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Post Lab Question Experiment 3

a. Indicate the excretory organs removing nitrogenous wastes in each:

Annelids excretory tubules that are
found in pairs in the

Antennal gland

Crustaceans Antennal gland

excretory glands located
in the head

Insects Malpighian tubules

removes nitrogenous
wastes from haemolymph

Mammals Mammals excretory

system centres on paired

b. List three form of nitrogenous waste excreted by animals

1) Ammonia
2) Urea
3) Uric acid

Which compound is most effective in water conservation?

The compound that is most effective in water conservation is uric acid. This is
because, there is the least water being excreted from the body.

Which compound is most toxic?

The compound that is most toxic is ammonia. It also requires a lot of water in order to
be excreted from the body.
c. Examine the data in the experiment on kidney regulation of osmolarity. Are the results consistent with what you would expect
when a subject imbibes fluids that are hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic? Explain.

INGESTED (ml/min)

C* 30 60 90 120

A 1.024 1.050 1.009 1.004 1.000

Group 1
B 1.020 N/A 1.005 1.000 1.002
800 ml of water
Average 1.022 1.050 1.007 1.002 1.001
A 1.100 1.200 N/A N/A 0.030
Group 2

B N/A 1.890 1.050 0.090 0.090

800 ml of isotonic
Average 1.100 1.545 1.050 0.090 0.060

A 1.100 1.000 1.090 1.230 N/A

Group 3

B 1.020 1.100 1.080 1.100 N/A

80ml of water + 7g
of NaCl
Average 1.060 1.050 1.085 1.165 N/A
STUDENT NaCl (mg/ml)

C* 30 60 90 120

A 12 14 3 3 6

Group 1
800 ml of water B 7 9 2 4 6

Average 15.5 11.5 2.5 3.5 6

A 11 7 2 3 2
Group 2
800 ml of isotonic B 2 3 10 14 4
Average 6.5 5 6 8.5 3
A 2 3 10 14 N/A
Group 3
80ml of water + 7g B 5 10 13 14 N/A
of NaCl
Average 3.5 6.5 11.5 14 N/A

The result obtained are consistent with the theory. It is because when the fluid is hypotonic, it will have less of these solutes, and water
will move into the cell. When the fluid is hypertonic, it will have more solutes and water will move out of the cell. When the fluid is isotonic,
cell and fluid will have an equal concentration of solutes and no net water movement will occur. Blood osmolarity is influenced by fluid intake.
When a hypotonic fluid or solution is consumed, blood osmolarity decreases, which leads to a decrease in ADH secretion. When a hypertonic
fluid or solution is consumed, blood osmolarity increases, and, therefore, ADH secretion increases.
d. The loss of water during sweating on a hot day causes the blood volume to
decrease and the osmolality of body fluids to increase. Outline the mechanisms
operating to restore homeostasis via the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
in this situation.

loss of water

blood volume decrease

osmolality of body fluids increases

hypothalamus transmits signals that result in a conscious awareness of thirst

the person normally respond by drinking water

hypothalamus transmits signals that result in a conscious awareness of thirst

Hypothalamus also releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) through the posterior

pituitary gland. ADH functioned to signals the kidneys to recover water from urine,
effectively diluting the blood plasma. To conserve water, the hypothalamus of a
dehydrated person also sends signals via the sympathetic nervous system to the
salivary glands in the mouth. The signals result in a decrease in watery, serous
output (and an increase in stickier, thicker mucus output). These changes in
secretions result in a dry mouth and the sensation of thirst.

e. Two symptoms present in a person with diabetes mellitus are hyperglycemia

(elevated blood glucose) and diuresis (increase urine production). What causes
this increase in urine output?
When the kidneys filter blood to make urine, they reabsorb all of the sugar, returning
it to the bloodstream. In diabetes, the level of sugar in the blood is abnormally high.
Not all sugar can be reabsorbed and some of this excess glucose from the blood ends
up in the urine where it draws more water. This results in unusual large volumes of
urine which also known as polyuria.

f. Briefly explain the importance of the following to renal physiology and

a) Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
These cells participate in the regulation of renin secretion and the control of the
glomerular filtration rate via tubuloglomerular feedback
b) Angiotensin II
This hormone has several functions which are regulates the glomerular filtration rate,
increases the tubular sodium reabsorption and urine concentration, stimulates the
smooth muscle contraction in resistance vessels and raises the blood pressure, acts on
the adrenal cortex, causing it to increase aldosterone production and release,
stimulates the blood pressure and increases thirst and salt appetite.
c) Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
It can acts directly or indirectly (via inhibition of aldosterone biosynthesis) on the
kidney to alter sodium transport and may regulate fluid distribution within the
extracellular space. The functions of this hormone are dilates the afferent glomerular
arteriole, constricts the efferent glomerular arteriole, and relaxes the mesangial cells,
increases blood flow through the vasa recta, which will wash the solutes (NaCl and
urea) out of the medullary interstitium, decreases sodium reabsorption in the distal
convoluted tubule, inhibits renin secretion, by inhibiting the reninangiotensin
aldosterone system as well as reduces aldosterone secretion by the zona glomerulosa
of the adrenal cortex.