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e. Why is the inhalation of car exhaust fumes life threatening? Explain the physiology
The car exhaust fumes contained carbon monoxide which is poisonous. The carbon monoxide
has a greater affinity for haemoglobin than oxygen does which made it will binds with
haemoglobin in the blood results in suffocation. This is because, carbon monoxide displaces
oxygen and quickly binds to the haemoglobin which make a very little oxygen is transported
through the body cells like the equations below:

Hb(aq) + 4CO(g) Hb(CO)4(aq)

The equation is favour towards right, generating Hb(CO)4(aq) since the bond much stronger.


e. Many of the early heart transplant patients died not from rejection of the
transplanted heart but from bacterial infections. How can this be explained?
The human body has a defend mechanism, immune system which will destroy germs such as
bacteria and viruses or cancer but unfortunately, it will also views the transplanted organs
same way as harmful diseases and attempt to destroy the organ as foreign substance. This will
cause the rejection of the transplanted organ. The transplant patients will receive
immunosuppressant prior to the surgery to reduce the risk of rejection. Thus they are very
susceptible to infection, as their immune system has been shut down and antibiotics are
frequently insufficient to combat the bacteria.

B. The effect of hyperventilation on breathing rate and breath hold duration.

Condition Breathing rate (breaths/min) Duration of breath hold (sec)

Hyperventilate 17.5 146

Hyperventilate (paper bag) 22.5 87

a. What happens to the respiratory rhythm following hyperventilation?

Respiratory rhythm will get faster and breathing will get deeper. This is due to the
level of carbon dioxide increase during hyperventilation. An accumulation of carbon
dioxide in the blood will trigger the respiratory centres of the brain to increase the rate
and/or depth of respiration to remove the excess carbon dioxide from the body.

b. What cause the apnoea that sometimes occurs after hyperventilation?

Apnea and hyperventilation are two homeostatic responses that helps your body
control the amount of CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the body. Hyperventilation washes
CO2 out of the blood. Apnea occurs after hyperventilation due to a declining of
partial pressure of CO2 and when CO2 is reduced to the threshold.

c. Why does a person often get light-headed and dizzy after blowing up a balloon or
blowing a horn vigorously? What causes this sensations?
Blowing into a balloon also may cause hyperventilation that leads to insufficient
carbon-dioxide in blood. This eventually will cause our body having an unbalanced
pH state, which may affect the dynamics of gas exchange at the lungs and at the
tissues. All tissues have a requirement for oxygen, but our brain cannot tolerate with a
decrease in oxygen at the tissues. When oxygen delivery to the brain is decreased by
the change in pH (because less oxygen is released at the tissues), our brain resulted in
the symptom of dizziness.

d. Explain the difference in a persons respiratory movements when

hyperventilation takes place in and out of the paper bag
When hyperventilation takes place in a paper bag, rebreathing of carbon dioxide takes
place, thus the carbon dioxide level in body will increase. This will stimulate an
increased in the rate and depth of breathing. Levels of oxygen will decrease as more
oxygen is consumed. The body's carbon dioxide, oxygen level and pH will return to
normal gradually.
When hyperventilation takes place out of a paper bag, your body need longer time to
return to a normal level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and pH. The rate and depth of
breathing is increased, and gradually balancing the level of carbon dioxide and
oxygen in the body.
e. Compare the changes in blood pH, carbon dioxide and oxygen during sustained
exercise. What causes the large increase in respiratory minute volume during
Blood pH decreases as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and respiring
tissues increases. During sustained exercise, Aerobic energy production in muscles
increases the gas exchange at the lungs; as more oxygen is taken in and more carbon
dioxide is released. Oxygen rises slightly because of hyperventilation although it may
eventually fall at high work rates.