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REACTIVE POWER GENERATION AND CONTROL BY THYRISTOR CIRCUITS

L a s z l o Gyugyi

Westinghouse E l e c t r i c C o r p o r a t i o n , Research L a b o r a t o r i e s
P i t t s b u r g h , Pennsylvania

ABSTRACT S w i t c h e d C a p a c i t o r Scheme

G e n e r a l l y , s t a t i c VAr g e n e r a t o r s f u n c t i o n a s An o b v i o u s method o f p r o v i d i n g c o n t r o l l a b l e l e a d
v a r i a b l e r e a c t a n c e s ( c a p a c i t i v e o r i n d u c t i v e imped i n g VArs f o r an ac s y s t e m i s t o s w i t c h i n and o u t a p p r o
a n c e s ) o r c o n t r o l l a b l e a c c u r r e n t and v o l t a g e s o u r c e s . p r i a t e l y dimensioned c a p a c i t o r b a n k s . I n t h i s scheme,
T h i s paper reviews p o s s i b l e methods o f VAr g e n e r a t i o n a s t a t i c e l e c t r o n i c s w i t c h , employing in essence a p a i r
and c o n t r o l by s t a t i c t h y r i s t o r c i r c u i t s and d e s c r i b e s o f a n t i - p a r a l l e l connected t h y r i s t o r s , i s used w i t h each
new a p p r o a c h e s i n which power frequency c h a n g e r s c a p a c i t o r bank. The number o f c a p a c i t o r banks r e q u i r e d
( c y c l o c o n v e r t e r s ) are employed. O s c i l l o g r a p h i c re i s determined by the maximum a l l o w e d s t e p change o f r e
c o r d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e the o p e r a t i o n and performance o f active current. The power f a c t o r compensation f o l l o w s
p r a c t i c a l s y s t e m s , i n c l u d i n g a 35 MVAR a r c f u r n a c e the r e a c t i v e power consumption i n a s t e p l i k e manner.
compensator.
The s w i t c h i n g o f the c a p a c i t o r banks can be made
INTRODUCTION e s s e n t i a l l y t r a n s i e n t f r e e by c h o o s i n g the i n s t a n t s o f
s w i t c h i n g a t the n a t u r a l zero c r o s s i n g s o f the c a p a c i t o r
In r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e has been a g r e a t l y c u r r e n t ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , when the c a p a c i t o r banks a r e
i n c r e a s e d demand f o r c o n t r o l l a b l e VAr s o u r c e s to s w i t c h e d o u t , they remain charged to the p o s i t i v e o r
r e g u l a t e and s t a b i l i z e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , and to com n e g a t i v e peak v a l u e o f the l i n e v o l t a g e . T h u s , i n normal
p e n s a t e l a r g e l a g g i n g i n d u s t r i a l l o a d s , such as e l e c o p e r a t i o n , a charged c a p a c i t o r bank may be s w i t c h e d i n
t r i c a r c f u r n a c e s , e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e s , and l i n e when i t s v o l t a g e i s e q u a l l e d by the s u p p l y v o l t a g e .
commutated t h y r i s t o r d r i v e s . T h e r e f o r e , the t h e o r e t i c a l r e s p o n s e time o f t h i s scheme
i s one c y c l e f o r " s w i t c h i n g i n " ( a s s u m i n g t h a t the c a p a
T r a d i t i o n a l l y , r o t a t i n g s y n c h r o n o u s condensers c i t o r bank i s charged t o the "wrong" p o l a r i t y ) and o n e -
and f i x e d or m e c h a n i c a l l y s w i t c h e d c a p a c i t o r / i n d u c t o r half cycle for "switching out".
banks have been used f o r VAr compensation and power
factor correction. Recent advances i n h i g h power t h y I t i s mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e (1) t h a t o r d i
r i s t o r t e c h n o l o g y and e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y have nary ac power f a c t o r c o r r e c t i o n c a p a c i t o r s c a n n o t be s u b
prompted the development o f c o n t r o l l a b l e s t a t i c VAr j e c t e d t o d i r e c t v o l t a g e because the a s k a r e l , n o r m a l l y
s o u r c e s - o f t e n c a l l e d VAr g e n e r a t o r s - and s e v e r a l used a s i m p r g n a n t , w i l l be d i s s o c i a t e d . For t h i s
l a r g e i n s t a l l a t i o n s are p r e s e n t l y i n s e r v i c e . These r e a s o n , i t i s n e c e s s a t y to charge the s t a n d - b y c a p a c i t o r s
systems are c o n c e p t u a l l y s i m p l e ; they u s u a l l y comprise a l t e r n a t e l y to p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e v o l t a g e a t a s l o w
s h u n t c a p a c i t o r s and i n d u c t o r s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h sub-cycle rate. T h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d q u i t e r e a d i l y
t h y r i s t o r s o n / o f f or phase c o n t r o l l e d s w i t c h e s . Their by the t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h .
commercial s u c c e s s i s due t o t h e i r a c c e p t a b l e c o s t ,
c o u p l e d w i t h d e s i r a b l e t e c h n i c a l f e a t u r e s , such as e x I n a t h r e e - p h a s e s y s t e m , the t h y r i s t o r c o n t r o l l e d
tremely f a s t response time, f l e x i b i l i t y o f c o n t r o l , c a p a c i t o r banks are u s u a l l y connected i n d e l t a a s shown
and c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a t i o n w i t h v i r t u a l l y no m a i n t e n a n c e . i n F i g u r e 1 . T h i s arrangement i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a d v a n
t a g e o u s when unbalanced r e a c t i v e power consumption i s
I n a d d i t i o n to u s i n g r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e t h y r i s t o r anticipated. I n p r a c t i c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to connect
s w i t c h arrangements to v a r y the e f f e c t i v e impedance o f a p p r o p r i a t e l y dimensioned i n d u c t o r s i n s e r i e s w i t h the
a p a s s i v e power f a c t o r c o r r e c t i o n network by s w i t c h i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t o r banks i n o r d e r t o l i m i t the
" i n " and " o u t " c a p a c i t o r / i n d u c t o r b a n k s , o r by c o n c u r r e n t i n the t h y r i s t o r s due to p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s
t r o l l i n g the c u r r e n t f l o w i n them, t h y r i s t o r c i r c u i t s between l i n e and c a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e s a t the s w i t c h i n g i n
can a l s o be used t o r e a l i z e c o n t r o l l a b l e s t a t i c c u r r e n t s t a n t s s e l e c t e d , and to reduce the r i s k o f e s t a b l i s h i n g
and v o l t a g e s o u r c e s f o r VAr g e n e r a t i o n . Some o f these r e s o n a n c e s w i t h the ac s y s t e m impedance f o r t h o s e f r e
schemes are the t r u e s t a t i c e q u i v a l e n t s o f the r o t a t q u e n c i e s a t which e x c i t a t i o n by harmonic l o a d c u r r e n t s
ing synchronous condenser, p r o v i d i n g s i m i l a r steady is anticipated. T h u s , current l i m i t i n g inductors are
s t a t e performance w i t h much f a s t e r r e s p o n s e time and u s u a l l y used w i t h the c a p a c i t o r banks to form LC notch
superior control c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . f i l t e r s a t the low o r d e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h a r m o n i c s .

T h i s paper r e v i e w s v a r i o u s methods o f s t a t i c D e s p i t e the a t t r a c t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l s i m p l i c i t y


VAr g e n e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l t h y r i s t o r o f the s w i t c h e d c a p a c i t o r scheme, i t s p o p u l a r i t y has
c i r c u i t s , and d e s c r i b e s novel approaches i n which been h i n d e r e d by a number o f p r a c t i c a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s :
s t a t i c frequency c h a n g e r s are employed. the VAr compensation i s not c o n t i n u o u s ; each c a p a c i t o r
bank r e q u i r e s a s e p a r a t e t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h and t h e r e
VARIABLE IMPEDANCE TYPE VAr GENERATORS f o r e i t i s n o t economical f o r h i g h v o l t a g e a p p l i c a t i o n s
u n l e s s a step-down t r a n s f o r m e r i s u s e d ; the s t e a d y
Two b a s i c schemes f o r the v a r i a b l e impedance s t a t e v o l t a g e a c r o s s the n o n c o n d u c t i n g t h y r i s t o r
type VAr a e n e r a t o r are c o n s i d e r e d : one c o n t r o l s the s w i t c h e s i s t w i c e a s h i g h a s the peak s u p p l y v o l t a g e ;
l e a d i n g VArs by s y n c h r o n o u s l y s w i t c h i n g c a p a c i t o r the t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h must be r a t e d f o r o r p r o t e c t e d , by
banks to the l i n e s , the o t h e r a c h i e v e s the same o b e x t e r n a l means, a g a i n s t l i n e v o l t a g e t r a n s i e n t s and
j e c t i v e w i t h a f i x e d c a p a c i t o r bank i n p a r a l l e l w i t h a fault currents.
thyristor controlled "variable" inductor.

174-PESC 76 RECORD
f l o w i n the i n d u c t o r and t h e r e b y v a r y i n g i t s e f f e c t i v e
impedance. T h i s i s a c h i e v e d by d e l a y i n g the c l o s u r e o f
the t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h by an a n g l e , a , i n each h a l f c y c l e
w i t h r e s p e c t to the peak o f the a p p l i e d v o l t a g e t o c o n
t r o l the c u r r e n t c o n d u c t i o n i n t e r v a l s . The c o n t r o l
p r o c e s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 , where the c o n t r o l l e d
i n d u c t o r c u r r e n t , i ^ U ) , the f i x e d c a p a c i t o r c u r r e n t , i p ,
and the t o t a l c u r r e n t , i ( a ) , w i t h i t s fundamental com
ponent 1pMM ( ) D
a a r e
shown t o g e t h e r w i t h the a p p l i e d v o l t
a g e , v , a s the c o n d u c t i o n i n t e r v a l o f the t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h
i s reduced from maximum to zero (a i n c r e a s e d from 0 t o
90). I n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n , i s assumed to be s m a l l e r
than l/C> , t h a t i s , the r a t i n g o f the i n d u c t o r i s assumed
t o be h i g h e r than t h a t o f the c a p a c i t o r f o r the purpose
o f r e a l i z i n g a r e a c t a n c e w i t h a range o f c o n t r o l i n both
the i n d u c t i v e and c a p a c i t i v e d o m a i n s .

From these o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t
the e f f e c t i v e impedance o f , and thereby the fundamental
c u r r e n t i n the f i x e d c a p a c i t o r , t h y r i s t o r - c o n t r o l l e d
i n d u c t o r compensator i s c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r i a b l e t h a t i s .
any v a l u e between the r a t e d c a p a c i t i v e and i n d u c t i v e
maxima can be o b t a i n e d . On the o t h e r h a n d , a d j u s t m e n t
o f the e f f e c t i v e impedance, and thus o f the compensat-
i n g c u r r e n t , can o n l y take p l a c e a t d i s c r e t e i n s t a n t s
o f t i m e , t h a t i s , an a d j u s t m e n t cannot be made more
o f t e n than once i n each h a l f c y c l e . However, i t s h o u l d
a l s o be noted t h a t w i t h i n one h a l f c y c l e the c u r r e n t
can be changed from maximum l a g g i n g to maximum l e a d i n g
or v i c e v e r s a .

The t e c h n i q u e o f c o n t r o l l i n g the c o n d u c t i o n i n t e r -
v a l s o f the t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h g e n e r a t e s harmonic c u r r e n t
components, as the waveforms i n F i g u r e 2 i n d i c a t e .
For i d e n t i c a l p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c u r r e n t h a l f c y c l e s
o n l y odd harmonics are g e n e r a t e d ; the most s i g n i f i c a n t
o f t h e s e are the 3 r d , 5 t h , 7 t h , 9 t h , 11th and 13th w i t h
maximum a m p l i t u d e s o f 13.8%, 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.6%, 1.0% and
0.7%, r e s e p c t i v e l y , o f the r a t e d fundamental i n d u c t o r
c u r r e n t . These harmonics can be kept o u t o f the l i n e
c u r r e n t s by r e p l a c i n g the f i x e d c a p a c i t o r w i t h a f i l t e r
Figure 1. Static VAr generator scheme using thyristor network t h a t draws the same fundamental c u r r e n t a t the
switched capacitor banks. system frequency and p r o v i d e s low impedance s h u n t p a t h s
a t the harmonic f r e q u e n c i e s .
Fixed C a p a c i t o r , T h y r i s t o r C o n t r o l l e d I n d u c t o r Scheme
I n a t h r e e - p h a s e s y s t e m , the t h y r i s t o r c o n t r o l l e d
The b a s i c s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f a f i x e d c a p a c i t o r i n d u c t o r s are n o r m a l l y d e l t a connected ( t o compensate
in p a r a l l e l w i t h a t h y r i s t o r c o n t r o l l e d i n d u c t o r as unbalanced l o a d s ) ; the c a p a c i t o r s ( f i l t e r s ) may be
shown i n F i g u r e 2. With t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t , a v a r i a b l e d e l t a o r wye c o n n e c t e d . A t h r e e - p h a s e arrangement and
a s s o c i a t e d waveforms f o r a b a l a n c e d o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n
) FUNDI' are shown i n F i g u r e 3 . I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t under
b a l a n c e d o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s the compensating c u r r e n t s
do n o t c o n t a i n t r i p l e n ( t h i r d , n i n t h e t c . ) harmonic
components s i n c e they c i r c u l a t e i n s i d e the c l o s e d d e l t a .

The mechanism o f compensation i s i l l u s t r a t e d f o r


t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t h r e e - p h a s e l o a d s by the v e c t o r d i a -
grams shown i n F i g u r e 4 . A t ( a ) , the compensation o f
a b a l a n c e d l a g g i n g l o a d i s i l l u s t r a t e d : the r e a c t i v e
components o f l o a d c u r r e n t s 1 ^ , I ^ > and I j ^ , are c a n -
c e l l e d to o b t a i n r e a l l i n e c u r r e n t s I i , I o , and I 3 . A t
( b ) , an unbalanced s e t o f l o a d c u r r e n t s , (I^-j 1^2 1
)
i s t r a n s f o r m e d by the d e l t a connected compensator draw-
ing c a p a c i t i v e c u r r e n t s 2icI( *023> I Q O T ) I n t o a s e t o f
balanced real l i n e c u r r e n t s ( I - j , 2 > ?3I . At ( c ) , an-
o t h e r s e t o f unbalanced l o a d c u r r e n t s i s t r a n s f o r m e d
i n t o a b a l a n c e d s e t o f r e a l l i n e c u r r e n t s by the compen-
sator. T h i s l a t t e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t one
element o f the c o m p e n s a t o r , connected between phases 1
and 3 , be i n d u c t i v e .

Figure 2. Fixed capacitor, thyristor-controlled F a s t r e s p o n s e and the c a p a b i l i t y to b a l a n c e l o a d s


inductor type VAr generator and associated waveforms. make the f i x e d c a p a c i t o r , t h y r i s t o r c o n t r o l l e d i n d u c -
t o r scheme p a r t i c u l a r l y a d v a n t a g e o u s f o r compensating
reactance ( i . e . , a purely c a p a c i t i v e or i n d u c t i v e im- e l e c t r i c a r c f u r n a c e s ( 2 ) , which p r e s e n t a r a p i d l y v a r y -
pedance) can be r e a l i z e d by c o n t r o l l i n g the c u r r e n t i n g , g e n e r a l l y unbalanced l o a d w i t h poor l a g g i n g power

PESC 76 RECORD175
L
12 43 4l

Figure 3. Three-phase fixed capacitor, thyristor controlled inductor


type VAr generator and associated waveforms under balanced operating
condition.

Figure 4. Vector diagram illustrating the compensation of three-phase


balanced and unbalanced loads with three appropriate reactances connected
in delta.

factor. The o p e r a t i o n o f a 35 MVAR i n s t a l l a t i o n compen The f i x e d c a p a c i t o r , t h r y s i t o r c o n t r o l l e d i n


s a t i n g a 50 ton a r c f u r n a c e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5 , d u c t o r scheme i s p r e s e n t l y perhaps the b e s t s o l u t i o n
where each o f the t h r e e f u r n a c e c u r r e n t s i s shown w i t h f o r a c o n t r o l l a b l e s t a t i c VAr s o u r c e . I t o f f e r s ex
the c o r r e s p o n d i n g l i n e - t o - n e u t r a l v o l t a g e and compensa c e l l e n t performance and h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y a t a c c e p t a b l e
ted l i n e c u r r e n t s u p e r i m p o s e d . The c u r r e n t s i n the cost. I t s major d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t the f i x e d c a p a
three delta connected, t h y r i s t o r c o n t r o l l e d i n d u c t o r s c i t o r must be complemented by an i n d u c t o r o f the same
are a l s o shown on s e p a r a t e t r a c e s . r a t i n g to p r o v i d e v a r i a b l e l e a d i n g V A r s .

176-PESC 76 R E C O R D
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'L12 V - H - A t - V - V V V V V

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,,,,,,,,,.,
'L23 ^ A V V W 1

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Figure 5. Oscillographic recordings showing the operation of a 35 MVA fixed capacitor, thyristor
controlled inductor type static VAr generator in compensating the currents of an electric arc
furnace during (a) melt-down and (b) refining.

CURRENT SOURCE TYPE VAr GENERATORS ( l i n e ) o r f o r c e commutated. The n a t u r a l l y commutated


c o n v e r t e r can o n l y p r o v i d e l a g g i n g V A r s ; by c o n t r a s t
A c u r r e n t s o u r c e type VAr g e n e r a t o r can be r e the f o r c e commutated c o n v e r t e r can p r o v i d e both l a g
a l i z e d by an i n d u c t i v e l y l o a d e d a c / d c c o n v e r t e r * as g i n g and l e a d i n g V A r s . C o n v e r t e r s a r e u s u a l l y used
shown i n F i g u r e 6. The c o n v e r t e r may be n a t u r a l l y t o p r o v i d e b a l a n c e d t h r e e - p h a s e o u t p u t ; independent
c o n t r o l o f the o u t p u t p h a s e s , though p o s s i b l e , i s u n
economical .

A n a t u r a l l y commutated c o n v e r t e r can o n l y
operate i f the t h y r i s t o r s are f i r e d a t such d e l a y
a n g l e s where the dc c u r r e n t i s " n a t u r a l l y " t r a n s
f e r r e d from one p a i r o f t h y r s i t o r s to the next p a i r .
T h i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t s the d e l a y a n g l e t o the
range 0 - 1 8 0 , measured from the e a r l i e s t p o i n t o f
n a t u r a l commutation. The phase o f the ac l i n e c u r r e n t
l a g s the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o l t a g e by an a n g l e equal to
the f i r i n g d e l a y a n g l e . T h u s , when the c o n v e r t e r i s
used as a r e a c t i v e VAr s o u r c e , the f i r i n g d e l a y a n g l e
i s 9 0 , the mean o u t p u t dc v o l t a g e i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y
zero and the ac c o n v e r t e r i n p u t c u r r e n t l a g s the
c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o l t a g e by 9 0 , a s shown a t ( a ) i n
F i g u r e 6. I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n the r e
q u i r e d dc c u r r e n t i n the i n d u c t o r , the f i r i n g d e l a y
a n g l e m u s t , i n p r a c t i c e , be s l i g h t l y l e s s than 90
so t h a t there i s j u s t enough dc v o l t a g e t o overcome the
t h y r i s t o r v o l t a g e drops and the r e s i s t a n c e s o f the i n
(b) d u c t o r and the ac s y s t e m . E v i d e n t l y , the magnitude
o f the dc c u r r e n t a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , the a m p l i t u d e o f
the r e s u l t a n t ac l i n e c u r r e n t s can be c o n t r o l l e d by the
a d j u s t m e n t o f the f i r i n g d e l a y a n g l e . T h u s , the
n a t u r a l l y commutated c o n v e r t e r can be viewed a t the ac
Figure 6. Current source type VAr generator employing
an ac/dc converter. Typical waveforms at (a) for pro
viding lagging VAr's with naturally commutated thyri * 0 t h e r approaches, f o r example, using r e a c t i v e l y
stors and at (b) for providing leading VAr s with force 1
loaded c y c l o c o n v e r t e r s , are a l s o p o s s i b l e ; however,
commutated thyristors. t h e s e are g e n e r a l l y u n e c o n o m i c a l .

PESC 76RECORD-177
l i n e s as a c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r i a b l e b a l a n c e d t h r e e I n the f o l l o w i n g two s e c t i o n s , s t a t i c r e a l i z a
phase i n d u c t o r . To p r o v i d e c o n t r o l l a b l e l e a d i n g t i o n s o f th r o t a t i n g synchronous condenser m o d e l , u s i n g
V r s , the c o n v e r t e r i n p u t s must be shunted by t h r e e - d c / a c i n v e r t e r s and a c / a c frequency c h a n g e r s , are d i s
c a p a c i t o r banks o f a p p r o p r i a t e r a t i n g so t h a t the com cussed.
b i n e d c u r r e n t drawn from the ac s y s t e m becomes l e a d i n g
as the c o n v e r t e r c u r r e n t i s d e c r e a s e d . V o l t a g e S o u r c e Type VAr G e n e r a t o r s Employing d c / a c
Inverters
I n o r d e r to make the c o n v e r t e r i n p u t c u r r e n t s
l e a d i n g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o advance the f i r i n g a n g l e s A d c / a c i n v e r t e r can be r e p r e s e n t e d a t i t s
by 90 w i t h r e s p e c t to the e a r l i e s t p o i n t o f n a t u r a l o u t p u t t e r m i n a l as an ac v o l t a g e s o u r c e . For the p r e
commutation. I n t h i s o p e r a t i n g mode, however, the s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s assumed t h a t the i n v e r t e r o u t p u t
c o n v e r t e r t h y r i s t o r s must be f o r c e commutated. v o l t a g e s are s i n u o s i d s , a l t h o u g h the b a s i c o p e r a t i n g
F u n c t i o n a l l y , the o p e r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r e p r i n c i p l e s remain v a l i d f o r any waveshape produced by a
v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d : the mean dc o u t p u t v o l t a g e i s zero practical inverter.
and the c o n v e r t e r i n p u t c u r r e n t s l e a d the c o r r e s p o n d
i n g i n p u t v o l t a g e s by 90 as shown a t (b) i n F i g u r e 6. Suppose t h a t the o u t p u t s o f a t h r e e - p h a s e i n v e r
A g a i n , the f i r i n g a n g l e i s advanced s l i g h t l y l e s s than t e r are connected through three i n d u c t o r s to an ac
90 i n p r a c t i c e t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n the dc i n system as shown a t ( a ) i n F i g u r e 8 . For p u r e l y
ductor current required.

S i n c e the f o r c e commutated c o n v e r t e r i s c a p a b l e
o f o p e r a t i n g o v e r the t o t a l f i r i n g a n g l e range o f 0-
3 6 0 , i t can p r o v i d e both l e a d i n g and l a g g i n g l i n e c u r
r e n t s , i . e . , i t can a c t both as a v a r i a b l e b a l a n c e d Static D-C
t h r e e - p h a s e c a p a c i t o r and i n d u c t o r .
Inverter Voltage Supply
The a c / d c c o n v e r t e r i s one o f the s i m p l e s t
s t a t i c a r r a n g e m e n t s to p r o v i d e c o n t r o l l a b l e power
I I I
factor correction. However, i t i s not s u i t a b l e f o r I I I
compensating unbalanced l o a d s ; i t s r e s p o n s e time i s I I I

r e l a t i v e l y l o n g and i t can i n t r o d u c e c o n s i d e r a b l e
amounts o f harmonic c u r r e n t s i n t o the ac s y s t e m . Both Static 1
the r e s p o n s e time and harmonic d i s t o r t i o n can be i m =
Inverter
proved by i n c r e a s i n g the p u l s e number o f the c o n
verter; the harmonic problem can be s o l v e d by f i l t e r
1
ing.

VOLTAGE SOURCE TYPE VAr GENERATORS Figure 8. Static voltage source type VAr generator em
ploying a dc/ac inverter. (a) Conventional arrangement
The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f v o l t a g e s o u r c e type VAr with a separate dc supply. (b) Self-sufficient opera
g e n e r a t o r s can be i n t r o d u c e d by c o n s i d e r i n g a c o n v e n tion from a storage capacitor.
t i o n a l r o t a t i n g synchronous c o n d e n s e r , shown s c h e
m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 7. For p u r e l y r e a c t i v e power f l o w , r e a c t i v e power f l o w , the i n v e r t e r o u t p u t v o l t a g e s , VQ-J ,
V Q ? , and V Q 3 , are kept i n phase w i t h the ac system
v o l t a g e s V ] , V2 and V 3 . By c o n t r o l l i n g the a m p l i t u d e ,
V Q , o f the i n v e r t e r o u t p u t v o l t a g e s , the r e a c t i v e power
can be c o n t r o l l e d from f u l l l e a d i n g t o f u l l l a g g i n g .
That i s to s a y , i n c r e a s i n g VQ above the a m p l i t u d e , V ,
o f the system v o l t a g e s , causes l e a d i n g ( c a p a c i t i v e )
c u r r e n t to be drawn from the ac s y s t e m , and v i c e v e r s a
d e c r e a s i n g VQ below V r e s u l t s i n l a g g i n g ( i n d u c t i v e )
Exciter c u r r e n t i n the ac s y s t e m .

When the i n v e r t e r i s o p e r a t e d s t r i c t l y as a r e
a c t i v e power s o u r c e , as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , i t a b s o r b s
no real power from the ac system and thus i t s l o s s e s
-have to be r e p l e n i s h e d from a s e p a r a t e dc s u p p l y . How
e v e r , the dc s u p p l y can be d i s p e n s e d w i t h i f a s u i t a b l e
dc r e s e r v o i r c a p a c i t o r i s used [ F i g u r e 8 ( b ) ] and each
Figure 7. Basic voltage source type VAr generator i n v e r t e r o u t p u t v o l t a g e i s made to l a g s l i g h t l y the
employing a rotating synchronous condenser. c o r r e s p o n d i n g ac system v o l t a g e . A r e a l component o f
c u r r e n t w i l l then f l o w from the ac system to the i n
v e r t e r and the l o s s e s w i l l be accommodated t h e r e b y .
the t h r e e phase induced e . m . f . s , e . , e^, and e , o f The dc r e s e r v o i r c a p a c i t o r has t o c a r r y the i n p u t
3

the s y n c h r o n o u s r o t a t i n g machine are i n phase w i t h the " r i p p l e " c u r r e n t o f the i n v e r t e r . This ripple current
s y s t e m v o l t a g e s v-j, and v ^ . By c o n t r o l l i n g the i s , o f c o u r s e , a f u n c t i o n o f the t y p e , c i r c u i t c o n
e x c i t a t i o n o f the ma cm* n e , ana hence the a m p l i t u d e , f i g u r a t i o n and o p e r a t i n g mode o f the i n v e r t e r u s e d ; how
E , o f i t s v o l t a g e , the r e a c t i v e power can be c o n e v e r , i t can g e n e r a l l y be accommodated q u i t e r e a d i l y
when the o u t p u t c u r r e n t s are b a l a n c e d .
t r o l l e d ; i n c r e a s i n g above the a m p l i t u d e , V , o f the
system v o l t a g e s , causes l e a d i n g ( c a p a c i t i v e ) current
t o be drawn from the ac s y s t e m , whereas d e c r e a s i n g I n c o n c l u s i o n , the i n v e r t e r i n p r i n c i p l e p r o v i d e s
below V produces a l a g g i n g ( i n d u c t i v e ) l o a d on the an e x c e l l e n t s o l u t i o n f o r s t a t i c VAr g e n e r a t i o n ; i t can
ac system. Under e i t h e r o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , a s m a l l p r o v i d e c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r i a b l e l e a d i n g and l a g g i n g VArs
amount o f r e a l power o f c o u r s e f l o w s from the ac s y s t e m w i t h o u t u s i n g l a r g e LC s t o r a g e components a t the ac
to the m a c h i n e , t o s u p p l y i t s mechanical and e l e c system f r e q u e n c y . I t s main d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t i t r e
trical losses. q u i r e s f o r c e d commutation i n the i n v e r t e r which h i n d e r s

178-PESC 76 R E C O R D
i t s h i g h power a p p l i c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s not v o l t a g e g e n e r a t e d a t the o u t p u t t e r m i n a l s o f the f r e
s u i t a b l e (without considerable c o s t penalty) f o r quency c h a n g e r . The v a r y i n g r e a c t i v e l o a d t h a t may be
h a n d l i n g unbalanced VAr demand. r e f l e c t e d t o the tank c i r c u i t by the f r e q u e n c y c h a n g e r ,
as the r e a c t i v e power a t the ac s y s t e m s i d e i s v a r i e d ,
V o l t a g e S o u r c e Type VAr G e n e r a t o r s E m p l o y i n g has the same e f f e c t a s a v a r i a b l e r e a c t a n c e ( i n d u c t a n c e
a c / a c Frequency Changers o r c a p a c i t a n c e , depending upon the type o f f r e q u e n c y
c h a n g e r ) connected i n p a r a l l e l w i t h the p a s s i v e LC c i r
An a l t e r n a t e method o f implementing the o p e r a c u i t ; t h a t i s , i t causes a v a r i a t i o n i n the n a t u r a l
t i n g p r i n c i p l e o f the r o t a t i n g synchronous condenser o p e r a t i n g frequency o f the HF b a s e . S i n c e frequency
i s i l l u s t r a t e d a t (a) i n Figure 9 . Here, a generator c h a n g e r s can o p e r a t e from a v a r i a b l e frequency s o u r c e
w i t h o u t any d i f f i c u l t y , t h i s frequency v a r i a t i o n o f the
HF b a s e , p r o v i d e d i t i s kept w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e l i m i t s
by a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n o f the tank c i r c u i t , does n o t
3
U v
o ii J L L j a f f e c t the o p e r a t i o n o f the s y s t e m .
Static
'2 v n ?
A-C to A-C I n an a c t u a l s y s t e m , the a m p l i t u d e o f the o s c i l l a
Frequency
Changer
t i o n i n the tank c i r c u i t , and thus the a m p l i t u d e o f the

3 > i n p u t v o l t a g e o f the frequency c h a n g e r , cannot be m a i n
t a i n e d w i t h o u t r e p l e n i s h i n g the energy used up by l o s s e s .
The power r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s purpose can be o b t a i n e d by
e s t a b l i s h i n g j u s t s u f f i c i e n t r e a l power f l o w from
the a c s y s t e m t o the HF b a s e . T h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d
Static q u i t e s i m p l y by i n t r o d u c i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e s m a l l phase
A-C to A-C
Frequency s h i f t between the o u t p u t v o l t a g e s o f the frequency
Changer changer and the ac s y s t e m v o l t a g e s . In a practical
scheme t h i s phase s h i f t would be " c l o s e d l o o p " c o n
trolled s o a s e i t h e r t o m a i n t a i n the v o l t a g e o f the
o s c i l l a t i n g tank c i r c u i t c o n s t a n t o r p o s s i b l y to v a r y
t h i s v o l t a g e i n an incremental manner i n sympathy w i t h
High Frequency "Base" the o u t p u t VAr demand.
(Oscillating Tank Circuit)

I n o r d e r t o e x e m p l i f y t h i s g e n e r a l approach
Figure 9 . Static voltage source type VAr generator f u r t h e r , two s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f frequency c h a n g e r - -
employing an ac to ac frequency changer. (a) Conven the c l a s s i c a l n a t u r a l l y commutated c y c l o c o n v e r t e r (NCC)
tional arrangement with separate high frequency ac and the newly c o n c e i v e d u n i t y d i s p l a c e m e n t f a c t o r f r e
source. (b) Self-sufficient operation from LC tank quency changer (UDFFC) - w i l l now be c o n s i d e r e d i n such
circuits (HF base). a scheme. From the s t a n d p o i n t o f the ac s y s t e m , the p e r
formance o f the NCC and the UDFFC a r e s i m i l a r ; e i t h e r
can p r o v i d e c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r i a b l e l e a d i n g and l a g g i n g
of r e l a t i v e l y h i g h frequency f e e d s a s t a t i c a c / a c VArs w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y n e g l i g i b l e d i s t o r t i o n o f the
frequency c h a n g e r , which c o n v e r t s the g e n e r a t o r f r e c u r r e n t wave. From the v i e w p o i n t o f the HF b a s e , how
quency f to the ac s y s t e m frequency f . The o u t p u t e v e r , the two t y p e s o f frequency changer d i f f e r s i g n i
t e r m i n a l s o f the frequency changer a r e connected t o t h e ficantly.
ac s y s t e m v i a s m a l l i n d u c t o r s . Assuming t h a t the f r e
quency c h a n g e r i s c o n t r o l l e d to produce o u t p u t v o l t a g e As known, the NCC always p r e s e n t s a l a q q i n q
waves, v o l , 02 v a n c
* 0 3 ' whose wanted components are
v
r e a c t i v e l o a d to the HF b a s e , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether
i n phase w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s y s t e m v o l t a g e s v-j, v 2 the r e a c t i v e power s u p p l i e d t o the a c s y s t e m i s l a g g i n g
and V 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i t i s e v i d e n t , a s f o r the s y n o r l e a d i n g . As the r e a c t i v e c u r r e n t ( l e a d i n g o r l a g g i n g )
chronous condenser i n F i g u r e 7, t h a t r e a c t i v e power can s u p p l i e d to the ac system by the NCC i s v a r i e d , the
be s u p p l i e d i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n t o the ac s y s t e m , by r e a c t i v e l a g g i n g l o a d on the HF base a l s o v a r i e s . Thus,
s i m p l e a m p l i t u d e c o n t r o l o f the frequency changer v o l t t o a f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n , the NCC can be r e g a r d e d a s
ages. Thus the frequency changer w i l l draw l e a d i n g c o n s t i t u t i n g a v a r i a b l e i n d u c t i v e l o a d on the HF b a s e .
c u r r e n t from - t h a t i s , i t s u p p l i e s l a g g i n g c u r r e n t As a c o n s e q u e n c e , the HF base frequency w i l l i n c r e a s e a s
to - the a c system when the amplitude,VQ o f i t s o u t a f u n c t i o n o f the r e a c t i v e o u t p u t power s u p p l i e d t o the
put t e r m i n a l v o l t a g e s i s g r e a t e r than t h a t o f the system system. I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o have an LC tank
voltages, V. Conversely, i t will draw l a g g i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t with a s u f f i c i e n t l y large "reservoir" o f i n
whenever Vo i s s m a l l e r than V. t e r n a l o s c i l l a t i n g energy t o keep the frequency v a r i a
tion within practical l i m i t s .
As the a m p l i t u d e o f t h e fundamental o u t p u t v o l t
age o f the frequency c h a n g e r i s v a r i e d , i n o r d e r t o c o n The UDFFC, h a v i n g u n i t y i n p u t d i s p l a c e m e n t f a c t o r ,
t r o l the r e a c t i v e s y s t e m c u r r e n t , i t m i g h t n a t u r a l l y be on the o t h e r hand r e q u i r e s no r e a c t i v e i n p u t power under
assumed t h a t t h i s v a r y i n g r e a c t i v e power would be r e any l o a d c o n d i t i o n . Thus the t o t a l r e a c t i v e power s u p
f l e c t e d t h r o u g h the frequency c h a n g e r t o the machine. p l i e d t o the ac s y s t e m i s e s s e n t i a l l y c i r c u l a t e d within
As w i l l be s e e n , t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s o . There the UDFFC. However, as m e n t i o n e d , the o p e r a t i o n o f a
are frequency c h a n g e r s ( 3 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , which can be s t a t i c frequency changer always r e s u l t s i n harmonic
operated w i t h u n i t y i n p u t d i s p l a c e m e n t (power) f a c t o r . ( e x t r a b a s a l ) i n p u t c u r r e n t components, h a v i n g f r e q u e n c i e s
However, any frequency c h a n g e r , because o f i t s n o n - d i f f e r e n t from the i n p u t f r e q u e n c y , which f l o w t h r o u g h
s i n u s o i d a l input c u r r e n t , w i l l draw some harmonic the i n p u t s o u r c e . T h u s , when c o n s i d e r i n g the use o f a
( e x t r a b a s a l ) c u r r e n t from the machine. UDFFC i n such a s y s t e m , the i n p u t c u r r e n t wave i s e n t i r e l y
composed o f harmonic components, which have t o f l o w
S i n c e the machine i n F i g u r e 9 ( a ) t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h r o u g h the HF b a s e . Thus the main requirement f o r t h e
handles o n l y r e a c t i v e a n d / o r harmonic power, i t HF base i s t o p r o v i d e i n p u t v o l t a g e s , b u t no r e a c t i v e
can be r e p l a c e d by a m u l t i - p h a s e s t a t i c o s c i l l a t i n g LC power t o the UDFFC, a t a f i x e d base f r e q u e n c y , and t o
tank c i r c u i t - which i s termed ( 3 ) a " h i g h frequency p r o v i d e a low impedance p a t h f o r the harmonic c u r r e n t
b a s e " , o r "HF b a s e " - a s shown a t ( b ) . As w i t h the components. The r e q u i r e d r a t i n g o f the LC tank c i r c u i t
scheme a t ( a ) , c o n t r o l o f the r e a c t i v e power a t the t o be used w i t h a UDFFC, j u s t t o p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l l y the
ac s y s t e m s i d e can be o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h c o n t r o l o f the "harmonic" p o w e r " , i s thus t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y

PESC 76RECORD-179
a. L e a d i n g C u r r e n t Drawn

AC system v o l t a g e and

NCC o u t p u t v o l t a g e ( L - N ) : 200 v o l t s / d i v i s i o n

NCC o u t p u t c u r r e n t : 120 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n

Horizontal scale: 2 msec/division

HF base v o l t a g e ( L - N ) : 200 v o l t s / d i v i s i o n

NCC i n p u t c u r r e n t : 200 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n
Horizontal scale: 1 msec/division

b. L a g g i n g C u r r e n t Drawn

AC system v o l t a g e and
NCC o u t p u t v o l t a g e ( L - N ) : 200 v o l t s / d i v i s i o n

NCC o u t p u t c u r r e n t : 120 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n

Horizontal scale: 2 msec/division

HF base v o l t a g e : 200 v o l t s / d i v i s i o n

NCC i n p u t c u r r e n t : 200 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n

Horizontal scale: 1 msec/division

Figure 10. Oscillograms illustrating the operation of the VAr generator using an NCC operated from a "high"
frequency base", as shown in Figure 9(b).
(a) Leading and (b) Lagging reactive current is drawn from the ac system.

ac system frequency: 60 Hz
HF base frequency: 450 Hz approx.

s m a l l e r than t h a t r e q u i r e d : f o r an N C C , where both re ( i n p u t ) v o l t a g e and c u r r e n t w a v e f o r m s , when the NCC s u p


a c t i v e and "harmonic" power must be p r o v i d e d . p l i e s l e a d i n g VArs to the ac system are shown a t ( a ) .
S i m i l a r waveforms when the NCC p r o v i d e s l a g g i n g VArs
The o p e r a t i o n o f the s t a t i c VAr g e n e r a t o r u s i n g to the ac s y s t e m , are shown a t ( b ) .
a c o n v e n t i o n a l n a t u r a l l y commutated c y c l o c o n v e r t e r i s
n o t d e t a i l e d h e r e , b u t i l l u s t r a t e d by the o s c i l l o g r a m s The o p e r a t i o n o f the s t a t i c VAr g e n e r a t o r e m p l o y
i n F i g u r e 10, which were taken i n an experimental 30 i n g a s p e c i a l u n i t y d i s p l a c e m e n t f a c t o r frequency
kVAr s y s t e m c o m p r i s i n g a s i m p l e t h r e e - p u l s e NCC, and a c h a n g e r , composed o f one n a t u r a l l y and one f o r c e commu
t h r e e - p h a s e HF base e m p l o y i n g t h r e e LC tuned tank t a t e d c y c l o c o n v e r t e r each r a t e d f o r one h a l f o f the
circuits. T y p i c a l o u t p u t v o l t a g e and c u r r e n t waveforms o u t p u t V A r , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 1 . As shown a t
o f the N C C , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g HF base the top o f the f i g u r e , both c o n v e r t e r s a r e o p e r a t e d

180-PESC 76 R E C O R D
T h e o r e t i c a l waveforms i l l u s t r a t i n g the o p e r a t i o n
o f a VAr g e n e r a t o r c o m p r i s i n g a s i x - p u l s e NCC and a s i x -
p u l s e FCC are shown i n F i g u r e 11 f o r the c a s e s o f g e n e r
a t i n g l e a d i n g ( a ) and l a g g i n g ( b ) V A r s . I t may be
o b s e r v e d t h a t the FCC p r o d u c e s complementary (3) o u t p u t
v o l t a g e and i n p u t c u r r e n t waveforms d u r i n g both o p e r a
t i n g modes. T h a t i s to s a y , the o u t p u t v o l t a g e and i n
put c u r r e n t waveforms o f the FCC w i t h l a g g i n g o u t p u t
c u r r e n t s are the same as t h o s e o f the NCC w i t h l e a d i n g
o u t p u t c u r r e n t s , and v i c e v e r s a .

When compared w i t h a more c o n v e n t i o n a l type o f


s t a t i c c o n t r o l l a b l e VAr g e n e r a t o r , u s i n g , f o r e x a m p l e ,
s h u n t c a p a c i t o r s and i n d u c t o r s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h
t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h e s , the HF base scheme g e n e r a l l y has
the p o t e n t i a l a d v a n t a g e o f reduced s i z e and p o s s i b l y
reduced c o s t , because the r e a c t i v e elements o p e r a t e a t
a f r e q u e n c y h i g h e r than t h a t o f the ac s y s t e m . In addi
t i o n , when the UDFFC i s e m p l o y e d , the t o t a l r a t i n g o f
the r e a c t i v e elements may be s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than
t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r the more c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p r o a c h ,
(though the requirement f o r f o r c e d commutation may o f f
s e t t h i s a d v a n t a g e ) . The s y s t e m i s f r e e from the
problem o f e n e r g i z i n g l a r g e c a p a c i t o r banks directly
from the ac s y s t e m , and from p o s s i b l e problems caused
by such banks r e s o n a t i n g w i t h the ac s y s t e m . A l s o , the
o u t p u t c u r r e n t s s u p p l i e d by the HF base scheme have
l i t t l e d i s t o r t i o n and t h u s r e q u i r e l i t t l e o r no f i l t e r
ing. The major d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s a p p r o a c h i s the
r e l a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y ; a p p r e c i a b l e f u r t h e r e f f o r t would
be r e q u i r e d t o develop such a s y s t e m f o r h i g h power
applications.

H y b r i d ( V o l t a g e and C u r r e n t S o u r c e ) Type VAr G e n e r a t o r s


E m p l o y i n g a c / a c Frequency Changers

A unique s t a t i c VAr g e n e r a t o r which t h e o r e t i c a l l y


uses no r e a c t i v e components - c a p a c i t o r s o r i n d u c t o r s -
can be r e a l i z e d w i t h the s o - c a l l e d "power d o u b l i n g "
scheme ( 3 ) . Such a scheme uses the f r e q u e n c y c h a n g e r ' s
o u t p u t as a v o l t a g e s o u r c e , and i t s i n p u t a s a c u r r e n t
source.

I n the "power d o u b l i n g " a r r a n g e m e n t , the i n p u t


and o u t p u t s i d e s o f the f r e q u e n c y c h a n g e r a r e both
connected to the ac s y s t e m , and t h u s both the i n p u t and
o u t p u t f r e q u e n c i e s are equal t o the s y s t e m f r e q u e n c y .
(a) <b> The main f u n c t i o n o f the f r e q u e n c y c h a n g e r i s to r e
f l e c t the same phase a n g l e a t both i t s i n p u t and o u t p u t
t e r m i n a l s , as viewed by the common ac s y s t e m v o l t a g e
Figure 11. Voltage source type VAr generator employ
a p p l i e d to both s e t s o f t e r m i n a l s . T h i s o p e r a t i n g mode
ing a unity displacement factor frequency changer. makes i t p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e t w i c e as much r e a c t i v e
Waveforms at (a) illustrated the operation for gen VA f o r the ac s y s t e m , as the a c t u a l VA r a t i n g o f the
erating leading VArs, at (b) for generating lagging f r e q u e n c y c h a n g e r . T h u s , a f r e q u e n c y chanqer o f 1/2
Vars. P . U . VA r a t i n g ( t h r o u g h p u t ) can s u p p l y 1 P . U .
r e a c t i v e VA t o the ac s y s t e m .
from a common h i g h f r e q u e n c y b a s e . The f o r c e commuta
ted c y c l o c o n v e r t e r (FCC) i s c o n t r o l l e d to complement The o p e r a t i o n o f the "power d o u b l i n g " scheme i s
i t s n a t u r a l l y commutated c o u n t e r p a r t ; t h a t i s to s a y , e x p l a i n e d c o n c e p t u a l l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o F i g u r e 12.
i t i s c o n t r o l l e d to p r o d u c e , under a l l o p e r a t i n g c o n d i C o n s i d e r f i r s t F i g u r e 1 2 ( a ) , where a s t a t i c f r e q u e n c y
t i o n s , a fundamental i n p u t c u r r e n t t h a t i s o p p o s i t e to changer c o n v e r t s the t h r e e - p h a s e ac s y s t e m v o l t a g e s ,
t h a t o f the N C C T h i s means, o f c o u r s e , t h a t the FCC (v-j, v , V 3 ) , t o t h r e e - p h a s e o u t p u t v o l t a g e s
?

i s c o n t r o l l e d t o produce l e a d i n g fundamental i n p u t ( 01> 02 03^


v 7
'*
L e t b e a
frequency
s s u m e d t h a t t h e

c u r r e n t w i t h the same magnitude as t h a t o f the l a g g i n g changer can be o p e r a t e d under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :


fundamental i n p u t c u r r e n t o f the NCC. I n c o n s e q u e n c e ,
the r e s u l t a n t fundamental i n p u t c u r r e n t o f the two c o n 1. The g e n e r a t e d a n g u l a r o u t p u t f r e q u e n c y , <I>Q, i s equal
v e r t e r s i s zero a n d , s i n c e the HF base a b s o r b s o n l y a t o the angular i n p u t f r e q u e n c y JJ.
small amount o f r e a l c u r r e n t from the ac s y s t e m t o
r e p l e n i s h the i n t e r n a l l o s s e s , there i s p r a c t i c a l l y no 2. The wanted s i n u s o i d a l c o m p o n e n t s , v-, Q2W v A N D

fundamental c u r r e n t ( i . e . , c u r r e n t w i t h the HF base v Q 3 o f the g e n e r a t e d o u t p u t v o l t a g e s , ' v ^ - , , V Q 2

f r e q u e n c y ) f l o w i n g t h r o u g h the HF b a s e . aria v ~ , are i n phase w i t h


n the r e s p e c t i v e ac
v o l t a g e s v-j, v and V g .
2

A t the o u t p u t t e r m i n a l s ( i . e . , a t the ac s y s t e m )
the two c o n v e r t e r s are connected i n p a r a l l e l v i a an 3. The a m p l i t u d e o f the wanted components o f the g e n
i n t e r p h a s e r e a c t o r t o s h a r e the t o t a l o u t p u t c u r r e n t . e r a t e d o u t p u t v o l t a g e waves i s v a r i a b l e w i t h r e s
p e c t to the n o m i n a l l y f i x e d a m p l i t u d e o f the i n p u t
voltages, i.e., V = k V . n y

PESC 76RECORD-181
system v o l t a g e s , by 9 0 . S i m i l a r l y , i f k < 1 , the f u n d a
mental o u t p u t c u r r e n t s l e a d the o u t p u t v o l t a g e s o f the
frequency c h a n g e r ; t h a t i s , the o u t p u t phase a n g l e , ,
i s +90. The i n p u t c u r r e n t s now l a g the i n p u t v o l t a g e s
by 9 0 ; t h a t i s , , = - 9 0 . A t k = 1 , the fundamental
components o f the i n p u t c u r r e n t s a r e , o f c o u r s e , zero
s i n c e the frequency changer s u p p l i e s no o u t p u t c u r r e n t s .

On t h e b a s i s o f the above d e d u c t i o n s , i t can be


concluded t h a t , whenever k > 1 , the c u r r e n t s f l o w i n g
from the ac system t o the i n p u t t e r m i n a l s o f the f r e
quency c h a n g e r , a s awell a s t h o s e f l o w i n g from the e x
t e r n a l s o u r c e t o the output t e r m i n a l s o f the frequency
changer l e a d the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o l t a g e s by 9 0 .
S i m i l a r l y , whenever k < 1 , the c u r r e n t s f l o w i n g from
the ac system as w e l l a s t h o s e f l o w i n g from the e x
t e r n a l s o u r c e , l a g the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o l t a g e s by 9 0 .

These c o n c l u s i o n s l e a d d i r e c t l y t o the e s s e n c e
o f the power d o u b l i n g c o n c e p t . S i n c e the v o l t a g e s o f
the t h r e e - p h a s e e x t e r n a l s o u r c e were s t i p u l a t e d t o be
Figure 12. Conceptual explanation of the notion of p e r f e c t r e p l i c a s o f the ac system v o l t a g e s , i t f o l l o w s
"power doubling". t h a t the a b o v e - d e s c r i b e d c u r r e n t / v o l t a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s
w i l l n o t change i f the o u t p u t s o f the frequency changer
are removed, from the e x t e r n a l s o u r c e (which was i n t r o
4. The i n p u t d i s p l a c e m e n t a n g l e , , , between the i n p u t
duced o n l y t o a i d the e x p l a n a t i o n ) , and connected i n
phase v o l t a g e and the fundamental component o f the
s t e a d t o the ac s y s t e m , a s shown i n F i g u r e 1 2 ( c ) . S i n c e
i n p u t c u r r e n t , i s the n e g a t i v e o f the o u t p u t phase
both the i n p u t and o u t p u t c u r r e n t s o f the frequency
a n g l e , <J>Q, between the wanted components o f the
changer can s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be made t o l e a d o r l a g the
o u t p u t v o l t a g e and c u r r e n t . T h u s , = -<J>Q.

ac s y s t e m v o l t a g e s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the t o t a l r e
a c t i v e c u r r e n t s u p p l i e d t o the ac system w i l l be the
Assume now t h a t the o u t p u t s o f the frequency
sum o f these c u r r e n t s , t h u s , = i + i , i = i
changer a r e connected t o a t h r e e - p h a s e e x t e r n a l v o l t
T 1 n l ? T ?

+ i 3 . T h r e f o f , the'tota l L a
+ i , and i 3 =
age s o u r c e fe-j, e e ) - which c o u l d be a n o t h e r a c
0 2 0
2 > 3
r e a c t i v e power s u p p l i e d t o the ac system i s
power system - v i a three s m a l l i n d u c t o r s , the v a l u e s
o f which a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y u n i m p o r t a n t . The a r r a n g e
ment i s shown i n F i g u r e 1 2 ( b ) . Assume f u r t h e r t h a t P
Q = 3 V
I,rms ^I,rms + !
0,rms^
the t h r e e v o l t a g e s o f the e x t e r n a l s o u r c e a r e i n f a c t
whereVj i s the rms i n p u t ( a c s y s t e m ) v o l t a g e
r e p l i c a s o f the i n p u t v o l t a g e s - t h a t i s , e , = - , , m s

e = v and e~ = v ~ . The frequency c h a n g e r , whose


2 2
I i s the rms v a l u e o f the fundamental input
o u t p u t v o l t a g e s a r e s t i p u l a t e d t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o T

i.rms c u r r e n t

the i n p u t v o l t a g e s , t h u s can be made t o s u p p l y e i t h e r


l a g g i n g o r l e a d i n g VArs t o t h i s e x t e r n a l s o u r c e .
That i s t o s a y , i f k > 1 * , the frequency changer s u p i s the rms v a l u e o f the fundamental com-
0,rms
p l i e s l a g g i n g c u r r e n t t o ( i . e . , i t draws l e a d i n g c u r ponent o f the o u t p u t c u r r e n t
r e n t from) the e x t e r n a l s o u r c e , and i f k < 1 , t h e f r e
quency c h a n g e r s u p p l i e s l e a d i n g c u r r e n t t o ( i . e . , i t I f the i n d u c t a n c e L i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , the i n -
draws l a g g i n g c u r r e n t from) the e x t e r n a l s o u r c e . I n p u t and o u t p u t c u r r e n t s w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l ,
the f i r s t c a s e , the o u t p u t c u r r e n t s o f the frequency t h e r e f o r e the t o t a l r e a c t i v e power may be e x p r e s s e d b y :
c h a n g e r l a g the c o r r e s p o n d i n g wanted o u t p u t v o l t a g e s ,
which means t h a t the frequency changer i s i n d u c t i v e l y
l o a d e d , w h i l e the e x t e r n a l s o u r c e i s c a p a c i t i v e ! y
P
Q * 3 V
I,rms x 2
^'rms
loaded. I n the second c a s e , the o u t p u t c u r r e n t s o f
the frequency changer l e a d the o u t p u t v o l t a g e s which 3 V
I rms ?
x 2 !
0,rms
means t h a t the frequency changer i s c a p a c i t i v e ! y l o a d e d ,
w h i l e the e x t e r n a l s o u r c e i s i n d u c t i v e l y l o a d e d . Of The VA r a t i n g ( t h r o u g h p u t ) o f the frequency c h a n g e r , on
c o u r s e , when k = 1 , no c u r r e n t o f fundamental frequency the o t h e r h a n d , i s
flows.

( V A
) F C = 3 V
I , r m s x I
I , r m s
To proceed f u r t h e r w i t h the e x p l a n a t i o n o f the
"power d o u b l i n g " c o n c e p t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r
the fundamental i n p u t c u r r e n t s , i I'TOC* a
d IT^F
n
= 3 V
I ,rms x J
0,rms

4
T 1 F

drawn by the frequency c h a n g e r f r o i V t h e S t system . 1

f o r the t h r e e c a s e s o f k > 1 , k < 1 and k 1.

As was e x p l a i n e d , i f k > 1 , the wanted o u t p u t T h u s , the VA r a t i n g ( t h r o u g h p u t ) o f the s t a t i c


c u r r e n t s o f the frequency changer l a g the c o r r e s p o n d i n g frequency c h a n g i n g o n l y o n e - h a l f o f the maximum l e a d i n g
wanted o u t p u t v o l t a g e s , t h a t i s , the o u t p u t phase a n g l e , o r l a g g i n g VArs s u p p l i e d t o the ac s y s t e m .
0 i s - 9 0 . I t was s t i p u l a t e d a t the o u t s e t t h a t the
frequency changer has the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e f l e c t i n g The p r i n c i p l e o f the "power d o u b l i n g " has been
the n e g a t i v e o f the o u t p u t phase a n g l e t o the i n p u t . based upon the a s s u m p t i o n o f a frequency c h a n g e r h a v i n g
Thus = - = - ( - 9 0 ) = 9 0 . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the
0 s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - t h a t i s t o s a y , , = - , and

fundamental i n p u t c u r r e n t s l e a d the c o r r e s p o n d i n g ac = U)Q. A p a r t i c u l a r f o r c e commutated c y c l o c o n v e r t e r


c a l l e d the u n r e s t r i c t e d frequency c h a n g e r ( 3 ) m e e t s , u n
* I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t k can be g r e a t e r than 1 o n l y r e s e r v e d l y , t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . However, a naturally
i f an i n p u t o r o u t p u t t r a n s f o r m e r i s employed i n the commutated c y c l o c o n v e r t e r can a l s o be employed i n t h i s
frequency changer.

182-PESC 76 R E C O R D
scheme i f the o b j e c t i v e i s o n l y to p r o v i d e c o n t i n u o u s l y The l i n e - t o - n e u t r a l v o l t a g e s o f the ac s y s t e m , ,
l a g g i n g r e a c t i v e power. v and V 3 are i l l u s t r a t e d a t ( a ) .
2 The frequency c h a n g e r
i s o p e r a t e d so t h a t i t s o u t p u t v o l t a g e s V Q - I , V Q and V Q ? 2

A p a r t i c u l a r embodiment o f the "power d o u b l i n g " [shown a t ( B ) , (C) and ( D ) ] are i n phase w i t h v j , v ana 2

scheme e m p l o y i n g a t h r e e - p h a s e , b r i d g e - t y p e u n r e s t r i c V Q , respectively. T h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by a p p r o p r i


ted frequency changer i s shown i n F i g u r e 13 and i t s a t e l y s y n c h r o n i z i n g the o p e r a t i o n o f the t h y r i s t o r s o f
o p e r a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to F i g u r e 14. the power c i r c u i t t o the ac s y s t e m v o l t a g e s as i n d i c a
ted i n the f i g u r e .

C o n s i d e r f i r s t the case where the a m p l i t u d e o f the


wanted components o f the t h r e e o u t p u t v o l t a g e w a v e s , a t
the s e c o n d a r y o f the t r a n s f o r m e r , are somewhat g r e a t e r
Output Transformer
\ I Primary Secondary than t h o s e o f the l i n e - t o - n e u t r a l ac system v o l t a g e s .
T h e n , a l a g g i n g c u r r e n t w i l l f l o w from each o u t p u t phase

~ o f the f r e q u e n c y changer t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g phase o f


the ac s y s t e m . I n o t h e r w o r d s , the f r e q u e n c y c h a n g e r
c o n s t i t u t e s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l e a d i n g l o a d on the s y s t e m .
The t h r e e o u t p u t c u r r e n t s , i , i n and 1 * 0 3 , a r e shown
0 1 2

a t the l e f t - h a n d s i d e o f F i g u r e 14 a t ( , (C) and ( D ) .


The t h r e e i n p u t c u r r e n t s , i > i j o > a n d
3 c a
derived
n b e

g r a p h i c a l l y from the o u t p u t ' c u r r e n t waveforms shown a t


#1 ( B ) , (C) and ( D ) . One i n p u t c u r r e n t waveform I j - j , i s
i l l u s t r a t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o l t a g e v-j
a t ( E ) , on the l e f t - h a n d s i d e , f o r the c a s e under c o n
sideration. As can be s e e n , the i n p u t c u r r e n t ij-j l e a d s
the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o l t a g e v ^ .
Figure 13. Schematic of a "power doubling" VAr gen
erator employing a three-phase six-pulse bridge type One o u t p u t c u r r e n t , i"ois f l o w i n g i n t o the s e c o n
frequency changer. dary o f the t r a n s f o r m e r from phase 1 o f the ac s y s t e m i s
shown t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o l t a g e v-j a t ( F ) .
V. V, V,
V. V, V, The t o t a l c u r r e n t f l o w i n g from l i n e 1 o f the s y s
tem i n t o the frequency c h a n g e r , ( I j j + i n ] ) i s shown s

at (G). E v i d e n t l y , t h i s total current "flowing through"


the frequency c h a n g e r , and i t l e a d s the c o r r e s p o n d i n g
system v o l t a g e .

The o p e r a t i o n o f the scheme when drawing l a g g i n g


c u r r e n t from the s y s t e m i s s i m i l a r . I n t h i s c a s e , the
a m p l i t u d e o f the o u t p u t v o l t a g e s o f the f r e q u e n c y
c h a n g e r , a t the s e c o n d a r y s i d e o f the o u t p u t t r a n s f o r m
e r , must be lower than t h o s e o f the s y s t e m v o l t a g e s .
The o p e r a t i o n under t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a
s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y manner on the r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f
F i g u r e 14.

The o p e r a t i o n o f an a c t u a l s t a t i c VAr g e n e r a t o r
employing an u n r e s t r i c t e d frequency c h a n g e r i n the
"power d o u b l i n g " c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the
o s c i l l o g r a m s i n F i g u r e 15. These o s c i l l o g r a m s are
a p p r o p r i a t e to a model s y s t e m u s i n g a 6 kVA f r e q u e n c y
changer w i t h g a t e - c o n t r o l l e d s w i t c h e s i n the a r r a n g e
ment shown i n F i g u r e 13. The o u t p u t v o l t a g e o f the
frequency c h a n g e r i s c o n t r o l l e d by the t e c h n i q u e o f
p u l s e - w i d t h m o d u l a t i o n . As can be s e e n , the p r a c t i c a l
waveforms a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r t o the i d e a l ones shown
i n F i g u r e 14.

C o n s i d e r i n g now the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g a n a t
u r a l l y comrnutated c y c l o c o n v e r t e r i n t h i s type o f scheme,
i n s p e c t i o n o f F i g u r e 14 i n d i c a t e s t h a t when the f r e
quency changer consumes l a g g i n g r e a c t i v e power from the
ac s y s t e m (k < 1) then the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r n a t u r a l
commutation o f the s w i t c h e s o f the power c i r c u i t a r e
satisfied. T h u s , the o u t p u t waveforms a t ( B ) , (C)
and ( D ) , on the r i g h t - h a n d s i d e , show t h a t the " i n
coming" v o l t a g e i s a l w a y s more p o s i t i v e than the
Figure 14. Waveforms illustrating the operation of the
" o u t g o i n g " one d u r i n g the p o s i t i v e c u r r e n t h a l f c y c l e s ,
static VAr generator using the Unrestricted Frequency
and t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p r e v e r s e s d u r i n g the n e g a t i v e
Changer in the "power doubling" arrangement shown in
c u r r e n t h a l f c y c l e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a n a t u r a l l y commu
Figure 13. (a) Generating leading VArs. (b) Generat
t a t e d c y c l o c o n v e r t e r w i t h 1/2 P . U . VA r a t i n g c o u l d be
ing lagging VArs.
employed to consume v a r i a b l e l a g g i n g r e a c t i v e power
up t o 1 P . U . , from the ac s y s t e m .

PESC 76RECORD-183
(a)
L e a d i n g c u r r e n t . d r a w n from Phase 1 o f the ac s y s t e m ,
i-j = i j i + t g ] (20 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n )

-AC s y s t e m v o l t a g e ( L - N ) , v-j (400 v o l t s / d i v i s i o n )

UFC o u t p u t c u r r e n t , (20 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n )

UFC i n p u t l i n e current, i^ (20 a m p e r e s / d i v i s o n )

(b)
AC s y s t e m v o l t a g e ( L - N ) , v-j (400 v o l t s / d i v i s i o n )

Lagging current drawn from Phase 1 o f the ac s y s t e m ,


= 1 = 01

UFC o u t p u t c u r r e n t , i -j
Q (20 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n )

^ ^ ^ U F C input line current, i^ (20 a m p e r e s / d i v i s i o n )

Figure 15. Oscillograms illustrating the operation of the "power doubling" VAr generator shown in Figure 13.
(a) Leading and (b) Lagging reactive current is drawn from the ac system.

S i n c e the n a t u r a l l y commutated c y c l o c o n v e r t e r ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


cannot be o p e r a t e d i n the manner i l l u s t r a t e d by the
waveforms on the l e f t - h a n d s i d e o f F i g u r e 14, t h i s The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f B . R. P e l l y , J . Rosa and
arrangement a s i t s t a n d s c a n n o t consume l e a d i n g VArs E. J . S t a c e y are a c k n o w l e d g e d .
from the s y s t e m . I t c a n , however, be used i n c o n j u n c
t i o n w i t h a f i x e d c a p a c i t o r t o consume controllable REFERENCES
l e a d i n g VArs from the s y s t e m .
(1) H. Frank and B . L a n d s t r o m , "Power F a c t o r C o r r e c t i o n
The "power d o u b l i n g " scheme r e p r e s e n t s an with T h y r i s t o r Controlled Capacitors",ASEA J o u r n a l ,
e l e g a n t s o l u t i o n to s t a t i c VAr g e n e r a t i o n w h i c h , i n 1971, V o l . 44, No. 6.
p r i n c i p l e , r e q u i r e s v i r t u a l l y no r e a c t i v e s t o r a g e
components. The major d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s scheme (2) L. Gyugyi and R. A . O t t o , " S t a t i c Shunt Compensa
i s t h a t i t can be used o n l y to g e n e r a t e c o n t r o l l a b l e t i o n f o r V o l t a g e F l i c k e r R e d u c t i o n and Power
l a g g i n g VArs when the t h y r i s t o r s are n a t u r a l l y com F a c t o r C o r r e c t i o n " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the American
m u t a t e d ; the g e n e r a t i o n o f c o n t r o l l a b l e l e a d i n g VArs Power C o n f e r e n c e , 1976.
r e q u i r e s f o r c e d commutation.
(3) L. Gyugyi and B . R. P e l l y , S t a t i c Power Frequency
SUMMARY C h a n g e r s , W i l e y , 1976.

C o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s has been made i n the development


and a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n t r o l l a b l e s t a t i c VAr s o u r c e s i n
the l a s t few y e a r s . The v a r i a b l e impedance approach
e m p l o y i n g h i g h power t h y r i s t o r s w i t c h e s to c o n t r o l
c u r r e n t i n r e a c t i v e c i r c u i t elements ( c a p a c i t o r s and
i n d u c t o r s ) , i s g a i n i n g w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e both i n
i n d u s t r i a l and u t i l i t y a p p l i c a t i o n s . Recent d e v e l o p
ments i n d i c a t e t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an " i d e a l "
s y n c h r o n o u s condenser are a t t a i n a b l e w i t h s t a t i c
approaches u s i n g t h y r i s t o r c i r c u i t s s u i t a b l e f o r h i g h
power a p p l i c a t i o n s . The unique "power d o u b l i n g " scheme
shows t h a t an " a l l s o l i d - s t a t e " r e a l i z a t i o n o f s t a t i c
VAr s o u r c e s , i n which p a s s i v e s t o r a g e elements t h e o r e t i
c a l l y are n o t needed, i s a p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y . Although
t h e s e new approaches have n o t been developed y e t f o r
commercial u s e , t h e i r performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and
a d a p t a b i l i t y f o r h i g h power a p p l i c a t i o n s make them
strong potential candidates for future a p p l i c a t i o n s .

184-PESC 76 R E C O R D