-Complex


Sentences
Definition:

A complex sentence is made up of one independent clause and one or more


dependent clauses.

Before we arrived at school, we met up at the coffee house across the


street.
We met up at the coffee house across the street [independent]
+ before we arrived at school (dependent)
= complex sentence
(Before we arrived at school),[we met up at the coffee house across the
street.]

Clara, who has an incredible voice, was asked to sing the school song.
Clara was asked to sing the school song [independent]
+ who has an incredible voice (dependent)
= complex sentence
[Clara, (who has an incredible voice), was asked to sing the school
song.]

The book that I had found disappeared after Julia returned it to me.
The book disappeared [independent]
+ I had found that (dependent)
+ after Julia returned it to me (dependent)
= complex sentence
[The book (that I had found) disappeared] (after Julia returned it to
me.)

Definition:

A compound-complex sentence has two or more independent clauses and one


or more dependent clauses.

My father and I went to the movie that I had been wanting to see, and
then we went to the restaurant near the theater.
My father and I went to the movie [independent]
+ then we went to the restaurant near the theater [independent]
+ I had been wanting to see that (dependent)
= compound-complex sentence
[My father and I went to the movie] (that I had been wanting to see),
and [then we went to the restaurant near the theater.]
Before they were friends, Louisa and Julie knew Aimee, but they didn't
realize that they knew her until they met.
Before they were friends (dependent)
+ Louisa and Julie knew Aimee [independent]
+ They didn't realize [independent]
+ that they knew her (dependent)
+ until they met (dependent)
= compound-complex sentence
[(Before they were friends), Louisa and Julie knew Aimee], but [they
didn't realize (that they knew her) (until they met).]

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Identify each sentence as complex or compound-complex
Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 10:

Classifying Sentences
Classifying sentences is easiest if you mark the parts and then see what you have.
Underline independent clauses once. Underline dependent clauses twice.

1 independent = simple
2 independent = compound
1 independent and 1(or more) dependent = complex
2(or more) independent and 1(or more) dependent = compound-complex

We might go to New Orleans on our Christmas vacation or to New York next spring.
(1 independent = simple)

Our families have been friends forever, but we haven't seen each other in years.
(2 independent = compound)

When we get to your aunt's house, you must remember to thank her for the
presents that she sent you.
(1 independent + 2 dependent = complex)

Before we go to the movie, which you have been waiting weeks to see, we need to
find a babysitter for your little sister, who is too young to see it.
(1 independent + 3 dependent = complex)
The Egyptians who built the pyramids were amazing architects, but the Romans who
built many years later were even better because they were able to build
arches, which the Egyptians hadn't figured out.
(2 independent + 4 dependent = compound-complex)

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Use the toolbar to identify the independent clauses and the dependent clauses.
Then decide if the sentence is simple, compound, complex, or compound-
complex
Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 11:

Run-On Sentences and Fragments


Definition:

A run-on sentence (or fused sentence) has two or more clauses that are not
correctly connected.
Run-on sentences can be corrected by separating them into two sentences, by
making a compound sentence, or by making a complex sentence.

Run-on:
Sam is my friend and Melanie is my friend.
Sam is my friend. + Melanie is my friend.

Two separate sentences:


Fixed: Sam is my friend. Melanie is my friend.

Compound sentence:
(Remember: Independent clauses need glue to hold them together. The
glue can be a comma and a coordinating conjunction, a semicolon, or a
conjunctive adverb with a semicolon before it and a comma after it.)
Fixed: Sam is my friend, and Melanie is my friend.
Fixed: Sam is my friend; Melanie is my friend.
Fixed: Sam is my friend; also, Melanie is my friend.

They can also be corrected by making one clause dependent:


Fixed: Although Sam is my friend, Melanie is also my friend.

Frequently, a run-on sentence simply needs to be punctuated correctly. Fix


run-on sentences in a few ways: add a comma before a coordinating
conjunction or after an introductory clause, and use a semicolon or period
between two independent clauses.

Run-on: Before we left for vacation we took our dog to the kennel.
Fixed: Before we left for vacation, we took our dog to the kennel.

Run-on: Hannah went to the mall with her friends then she went home
then she watched television until her parents came home.
Fixed: Hannah went to the mall with her friends. Then she went home,
and then she watched television until her parents came home.
Fixed: Hannah went to the mall with her friends. Then she went home.
Then she watched television until her parents came home.

Definition:

A comma splice is a type of run-on sentence in which two independent


clauses are connected by only a comma. A correctly written compound
sentence must either have a comma and a conjunction or a semicolon.
Comma splice: I was going to pick up some donuts, I was running late.
Fixed: I was going to pick up some donuts; I was running late.
Fixed: I was going to pick up some donuts, but I was running late.
Definition:

A sentence fragment is an incomplete thought. It may be a phrase or a


dependent clause without an independent clause.

One of the most common fragments students write is a result of answering a


question using just the dependent clause.

Why did the chicken cross the road?


Fragment: Because it wanted to get to the other side.
Fixed: The chicken crossed the road because it wanted to get to the
other side.
Fixed: Because it wanted to get to the other side, the chicken crossed
the road.

Sometimes students begin a compound-complex sentence and forget to end it.

Fragment: When you finally get here, after you fly into Orlando and
then drive all the way from the airport.
Fixed: When you finally get here, after you fly into Orlando and then
drive all the way from the airport, we will celebrate.

Practice What You've Learned


Directions:
Decide if each sentence is a sentence, a fragment, or a run-on